Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1807 Submissions

[9] viXra:1807.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 14:33:49

Adapting Newton's Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

Newton's theory of gravitation states that every mass attracts every other mass in the universe, but that is not correct. Newton's theory of gravitation also states that the gravitational force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. That is mathematically seen correct, but gravity is not the reason why most celestial objects stay in their orbit.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1807.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 12:30:51

A Niels Bohr Approach to a Pre-Quantum Theory of Quantum Gravity

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 12 Pages.

As a first step towards a theory of quantum gravity, a Niels Bohr pre-quantum mechanics theory of quantum gravity is proposed. It predicts the existence of gravitons with an energy of 3.47×〖10〗^11 GeV, close to the rarely observed particles coming from a region of the Ursa Major constellation, with the largest energy of 3.2×〖10〗^11 GeV, well above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) limit, suggesting that these particles are high-energy gravitons. It was noted that the proposed provisionary theory can explain Heisenberg’s uncertainty relation as a result of a mathematical theorem by Bruns, where the nonlinearity of the equations of motion, such as Newton’s and Einstein’s equations, leads to divergent dense manifold for infinitely closed initial conditions as their solutions. In addition, the theory can also explain the gravitational origin of the quantum potential in the Madelung-transformed Schrödinger equation. It explains the ratio of dark energy to dark matter, approximately 3:1, as the Madelung constant of a gravitationally interacting fluid made up of positive and negative mass pole-dipole particles filling the vacuum of space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1807.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 06:37:28

Negative Mass as a Cause of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 10 Pages.

Simulations using Visual Basic code are carried out on motions, along a one dimensional line, of a population of 100 positive and negative masses under their own gravitational forces. The negative masses were seen to repel one another along the line and uniformly occupy the line. The positive masses were initially located as two static clumps and they remained as two clumps without greatly expanding the sizes of the clumps. The clumps separated further apart, in time, accelerating away from each other. Some of the negative masses clustered near the two positive mass clumps, in a similar way to how dark matter clusters near galaxies. The negative masses act to constrain a positive mass clump by surrounding it and repelling the masses back towards the centre of the clump. So negative mass operates by repulsion to obtain a similar effect that dark matter is supposed to obtain by attraction. Replenishment of negative masses as they fill the space along the line is unnecessary as the results show continuous acceleration.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1807.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 21:33:34

Negative Energy Enthalpic em Gravity “WARP” Drive (Em Resonant Cavity Thruster)

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 20 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, more specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio basis for the idea of relativity as time, the current understanding of “negative” energy is presented and revised, namely Dirac’s postulate for the Dirac sea, the feature of negative energy being the rise in kinetic energy in gravitational relative motion between objects under the influence of each other, speeding up. This issue is newly addressed with the application of the golden ratio and associated relativity of the motions of mass under the influence of gravity. To achieve this, the ideas of entropy and enthalpy as presented in paper 5 of this series of papers are brought to attention; the idea of -1/φ is introduced as the “negative” energy counterpart as gravity compared to the standard electromagnetic φ of the calculated passage of time in an entropic context. An experiment for gravity emerging from electrodynamics is forwarded with this theoretical addition regarding gravity as negative energy, detailed in the context of an enthalpic mechanism, thus shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1807.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-11 23:15:58

Holography and Cosmology

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle 2D-1D-3D is applied to the Grandcosmology invariant horizon. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10^-6 precision double large number correlation: the Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10^122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1807.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 01:24:51

Mathematical Nature of Reality, Plus Gravitation-Electromagnetism Unification, Derived from Revised Gravitational Tidal Forces and Mass-from-Gravity Concept

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 33 Pages. CITE - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6678350.v2

This article had its beginning with Einstein's 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" Together with General Relativity's statement that gravity is not a pull but is a push caused by the curvature of space-time, a hypothesis for Earth's ocean tides was developed that does not solely depend on the Sun and Moon as Kepler and Newton believed. It also borrows from Galileo. The breakup of planets and asteroids by white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes is popularly ascribed by today's science to tidal forces (gravitation emanating from the stellar body and having a greater effect on the near side of a planet/asteroid than the farthest side). Remembering Einstein's 1919 paper, it was apparent that my revised idea of tidal forces improves on current accounts because it views matter and mass as unified with space-time whose curvature is gravitation. Unification is a necessity for modern science's developing view of one united and entangled universe – expressed in the Unified Field Theory, the Theory of Everything, String theory and Loop Quantum Gravity. The writing of this article was also assisted by visualizing the gravitational fields forming space-time being themselves formed by a multitude of weak and presently undetectable gravitational waves. The final part of this article concludes that the section BITS AND TOPOLOGY will lead to the conclusions in ETERNAL LIFE, WORLD PEACE AND PHYSICS' UNIFICATION. The final part also compares cosmology to biological enzymes and biology's substrate of reacting "chemicals" - using virtual particles, hidden variables, gravitation, electromagnetism, electronics’ binary digits, plus topology’s Mobius strip and figure-8 Klein bottle. The product is mass - enzyme, substrate and product are all considered mathematical in nature. Also, gravitation and electromagnetism are united using logic and topology – showing there’s no need in this article for things like mathematical formalism, field equations or tensor calculus. Keywords - Gravitational Tidal Forces, Mass-from-Gravity, Breakup of Celestial Bodies, Earth's Ocean Tides, Universe's Big Bang, Cosmic Inflation, Eternal Life, World Peace, Matter, Mass, Mathematical Reality, Gravitational-Electromagnetic Unification, Large-scale Extra Dimensions, Evolution, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Special Relativity
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1807.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-06 11:36:52

Classical Unified Field Theory of Gravitation and Electromagnetism

Authors: Jaekwang Lee
Comments: 13 Pages.

According to Noether's theorem, for every continuous symmetry of the action, there exists corresponding conserved quantity. If we assume the stationary condition as a role of symmetry, there is a conserved quantity. By using the definition of the Komar mass, one can calculate the mass in a curved spacetime. However, it fails to give the mass for the well-known charged 4D black hole such as Kerr-Newman black hole. In this paper, to solve this problem, we consider an extension to 5-dimensions by using results of ADM formalism. In terms of (4+1) decomposition, with alternative surface integral, we find the rotating and charged 5D metric solution and check whether it gives the mass, charge and angular momentum exactly
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1807.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 14:28:12

A Covariant Formulation of the Ashtekar-Kodama Quantum Gravity and Its Solutions

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 88 Pages.

Abstract This article consists of two parts. In the first part A we present in a concise form the present approaches to the quantum gravity, with the ADM formulation of GR, the Ashtekar and the Kodama ansatz at the center, and we also derive the 3-dimensional Ashtekar-Kodama constraints. In the second part B , we introduce a 4-dimensional covariant version of the 3-dimensional (spatial) Hamiltionian, Gaussian and diffeomorphism constraints of the Kodama state with positive cosmological constant L in the Ashtekar formulation of quantum gravity. In chapter B1-4 we present the equations and their solutions. We get 32 partial differential equations for the 16 variables Emn (inverse densitized tetrad of the metric gmn) and 16 variables Amn (gravitational wave tensor). We impose the boundary condition: for r->inf g(Emn)->gmn i.e. in the classical limit of large r the Kodama state generates the given asymptotic spacetime (normally Schwarzschild-spacetime) . For L->0 in the static (time independent) the tetrad decouples from the wave tensor and the 24 Hamiltonian equations yield for Amn the constant background solution. The diffeomorphism becomes identically zero, and the tetrad can satisfy the Schwarzschild spacetime and the Gaussian equations for all {r,θ}, i.e. it the Einstein equations are valid everywhere outside the horizon. In the time-dependent case with a L- scaled wave ansatz for Amn and Emn we get a gravitational wave equations , which yields appropriate solutions only for angular momentum lx>=2 (quadrupole wave) the tetrad is locally damped with exp(-4 sqrt(r/3)), only the wave tensor Amn carries the energy. In chapter B5 and 6 numerical solutions for special cases of the time-independent and of time-dependent equations are discussed. In chapter B7 the energy tensor of the Ashtekar-Kodama gravity is introduced. In chapter B8 we present the quantum field version of the Ashtekar-Kodama gravity and demonstrate the calculation of cross-sections. Finally, in chapter B9 we give as an outlook an overview of the QFT including the Ashtekar-Kodama gravity. All derivations and calculations were carried out in Mathematica-programs, so the results can be considered with high probability as error-free, the programs are cited in the literature index. In the chapters B1-4, which deal with the solutions, every subchapter consists of a flow-diagram, which gives the overview and a text part, which describes the corresponding program in detail and can be skipped at first reading.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1807.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 21:29:24

Fibonacci Oscillators and (P, q)-Deformed Lorentz Transformations

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 12 Pages.

The two-parameter quantum calculus used in the construction of Fibonacci oscillators is briefly reviewed before presenting the $ (p, q)$-deformed Lorentz transformations which leave invariant the Minkowski spacetime interval $ t^2 - x^2 - y^2 - z^2$. Such transformations require the introduction of three different types of exponential functions leading to the $(p, q)$-analogs of hyperbolic and trigonometric functions. The composition law of two successive Lorentz boosts (rotations) is $no$ longer additive $ \xi_3 \not= \xi_1 + \xi_2$ ( $ \theta_3 \not= \theta_1 + \theta_2$). We finalize with a discussion on quantum groups, noncommutative spacetimes, $\kappa$-deformed Poincare algebra and quasi-crystals.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory