Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1806 Submissions

[12] viXra:1806.0397 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-03 01:19:08

Gravity Without Newton's Gravitational Constant and no Knowledge of Mass Size

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we show that the Schwarzschild radius can be extracted easily from any gravitationally-linked phenomena without having knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant or the mass size of the gravitational object. Further, the Schwarzschild radius can be used to predict any gravity phenomena accurately, again without knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant and also without knowledge of the size of the mass, although this may seem surprising at first. Hidden within the Schwarzschild radius are the mass of the gravitational object, the Planck mass (their relative mass), and the Planck length. We do not claim to have all the answers, but this seems to indicate that gravity is quantized, even at a cosmological scale, and this quantization is directly linked to the Planck units. This also supports our view that the Newton gravitational constant is a universal composite constant of the form G=l_p^2*c^3\hbar, rather than relying on the Planck units as a function of G. This does not mean that Newton's gravitational constant is not a universal constant, but that it is instead a composite universal constant that depends on the Planck length, the speed of light, and the Planck constant. Further, G/c^2 can be seen as a Schwarzschild radius calibrated to one weight unit. So G is only needed when we want to use gravity to find the weight of an object, such as weighing the Earth. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper that shows how a long series of major gravity predictions and measurements can be completed without any knowledge of the mass size of the object, or Newton's gravitational constant. As a minimum we think it provides an interesting new angle for evaluating existing gravity theories, and it may even give us a small hint on how to combine quantum gravity with Newton and Einstein gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1806.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-20 22:35:34

Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 174 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism “I unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “The perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field is equal with one graviton” Adrian Ferent “Ferent wave equation of the graviton: Ψ – the wave function of the graviton” Adrian Ferent “The Photon – Graviton pair has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “Einstein in his theory of general relativity did not explain gravity, he calculated gravity” Adrian Ferent “The perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field in Ferent quantum gravity theory means: the photon emits a graviton” Adrian Ferent “The graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency” Adrian Ferent I replaced Planck equation E = h × f with the a new equation for the energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f Theory of general relativity is the most successful theory of gravity. Einstein’s idea is that gravity is not an ordinary force, but rather a property of space-time geometry. In the last 100 years famous physicists including Einstein himself, have tried and failed to unify general relativity and quantum theory. Einstein’s theory of general relativity is wrong because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong. Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravity energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy. When they tried to unify Einstein’s theory of general relativity, a wrong theory, with electromagnetism the scientists discovered wrong theories like String theory, LQG… In Ferent gravitation theory gravity is reformulated using quantum theory, using gravitons. “Einstein in his theory of general relativity did not explain gravity, he calculated gravity” Adrian Ferent ToE is the Theory of Everything, the ultimate theory, the final theory links together all physical aspects of the universe and is the major unsolved problem in physics. The four fundamental forces: the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force are the four fundamental forces. In my gravity theory the gravitational force is mediated by a massless particle called graviton. All quantum gravity theories like String theory, LQG… are wrong theories because are limited to speed of light. “The perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field is equal with one graviton” Adrian Ferent How big is the perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field? It is the electromagnetic force divided by gravitational force, it is the photon energy divided by graviton energy. I found the Ferent wall beyond the Planck wall, with a length smaller than Planck length. “The Photon – Graviton pair has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force” Adrian Ferent Planck discovered that physical action could not take on any indiscriminate value. Instead, the action must be some multiple of a very small quantity called Planck constant. The energy E contained in a photon, which represents the smallest possible 'packet' of energy in an electromagnetic wave, is Planck’s constant times the photon frequency: E = Planck’s constant × frequency. E = h × f Planck equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f is incorrect because does not contains the energy of the graviton, because light has gravitation! My equation for the energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f The oscillation of an electron emits, radiates to space a photon and a coupled graviton, with the same speed, the speed of light and the same frequency. The magnetic force always acts at right angles to the motion of a charge, it can only turn the charge, it cannot do work on the charge. The strength s, of the electromagnetic force relative to gravity force: s = 4.166 × 1042 How big is the perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field? It is the graviton energy: a × f We have s = h / a “The perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field is a graviton with the energy: a × f” Adrian Ferent “Ferent wave equation of the graviton: Ψ – the wave function of the graviton” Adrian Ferent The energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f This new equation of the photon represents the unification of Electromagnetism and Gravity. “Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “I unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent Graviton’s frequency emitted by a photon What means the perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field? In my quantum gravity theory this means that photons emit gravitons! “The perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field in Ferent quantum gravity theory means: the photon emits a graviton” Adrian Ferent Graviton’s energy emitted by a photon is a × f . This means the graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency. “The graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency” Adrian Ferent 83. I am the first who unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f 84. I am the first who discovered that the perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field is equal with one graviton 85. I am the first who explained that Einstein in his theory of general relativity did not explain gravity, he calculated gravity 86. I am the first who discovered that the Photon – Graviton pair has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force 87. I am the first who discovered that the perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field in Ferent quantum gravity theory means: the photon emits a graviton 88. I am the first who discovered that the graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1806.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-17 02:48:26

What is de Broglie's Wave-Particle?

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 11 Pages.

According to the theory of dynamic space the inductive-inertial phenomenon and its forces will be developed, which act on the electric units of the dynamic space, forming the grouping units (namely electric charges or forms of the electric field). So, the nature of the magnetic forces is explained, that are Coulomb's electric forces between these grouping units, created by the accelerated electron. Additionally, it is proved the so called de Broglie's wave-particle is a motion wave (wave-like form) as a result the dynamics of the extremely fine texture of the particle motion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1806.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 10:47:39

Physical Foundations of Mathematics in Theory of Emergent Space-Time-Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 2 Pages.

The physical foundations of mathematics in the theory of emergent space-time-matter were considered. It is shown that mathematics, including logic, is a consequence of equation which describes the fundamental field. If the most fundamental level were described not by mathematics, but something else, then instead of mathematics there would be consequences of this something else.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1806.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 14:14:14

Proof that Space is Equivalent to Energy, and that Compactification Necessarily Leads to Changes in Volume, Energy and Entropy

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 10 Pages.

Using simple box quantization, we demonstrate explicitly that space is equivalent to energy, and that compactification releases latent heat with an attendant change in volume and entropy. Increasing spatial dimension costs energy while decreasing dimensions releases energy, which can be quantified, using a generalized version of the Clausius-Clapyeron relation. We show this for a massive particle trapped in a box. Compactification from N-dimensional space to (N-1) spatial dimensions is also simply demonstrated and the correct limit to achieve a lower energy result is to take the limit where Lw  0, where Lw is the compactification length parameter. Higher dimensional space has more energy and more entropy, all other things being equal, for a given cutoff in energy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1806.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-09 05:33:26

Theory of 4-Dimensional Matter Waves – a Vivid Summary

Authors: Randolf Rolff
Comments: 7 pages; German language; Deutsch: Theorie der 4-dimensionalen Materiewellen – Eine anschauliche Zusammenfassung

The theory of 4-dimensional matter waves describes a physical model which explains the effects of relativity and quantum theory in a unified theory. It explains and quantifies the observations in an intuitive manner. Since in the scientifically and mathematically exact explanations of this theory you can easy lose the whole picture, this is an attempt of a comprehensible summary. The mathematically and logically exact derivations can be found in the listed literature. I hope to hereby support the overall view of the model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1806.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 06:15:22

Gravitational Waves Will Propagate at 299800 km Pr. Second Inside Earth

Authors: Stein Sivertsen
Comments: 3 Pages.

Based upon my theory http://vixra.org/abs/1010.0035) I predict that gravitational waves will propagate at 299800,5 km/s through earth. This can be tested when two or more gravitational-wave detectors, located at different places on earth, observe the same gravitational wave and measure its speed when it propagate from detector A, through earth, to detector B. According to my theory, gravitational waves will still propagate with the speed 299792,458 km/s in vacuum outside earth. This is the same speed as we already have observed light and gravitational waves propagate with in vacuum outside earth. However, according to my theory, it will propagate with a slightly higher speed in the frame of reference inside earth.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1806.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-07 15:31:04

Quantum Gravity Unification Model with Fundamental Conservation

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 7 Pages.

A fundamental conservation and symmetry is proposed, as a unification between General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Theory (QT). Unification is then demonstrated across multiple applications. First, as applied to cosmological redshift z and energy density ρ. Then, a local system galaxy rotational curve is examined. Next, as applied to Quantum Mechanics’ ”time problem”: Absolute and relative notions of time are shown to be reconcilable, as well as renormalization values between scales. Finally, as applied to the Cosmological Constant: The discrepancy that exists between the vacuum energy density in GR at critical density: ρcr = 3H^2/8πG=1.88(H^2)x10−29g/cm^3, and the much greater zero-point energy delta value as calculated in quantum field theory (QFT) with a Planck scale ultraviolet cutoff: ρhep = M4c^3/h^3 =2.44x1091g/cm^3 is resolved to null orders of magnitude.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1806.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-04 10:47:45

Quantum Chaotic Motion Atoms of Space

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 4 Pages.

The quantum diffusion motion of space atoms has a similarity to Brownian motion. The measure of mobility of a quantum of space is proportional to the time of reference.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1806.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 04:34:38

(DVTM Psij Short Research Article 30.05.2018 19 Pages) (Toy-Model) a Simple “Digital” Vacuum Composed of Space Voxels with Quantized Energetic States (Physical Science International Journal, Issn: 2348-0130,vol.: 18, Issue.: 1)

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 19 Pages.

Based on a plausible electro-gravitational scaling factor of nature, this paper proposes a relatively simple “digital” vacuum toy model (DVTM) based on a quantized 3D space composed of space voxels with quantized energetic states. DVTM contains a relatively small set observations and statements (the assumptions of the model) that may generate a relatively large number of explanations (on the common origin of both gravitational and inertial masses and Einstein’s special/general relativity) and predictions “inside” and beyond the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics: a model of movement, a Big Bounce universe and a unification pattern for all known fundamental fields. DVTM can be considered a kind of “patch” for some Loop Quantum Gravity theories (LQGTs) and for M-Theory (MT). Keywords: Electro-gravitational scaling factor of nature; “digital” vacuum toy model (DVTM); quantized 3D space; space voxels with quantized energetic states; Standard Model (SM) of particle physics; model of movement; Big Bounce universe; unification pattern for all known fundamental fields; Loop Quantum Gravity theories (LQGTs); M-Theory (MT). OFFICIAL PUBLICATION SITE LINKS: http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/24892 http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/24892 http://www.journalrepository.org/media/journals/PSIJ_33/2018/Jun/Dragoi1812018PSIJ41391.pdf http://www.sciencedomain.org/issue/3559
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1806.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 04:39:20

(PSIJ - Short Research Article - 19 pages - 29.07.2017) On a Plausible Triple Electro-gravito-informational Significance of the Fine Structure Constant (Physical Science International Journal, ISSN: 2348-0130,Vol.: 15, Issue.: 3)

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 19 Pages.

In the last century, a small minority of physicists considered a hypothetical binary logarithmic connection between the large and the small constants of physics, which also implies a base-2 logarithm). This paper brings to attention a plausible triple electro-gravito-informational significance of the fine structure constant, with its implications in a plausible four fields unification pattern at Planck scales: this triple significance is based on the existence of a unifying global scaling factor of nature which appears in a hypothetical fine tuning of all the non-zero rest masses of the all the elementary particles in the Standard Model. Furthermore, this paper also proposes the dimensional relativity hypothesis (DRH) stating that the 3D appearance of space (or the 4D nature of spacetime) may be actually explained by the relative magnitude of the photon (angular) quantum momentum (and the hypothetical graviton quantum momentum respectively) and this global scaling factor (GSF): DRH also includes a generalized electrograviton model (EGM) for any hypothetical graviton. This paper also proposes a set of strong (and very strong) gravity constants and a gravitational field varying with the energy (and length) scale, all with potential importance in the unification of the four fundamental fields. Each of these hypotheses is a potential update for the Standard Model of particle physics. Keywords: Fine structure constant with triple electro-gravito-informational significance; unifying global scaling factor of nature; four fields unification; the standard model of particle physics; dimensional relativity hypothesis; electrograviton model. Short Research Article Drăgoi; PSIJ, 15(3): 1-19, 2017; Article no.PSIJ.34613 2 Physical Science International Journal, ISSN: 2348-0130,Vol.: 15, Issue.: 3 Short Research Article DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/34613 OFFICIAL LINKS OF THIS PUBLISHED (OPEN) PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE: http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/20204 http://www.sciencedomain.org/metrics/20204 http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/20204 http://www.sciencedomain.org/post-comments/20204#disqus_thread http://www.sciencedomain.org/issue/2829 Crossref.org meta-data: https://search.crossref.org/?q=10.9734%2FPSIJ%2F2017%2F34613
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1806.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-01 05:58:33

On Finsler Geometry, MOND and Diffeomorphic Metrics to the Schwarzschild Solution

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 18 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP

We revisit the construction of diffeomorphic but $not$ isometric solutions to the Schwarzschild metric. The solutions relevant to Black Holes are those which require the introduction of non-trivial areal-radial functions that are characterized by the key property that the radial horizon's location is $displaced$ continuously towards the singularity ($ r = 0 $). In the limiting case scenario the location of the singularity and horizon $merges$ and any infalling observer hits a null singularity at the very moment he/she crosses the horizon. This fact may have important consequences for the resolution of the firewall problem and the complementarity controversy in black holes. Next we show how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) can be obtained from solutions to Finsler gravity, and which in turn, can also be modeled by metrics which are diffeomorphic but not isometric to the Schwarzschild metric. The key point now is that one will have to dispense with the asymptotic flatness condition, by choosing an areal radial function which is $finite$ at $ r = \infty$. Consequently, changing the boundary condition at $ r = \infty$ leads to MONDian dynamics. We conclude with some discussions on the role of scale invariance and Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory based on the existence of a maximal proper force.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory