[17] **viXra:1807.0519 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-31 18:49:19*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Lately we found that the proton is most associated with gravitation and the electron with charge. In this paper we find that gravitation is from a force in just one direction, associated with the mass of the proton and the electron, and charge is from a force in a combination of the x, y, and z perpendicular directions.
This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated granular spacetime. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza).
The calculations, herein, imply spacetime to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Spacetime that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16) Below are summarized the simplified equations modeling the Planck for charge and gravity constructed in section II and III.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1807.0518 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-30 12:19:09*

**Authors:** Sp Cottle

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this model the force of gravity is mediated by the electron, the W+ and the W- particle. The electron, from its bound state around a nucleus, tunnels into other atoms and exerts a force of attraction over the proton(s) in the nucleus of those atoms. This attractive force amounts to the exchange of a W+ boson to, or from, the nucleus. To make this consistent with quantum mechanics, the electron in its bound state must tunnel roughly once every Planck time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1807.0450 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-27 03:34:49*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

According to the theory of dynamic space, the inductive-inertial phenomenon and its forces has been developed. These forces act on the electric units of the dynamic space, forming the grouping units (namely electric charges or
forms of the electric field). The nature of the magnetic forces is explained, that are Coulomb's electric forces between these grouping units, created by the accelerated
electron. So, Coulomb's Law for magnetism, the physical signicance of magnetic quantities and the so called strangeness of the fluctuation of nucleons magnetic dipole moment are interpreted. Additionally, due to in-phase motion of grouping units, a parallel common course of their electrons and a superposition picture of their motion waves are caused as in the double-slit experiment is displayed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1807.0370 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-03 22:34:28*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages. CITE - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6849716.v4

Recently added: "Main two clarifications to my submission" -
There are two points which may need to be clarified -
First, in relation to E=0 (second last paragraph in SECTION 2 – QUANTUM SPIN, ADVANCED WAVES, AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY)
Second, in relation to quantum spin/vector/tensor/scalar (last and third last paragraphs in SECTION 2 – QUANTUM SPIN, ADVANCED WAVES, AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY
This article suggests existence of the graviton was actually confirmed by discovery of the supposedly unrelated Higgs boson on 4 July 2012. First suspected to exist in the 1960s, more studies are still needed to verify with higher precision that the discovered particle has all of the properties predicted. The need for further studies is in line with this article’s proposal that the Higgs boson and field are not what they’re assumed to be ie the Higgs field is believed to give mass to some particles (quarks and charged leptons plus the weak nuclear force’s W and Z bosons) while the Higgs boson is said to be the field’s quantum excitation. The proposal here is that photon-graviton interactions, and thus the electromagnetic-gravitational fields - more precisely, m = (D subscript 1+0), (S sub M, K sub 8), (n x 10 exponent 12.γ sub s/G sub s) - are responsible for ALL mass, and the Higgs boson (whether it exists in one or several forms) is a by-product of the advanced waves formed from photons and gravitons (see the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics). Being left-over from gravitational waves, the Higgs boson is obviously related to the graviton – and if this article is correct, discovery of the former particle makes existence of the latter absolutely essential (confirms its existence). As well: in my thoughts, Wolfgang Pauli’s 1924 approach to quantum spin - and Albert Einstein’s 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" - both played important parts in uniting quantum mechanics and gravity into the phenomenon of matter. On the way to this union, Einstein’s dream of uniting electromagnetism with gravitation seems to have supersymmetrically fallen into place.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1807.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-21 16:06:06*

**Authors:** Steven M. Scully

**Comments:** Pages. 6

Electromagnetic fields are considered to be the result of the fundamental force of electromagnetism. Using classical mechanics, a description for how gravity could theoretically cause electromagnetic fields is presented. Due to the capability of particles to physically travel through systems which they orbit, the existence of gravitational orbital patterns in the shape of a Figure-8 is proposed. As a result, it is proposed that gravity produces electromagnetic fields by the flow of particles in a Figure-8 orbital. Thereby, according to the theory, gravity is demonstrably the cause of electromagnetism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1807.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-21 16:37:07*

**Authors:** Steven M. Scully

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy states that the universe consists only of infinitely divisible mass, infinite volume, and gravity. This is realized due to a model which explains the cosmic microwave background, the redshift in the light spectrum of all distant galaxies as well as supercluster observations using gravitational redshift and gravitational lensing alone. Evidence is shown that gravity is the only fundamental law of the universe, and that electromagnetism, weak interaction, and strong interaction are the results of gravity, and therefore the Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy can be realized.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1807.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-21 18:39:57*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Relativism and quantum mechanics are a basis of present-day physics. This hypothesis returns quantum mechanics to real physics from physics of a probability and I tried fusion of relativism and quantum mechanics. By quantum mechanics a fundamental particle is a particle and is a wave at the same time and probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics was born. This hypothesis denies the same time. That isn't simultaneous. A fundamental particle is repeating a change in a particle and a wave at superspeed. I am thinking this is the variable from which hid.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1807.0341 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-24 20:08:36*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Newton's theory of gravitation states that every mass attracts every other mass in the universe, but that gravitational attraction of a mass only has a certain reach. Newton's theory of gravitation also states that the gravitational force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them, that is mathematically seen correct but that gravitational force only has a certain reach.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1807.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-20 12:30:51*

**Authors:** Friedwardt Winterberg

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

As a first step towards a theory of quantum gravity, a Niels Bohr pre-quantum mechanics theory of quantum gravity is proposed. It predicts the existence of gravitons with an energy of 3.47×〖10〗^11 GeV, close to the rarely observed particles coming from a region of the Ursa Major constellation, with the largest energy of 3.2×〖10〗^11 GeV, well above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) limit, suggesting that these particles are high-energy gravitons.
It was noted that the proposed provisionary theory can explain Heisenberg’s uncertainty relation as a result of a mathematical theorem by Bruns, where the nonlinearity of the equations of motion, such as Newton’s and Einstein’s equations, leads to divergent dense manifold for infinitely closed initial conditions as their solutions.
In addition, the theory can also explain the gravitational origin of the quantum potential in the Madelung-transformed Schrödinger equation. It explains the ratio of dark energy to dark matter, approximately 3:1, as the Madelung constant of a gravitationally interacting fluid made up of positive and negative mass pole-dipole particles filling the vacuum of space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1807.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-14 06:37:28*

**Authors:** Austin J. Fearnley

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Simulations using Visual Basic code are carried out on motions, along a one dimensional line, of a population of 100 positive and negative masses under their own gravitational forces. The negative masses were seen to repel one another along the line and uniformly occupy the line. The positive masses were initially located as two static clumps and they remained as two clumps without greatly expanding the sizes of the clumps. The clumps separated further apart, in time, accelerating away from each other. Some of the negative masses clustered near the two positive mass clumps, in a similar way to how dark matter clusters near galaxies. The negative masses act to constrain a positive mass clump by surrounding it and repelling the masses back towards the centre of the clump. So negative mass operates by repulsion to obtain a similar effect that dark matter is supposed to obtain by attraction. Replenishment of negative masses as they fill the space along the line is unnecessary as the results show continuous acceleration.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1807.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-06 05:06:29*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, more specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for the idea of relativity as time, the current understanding of “negative” energy is presented and revised, namely Dirac’s postulate for the Dirac sea, the feature of negative energy being the rise in kinetic energy in gravitational relative motion between objects under the influence of each other, speeding up. This issue is newly addressed with the application of the golden ratio and associated relativity of the motions of mass under the influence of gravity. To achieve this, the ideas of entropy and enthalpy as presented in paper 5 of this series of papers are brought to attention; the idea of -1/φ is introduced as the “negative” energy counterpart as gravity compared to the standard electromagnetic φ of the calculated passage of time in an entropic context. An experiment for gravity emerging from electrodynamics is proposed with this theoretical addition regarding gravity as negative energy, detailed in the context of an enthalpic mechanism, thus shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1807.0171 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-26 22:20:47*

**Authors:** F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle 2D-1D-3D is applied to the Grandcosmology invariant horizon. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10-6 precision double large number correlation: the Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1807.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-09 01:24:51*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 33 Pages. CITE - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6678350.v2

This article had its beginning with Einstein's 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" Together with General Relativity's statement that gravity is not a pull but is a push caused by the curvature of space-time, a hypothesis for Earth's ocean tides was developed that does not solely depend on the Sun and Moon as Kepler and Newton believed. It also borrows from Galileo. The breakup of planets and asteroids by white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes is popularly ascribed by today's science to tidal forces (gravitation emanating from the stellar body and having a greater effect on the near side of a planet/asteroid than the farthest side). Remembering Einstein's 1919 paper, it was apparent that my revised idea of tidal forces improves on current accounts because it views matter and mass as unified with space-time whose curvature is gravitation. Unification is a necessity for modern science's developing view of one united and entangled universe – expressed in the Unified Field Theory, the Theory of Everything, String theory and Loop Quantum Gravity. The writing of this article was also assisted by visualizing the gravitational fields forming space-time being themselves formed by a multitude of weak and presently undetectable gravitational waves. The final part of this article concludes that the section BITS AND TOPOLOGY will lead to the conclusions in ETERNAL LIFE, WORLD PEACE AND PHYSICS' UNIFICATION. The final part also compares cosmology to biological enzymes and biology's substrate of reacting "chemicals" - using virtual particles, hidden variables, gravitation, electromagnetism, electronics’ binary digits, plus topology’s Mobius strip and figure-8 Klein bottle. The product is mass - enzyme, substrate and product are all considered mathematical in nature. Also, gravitation and electromagnetism are united using logic and topology – showing there’s no need in this article for things like mathematical formalism, field equations or tensor calculus.
Keywords -
Gravitational Tidal Forces, Mass-from-Gravity, Breakup of Celestial Bodies, Earth's Ocean Tides, Universe's Big Bang, Cosmic Inflation, Eternal Life, World Peace, Matter, Mass, Mathematical Reality, Gravitational-Electromagnetic Unification, Large-scale Extra Dimensions, Evolution, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Special Relativity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1807.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-03 05:25:31*

**Authors:** Jaekwang Lee

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

According to Noether's theorem, for every differentiable symmetry of action, there exists a corresponding conserved quantity.
If we assume the stationary condition as a role of symmetry, there is a conserved quantity.
By using the definition of the Komar mass, one can calculate the mass in a curved spacetime. If we consider charge as a conserved quantity, it means existence of symmetry, and we can consider one more axis.
In this paper, we consider an extension to five dimensions by using results of the ADM formalism. In terms of (4+1) decomposition, with an alternative surface integral, we find the rotating and charged five-dimensional metric solution and check whether it gives the mass, charge, and angular momentum exactly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1807.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-04 05:57:38*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 100 Pages.

This article consists of two parts.
In the first part A we present in a concise form the present approaches to the quantum gravity, with the ADM formulation of GR, the Ashtekar and the Kodama ansatz at the center, and we also derive the 3-dimensional Ashtekar-Kodama constraints.
In the second part B , we introduce a 4-dimensional covariant version of the 3-dimensional (spatial) Hamiltionian, Gaussian and diffeomorphism constraints of the Kodama state with positive cosmological constant L in the Ashtekar formulation of quantum gravity.
We get 32 partial differential equations for the 16 variables Emn ( E-tensor, inverse densitized tetrad of the metric gmn) and 16 variables Amn (A-tensor, gravitational wave tensor). We impose the boundary condition: for r->inf g(Emn)->gmn i.e. in the classical limit of large r the Kodama state generates the given asymptotic spacetime (normally Schwarzschild-spacetime) .
For L->0 in the static (time independent) the tetrad decouples from the wave tensor and the 24 Hamiltonian equations yield for Amn the constant background solution. The diffeomorphism becomes identically zero, and the tetrad can satisfy the Schwarzschild spacetime and the Gaussian equations for all {r,θ}, i.e. it the Einstein equations are valid everywhere outside the horizon.
At the horizon, the E-tensor couples to the A-tensor in the 24 Hamiltonian equations and the singularity is removed, there is instead a peak in the metric .
In the time-dependent case with a L- scaled wave ansatz for the A-tensor and the E-tensor we get a gravitational wave equation, which yields appropriate solutions only for quadrupole waves: as required by GR, the tetrad is exponentially damped , only the A-tensor carries the energy.
The validity of the Einstein power formula for gravitational waves is shown for a binary black hole (binary gravitational rotator).
From the horizon condition we derive the limit scale (Schwarzschild radius) of the gravitational quantum region: rgr=30μm , which emerges as the limit scale in the objective wave collapse theory of Gherardi-Rimini-Weber.
We present the energy-momentum tensor, which is in agreement with the corresponding GR-expression for small wave amplitudes and is consistent with the Einstein power formula.
In the quantum region r<= rgr , the Ashtekar-Kodama gravitation the theory becomes a gauge theory with the extended SU(2) (four generators) as gauge group and a corresponding covariant derivative.
In the quantum region we derive the lagrangian, which is dimensionally renormalizable, the normalized one-graviton wave function, the graviton propagator, and demonstrate the calculation of cross-section from Feynman diagrams at the example of the graviton-electron scattering.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1807.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-07-01 21:29:24*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The two-parameter quantum calculus used in the construction of Fibonacci oscillators is briefly reviewed before presenting the $ (p, q)$-deformed Lorentz transformations which leave invariant the Minkowski spacetime interval $ t^2 - x^2 - y^2 - z^2$. Such transformations require the introduction of three different types of exponential functions leading to the $(p, q)$-analogs of hyperbolic and trigonometric functions. The composition law of two successive Lorentz boosts (rotations) is $no$ longer additive $ \xi_3 \not= \xi_1 + \xi_2$ ( $ \theta_3 \not= \theta_1 + \theta_2$). We finalize with a discussion on quantum groups, noncommutative spacetimes, $\kappa$-deformed Poincare algebra and quasi-crystals.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1807.0029 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-08-21 16:45:37*

**Authors:** F. M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 57 Pages. Bull Acad Int Concorde n°2, Aug 2018, Français, Russian, English

The mysterious physical parameters are connected with the Planck thermal law mathematical constants, the musical ratios and economic numbers, where the Monster order and Eddington's constant 137 play a central role. The electric constant a ≈ 137.036 appears as a central calculation basis in a Deterministic Periodic (10^58 s) Computing Cosmos. This connects the four force couplings with canonic mathematical constants. The Monster Group is associated to the Grandcosmos, ruled by base 3, while the Baby-Monster is associated with the observable Universe ruled by base 2. This refutes the Primordial Big Bang or Bounce model and associated anthropic dreams, so discarding the unnecessary Multiverse hypothesis. Eddington's and string theories are rehabilitated and the Kotov absolute clock is confirmed. The 26 sporadic groups are implied, connecting the four force parameters with the special super-string number 496, whose square is compatible with the Higgs/Electron mass ratio, so confirming the Particle standard model. This means that Physics is musical arithmetics, so that Intelligent Life is universal.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory