[16] **viXra:1609.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-30 07:27:38*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Using Hall and Reginatto’s condition for a Wheeler De Witt Equation for a Friedman – Walker metric coupled to a (Inflaton) scalar field, we delineate the outer boundary of the value of a scale factor a(t) for quantum effects, in an expanding universe. The inflaton field is from Padamanabhan’s reference, “ An Invitation to Astrophysics” which yields a nonstandard Potential U(a,phi) which will lead to an algebraic expression for a(t) for the value of the outer boundary of quantum effects in the universe. Afterwards, using the expression a(t)= a(initial) times [t(time)] ^ alpha, with alpha given different values, we give an estimation as to a time, t(time) which is roughly the boundary of the range of quantum effects. How this is unusual? We use the Wheeler De Witt Equation, as a coupling to a given inflaton field, phi, and from there find a different way as to delineate a time regime for the range of quantum effects in an expanding universe

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1609.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-25 22:35:28*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper will provide some well based scientific arguments that time is neither a product of space nor an illusion; instead time is in a state of constant motion. That motion inflated space from the very beginning, the Big Bang, and it still does so now. We will name it “temporal motion” and provide a detailed explanation to why this concept is far more accurate than the current concept of “repulsive gravity” that dominates in the cosmic inflation studies. Temporal motion inflates space and creates the relationship between space and time known as the space-time continuum; time is dominant in this relationship since its motion started the initial inflation of space, giving birth to the Universe, and continues to inflate space. Evolution will be explained as one of the basic laws of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1609.0313 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 14:38:18*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Change to the title with Has changed to Have

Andrew Walcott Beckwith
Physics Department, Chongqing University, College of Physics, Chongqing University Huxi Campus, No. 44 Daxuechen Nanlu, Shapinba District, Chongqing 401331, People’s Republic of China
rwill9955b@gmail.com,abeckwith@uh.edu
Abstract.
We argue in this document that initial vacuum state values possibly responsible for GW generation in relic conditions in the initial onset of inflation may have a temporary un squeezed, possibly even coherent initial value, which would permit in certain models classical coherent initial gravitational wave states Furthermore, several arguments pro and con as to if or not initial relic GW should be high frequency will be presented,. The existence of higher dimensions, in itself if the additional dimensions are small and compact will have no capacity to influence the frequency values of relic GW, as predicted by Giovanni, and others in 1995. Furthermore, to consider are the results of Sahoo, Mishra, and Pacif (2016) which via Bianchi universes, removes the necessity of an initial space-time singularity, which may have bearing on the issue of the degree of the initial coherent states, so postulated for gravitational waves, as is brought up in the conclusion.
Key words: Infinite quantum statistics, Quantum gas, semi classical approximation, nonsingular cosmology

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1609.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 04:52:50*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Theory of Everything (ToE) is the ordinary sum of the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM). The SST causes that GR and QP/SM transform into the coherent theories without infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks such as the mathematical indeterminate forms and others, and free parameters. Moreover, within SST we can partially unify GR and QP/SM and show that unification of these theories within the same methods is impossible - it does not follow from incompleteness of such ToE but from the fundamental property of spacetime. Here we listed the basic problems that are solved within such ToE - such list overlaps with the list of unsolved basic problems in cosmology, GR, general physics, QP, high-energy physics, particle physics, astronomy, nuclear physics, high-temperature superconductors, and so on. Scientific journals should not validate incoherent theories because it misleading scientific community and radically increases entropy in physics i.e. radically increases mess in physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1609.0222 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-15 02:39:10*

**Authors:** Sarangam Majumdar, Sukla Pal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Scientist predicted the existence of quantum Hawking radiation and now he measures the
entanglement of the Hawking pairs in an analogue black hole --- A theory which was almost
impossible to verify in actual black hole has recently got its experimental confirmation in analog
system.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1609.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-15 10:20:46*

**Authors:** Jesus Sanchez

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, we will derive the following formula for the value of the gravitational constant G:
G=(παq²/me²ε0)*exp(-(1/√2)*((1/α)-0.5πα))=6.67408E-11 m³/(kg s²)
Being α the fine structure constant, q the elementary charge, me the mass of the electron, ε0 the permittivity of the free space and π the relation between a circumference and its diameter.
As it can be checked, all of them are electromagnetic or mathematical constants and properties of the electron. No constant related to gravity has been used to arrive to this value. This formula is ok numerically and in units. And it is the output of this paper.
To get to this formula, we will consider space as being composed by the particles that occupy it. These particles include mass particles and force carriers (as photons). Gravity will appear as an emergent phenomenon caused by this reason. Having in mind these considerations for a special case (an isolated electron emitting photons) we get to this formula that validates the assumptions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1609.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-21 00:18:46*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 45 Pages. Cite: Bartlett, Rodney (2016): Mechanism for Possible Electronic Creation of the Universe and its Infinity of Time. figshare. https://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.3837858.v4 Retrieved: 05 03, Sep 21, 2016 (GMT)

True to the nonlinear nature of time (it's arranged in Einstein's warps and curves), it's also correct that gravity is a product of electromagnetism – in the form of electronic pulses of energy from computers connected to sources of electrical power, and manifesting the pulses as virtual gravitons (the quanta of gravity). This provides a possible, electronic method of explaining how this could be a synthetic universe full of binary digits, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and universal Artificial Intelligence on astronomical, subatomic and biological levels. Please read the following, remembering that in a TV program it was reported that "the physicist and writer Paul Davies thinks the universe is indeed fine-tuned for minds like ours. And who fine-tuned it? Not God but minds from the future, perhaps even our distant descendants, that have reached back through time … and selected the very laws of physics" (as well as, this author thinks, the electronic energy pulses known as virtual particles) "that allow for the existence of minds in the first place. Sounds bizarre, but quantum physics actually allows that kind of thing." [Phillips G (August 29 2013) "Custom Universe – Finetuned For Us?" in Australian Broadcasting Corporation’s "Catalyst" program]
A computer simulation of the universe that's made of 1's and 0's might generate infinity because some of the numbers in the simulation could be infinitely long numbers like pi and e. Pi, plus things like the Mobius and Klein, would be built-in to the cosmos (including electrons and quantum phenomena), like it says about pi in "Contact" by Carl Sagan (1986) - Century Publishing, p.430. Admittedly, Dr. Sagan's book is a work of fiction, but its reference to pi could still be included in a simulation. The simulated universe would then incorporate spatial and temporal infinity - and could include immortality if the programmer(s) wanted it to. Comprehending the idea of infinity really is a very hard concept to wrap your head around. If we achieved this, we'd understand the simulation we built (and would, because of the quantum-mechanical rules present in our cosmos and also programmed into this simulated universe, be entangled with it ... and part of it). What would it be like to stand outside this infinite, simulated universe which I called mini-infinity: and outside its extra dimensions, too. Part of my brain is saying this just isn't possible. But another part is fascinated by the idea of stepping outside the infinite.
Buddha, founder and leader of the Buddhist religion, believed each person must find peace and freedom from suffering by following what is called the Noble Eightfold Path. Presented here is an Eightfold Path to using a certain type of computer simulation of the Universe to completely understand the real Universe. A line or two about each Universal path is in this subsection. It's up to the reader to decide how noble they are.
Admittedly, this Universal Eightfold Path may sound too speculative for some. But there's a place for speculation in cosmology. The universe is too big to put in a lab so experiments can be performed on it. The best we can do is build a simulation of it in that lab which is the result of imagination, intuition and speculation grounded in the laws of science. Hopefully, the programmed model will agree with what is known and offer plausible explanations of the unknown.
The above is a fascinating idea! But without backup from science, it can't be considered seriously. That's why the below sections - about physics, cosmology and mathematics – are essential in an article devoted to computer science. Unfortunately, we live in a world that's in love with putting everything in strict categories. That would quickly put an end to this article, if it were not for interdisciplinary science. The emerging understanding that the different branches of science are interconnected and rely on each other is what this article is all about. However, there are signs that science has not yet put into practice what it preaches. These ideas have been universally rejected by science journals for years - either without explanation, or because I don't know how to write in a manner they consider acceptable. But in my opinion, the science is still valid. So I'll submit my ideas to the "International Journal of Advanced Computer Science and Applications", and trust that computer science is more enlightened than other branches.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1609.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-11 06:24:46*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 50 Pages. the logical universe is the bridge between the mind and physical reality

Here I posit the existence of a logical universe, within and behind the physical universe, the existence of fields that can calculate problems and how these relate to strings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1609.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-09 14:05:34*

**Authors:** Thomas Neil Neubert

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

From LEAR in 1980s to AEGIS today, CERN experiments that measure the gravitation interaction between antimatter and matter have all given null results. The CERN AEGIS null experimental results showing that antimatter is neither attracted nor repelled by matter have been ignored in the way that the null Michelson-Morley experimental results were ignored. It is urgent to interpret this precise results while awaiting decades more of ever more precise experiments. In this short paper, I will build a Simple Toy Universe that explains the apparent result that
Fgravity = G mmatter mantimatter / (rmatter/antimatter)2 = 0

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1609.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 23:43:25*

**Authors:** Pierre A. Mandrin

**Comments:** 7 pages.

We examine how a thermodynamic model of the boundary of 4d-manifolds can be used for an approach to quantum gravity, to keep the number of assumptions low and the quantum degrees of freedom manageable. We start with a boundary action leading to Einstein's Equations under a restriction due to additional information from the bulk. Optionally, a modified form with torsion can be obtained. From the thermodynamic perspective, the number of possible microscopic states is evaluated for every macroscopic configuration, and this allows to compute the transition probability between quantum states. The formalism does not depend on specific microscopic properties. The smoothness and the topological space condition of the manifold structure are viewed as a preferred representation of a macroscopic space on mathematical grounds. By construction, gravity may be interpreted as thermodynamic model which is forced to be out of equilibrium depending on the restrictions imposed by matter. Instead of an ill-behaved path integral description of gravity, we obtain a non-divergent concept of sums over microstates.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1609.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-08 09:58:55*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is a review article. There are tens unsolved basic problems in cosmology and particle physics. It suggests that the two main theories, i.e. General Theory of Relativity (GR) and Quantum-Physics/Standard-Model (QP/SM), are the incomplete theories. To solve the hierarchy problem, we need a theory of size scales, not the postulated supersymmetric particles. There are the three self-similar scales i.e. the Planck scale, nuclear scale and a cosmological scale. A few additional symmetries that follow from properties of the inflation field (i.e. of the initial state of the superluminal Higgs field) lead to the self-similar fractal-like size scales that look as the analogs of quasars i.e. there is torus with central condensate (bigger tori are built of smaller tori). Such structures of basic bare fermions in the three self-similar scales (they are not the mathematical points) eliminate from theories all infinities, singularities, approximations, mathematical tricks as the mathematical indeterminate forms, free parameters, and reduce number of initial parameters to 7 only. The local/global duality of time, the non-linearity--linearity duality of phenomena and the non-local phenomena in GR and QP/SM lead to the two-component spacetime with radically different properties of the components - it causes that unification of GR and QP/SM within the same methods is impossible. Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) we partially unified GR and QP/SM via the size scales - besides the three gravitating self-similar scales, there appear two non-gravitating superluminal scales that are associated one with gravitational fields and the second with quantum entanglement. The carriers of quantum entanglement, due to their internal helicities, produce only single jet composed of antiparallel half-jets. We need very big number of such carriers to create the volumetric gravitational field - it is realized via neutrinos. How long theoretical cosmology and particle physics will move in a blind alley? Two decades is not enough (the theory of size scales was formulated in 1997)? Who is responsible for this i.e. for the present mess in the two major areas of knowledge? No one can see that Nature cannot be such complicated as the present-day theories suggest (the tens of parameters, many wrong basic results as the spin of proton, infinities, singularities, approximations, tricks)? Is it arrogance?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1609.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 18:01:20*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

First, we calculate the minimum length for the creation of a 10^45 Hz relic Gravitational wave. Next, we look Padamababhan’s inflaton physics, and work done by the author for a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle for constraints on a minimum time step. Sciama’s work in “Black hole explosions” (1982) gives us a linkage between a decay rate for black holes, in terms of a life time, and the mass, M of the black hole, which when combined with a simple exposition from Susskind and Hrabovsky (2013) for the most basic evolution the time change in energy E(t), which is how we form a first order treatment of the square of a minimum time step Delta t. We then reference what was done by Ng (2008) as far as infinite quantum statistics, for entropy as a particle count, and from first principle get constraints upon entropy production, as a function of boundaries on minimum time step. We assume massive Gravity, and obtain a peak 10^36 Giga Hertz frequency range (10^45 Hertz) for relic Gravitational waves, and Gravitons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1609.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-04 05:06:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The internal helicity distinguish particles from antiparticles. Fermions, due to the internal helicity, produce weak jets (they are produced in both the Higgs field composed of non-gravitating tachyons and the luminal Einstein spacetime) that are responsible for the CP (so T as well) violation. Generally, according to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the weak interactions are along the jets whereas the nuclear strong interactions are in plane perpendicular to the jets. It causes that the nuclear strong interactions are CP (so T as well) invariant - it solves the strong CP problem. Both interactions, due to the thermal motions, can be volumetric. According to SST, there is the two-component spacetime i.e. the Higgs field associated with gravitational fields and the Einstein spacetime associated with the Standard-Model (SM) interactions. To cancel turbulences, there must be produced virtual or/and real particle-antiparticle pairs. But in the gravitational fields, due to their very low density, pairs cannot be produced - it causes that gravity is non-linear and non-linear are phenomena with dominating gravity i.e. phenomena that follow from dynamic viscosity of the non-gravitating tachyons all objects consist of such as friction or motions of the atmosphere of Earth. On the other hand, the quantum mechanics is linear, i.e. superposition and quantum entanglement are linear because in the luminal Einstein spacetime can be produced fermion-antifermion pairs, especially electron-positron pairs. Range of electrons to move in a superconductive manner is equal to the radius of the Bohr orbit in the hydrogen atom - it leads to the threshold for density of bound and free electrons for superconducting materials (about 1.5 kg per cubic meter).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1609.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-09-02 12:14:39*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Monster group, the biggest of the sporadic groups, is equipped with the highest known number of dimensions and symmetries. Taking into account variants of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem and a novel topological approach cast in a physical fashion that has the potential to be operationalized, the Universe can be conceived as a lower-dimensional manifold encompassed in the Monster group. Our Universe might arise from spontaneous dimension decrease and symmetry breaking that occur inside the very structure of the Monster Module. We elucidate how the energetic loss caused by projection from higher to lower dimensions and by the Monster group’s non-abelian features is correlated with the present-day asymmetry in thermodynamic arrow. By linking the Monster Module to theoretical physical counterparts, we are allowed to calculate its enthalpy and Lie group trajectories. Our approach also reveals how a symmetry break might lead to a Universe based on multi-dimensional string theories and CFT/AdS correspondence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1609.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-04 02:05:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the origin of entropy and information and their evolution in time in the Cosmos as a whole (the Cosmos has radius about 30 powers of ten of meters i.e. is much greater than the present-day radius of the expanding Universe). On the lowest level of Nature, the global information depends on distribution of rotational and kinetic energies and orientation of the infinitesimal spins of all free and bound non-gravitating tachyons all objects in the Cosmos consist of. The field composed of the free tachyons is the Higgs field - this field causes that neutrinos acquire their gravitational mass. During the inflation, almost whole Higgs field transformed into the luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime that ground state consists of the non-rotating-spin neutrino-antineutrino pairs interacting gravitationally only. Orientation of spin is not important in gravitational field so all such pairs are in the same energetic state i.e. entropy of the ground state is equal to zero and this state dominates in the Cosmos. Moreover, the tachyonic energy frozen inside the neutrino-antineutrino pairs (it is the missing energy that results from quantum physics) is about 119 powers of ten times higher than their gravitational energy. The SST and the Kasner solution (which concerns the non-gravitating objects) show that there is a left-handedness of the residual Higgs field. The collapse of the outer shell of the Einstein spacetime at the end of the inflation created the returning shock wave. The shock wave plus the left-handedness of the residual Higgs field produced more matter than antimatter - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The returning energy-matter wave created the Universe in the centre of the Cosmos. Due to the boundary of the Cosmos, the Universe behaves cyclically. We start from the era before the inflation and via the inflation and via the neutron-black-holes state of the early Universe and via the present-day, we finish the description in the distant future. The tachyons cause that information cannot be destroyed by the SST black holes - the same concerns the energies of photons in gravitational fields. Entropy of the initial state of the inflation field and of the SST black holes is equal to zero. We can define time as the succeeding changes in the global information. In an approximation, Information behaves cyclically. In the Cosmos as a whole, entropy per particle is infinitesimal whereas total energy is conserved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1609.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-09-04 01:30:38*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The alignment of the angular-momentums/spins of quasars and the perpendicularity of the planes of the main disc of massive spiral galaxies and the disc of a vast polar structure (VPOS) which contains the satellite galaxies, some globular clusters and stellar and gaseous streams, suggest that the Universe as a whole and the massive galaxies have a history that cannot be easily explained within the Cosmological Standard Model (CSM). Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that at the beginning of expansion of the Universe there appeared in the binary systems of protogalaxies two perpendicular discs each composed of the dark-matter (DM) loops. Dynamics of the binary systems of protogalaxies and the early Universe leads to perpendicularity of the main disc and VPOS. During the highest radial acceleration of the protogalaxies just at the beginning of expansion of the Universe (initially it was cosmic double loop with left-handed internal helicity of each loop), to stabilize the main disc and conserve its angular momentum, the binary systems of protogalaxies made a rotation (i.e. a rotation of their rotation and magnetic axes) of 90 degrees in such a way that initially the angular-momentums/spins (and magnetic axes) were mostly antiparallel to their radial velocities, i.e. initially the expanding Universe looked as a magnetic monopole. But the succeeding inflows of dark energy (locally they could be turbulent and they lasted a few Gyr) that initially caused the explosions of the binary systems of protogalaxies (in such a way appeared the VPOSs), partially destroyed the monopole-like structure of the early Universe. But a statistical analyse should show that described here correlation is preferred i.e. in the distant Universe, there should be a little more massive spiral galaxies with counter-clockwise rotation i.e. left-handed. The initial radial polarization of the spins of quasars explains their alignment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory