[13] **viXra:1703.0307 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-02 17:34:33*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Understanding quantum gravity motivates string and loop theorists. Both employ geometric wavefunction models. Gravity enters strings by taking the one fundamental length permitted by quantum field theory to be not the high energy cutoff, rather the Planck length. This comes at a price - string theory cannot be renormalized, and the solutions landscape is effectively infinite. Loop theory seeks only to quantize gravity, with hope that insights gained might inform particle physics. It does so via interactions of two dimensional loops in three-dimensional space. While both approaches offer possibilities not available to Standard Model theorists, it is not unreasonable to suggest that geometric wavefunctions comprised of fundamental geometric objects of three-dimensional space are required for successful models, written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1703.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-29 04:45:53*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 2 Pages. A simpler version of another paper "A new framework for viewing reality"

There has been a crisis in theory regarding General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. Here I propose a solution by saying there is a flexible structure to the universe and it is essentially the structure of the vacuum energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1703.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-05 07:34:17*

**Authors:** Shushi T.

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this letter we describe a new concept of "pseudo-forces" that is obtained from a non-local geometrodynamic model. We argue that while the gravity force is described by the curvature of spacetime, the other three forces are, in fact, pseudo-forces that evolve from such geometrodynamic model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1703.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 06:21:16*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Precession of Mercury's orbit resembles orbits of Sedna and companions. Orbits of Sedna etc may not be caused by Planet 9 but their orbits may be viewed as "precession" that is quantum instead of classical. To explain, we start with an explanation for quantum spin which is not simple rotation but is of a gravitational nature. This unites the quantum and classical by manifesting on an astronomical scale, with gravitational waves forming Earth's orbit. The quantum-gravity approach could also indicate Mercury's ellipse is not only classically representing a number of stages in the orbit of an isolated planet, but is also representing the quantum view of "astro-entanglement" and the unified gravitational field. The similar orbits of Sedna and its companions may likewise be an indication of astro-entanglement, leaving Planet 9 just as mythical as the planet Vulcan which was once thought to orbit closer to the Sun than Mercury. Or as nonexistent as the planet that was supposed to orbit between Mars and Jupiter, before it was destroyed to form the asteroid belt.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1703.0204 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-24 12:39:46*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It was found in other papers by Michael John Sarnowski that there appears to be a relationship between a process similar to Bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov radiation and the mass ratios of the Proton, Electron, Muon, and Tau to the Neutron. This correlation also is used to make predictions for these ratios and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant and the von Klitzing constant. Relating this to a possible granular crystalline cuboctahedron structure of space-time. The predictions for these ratios and constants will be listed in section 2.0. Section 3.0 is the conclusion. This paper is the summary of various other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, which are listed in the reference section.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1703.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 00:22:51*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We begin by examining a general expression of entropy, and its links to a minimum radius of the universe. We derive an expression for the production of at least 1 unit of entropy, which translates to a value of Planck length in radii to 1000 times Planck radii, for the quantum bubble of space-time which dependent upon, of all things, the initial Hubble expansion rate value. If the Hubble parameter has the value of 10^ 10 GeV, we see a minimum radial length of the Universe of about 1 billion times Planck length. If the Hubble parameter is of 10^19 GeV, the minimum radial length of the universe would be about one Planck length, which is surprising, to put it mildly. The higher the initial temperate is, up to a point, the more likely the initial entropy is closer to the Causal barrier mentioned in an earlier publication by the author
Keywords. Causal barrier, Inflaton, Minimum entropy (non-zero), initial radii (of universe)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1703.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-18 04:21:14*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The change is objective,but the time is subject.Time is only a feel,like the color is only a feel which is subjective,but the light is objective.Somebody think that I say the time is not exist is that there is no change,the universe is static and the time we thought before is another dimension of space,that's not right.I think time is only a feel of change and the change is exist.(in fact the change is not exist,too.But not because the time is "static"like some people thought )
What's length?How can we know A and B are not in the same point?That's very easy.To a observer,If a thing moving from A to B need some time ,the observer will think that A and B are not in the same point.But the time is only our feel,so the space also is our feel which is come from our illusion.The space also is our feel and memory of change.So who create the space and time?Not god,but ourselves,if there is no observer,there is no time or space.
The exist of space-time is based on our observe and feel of change,but from "gravitational theory of time" we know that all the change is come from our illusion because all the difference is come from our illusion(not because time is our illusion),there is no difference if there is no observe.So we can say that all the universe is created by ourselves ,not god. All of those conclusions are come from a think that "Only the physical quantity which we have (and will) observed by experments have the really physical significance".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1703.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-17 01:45:31*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Update of my FQXI 2017 paper, expanded with many new details and questions added

We start where we use an inflaton value due to the use of a scale factor.Also, we use as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. In doing so, we come up with a polynomial expression for a minimum time step, we can call which leads to a development of the arrow of time. We show an interrelationship between the formation of the Arrow of time, and Causal structure, assuming the setting of H = 0 in the Friedman equation This, in turn, leads to entropy production at the start of causal structure in the onset of inflation. This then leads to three and a quarter pages of 7 open questions we think have to be answered, subsequently.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1703.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-09 15:30:57*

**Authors:** M.Christolubova, T.Christolubov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 77

To construct quantum gravity we formulate quantum electrodynamics in equivalent form with possibility to generalize, we calculate the сosmological constant assuming that the quantum state is a function of time and radius of universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1703.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 19:27:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We use a root finder procedure to obtain t were we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor min~ a a t if we furthermore use 2min ~ tt initial ga as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor tt g in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. In doing so, conclude with very restricted limit values for t of the order of less than Planck time, leads to an enormous value for the initial Cosmological constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1703.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 05:26:01*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Time and entropy
LeiGuanji
Time is the thing that we need to measure the change.A clock's second hand run a round,we say that the frame of reference which the clock in is go though a second.Each round the second hand run has used up a same energy.So the increase amount of entropy is in direct proportion to the amount of the go of time:ΔS∝Δt. Time is the thing we fancied.Things changed from a state in our memory to a new state,that make we have the feel that the time is going.Suppose there is some atoms which the half life is 1 second.We measure the amount of the atoms each second,and we need to bear the amount in mind,we find the change of amount,so we think the time is going.We need to use up a same energy each second to bear the amount of atoms,so the entropy of our body is in direct proportion to the time we think was gone:ΔS∝Δt.So the psychological arrow of time,is determinded by thermodynamic arrow of time. Time is not exist,there is only the change of thing,no time.We only can make a standard change to set the amound of the time has gone(like the second hand has run a round or the 9192631770 cycles of the transition ofcaesium atomic clock).Another change from begin to end,the standard change has done twice,we say that this change use two standard time.If the standard change's amount of entropy increase is S0,so ΔS∝Δt. To compare the speed of the time going is only can use the amount of standard change,too.The second hand of blue cat and Yang Liwei who are in the earth run 10 rounds(10 standard changes),the second hand of LaLa and Buji who are in the Tongxin spaceship (the youth spaceship) which the speed is 0.6c run 8 rounds(8 standard changes).So the blue cat and Yang Liwei can think that LaLa and Buji's speed of time is slower than them,that's the same condition to LaLa and Buji. So there is no time,time is only a fantasy in our mind."ΔS∝Δt" is because we imagine the change of entropy ΔS=S0 as Δt.Entropy increases with time because we meause time in the direction in which entropy increase.And from Gravitational Theory of entropy(my paper"Gravitational Theory of Time") we can know, all change (difference) is our fantasy,so time is our fantasy in our mind,too. ΔS∝Δt,my two papers "Some Views Of Time Trials for Fundamental Constants"(Some Views of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light) and "Gravitational Theory of Time"(I have submitted this paper to Gravity Research Foundation) both base on this conclusion. Who has created the color?Maybe some people will say god,but really?What's red?What's blue?You can say they are the color of blood and sky.But,if you are an achromatopsia or a blind,what would you say?So there is no color,there is only light with different wavelength. Time is like that,there is no time , there is only change of things.Both color and time are created by ourselves,not god.Both color and time are our fantasies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1703.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-06 03:34:59*

**Authors:** Mahesh Khati

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Until now, Physic considers that vacuum as space but according to author vacuum is different than space. Space has properties like mass, gravity, time etc. It is also relative. Space of atom is different than space of galaxy. This may be reason for getting effect of dark matter because space also carries gravitational effect. In this paper author also proved that special theory of relativity is mathematically wrong.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1703.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 05:00:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is partially a review paper. Here we have focused on creation and large-scale evolution of the Universe which are described mathematically in the cited papers. We recalled it because then the quantization of masses of galaxy associations is more understandable. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed the origin of quantization of the total masses (dark matter plus baryonic matter) of the superclusters, clusters and groups of galaxies. Here we can find a statistical picture that leads to peaks in the mass function. SST shows that contrary to the nearby superclusters, the smaller parts in the distant superclusters (i.e. the clusters and groups) should be and are less isolated so the mainstream cosmology needs a revision because there was the evolution from the heavier structures to lighter structures, not from lighter to heavier. Masses of the galaxy superclusters should not change with time but with time in superclusters should appear clearly separated clusters and groups of galaxies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory