[23] **viXra:1712.0672 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-03 21:59:20*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Dark Energy seems to be mysterious. The Universe, it is said is made mainly of Baryonic Matter, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. There are also the neutrinos and radiation. There is the critical density calculated from General Relativity, The ‘critical density’ is the average density of matter required for the Universe to just halt its expansion, but only after an infinite time. A Universe with the critical density is said to be flat.(1). Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 68.3 % of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount. (2, 3, 4, 5).
This paper proposes and shows evidence for a spherical universe of finite size. That dark energy may be 66.37 % of the total energy/mass of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] **viXra:1712.0644 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 04:58:57*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 92 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Gravitational field is Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational field is a discrete function”
Adrian Ferent
Gravitational field is not continuous and differentiable function.
The momentum of the graviton is negative p = - m × v.
“Gravitons have negative energy E = a × f and the speed higher than the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from your professors, from your books that a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence of a mass into space.
You learned about couple gravitational fields, using PDEs (conditions of continuity and differentiability).
More complicated are the equations, more impressive is the theory for those who do not understand gravitations. Writing wrong and useless equations related to Einstein’s wrong gravitation theory was the job for the scientists in the last 100 years.
In classical mechanics the gravitational field is the negative gradient of the gravitational potential.
Einstein did not understand gravity and reinterpreted gravity not as a force pulling on objects but as a curvature of spacetime; Einstein's field equations.
Quantum theories of gravity like String theory, LQG… try to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics.
Because Einstein gravitation theory is wrong, quantum theories of gravity like String theory, LQG…are wrong theories.
Einstein did not receive the Nobel Prize for his theory, but they received in 2017 the Nobel Prize for detection of gravitational waves, predicted by Einstein’s theory.
LIGO announced the first-ever direct detection of gravitational waves.
“Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?”
Adrian Ferent
As a consequence of Einstein wrong gravitation theory, the physicists explained how they can travel trough a black hole, trough a wormhole.
“A black hole attracts with greater force a planet, than the planet attracts the black hole”
Adrian Ferent
This means:
“Newton's third law is wrong”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] **viXra:1712.0591 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-24 09:42:52*

**Authors:** U. V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Preprints2017,2017110119

By considering two virtual gravitational constants assumed to be associated with electromagnetic and strong interactions, in a theoretical and verifiable approach, we make an attempt to estimate the Newtonian gravitational constant from microscopic elementary physical constants. With respect to Fermi's weak coupling constant and root mean square radius of proton, estimated value of the Newtonian gravitational constant is 6.67454X10(-11) m3/kg/sec2 and our estimated value is 6.679856X10(-11) m3/kg/sec2.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] **viXra:1712.0569 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 17:30:34*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Light is quantum which indicates the duality of particles and waves. Therefore, it is not possible to make a model of light to explain two antithetical characters at the same time. But, I succeeded to draw a model of light having simultaneously both characteristics of particles and waves based on “energy body theory”. The reason why light makes interference fringes in Young double slit experiment became clear by this. Particularly, the reason why interference fringes are made, even when photons are emitted one by one, if many photons are emitted, were also made clear. More, this photon model gives the reason to the phenomena such as reflection, refraction and invariable velocity of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:1712.0546 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 03:05:59*

**Authors:** Antonio Puccini

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

In its natural state the electron is represented by superimposed quantum states. This is the phase of linear unitary evolution, or U Phase, described by Schrodinger equation. Whereas, when we carry out a measurement (M), it took place a reduction of the state vectors(R Process): we have the wave function collapse (WFC) of the measured quantum object (QO). The M, thus, produces a big changes on the physical properties of the observed particle. How do these changes happen?
What is the secret mechanism which creates the WFC? We don’t know.
With this paper we try to introduce a new parameter, induced by the electro-magnetic radiation (EMR), which can help us discern the doubts about the R Process, and try to find a continuity in order to link the U Phase to the R Process, so contrasting at the moment.
The new parameter could be a gravity and quantum effect, when we try to make a M of a subatomic object. What is this effect represented by?
It is a gravitational effect, since it is a mass-effect, a mechanical action induced by quanta of EMR: therefore, it is also a quantum effect. The photon (P) is indispensable to carry out a M. No M can be carried out without using the EMR.
Calculus show that a P of the optic band hits an electron with a dynamic-mass, a radiation pressure, a pushing momentum equal to 1.32510-22[gcm/s]. Thus, we can infer it is a quantum gravitational effect to cause the WFC of the QO undergoing the M.
In short, it could be essentially the mechanical action represented by the gravitational mass effect of light’s quanta to induce the WFC and the Measurement’s Paradox and, likely, make a starting point to a Correct Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1712.0529 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 01:03:10*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This relationship shows that the fluctuation in the volume of the geometry of space generates an energy fluctuation, that is, matter. Matter is created from the topology of space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1712.0477 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-17 05:14:38*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The many velocity gauge fields interaction Lagrangian density is extended to a continuous spectrum Lagrangian then quantized and normalized. The Euler-Lagrange equation is transformed to the Yang-Mills field, integral and curvature form operators. The Yang-Mills field form operator quantization gives the equivalent Dirac equation, the integral form operator quantization gives perturbation series similar to the path integral formulation of Quantum mechanics and the curvature form operator is used to get the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian density; operators are quantized with mass eigenvalue. Finally, the normalization of the wave function gives a charged massive particle Lagrangian density with six representations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1712.0447 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-08 08:29:27*

**Authors:** Mohamed Abdelwhab Husseiny

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Several attempts to develop a quantum theory of gravity based on Einstein's theory of general relativity have been made. This study shows that the quantization of general relativity is impossible if space is sloped. The slope of space creates a new kind of energy that causes objects, such as bodies, particles, and gravitational waves, to slide backward during their forward motion (similar to sliding during hill climbing). This energy causes gravitational waves, bodies, particles, and light to experience slight resistance while spreading or progressing forward in space and time. I find that if absolute space supposed by Newton is sloped space, many phenomena will be created such as time dilation, space & time reversal, emergence of space-time, constancy of speed of light and gravity reversal. The conclusions drawn in this study refer to the “gravity is non quantum if space has slope, where the reversed time between two moving particles is more than or equal to the time interval between these two particles, or the reversed space between two moving particles is more than or equal to the space interval between these two particles.” This work does not aims to prove existence or absence of gravity at the smallest scale; rather it aims to show that there is a new property related to space that if it exists, quantum theory of gravity becomes unnecessary, therefore testing of this property must be included in the interests of applied physicists in the next days.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1712.0443 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-15 09:31:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ADDED A SECTION WHICH ANSWERS THE FQXI CONTEST QUESTIONS

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). In FFP 15, in the Author’s presentation, one of the two compared action integrals was from Hambler’ Quantum Gravity reference, while another was given as similar to the action principle of the Hilbert idea of General Relativistic derivation of the Einstein Field Equations. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result straight from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with also a nod to Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to , if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. We argue this is the most important fundamental question in physics today, for reasons we elaborate upon in the conclusion. Section 6 details my actual answers to the essay’s ideas, in lieu of the creation of this answer to the cosmological constant due to enhanced quantization.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1712.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 00:52:04*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 12 Pages. References to be supplied. the author can be contacted at jpeel01@hotmail.com

The author attempts to unify General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics. This involves the use of the Cartesian Axes as the building blocks of reality. A certain set is employed and this permeates the content of the article. The author can be contacted at jpeel01@hotmail.com.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1712.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 15:45:55*

**Authors:** Ozan Varli

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A Highly Consistent Hypothesis Which Supports All The Observations

Description in the theory of general relativity of the gravity is completely just a misunderstanding. Because curvature of space is caused by gravity. Gravity is a field force that bends space, because it causes acceleration as shown by Newton. And a new theory of gravity which supports our observations is suggested named as neutral field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1712.0389 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-04 08:02:44*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Corrected Gravitational Constant values.

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42.
The real answer, to this question, could very well be related to 42. Sphere Theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.0471*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.57920 *10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1712.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-10 13:41:40*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The concepts of mass, force and energy in the theory of generated space-time-matter are described.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-18 22:34:44*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weigel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Two mandatory triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, corresponding to a crucial lacking point in the Topological Axis : a Cosmic Boson completing the Cartan-Bott series. This time is, apart a factor √2, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the Monster group order. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington Statistical approach, considered as the third pillar of physics, rejoins the Feynman cosmic sweeping of a single electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10^122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The consideration of canonic economic numbers leads to the discovery that the Monster order is very close to the seventh power of the pariah group J3 order and the 10th power of the mass ratio BEH scalar boson/electron, whose square root is very close to the third perfect number 496, central in string theory. A direct connexion is found between the Monster group and the first Mathieu one, which confirms the Coherent Cosmology value G ≈ 6.67544 × 10^-11 kg^-1m^3s^-2, compatible with the BIPM measurement, but distinct from the tabulated value (4 sigma). The product of orders of the whole “happy family” is very close to a^a, connected with the monster order and basic number theory, implying a ≈ 137.036 to be an optimal calculation basis in a matter-antimatter blinking Cosmos. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1712.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 07:49:41*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Sunspots and Starspots in general are originated by former Comet nuclei crashed into the sun (or stars) which should be interpreted as new physics black holes.
Those black holes seem to be able repel Fermionic matter but absorb the Axion Higgs field vacuum, which is the origin of a constant nuclear black hole growing ins size, but not in mass effect.
Tabby’s star seems to be a star being preparing for super nova explosion by the over density of starspot black hole populations, just as is observed in super novas such as the Helix nebula, showing rings of point like hotspots interpreted as former starspots, expelled from the nucleus.
As a consequence, in Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form) all black holes should deviate strongly from the black holes as proposed by the physics community and could be named “electric dark matter black holes” with an external negative charge without graviton radiation or even real mass- and inertia effects.
The gravity effect observed around black holes is supposed to be originated by the dark energy pressure of the external massless “Oscillating Axion Higgs Rigid String Vacuum Lattice”
The Massless Axion-Higgs Vacuum Rigid String particle, is the transformer into all other particles (Bosons, Fermions) and even concentrated in Micro and Macro Dark Matter Black Hole Nuclei.
Q-FFF Theory, is basically a classical theory based on transformable rigid string based building blocks of a raspberry shaped clockwork multiverse, however these building blocks are all instantly guided by long distance entanglement between CP symmetric copy universal bubbles.
As a consequence Quantum FFF Theory should be called a semi classical theory,
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs vacuum and black hole particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic cold big bang black hole nucleus as the creator of only one symmetrical raspberry shaped multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1712.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 21:21:19*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle MAEc BAEc BPhil

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This paper further explores the structural similarities between the elementary quantum-mechanical wavefunction and circularly polarized electromagnetic waves to further tune a possible physical interpretation of the wavefunction.
The interpretation that is offered analyzes the real and the imaginary part of the wavefunction as oscillations which each carry half of the total energy of the particle. These oscillations are perpendicular to each other, and the interplay between both may describe how energy propagates through space over time. The model is based on three fundamental premises:
1.The dimension of the matter-wave field vector is force per unit mass (N/kg), as opposed to the force per unit charge (N/C) dimension of the electric field vector. This dimension is an acceleration (m/s2), which is the dimension of the gravitational field.
2.This gravitational disturbance may cause a charged mass to move about some center, combining linear and circular motion. This interpretation may reconcile the wave-particle duality to some extent: fields interfere but if, at the same time, they do drive a pointlike particle, this may explain why, as Feynman puts it, “when you do find the electron some place, the entire charge is there.”
This hybrid hypothesis is supported by an elegant yet simple derivation of the Compton radius of an electron.
3.In light of the direction of the magnetic moment of an electron in an inhomogeneous magnetic field, the plane which circumscribes the circulatory motion of the electron should also comprise the direction of its linear motion. Hence, unlike an electromagnetic wave, the plane of the two-dimensional oscillation cannot be perpendicular to the direction of motion of our electron.
Finally, this paper addresses an issue which has hampered other physical interpretations of the wavefunction: amplitude transformations when going from one representation (or reference frame) to another.
Indeed, the author re-visits the original mathematical arguments here and shows that the proposed model, and the related physical interpretation of the wavefunction, are not incompatible with the key results and mainstream logic in this regard.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1712.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 11:17:24*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

The Massless Axion-Higgs Vacuum Rigid String particle, is the transformer into all other particles and even concentrated in Micro and Macro Dark Matter Black Hole Nuclei.
Quantum FFF Theory is basically a classical theory based on transformable rigid string based building blocks of a raspberry shaped clockwork multiverse, however these building blocks are all instantly guided by long distance entanglement between CP symmetric copy universal bubbles.
As a consequence Quantum FFF Theory should be called a semi classical theory,
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs vacuum and black hole particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic cold big bang black hole nucleus as the creator of only one symmetrical raspberry shaped multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1712.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-25 18:37:13*

**Authors:** Gary Heen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The model put forth in this paper presupposes that spacetime is not a mathematical abstraction but has a basis in physical reality with matter and spacetime being convertible states of the same theoretical quantum particle. This postulated quantum particle is composed of D-branes and Type I strings and the nomenclature for this brane/string complex is the B-string.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1712.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 06:15:59*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The additional deceleration of massive bodies in the model of low-energy quantum gravity due to forehead and backhead collisions with gravitons is re-calculated in this note. It is shown that
this deceleration $w$ is equal to: $w=-H_{0}c \cdot
4v^{2}/c^{2}\cdot (1-v^{2}/c^{2})^{0.5},$ where $H_{0} $ is the Hubble constant, $c$ is the velocity of light, $v$ is the body's
velocity relative to the background.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1712.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-07 15:31:15*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Publication being prevented

The elementary algebra underlying the non local neutrino hypothesis is used to explain discrepancies in the value of Hubble's constant in terms of other physical constants, in the approximation of the R=ct semiclassical cosmology with Mach's principle. It is assumed that quantum gravity breaks the equivalence principle, in conjunction with a quantum Higgs mechanism, and this new view of the electroweak vacuum indicates an absence of dark matter and dark energy. We introduce mass quantisation in the Brannen-Koide scheme in this context.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1712.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-03 16:13:54*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature are emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable. The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass of neutrino (as the first massive fermionic particle) is estimated, in accord with experimental bound. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is also estimated. The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate, which opens a new window into the dark sector of matter. The Qmoger theory goes beyond the Standard Model and the Quantum Field Theory, but can be combined with their achievements.
Key words: quantum modification of general relativity, emergence of the laws of nature, isenthalpic universe, oscillating neutrinos, subjective experiences and dark sector of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1712.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 16:29:25*

**Authors:** Yazzed Al-Harbi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Yang-Mills theory, one of the most important questions is to mathematically explain the mass gap, or nonzero mass, in quantum applications of the formulas. By deriving continuous lattice and perturbative formulations in this paper for QCD constitutions representing the mass gap, As a consequence The fourmulations obey general and special relativity, Newton's gravitational law and Klein-Gordon equation as the "Glue-balls".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1712.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-06 05:53:38*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A unified Mathematical framework which describes particles interactions both in classical field theory of gravity and quantum field theory is presented, by introducing a velocity gauge field. The velocity gauge field Lagrangian is developed and shown to be equivalent to the Dirac field and related to the Electromagnetic field. The velocity fields interactions are shown to produce the Einstein-Hilbert action Lagrangian. Similar extension of the Mathematical framework to the Electromagnetic field produces the Quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills fields Lagrangians. Finally, a unified Lagrangian describing both velocity field and Electromagnetic field types is presented and alternative formulation suggested.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory