Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1808 Submissions

[11] viXra:1808.0671 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-30 08:42:10

Measure the Gravitational Constant

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China and one in Russia has devised two new ways to measure the gravitational constant. [9] The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1808.0600 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-30 12:43:03

Emergent Spacetime and Matter, Unified Field Theory (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 27 Pages.

An axiomatic deterministic theory of physics based on a single scalar field was proposed. In the theory model at the fundamental level there is no time and dynamics. It is shown how space-time with matter and fields emerge in this model. It is shown that the anthropic principle emerges as a consequence of the theory. The causality principle is derived as a consequence of the main principles of the theory. All three Newton's equations are obtained as consequences of the theory and in the nonrelativistic approximation. Mass, energy and other concepts of mechanics were obtained. The Schrödinger equation is derived. An explanation of the nature of particle spin is proposed. It is shown that the maximum speed of interactions must be finite and be the same in all inertial frames of reference. It is shown that the light speed and the maximum speed of interactions are exactly equal. A special theory of relativity with all its equations is obtained. The Klein-Gordon-Fock equations and, with some assumptions, the Dirac equations are obtained. Particles interaction is considered. There were given explanations of what virtual particles and quanta of field interactions are, and how renormalization works in quantum field theory. Seemingly fundamental interactions, such as strong, weak and electromagnetic are shown. Maxwell's equations are obtained, with some assumptions. It is shown that the standard model does not contradict the proposed theory. The nature of gravitation is considered. A strong equivalence principle is proved, all assumptions on which the general theory of relativity is based are proved. Based on this, it can be argued that the equations of the general relativity theory satisfy the theory of emergent space-time-matter. It is shown that gravity can not have quanta. Thus, this theory asserts that no theory of quantum gravity can exist. An explanation of the origin of the universe is proposed. An explanation is offered for the nature of dark energy and dark matter. Physical foundations of mathematics are considered.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1808.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 01:49:44

The Accelerated Expansion of the Universe is Explained by Quantum Field Theory.

Authors: Elkin Igor
Comments: 5 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Formulas describing interactions, in fact, use the limiting speed of information transfer, and not the speed of light. This speed depends, both on the speed of light itself and on the expansion of the universe by Hubble. This leads to the fact that the limiting speed of information transfer varies depending on the distance and depending on the local site in question. This gives a different interaction when the particles are repelled from each other and when they are attracted. This leads to the appearance of a nonzero residual interaction. And this leads to an explanation of the accelerated expansion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1808.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 01:52:08

Ускоренное расширение Вселенной объясняет квантовая теория поля.

Authors: Elkin Igore Vladimirovich
Comments: 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Формулы, описывающие взаимодействия, на самом деле используют предельную скорость передачи информации, а не скорость света. Эта скорость зависит, как от самой скорости света, так и от расширения Вселенной по Хабблу. Это приводит к тому, что предельная скорость передачи информации меняется в зависимости от расстояния и в зависимости от рассматриваемого локального участка. Это дает различное взаимодействие при отталкивании частиц друг от друга и при их притяжении. Что приводит к появлению не нулевого остаточного взаимодействия. А это приводит к объяснению ускоренного расширения.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1808.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-19 11:05:44

Quantum Field Theory Explains the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe.

Authors: Elkin Igor
Comments: 4 Pages. ieelkin@yandex.ru

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. This leads to the fact that the limiting speed of information transfer varies depending on the distance and depending on the local site in question. This gives a different interaction when the particles are repelled from each other and when they are attracted. This leads to the appearance of a nonzero residual interaction. And this leads to an explanation of the accelerated expansion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1808.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-17 08:30:24

Equivalence Principle in the Quantum World

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

In a state unique to quantum physics, energy and mass can exist in a 'quantum superposition' – as if they consisted of two different values 'at the same time'. [11] Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10] Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9] Gravitational waves may be produced in the heart of the galaxy, says a new study led by Ph.D. student Joseph Fernandez at Liverpool John Moores University. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1808.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 07:17:14

Quantum Field Theory Explains the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe.quantum Field Theory Explains the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. This leads to the fact that the limiting speed of information transfer varies depending on the distance and depending on the local site in question. This gives a different interaction when the particles are repelled from each other and when they are attracted. This leads to the appearance of a nonzero residual interaction. And this leads to an explanation of the accelerated expansion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1808.0189 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-19 03:22:19

R x C x H x O-valued Gravity as a Grand Unified Field Theory

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 18 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

We argue how {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued Gravity (real-complex-quaterno-octonionic Gravity) naturally can describe a grand unified field theory of Einstein's gravity with an $ U(8)$ Yang-Mills theory. In particular, it allows for an extension of the Standard Model by including a $3$-family $SU(3)_F$ symmetry group, a $SU(2)_R$ and an extra $ U(1)$ symmetry. A unification of left-right $SU(3)_L \times SU(3)_R$, color $SU(3)_C$ and family $SU(3)_F$ symmetries in a maximal rank-$8$ subgroup of $E_8$ has been proposed by \cite{Molina} as a landmark for future explorations beyond the Standard Model. It is warranted to explore further if this latter model also admits a similar gravitational interpretation based on the above composition of normed division algebras. Furthermore, our construction leads also to a $bimetric$ theory of gravity which may have a role in dark energy. The crux of this approach is that we have $replaced$ the Kaluza-Klein prescription to generate gauge symmetries in lower dimensions from isometries of the internal manifold, by the $U (8)$ isometry transformations of the {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued metric. We finalize with a discussion on $U(16)$ Matrix Gravity (Geometry), String Theory and Division algebras.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1808.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-11 05:43:21

The Origin of the Gravitational Force, Inertia and Kinematics of Comic Bodies

Authors: Wei Fan
Comments: 12 Pages.

In physics, the mysterious origin of the gravitational force, inertia and the source of the kinetic energy of stars have long been unsolved problems. In the recent research,I have tried to jump out of the constraint of Newton’s laws and classical mechanics and tried to figure out sources of those universal laws with Potential Theory, and eventually solved problems above.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1808.0135 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-15 16:33:06

Negative Mass Masquerading as Positive Mass; and What Happened to All the Antimatter?

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 7 Pages.

All masses measured in a laboratory using simple measurement methods must give outcomes as positive or zero masses. A method is given in principle to determine between negative and positive masses for matter and antimatter particle pairs. Negative mass masquerades as positive mass and simple measurements would always show negative mass to have apparent positive mass. This means that antimatter particles could have negative masses despite measurements showing them to have positive masses. If antimatter has negative mass masquerading as positive mass then antimatter cannot form lumps in the same way that matter does. Antimatter would then be the main component of dark energy, which would answer the question of what happened to all the antimatter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1808.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-05 09:22:19

Earth’s Core is High Density Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 185 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Earth’s core is high density Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moon’s core is high density Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Earth’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moon’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Earth is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Earth is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Moon is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent This means: “High density Dark Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe” Adrian Ferent “I explained the Gravitational force between Earth and Moon, mediated by Gravitons” Adrian Ferent Moon mass: 7.3 × 10^22 kg Distance from the center of the Earth to the center of the Moon is 384,400,000 m Gravitational force between Moon and Earth: 1.9 × 10^20 N The gravitational potential energy between Moon and Earth: 7.6 × 10^28 J What is the energy of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon? I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz I consider the Moon made of electrons. The Moon is made of 8 × 10^52 electrons Each electron emits a Graviton. The energy of each Graviton: 9.5 × 10^(-25) J Graviton energy: a×f This means the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon: 5.9 × 10^51 Hz I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth, Moon must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz This is another proof that Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right! Now I have to calculate the gravitational potential energy between 2 electrons, one on Moon and one on Earth; this is the energy of one graviton: Eg = 5.49 × 10^(-77) J Because Eg << 9.5 × 10^(-25) J, matter does not have influence on the Gravitational force between Moon and Earth. That is why: “Earth’s core is high density Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moon’s core is high density Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent Because only high density Dark Matter, emits Gravitons with the energy equal or higher to 9.5 × 10^(-25) J. “Ferent matter is Dark matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent This means: “Earth’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moon’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent Matter looks like foam or bubbles in contrast with Ferent matter that is why: “The Earth is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Moon is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent The Earth’s Dark Matter density is much smaller than Black Holes’ Dark Matter density, because: “The energy of the Gravitons inside a black hole, is much higher than the energy of the gluons” Adrian Ferent “The Earth is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Moon is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent This means: “High density Dark Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe” Adrian Ferent 90. I am the first who discovered that Earth’s core is high density Dark Matter 91. I am the first who discovered that Moon’s core is high density Dark Matter 92. I am the first who discovered that Earth’s core is Ferent Matter 93. I am the first who discovered that the Earth is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter 94. I am the first who discovered that the Moon is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter 95. I am the first who discovered that the Earth is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter 96. I am the first who discovered that high density Dark Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe 97. I am the first who discovered that Ferent Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory