[19] **viXra:1606.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-29 00:55:17*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Mistake in initial title corrected

Our question delves into the nature of early universe vacuum fields, and if this initial vacuum field corresponds to a configuration of early universe space-time at the start of inflation.. The answer as to this came out due to wanting to know if a cosmological constant, as given in the Einstein field equations is commensurate with the by product of squeezed states, We compare our answer, with the influx of energy as given by a modified Heinsenberg Uncertainty principle, at the start of the inflationary era. The so called influx of energy is tied into the squeezed state phenomena as written up in the onset of this article. The impetus to writing this document came from Dr. Karim, in an e mail which the author relates to, in the introduction. Our claim is that the smallness of gtt << 1 is what is driving the existence of the Squeezed states

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1606.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-27 00:30:11*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Hypothetical fundamental building blocks of the universes.

After a basic introduction to Anti - information theory in the last paper (See Anti- info, other universes and the connection between logic and matter) I now go into some mathematical details of how the Axes are constituted. This involves the branches being signal receivers, decoders and transmitters, and, also involves the hypothesis that strings are actually composed of singularities connected by the constituent branches.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1606.0284 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-07 01:57:17*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Excellent question by Dr. Li on if HFGW would be able to have traces of quantum gravity,as of July 3rd, lead to inquiry as reflected in this version of the initial e fold document. Many thanks to Dr. Li for his adroit question and his geometrical insight

First, referring to an article by K. Freeze on “Natural Inflation”, we review e folds data, and also the role of a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle as to what to expect from initial conditions as to satisfying the onset of inflation.. .. This leads to , combined with the authors work in delineating a ‘perfect bounce’ a minimum HFGW which may exist due to the early universe, possibly from the influence of a minimum nonsingular universe starting point forming the template of a minimum wave length for starting GW, which may lead to an initial quantum gravity influenced frequency which is subsequently e shifted down by inflation. The initial conditions for the generation of HFGW, may correspond to early universe quantum gravity . I.e. this last part is due to a question asked the author, Dr. Li Fangyu, in the first week of July 2016

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1606.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-26 01:06:42*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The word document had many errors which were subsequently fixed. My apologies for the mess

We look at, starting with Shankar’s treatment of the partition function, inserting in the data of the modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle as to give a role of the inflaton in the formation of a partition of the universe. The end result will be, even with the existence of a multiverse, i.e. simultaneous universes, uniform physical laws throughout the Multiple universes.
Comments: 11 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1606.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-20 05:02:29*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 25 Pages. May be an important basic idea.

The basic building blocks of the universe/multi - verses has been a matter of debate for millennia. It seems progress has been made recently in string theory. This paper is certainly not meant to challenge string theory, but rather, provide a mechanism as to how strings are formed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1606.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 13:03:11*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Hadron superstring theory.(5)
The wave pattern is a string of the super string theory.
The mass is zero.
It vibrates at velocity of light.
It is a resident of the four-dimensional space.
It has supersymmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1606.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-19 12:03:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1606.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-25 14:39:24*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning the main formula describing the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with baryonic vortex or stars via the condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. We show that within the same model we can explain very different problems such as the non-gravitational orbital motions of stars outside the bulge of spiral galaxies, different upper limits for radii of accretion discs of black holes, the illusory changes in gravitational constant or the rotation braking of the main-sequence normal stars. We calculated upper limit for mass of single DM loop - it is about 16 powers of ten lower than the mass of electron. Precise maximum mass for DM loop corresponds to the upper limit for frequency 3338 Hz. Intensity for the frequency about 3.34 kHz should be highest. But emphasize that the DM loops are the perfectly elastic structures. Here as well we motivate why the mainstream big bang of the Universe cannot be realized by Nature. The correct big bang, i.e. the inflation and the “soft” big bang of the Universe, is described within SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1606.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-16 23:47:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time which is characterized by a transition from Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time. In doing so, we look at, using Crowell’s book, a Berry phase, which in our case is proportional to the area integration of 1 over the square of variation of change in energy. Our variation of the change in energy in this case is due to the Pre Planckian space-time HUP (Heisenberg uncertainty principle). The change in the energy, times change in time, is in this case, is in minimization of the HUP, equal to Planck’s constant divided by the square of the minimum scale factor, times 1 over the initial inflaton value. Our result as derived, gives substance to the supposition that a change in pre Planckian space-time is, indeed a phase transition, in line with work the author has done earlier. And does it in line with the inflaton, as given by Padmanabhan.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1606.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-18 19:23:59*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Added types of universes.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse spheres and perhaps larger spheres. This however does mean that everything is made of one sphere. Part of what we call the universe would be a sphere made of tightly packed spheres, mostly packed in a cuboctahedron structure. Some small groups of these spheres could be held together by a large scale universe type force similar to electromagnetic force, but obvious a much grander scale and too uniform at our level to perceive. One of these shapes maybe be a toroid. Perhaps similar to proposed radiationless structure as shown by Dr Miroshnichenko in “New theory to lead to radiationless revolution”(1) Dr. Miroshnichenko shows that there may be radiationless structures that are made of radiating materials, that are toroid shape. First we review the Hubble Constant values. We will review the values of the Hubble constant from WMAP, Planck Mission, Hubble Telescope, other measurements and compares it to Sphere Theory Hubble Constant. Reviewing the observable universe we see a universe that we can see back 13.8 billion light years, but because of expansion must be about 91 billion light years in diameter. This paper shows that our universe may be a combination of spheres in a toroid shape. Each sphere would be the size of the Hubble Sphere, as calculated by Sphere Theory. The toroid shape as acknowledged, as a possibility, by other physicists, like Max Tegmark The toroid, which in this paper, is a 6 sphere structure organized as a hexagon that may explain the size of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1606.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-13 21:25:00*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Using work by Fishbach and Talmadge, we use 5th force arguments and the common Virial theorem, plus a modified Wheeler De Witt wave function to set up an energy fluctuation equation. From there, we also use a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle to isolate the role of an inflaton in Pre Planckian space – rime. Its consequences are remarked upon with the range of a purported 5th force and scaled as between 10^-1 to 10^-3.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1606.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-13 14:12:28*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of the two intervals of the rotation braking and two plateaus in the curve describing rotation velocity of the main-sequence normal stars as a function of the spectral classes. We did it involving the interactions of the dark-matter (DM) loops with the electron and proton vortices in stars. Calculated here the advection velocity of the proton vortex is about 414 km/s, of the electron vortex is about 10 km/s whereas the mean value is about 212 km/s. The threshold rotational velocities follow from the fact that in hottest stars, near equator, there dominate the light ions, next in colder stars there dominate the neutral light atoms, and next in coldest stars there are created heavier neutral atoms so gravity transfers the angular momentum to the cores of stars. We showed as well that the DM structures are perfectly elastic so it is very difficult to detect them. We answered following question: How should we plan an experiment to detect dark matter?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1606.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-04 01:40:57*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee

**Comments:** 52 Pages. April 30, 2017 revision is a rewrite of the derivation of the Force Equation to match recent changes in the Particle Energy and Interaction paper

Three of the four known forces in physics are unified into one equation with a clear explanation for the different properties of each force. The strong, electromagnetic and gravitational forces are governed by the same force equation, yet they have different characteristics of wave amplitude that modify a particle’s wave and motion. Although it is intentionally not unified into the general equation for force, an explanation is provided for the weak force. All calculations with the newly proposed Force Equation match experimental results and can derive Newton’s laws for gravity and Coulomb’s law for electromagnetism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1606.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-11 03:11:52*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We examine through the lens of dynamical systems a ‘one dimensional’ time mapping of emergent VEV from Pre Planckian space time conditions. We use Licata’s and Fiscaletti’s Bolmian Quanuum mechanics to obtain an energy E as minus the time derivative of a phase transition, as given by Bohmian Q.M. for curved space time, in the Pre Planckian state, where we then use a modified version of the HUP , to then isolate the inflaton. The emergence of the inflaton scalar field, in time evolution is tied into physics of the first order phase transition to QM, and the regular HUP, used by Heisenberg. I.e. a first order generation of initial entropy via Bohmian QM applied in Pre Planckian space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1606.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-10 12:42:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), which describes the phase transitions of the inflation/Higgs field, we show that a light, neutral boson with a mass of 18.4 MeV that consists of four entangled parts (theory of neutrinos described within SST shows that there is valid the four-object symmetry), is the binder/precursor of the second Higgs boson with a mass of 742 GeV or/and 750 GeV. The ATOMKI group has adequate equipment to detect the light, neutral boson with a mass of about 18.4 MeV whereas the LHC experiments can show which one of the two possible mass states of the second composite Higgs boson dominates. The four-object symmetry and the atom-like structure of baryons lead to the resonant tetraneutron state and to the internal structure of the neutron stars/black-holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1606.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-08 16:13:33*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The ATOMKI group discovered the X-vector-boson with a mass of 16.70(85) MeV in the decays of highly excited nuclei. Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of such light, neutral boson. We show that the sum of the nuclear weak mass of a pair of Einstein-spacetime condensates produced by nucleons and the mass of electron-positron pair is 16.904 MeV (these two pairs can interact due to the confinement or quantum entanglement described within SST) - this value is consistent with ATOMKI data. We should modify the Standard Model by incorporating the SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1606.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-08 13:21:34*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The charges and forces of matter are characterized as "memories" of a former primordial state of energetic symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1606.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-05 19:54:10*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A pulsation hypothesis leads a standard model including the gravity.
(unified field theory)
(A string theory of the elementary particle size.)
The standard model (unified field theory) of the elementary particle is considered to be the best terminus ad quem of the theoretical physics now.
However, it is not an ultimate theory.
(1) Gravitational action is not included in this model.
Gravity have a deep connection with structure of time, the space. Gravity must be included in an ultimate theory.
(2) I cannot extrapolate a theory to a micro-limit as far as I use the prescription of filing.
When I am going to raise the resolution of a monitor projecting a physical phenomenon endlessly, a theory fails somewhere.
(3) A supposition without some grounds is included in a standard model.
It is said that an electron and the electric charge of the quark make the close integer ratio. It is totally unknown why it becomes the integer ratio.
(4) The superstring theory hides the possibility that I can solve all these three problems. However, the conclusive evidence that a theory is fair is not yet obtained, and the inspection by the experiment is considered to be impossibility.
The hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle.
The pulsation principle includes all of concepts of the standard theory.
I cancel all of above problems.
(1) I discovered four-dimensional space.
I discovered dark energy and dark matter of mystery in the 4-dimensional space.
(2)I express mean density of the dark energy as the horizon of energy zero and describe the horizon as unification ground to include all places.
The standard model describes quark ground, lepton ground, Higgs place, a gauge field separately.
I express it at one place.
(3)The dark energy is thin energy to meet vacuum space of the space.
The energy triggers repulsion each other and lets you maintain energy density uniformly.
It is equivalent with the concept of the standard model saying that it is the aggregate of a minute spring endlessly.
(4)I catch a wave of the dark energy as a material wave described by Schrodinger equation and describe nuclear force, gravity, electromagnetism as action of the material wave. I explain the gravity that a standard model was not able to include naturally and include it.
I describe differences between gravity and vast po4)
(5)The Cal czar Kleine theory standardized gravity and electromagnetic willpower mathematically.
Four dimensions of unified field theory of Einstein needs space.
However, it was not found.
The pulsation principle discovers the four-dimensional space and aims at the unified field theory of Einstein.
(6)"The prescription of filing" is unnecessary on the pulsation principle.
When "the infinity" calculates an equation of the standard theory, it appears by all means.
"The prescription of filing" replaces infinite numerical value with the mass of the particle to handle infinity.
It is said that it is a result to treat an elementary particle as a point without the size.
(7)"The microdomain theory of Dr. Yukawa" is one case.
Means to keep size in an elementary particle, and to evade infinity.
It is a longtime problem.
(8)The elementary particle pulsation principle solves the problem.
(9)The pulsating elementary particle has size intermittently.
The elementary particle has mass in "a particle trip and a minus number particle trip".
All of mass of the elementary particle converts it into energy (light). "A wave trip."
The elementary particle becomes the point that does not have size in the three-dimensional space.
It evades infinite contradiction.
(10)The pulsating elementary particle continues emitting a material wave as a pulsatile ripple in the neighborhood.
The standard theory calculates "modulus" squared of the material wave.
It is the existence probability of the particle.
It calculates only equilateral energy.
The numerical value becomes infinite.
The elementary particle pulsation principle,
In pulsation of 1 cycle, the total of the energy of the positive and negative becomes zero.
The energy grand total includes a symmetry to become zero.
Therefore infinity does not occur and does not need prescription of filing.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1606.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-06-05 13:45:33*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A spin and elementary particle pulsation principle.
* The particle process is equal with a half-integer spin.
The minus number particle process is equal with a half-integer spin.
The wave process is equal with an integer spin.
* An elementary particle pulsation hypothesis.
Pulsatile particle trip and a half-integer spin 1/2 are equal to the fermion such as an electron, a proton, a neutron, a positron, the quark.
The mass is m>0.
* Wave trip and spin 2/2 are the same as BOSE particle.
The mass is m=0.
The speed is light C.
* Difference in pulsatile trip is a difference of the spins (an integer and half-integer).
Both are differences of the timings.
The action is a large difference.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory