Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1611 Submissions

[25] viXra:1611.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 12:57:34

Gravitation Explained

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 48 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“To oscillate photons need energy, that is why they emit Gravitons with negative energy and negative impulse.” Adrian Ferent From Newton, Maxwell, Einstein…you learned that light, photons are perpetual motion machines, are in perpetual motion. “My Nobel Prize - Discovery: the Photon – Graviton pair (coupled) has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy, is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν “ Adrian Ferent The most important properties in my view of the Gravitons: 1.Gravitons help photons (and all the particles) to oscillate. 2.Gravitons collapse matter, bring everything together. 3.Gravitons transfer energy, transfer mass. The Higgs boson is not involved. Because of these properties the Graviton is the most important particle, is the God particle; not the Higgs boson.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] viXra:1611.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:04:27

So Feynman Was Right

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 4 Pages.

The curious relationship between the Planck Length and the Bohr Radius enables one to write down the mass of the electron in terms of the Planck Mass, the fine structure constant and pi. Building on the relationship between the GUT scale and the mass of the electron, the fine structure constant is shown to be related to both pi and e, as Richard Feynman surmised.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] viXra:1611.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 20:36:11

Gravitational Redshift Explained

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 46 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“I am the first who explained the Gravitational redshift” Adrian Ferent I discovered the equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν All physicists were not capable to explain Gravitational time dilation, gravitational redshift. Time dilation in Special theory of relativity is caused by positive energy. “Gravitational time dilatation is caused by negative energy” Adrian Ferent Only my Gravitation theory explains the gravitational redshift.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] viXra:1611.0379 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-28 06:18:51

A Conformal Preon Model

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: Published in: Open Access Library Journal, 3: e3262. Link on front page.

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on massless constituents having spin 1/2 and charge 1/3 or 0. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can be deduced from the three preon states. Argument is given for unified field theory being based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions only. Conformal symmetry is introduced in the action of gravity with the Weyl tensor. Electromagnetism is geometrized to conform with gravity. Baryon number non-conservation mechanism is obtained.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] viXra:1611.0364 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-12 00:35:02

Prediction for the Dimensionless Sommerfeld Fine-Structure

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the dimensionless Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant, of 137.035999097020, and the mass ratios of the Electron and Proton to the Neutron. In the following papers by Michael John Sarnowski , “Serendipitous Hints at Shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1508.0027v4.pdf and “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1601.0234v2.pdf and “An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Proton to Neutron” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0302v1.pdf . He has worked to develop a model for the structure of the universe. This model is developed empirically from the fundamental constants and the laws of force of physics. It is a model that tries to be the start of a Theory of Everything that proposes a granular space-time that is almost discrete and almost continuous. Gravity and Charge are united under one structure. Elementary charge is determine to be a function of the fundamental constants and the ratios of the proton mass to the neutron mass and the electron to the neutron mass. This paper takes the theories of Michael John Sarnowski and proposes a mass ratio of the proton to the neutron and proposes a value for the fine structure constant that is more accurate than the current values. This prediction, will eventually be able to be tested, possibly by 2030 as the mass ratios are known more accurately and the dimensionless Sommerfeld Fine-Structure constant is known more accurately.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] viXra:1611.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 22:32:55

Continuous Production of Matter Instead of Big Bang

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 4 Pages.

New exact analytical solutions of Einstein and Qmoger (quantum modification of general relativity) equations are obtained in the context of an alternative to the Big Bang theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] viXra:1611.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 06:39:15

Examination of Initial Time Step in the Neighborhood of a Planckian to Pre Planckian Space-Time

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 4 Pages.

Using the early universe Heisenberg Uncertainty principle derived by the author, the HUP and also dE/dt = ( function of force, acceleration) are utilized , where E is the energy, F is a force equation, and m is mass and a acceleration. From here, we will be utilizing all of the above to derive a minimum time step . Which is pertinent to the Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time regime.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] viXra:1611.0288 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-02 01:13:15

Spacetime and Matter as Emergent Phenomena, Unified Field Theory (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 46 Pages.

A radical deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter is proposed. In this theory it is assumed that spacetime and matter are the emergent properties of a more fundamental entity. It is shown what properties such a fundamental entity should possess. An approach is proposed to find emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties in such an entity. It is shown how the nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields appear in the deterministic model of a more fundamental entity. The proposed theory of emergent spacetime and matter (further ESTM theory), as shown in this article, is compatible with special and general theories of relativity, as well as with quantum mechanics and cosmology. Quantum mechanics was reformulated into background independent one. The derivation of Schrödinger equation for quantum mechanics is given. It is shown how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle appears from the determinism of a more fundamental entity. Changes in the locality principle are proposed. Equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass is substantiated. The corrections to equations of the general theory of relativity, as well as the change in the conceptual model of gravitation, are proposed. The ESTM theory predicts the absence of a quantum of gravity. The ESTM theory unites all the fundamental forces, including gravity. All fundamental forces are derived from one field.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] viXra:1611.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 08:31:26

Dirac Large-Numbers Hypothesis in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Contrary to the mainstream theories, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the dimensionless physical-constants/numbers are calculated. Here we show that two large physical-constants/numbers are very important. First of the two large numbers relates ratio of the fine-structure constant and the coupling constant of gravitational interaction of the components of the electron-positron pairs to ratio of densities of the gravitating Einstein spacetime and the non-gravitating Higgs field (HF) which has inertial mass only - it is some 42 powers of ten. The second one relates the mass/size cosmological scales and proton scales - it is some 40 powers of ten. SST shows that since the end of the inflation the gravitational constant is invariant. Gravity and quantum entanglement emerged during the inflation as a result of phase transitions of large part of the Higgs field. Due to the properties of the quantum entanglement, controlling or removing quantum decoherence is impossible. SST shows that we cannot explain correctly both gravity and quantum entanglement neglecting the two size scales below the Planck scale i.e. the HF scale and the quantum-entanglement scale.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] viXra:1611.0229 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-08 13:59:47

Derivation of Potentially Important Masses for Physics and Astrophysics by Dimensional Analysis

Authors: Dimitar Valev
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Hubble constant has been added in addition to the three fundamental constants (speed of light, gravitational constant and Planck constant) used by Max Planck, for derivation of the Planck mass by dimensional analysis. As a result, a general solution is found for the mass dimension expression m = γ^p•mP, where mP is the Planck mass, γ ≈ 1.23×10^(-61) is a small dimensionless quantity and p is an arbitrary parameter in the interval [–1, 1]. The Planck mass m1 ≡ mP = 2.17×10^(-8) kg, mass of the Hubble sphere m2 ~ 10^53 kg, minimum quantum of mass/energy m3 = 2.68×10^(-69) kg, Weinberg mass m5 = 1.08×10^(-28) kg, Eddington mass limit of stars M3 = 6.6×10^32 kg, mass of hypothetical quantum gravity atom M2 = 3.8×10^12 kg and some more masses potentially important for the physics and astrophysics represent particular solutions for values of p, expressed as fractions with small numerators and nominators.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] viXra:1611.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 00:53:18

Dark Energy Does not Exist

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 36 Pages. I discovered a new gravitation theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale.

Dark energy does not exist! I discovered Big Bang and Big Crunch oscillation from Ferent wall. The majority of Dark matter is the core of supermassive black holes. Our Milky Way galaxy will be absorbed by a supermassive black hole from Ferent universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] viXra:1611.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 13:39:46

Atomic Beltway and Cosmic Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

A new theoretical paper from scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland suggests that intentionally creating just such a traffic jam out of a ring of several thousand ultracold atoms could enable precise measurements of motion. If implemented with the right experimental setup, the atoms could provide a measurement of gravity, possibly even at distances as short as 10 micrometers-about a tenth of a human hair's width. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] viXra:1611.0205 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 21:25:42

Cosmology and Cancer in the Post-Star-Trek Centuries

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 24 Pages.

This is definitely not a work of science fiction. It's a serious 9,000 words detailing what today's philosophy and science (in areas like physics, computer science, cosmology, biology and mathematics) are likely to evolve into. I've always been totally fascinated by the future – the more distant, the better! So the adventures of the Star Trek movies and TV shows, based in the 23rd and 24th centuries, are a good starting point. They're not documentaries by any stretch but are a tremendous boost to the sense of wonder about the universe. Superman and Doctor Who are also great at making a person wonder about new possibilities in other centuries and other parts of the cosmos. Putting together the marvels of science fiction and the marvels of science results in the following picture of what lies in store for humanity and the cosmos. In the end, this new science and philosophy is my opinion and only time can determine its accuracy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:1611.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 09:30:49

On the Time Evolution of Dual Orthogonal Group-Systems

Authors: Jakob Fleischpeitsch, Ralf Immerhart
Comments: 4 Pages.

As it has been conjectured for a long time, dual orthogonal group-systems (DOGs) exhibit a non-static behaviour in the low temperature-limit. This article aims to explore the unitary transformations corresponding to the time-evolution of such systems in the limit of $\beta\rightarrow \infty$.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1611.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 13:39:12

Will It Be Possible to Copy Minds?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is assumed that mind copying is the process of scanning mental state of a brain substrate and copying it to a computational device i.e. it is assumed that mind is a state of some brain components. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that mind is an independent structure that can act with brain via leptons because of advection. SST shows that there are two different states of groups of the entangled non-rotating-spin-1 Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the very stable neutrino-antineutrino pairs): the spins can be perpendicular to a surface defined by the ES components (such configuration is characteristic for tori that we can find in fermions) or the spins can be aligned in circles (such configuration is characteristic for the dark-matter (DM) circles). The DM solitons are the sets of the entangled DM circles. According to SST, minds are collections of the interacting DM solitons produced due to the brain activity. New DM solitons can be produced only due to the brain-mind interactions. Here we consider the conditions that have to be met to allow copying of the minds composed of the dark-matter structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1611.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 05:38:42

Elegant and Accurate Quark Mass Equations - Evidence for Quantum Gravity

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 5 Pages.

The masses of the electron and the up-type quarks may be written elegantly in terms of the Planck Mass, the natural scale of quantum gravity. Since the quarks of each generation are evidently arranged symmetrically about mass levels that descend in geometric sequence from the Planck Mass, the masses of the down-type quarks may also be written in terms of the Planck Mass. The new (2016) central values of Particle Data Group quark mass evaluation lie very close to the values, divulged in 2013, of the Planck Model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1611.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 15:56:38

Theory of the Sphere Grid Aether

Authors: Matthias Kemeny
Comments: 55 Pages.

Much Time has passed since the Aether has been rejected as a possibility. Now I believe we have to go back to this way of thinking. This theory proposes an Aether that behaves like a liquid and is made of femtometer-sized units. The goal is to find similarities between an Aether and the behaviour of liquids so those principles can be combined. The description will include the most basic observations in Quantum Physics and try to integrate them into a model of a liquid aether. It can therefore be called a „Theory of Everything“. All the experimenta cruces will be considered. It will also combine the fundamental interactions into one origin. This model can be tested, and simulated.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1611.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-06 03:48:35

The Differences Between the Bright Matter, Dark Matter, a Virtual Energy, Energy and Dark Energy

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), there is the two-component spacetime composed of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field and the gravitating Einstein spacetime (ES) composed of the very stable non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs (NAPs) moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c. NAPs in ES do not rotate. The main feature of the bright matter (BM) is that it contains parts with mean distances between the NAPs smaller than the mean distance between the ES components because of the short-distance quantum entanglement or confinement - BM is not a part of ES. The main feature of the dark matter (DM) is that mean distances between the NAPs are equal or greater than the mean distance between the ES components because of the long-distance entanglement - DM is not a part of ES and NAPs do not rotate. Virtual energy (VE) appears due to creation of the virtual pairs (it has positive mass) from the local ES components so there appears as well a local virtual hole in ES (it has negative mass). Mean mass of such virtual structure is equal to zero. But due to the annihilations of the virtual pairs to real photons (they are the rotational energies of the ES components) that escape from surrounding of a real particle (BM), virtual processes decrease density of the ES. Virtual pairs, virtual holes and real photons (real photons carry real energy (E)), are not parts of ES. Interactions of virtual particles create BM that is the anomalous mass of a real bare particle. A decay of real object (BM) to DM (it happened about 100 million years before the beginning of the expansion of the Universe) causes that virtual processes disappear. Since mass density of the ES around the object was negative so there is an inflow of ES into the region with lowered density of ES. The inflowing ES is the dark energy (DE). DE is needed to accelerate expansion of the Universe at the beginning and next to maintain a constant expansion rate. DE is a part of ES.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1611.0065 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-07 08:50:57

Dark-Matter Structures: Mass, Sizes and Detection

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Dark-matter (DM) structures are built of the entangled (it is the superluminal quantum entanglement) Einstein-spacetime components moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c (they are the non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The big DM structures, i.e. the DM halos and DM filaments, are built of the DM circles with the invariant 7 quantized masses with the upper limit about 47 powers of ten lower than 1 kg and very different sizes and angular momentums. Of course, two DM circles with antiparallel angular momentums can create a spin-0 structure that looks similar to the Scale-Symmetric-Theory (SST) pion or very early Universe - mass of such DM pion is two times higher than a single DM circle. But observed behaviour of DM structures suggests that most numerous are the DM circles. Lower limit for radius of DM circle with highest mass is about 13 powers of ten smaller than 1 m whereas upper limit can be arbitrary and is defined by distribution of baryonic matter (BM) with which the DM circles interact via leptons. The DM circles were produced at the beginning of expansion of the Universe. There, for example, are in existence the cosmological DM rulers/loops with a radius of 151 Mpc. Quantum entanglement is much stronger than the DM-BM interactions so even during collisions of galaxies, the DM circles cannot be destroyed (they can be separated from baryonic matter and they can change size). Since the Einstein-spacetime components in the DM circles/pions do not rotate and their speed is invariant whereas mass of the DM circles is very small, even indirect detection of DM structures is not an easy task.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1611.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 14:30:57

The Quantum Limit of Newton's Principle of Inertia

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we study Newton's principle of inertia within semiclassical quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1611.0053 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-23 15:38:07

Escape Velocity at the Subatomic Level Leads to Escape Probability

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we look at the escape velocity for subatomic particles. We suggest a new and simple interpretation of what exactly the escape velocity represents at the quantum level. At the quantum level, the escape velocity leads to an escape probability that is likely to be more useful at the subatomic scale than the escape velocity itself. The escape velocity seems to make simple logical sense when studied in light of atomism. Haug [1] has already shown that atomism gives us the same mathematical end results as Einstein’s special relativity. Viewed in terms of general relativity and Newtonian mechanics, the escape velocity seems to be simple to understand. It also seems to explain phenomena at the quantum scale if one maintains an atomist’s point of view. This strengthens our hypothesis that everything consists of indivisible particles and void (empty space). From an atomistic interpretation, our main conclusion is that the standard escape velocity formula likely is the most accurate formula we can generate and it appears to hold all the way down to the Planck scale. An escape velocity of ve > c simply indicates that an indivisible particle cannot escape from a fundamental particle (for example an electron) without colliding with the indivisible particles making up the fundamental particle. To understand this paper in detail, I highly recommend reading the article The Planck Mass Finally Discovered [2] first.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1611.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 10:00:38

Space is Substance, Matter is Vacancy

Authors: Yin Kamoto, Uri Adams
Comments: 1 Page.

We used to believe the geocentric model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1611.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 05:37:15

Cosmic-Ray Showers and Muon Problem

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Pierre Auger Observatory has detected more muons from cosmic-ray showers (about 30% to 60% for centre-of-mass energies 110 TeV to 170 TeV) than predicted within the LHC models for the centre-of-mass energies about 10 times lower (i.e. below 13 TeV). It suggests that at the energies beyond LHC, there can dominate a phenomenon that is neglected at the LHC energies. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the observed excess of muons concerns energies above the threshold energy about 18 TeV for the nucleons. At such energies, in proton-proton collisions, production of the spin-1 proton-antiproton pairs or narrow resonances dominates. This leads to the 50% positive excess of muons in comparison with the LHC-models prediction that should be observed in the cosmic-ray showers. It is consistent with the Auger data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1611.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 05:42:02

General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics as the Theories Dependent on the Observer/Detector

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) are the theories dependent on the observer/detector so they are not the theories of the independent from observer Nature. In GR it follows from the fact that each act of observation (the photon-detector interaction via exchanges of the invisible superluminal particles responsible for quantum entanglement i.e. there are exchanged the spin-1 entanglons) sets the speed of light in “vacuum” c in relation to the detector (the speed c is in relation to the emitter or a last-interaction object - sometimes it is a detector). In QM it results from the fact that we cannot observe the entanglons directly and because time of observation lasts much longer than the time of exchanges of the invisible superluminal entanglons so there appear wavefunctions, superposition of states, and probabilities to find a particle in different states. Simultaneity of different states of the same particle is an illusion that appears only in the theories dependent on the observer. There must be in existence a more fundamental theory, which should be a theory of Nature independent on the observer - it is the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST leads to the initial conditions applied in GR and QM and shows that these theories are dependent on the observer. Moreover, SST shows that we cannot unify GR and QM within the same methods. SST shows that Nature behaves classically in a deterministic way but it does not mean that the free will is not in existence.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1611.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 21:24:33

Strange Results Pertaining to Fermi’s Weak Coupling Constant, Strong Coupling Constant and Newtonian Gravitational Constant

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana
Comments: 2 Pages. Ref: ijmph.kaznu.kz/index.php/kaznu/article/.../pdf_10

Assuming that Planck scale plays a crucial role in Strong and Electroweak interactions, we made an attempt to inter-relate the Newtonian gravitational constant, Fermi’s weak coupling constant and Strong coupling constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory