# Quantum Physics

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## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[2997] viXra:1901.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-22 03:17:30

### Quantum Sensors for NMR

Authors: George Rajna

A study by the Quantum Technologies for Information Science (QUTIS) group of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry, has produced a series of protocols for quantum sensors that could allow images to be obtained by means of the nuclear magnetic resonance of single biomolecules using a minimal amount of radiation. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2996] viXra:1901.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-22 03:36:14

### Light Regardless of Polarization

Authors: George Rajna

Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a polarization-insensitive metalens comprised of non-symmetric nanofins that can achromatically focus light across the visible spectrum without aberrations. [42] A team led by Rice University scientists used a unique combination of techniques to observe, for the first time, a condensed matter phenomenon about which others have only speculated. The research could aid in the development of quantum computers. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2995] viXra:1901.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-22 04:17:19

### Ultrafast Spintronics

Authors: George Rajna

One of the leading candidates, spintronics, is based on the idea of carrying information via the spin of electrons. [43] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed a polarization-insensitive metalens comprised of non-symmetric nanofins that can achromatically focus light across the visible spectrum without aberrations. [42] A team led by Rice University scientists used a unique combination of techniques to observe, for the first time, a condensed matter phenomenon about which others have only speculated. The research could aid in the development of quantum computers. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2994] viXra:1901.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-20 01:57:02

### The Theories of the Graviton, Part Three: The Statistical and Thermodynamic Applications to Gravitonic Mechanics

Authors: Noah MacKay
Comments: 14 Pages. Done with the assistance of Aaron M. Bain and Ashton L. Shope

Gravitons are the quanta of gravity that, if proven to exist, would potentially connect quantum mechanics with gravitation. The third (and supposedly last) part of the Graviton Theory entity focuses on the thermodynamic and statistical applications to the theories that were proposed in Parts One and Two. This analysis will look at gravitonic inﬂuences in black holes and during the Big Bang, as well as interacting gravitons in two extreme systems: as a boson gas and as a Bose-Einstein condensate. The analysis will also explore the thermodynamic and statistical inﬂuences on the nature and mechanics of gravitons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2993] viXra:1901.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-19 06:07:52

### Double-Slit Experiment in a New Light

Authors: George Rajna

An international research team led by physicists from the University of Cologne has implemented a new variant of the basic double-slit experiment using resonant inelastic X-ray scattering at the European Synchrotron ESRF in Grenoble. [38] When molecules interact with the oscillating field of a laser, an instantaneous, time-dependent dipole is induced. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2992] viXra:1901.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-18 10:17:06

### Molecules Interact with Laser

Authors: George Rajna

When molecules interact with the oscillating field of a laser, an instantaneous, time-dependent dipole is induced. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2991] viXra:1901.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-17 06:04:53

### Quantum Materials for Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna

Some iron-based superconductors could benefit from a tuneup, according to two studies by Rice University physicists and collaborators. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2990] viXra:1901.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-16 23:10:59

### Space, Time and Quantum Mechanics: A Process Approach

Authors: Blazej Kot
Comments: 27 Pages. Previously published in Prespacetime Journal, December 2018, Volume 9, Issue 10, pp. 1018-1048

Since the time of Newton, physicists have imagined a background "stage" called space and time (later spacetime) permeating the entire universe. The contents of the world around us are then seen as objects embedded in this background at a defined location, and with a defined size and other properties (color, mass, spin etc.). We refer to this traditional view as the Objects in Space and Time (OST) model. It works very well for picturing classical physics; but once we move into the quantum domain it is no longer of much use. In the quantum realm objects no longer have defined locations at all times, their properties can become entangled and undefined until observed. In this paper, we seek to present an alternative to the OST model in which the "weirdness" of quantum phenomena goes away and is replaced by clarity, obviousness and inescapability. In this model the world is viewed as a network of fundamental processes by which indivisible units called tomas bring each other into and out of existence. We show that this model yields the same equations and predictions as the current OST-based formalism of quantum mechanics. While not contradicting the success of quantum theory, the toma model lets us get rid of the "weirdness" of the quantum world and understand reality at a deeper level than the OST model. We illustrate this by discussing two classic quantum experiments and their interpretations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2989] viXra:1901.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-16 07:58:39

### Entropy Production in Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna

"We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21] Search engine entropy is thus important not only for the efficiency of search engines and those using them to find relevant information as well as to the success of the companies and other bodies running such systems, but also to those who run websites hoping to be found and visited following a search. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2988] viXra:1901.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-16 10:01:30

Authors: George Rajna

With a new era of quantum technology beckoning, James McKenzie examines the opportunities it offers for business and industry. [23] With the newfound ability to recreate these structures in the lab, earth-based scientists finally have a way to study some of the possible scenarios that might have taken place in the early universe more closely. [22] "We studied two systems: a Bose-Einstein condensate with 100,000 atoms confined in a cavity and an optomechanical cavity that confines light between two mirrors," Gabriel Teixeira Landi, a professor at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP), told. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2987] viXra:1901.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-16 11:36:02

### Fixing Dirac Theory's Relativity and Correspondence Errors

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

Dirac tied his relativistic quantum free-particle Hamiltonian to requiring space-time symmetry of the Schroedinger equation in configuration representation; he ignored Lorentz covariance of the particle's energy-momentum. Consequently, a Dirac free particle's velocity is independent of its momentum, breaching dynamical fundamentals. Dirac also made solutions of his equation satisfy the Klein-Gordon equation by imposing ten requirements on its operators; three of those fix the speed of Dirac particles to the unphysical value of c times the square root of three. Moreover, Dirac's six anticommutation operator requirements prevent such observables as velocity components from commuting when Planck's constant goes to zero, a correspondence-principle breach which is responsible for Dirac zitterbewegung spontaneous free-particle acceleration that becomes infinite when Planck's constant vanishes. Nonrelativistic Pauli theory is contrariwise physically sensible, and its particle rest-frame action can be extended to become Lorentz invariant. The consequent Lagrangian yields the corresponding closed-form relativistic Hamiltonian when magnetic field is absent, otherwise a successive-approximation regime applies.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2986] viXra:1901.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-15 10:57:34

### Evidence of Superconductivity Near Room Temperature

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the George Washington University have taken a major step toward reaching one of the most sought-after goals in physics: room temperature superconductivity. [41] NUS physicists have developed a methodology to control the electromigration of oxygen atoms in the buried interfaces of complex oxide materials for constructing high mobility oxide heterostructures. [40] This electronic super fluidity is a quantum state of matter, so it behaves in a very exotic way that is different from classical physics, Comin says. [39] The Fermi-Hubbard model, which is believed to explain the basis for high-temperature superconductivity, is extremely simple to describe, and yet has so far proven impossible to solve, according to Zwierlein. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2985] viXra:1901.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-15 11:06:48

### Einstein – De Haas Effect

Authors: George Rajna

More than 100 years ago, Albert Einstein and Wander Johannes de Haas discovered that when they used a magnetic field to flip the magnetic state of an iron bar dangling from a thread, the bar began to rotate. [36] Researchers at the Max Born Institute have now generated directed currents at terahertz (THz) frequencies, much higher than the clock rates of current electronics. [35] Researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a simple yet accurate method for finding defects in the latest generation of silicon carbide transistors. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2984] viXra:1901.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-14 18:10:54

### Close-Coupling: Generating Function and Fokker-Planck for Coherent Multilevel Cascades (Quantum Walks)

Authors: Mark Syrkin

Close-coupling in quantum systems induces cascade transitions that are not captured by simple perturbation theories and hence more relevant and complex methods are needed. However, the analytic tractability of the latter is limited to just a few highly stylized models, e.g. equidistant infinite systems. Showing that properly adjusted key modeling parameters enable an extension of analytic solutions across more realistic cases (e.g. non-uniform level spacing and finite and asymmetric boundary conditions) arising in various experimental set-ups. Also demonstrating that the Fokker-Planck approach applied to probability amplitudes rather than to probabilities themselves – the latter being a traditional kinetics approach – produces coarse-grained amplitudes “smoothed” over the fine structure of an exact solution and driven by lower order terms in the generating function. Models and results presented here naturally overlap with algorithms of Quantum Walks related to quantum computing studies.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2983] viXra:1901.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-15 00:12:12

### Interatomic Light Rectifier

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the Max Born Institute have now generated directed currents at terahertz (THz) frequencies, much higher than the clock rates of current electronics. [35] Researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a simple yet accurate method for finding defects in the latest generation of silicon carbide transistors. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2982] viXra:1901.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-14 07:51:33

### New Ways to Twist and Shift Light

Authors: George Rajna

The results from the National Physical Laboratory's (NPL) latest research in photonics could open doors to new quantum technologies and telecoms systems. [36] Researchers of the Institute of Photonic Integration of the Eindhoven University of Technology (TU/e) have developed a 'hybrid technology' which shows the advantages of both light and magnetic hard drives. [35] Researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a simple yet accurate method for finding defects in the latest generation of silicon carbide transistors. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2981] viXra:1901.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-14 04:36:17

### Einstein's Theory of Gravity is Incorrect

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe

It's obvious that Einstein's theory of gravity is unrealistic, but physicists fool themselves that it's realistic.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2980] viXra:1901.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-13 08:14:09

### Intentionally Squashed Quantum Dots

Authors: George Rajna

Intentionally "squashing" colloidal quantum dots during chemical synthesis creates dots capable of stable, "blink-free" light emission that is fully comparable with the light produced by dots made with more complex processes. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2979] viXra:1901.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-12 16:16:53

### Dirac's Equation (And the Alleged Fourth Dimension)

Authors: Leonardo Rubino

This is a proof that the d’Alembert’s Wave Equation, that of Schrodinger, of Klein-Gordon and of Dirac are all related one another and show the oscillation of the universe. Moreover, the Klein-Gordon’s Equation gives us a three dimensional interpretation of either all relativistic fourth components or the rest energy.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2978] viXra:1901.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-12 06:25:53

### Dark Objects

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Dark objects are field excitations that are caused by point-shaped actuators. The carrier field reacts with shock fronts. The effect of these excitations is so tiny that in isolation these phenomena cannot be observed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2977] viXra:1901.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-12 09:17:53

### Quantum Computer Like a Brain

Authors: George Rajna

The human brain has amazing capabilities making it in many ways more powerful than the world's most advanced computers. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2976] viXra:1901.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-12 02:43:07

### Heterostructure Interface Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna

NUS physicists have developed a methodology to control the electromigration of oxygen atoms in the buried interfaces of complex oxide materials for constructing high mobility oxide heterostructures. [40] This electronic super fluidity is a quantum state of matter, so it behaves in a very exotic way that is different from classical physics, Comin says. [39] The Fermi-Hubbard model, which is believed to explain the basis for high-temperature superconductivity, is extremely simple to describe, and yet has so far proven impossible to solve, according to Zwierlein. [38]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2975] viXra:1901.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-11 09:53:29

### Feynman Diagrams of the QED Vacuum Polarization

Authors: Richard J. Mathar

The Feynman diagrams of Quantum Electrodynamics are assembled from vertices where three edges meet: an incoming fermion, an outgoing fermion and an interaction line. If all vertices are of degree 3, the graphs are 3-regular (cubic), defining the vacuum polarization diagrams. Cutting an edge -- a fermion line or an interaction line -- generates fairly cubic graphs where two vertices have degree 1. These emerge in the perturbation theory for the Green's function (self energy) and for the effective interaction (polarization). The manuscript plots these graphs for up to 8 internal vertices.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2974] viXra:1901.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-11 11:18:03

### Spintronics Miracle Material

Authors: George Rajna

In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2973] viXra:1901.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-11 11:56:27

### Saving Energy Inside Transistors

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have developed a simple yet accurate method for finding defects in the latest generation of silicon carbide transistors. [34] In 2017, University of Utah physicist Valy Vardeny called perovskite a "miracle material" for an emerging field of next-generation electronics, called spintronics, and he's standing by that assertion. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2972] viXra:1901.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-09 07:49:28

### 3-D Photonic Topological Insulator

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists have also devised photonic topological insulators, synthetic materials that impart light waves with distinct topological features, allowing light (rather than electric currents) to flow via topological surface states. [53] "This research highlights the cutting-edge research being done at WVU, and we are very excited to see their work appear in the very high-profile journal Nature Communications." [52] By constructing a hybrid device made from two different types of qubit—the fundamental computing element of quantum computers—they have created a device that can be quickly initialized and read out, and that simultaneously maintains high control fidelity. [51] Researchers have demonstrated that an amoeba—a single-celled organism consisting mostly of gelatinous protoplasm—has unique computing abilities that may one day offer a competitive alternative to the methods used by conventional computers. [50] For the first time, researchers have used tiny gears made of germanium to generate a vortex of twisted light that turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2971] viXra:1901.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-09 10:26:45

### Conversion of Photons from Particles to Linked Waves and Back: a Hypothesis

Authors: Bruce A. Lutgen

In microphysics, how do photons behave like both waves and particles? It is called wave-particle duality. The wave-particle duality inference would appear to be counter intuitive. Are waves really a cluster of particles, as is often stated, yet like the waves that radiate in a disturbed pool of water as is often demonstrated? The answer to wave-particle duality may lie through the following proposed solid torus or possibly ellipsoid ringform field explanation, which is derived in part using classical physics. A solid torus or ellipsoid ringform hypothesis is contrary to string theory and at least to some extent accepted particle physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2970] viXra:1901.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-09 14:48:01

### Toward Unification

Authors: Alexandre Neto

A universe based on a fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton is presented using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at the speed of light, interacting and being reissued constantly. The collective behavior of these integers is conjectured to form patterns similar to classical and quantum physics, including the mass spectrum. Although essentially non-local, it preserves the non-signaling principle. This flexible model predicts that gravity is not quantized. Being a causal theory, it can potentially explain the emergence of the classical world and macroscopic observers.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2969] viXra:1901.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-09 15:44:40

### Spin½ 'plane' & Simple

Authors: David Colasante

To fully characterize any spin requires identification of its primary spin axis and its plane of rotation. Classical presumptions obscure both for “intrinsic” spin. Here, Euclidean interval-time coordinates literally 'lift the veil' of space to reveal it. Probability amplitude is also physically realized.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2968] viXra:1901.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-08 07:43:35

### Quantum Optic Networks Reality

Authors: George Rajna

The ability to precisely control the interactions of light and matter at the nanoscale could help such a network transmit larger amounts of data more quickly and securely than an electrical network. [59] Researchers in Italy have demonstrated the feasibility of quantum communications between high-orbiting global navigation satellites and a ground station, with an exchange at the single photon level over a distance of 20,000km. [58] Living cells, regardless of the type, can be kept around for a long time and because they move constantly, can be photographed repeatedly to create new encryption keys. [57] A new electronic device can developed at the University of Michigan can directly model the behaviors of a synapse, which is a connection between two neurons. [56] "The atom-scale devices we are developing create a new basis for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/computer/" computer electronics that will be able to run at least 100 times faster or operate at the same speed as today but using 100 times less energy," continued Wolkow. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2967] viXra:1901.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-08 16:20:29

### The Emperor Has no Clothes: a Classical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

This voluminous paper organizes all of my previous viXra papers in one volume – which might become a book if my intended co-author (Ines Urdaneta) will manage to structure, rationalize and clean up.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2966] viXra:1901.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-07 09:37:03

### Rovibrational Quantum State

Authors: George Rajna

A central objective of chemical and molecular physics is to understand molecules as quantum mechanical systems. [30] After developing a method to control exciton flows at room temperature, EPFL scientists have discovered new properties of these quasiparticles that can lead to more energy-efficient electronic devices. [29] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2965] viXra:1901.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-06 07:04:33

### Newer Holograhic Acoustic Tweezers (Hat)

Authors: George A Ranja

This newer holographic acoustic tweezers (HAT) system achieves simultaneous suspension of 2,500 objects in mid-air at the Max Planck Institute, making a new world record.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2964] viXra:1901.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-05 10:51:51

### Can a Human Brain be a Quantum Computer?

Authors: Oleg Kupervasser, Roman Yavich
Comments: 8 Pages. presented at World Quantum Physics Congress 10-13 Dec 2018 (WQPC 2018) Stockholm, Sweden

This paper is based on the book (O. Kupervasser, Application of New Cybernetics in Physics, Elsevier, 2017). Human brain has very powerful intellect. Indeed, it seems that its intellectual possibilities are much more than possibilities of usual computers using genetic algorithm and random search (A.S. Potapov, Artificial Intellect and Universal Intelligence, Polytechnics, Saint Petersburg, 2012 (in Russian).). Our brain has also such especial property as consciousness. Some researchers suppose that these properties are a result of special structures of brain. Really, may be our brain is a quantum computer (R. Penrose, The Emperor’s New Mind, Oxford University Press, New York, 1989, R. Penrose, Shadows of the Mind, Oxford University Press, New York, 1994)? We know that a quantum computer is highly parallel device with principally insuperable protection from external observation. A quantum computer can resolve some tasks that are inaccessible for usual computers. However, it can be demonstrated that continuous unstable classical computer has the same properties as a quantum computer (O. Kupervasser, Application of New Cybernetics in Physics, Elsevier, 2017). Moreover, it seems that the main properties of a brain (powerful intellect and consciousness) can be explained by invisible correlation with surround world. Similarly, clock’s gear wheel very accurately operates in spite of absence of any intellect only because the gear wheel is a part of the highly correlated clock. We usually suppose that our world is some random set of low correlated events. However, the world, may be, is some highly correlated device (L. Susskind, J. Lindesay, An Introduction to Black Holes, Information and the String Theory Revolution: The Holographic Universe, World Scientific Publishing Company, 2004). And human beings are its “gear wheels”. It seems that Big Bang theory suppose such point of view. This pure philosophical reasonings can lead to some practical conclusions. We suppose to use instead of usual random search for computers some random number generators which are in complex correlations with surround world. It can give to computers some prototype of the such especial “human intuition”, described above.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2963] viXra:1901.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-06 02:38:41

### A Contagious Error Voids Bell (1964), Etc.

Authors: Gordon Watson

Elementary instance-tracking identifies a contagious error in Bell (1964). To wit, against his own advice: in failing to match instances, Bell voids his own conclusions. The contagion extends to CHSH (1969), Griffiths (1995), Peres (1995), Aspect (2004), etc.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2962] viXra:1901.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-04 07:47:18

### Fast, Tiny Controllable Magnetic Bits

Authors: George Rajna

In separate papers published this month in the journals Nature Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials, researchers in the group of MIT Professor Geoffrey S.D. Beach and colleagues in California, Germany, Switzerland, and Korea, showed that they can generate stable and fast moving skyrmions in specially formulated layered materials at room temperature, setting world records for size and speed. [53] Researchers from MIT and elsewhere have recorded, for the first time, the "temporal coherence" of a graphene qubit-meaning how long it can maintain a special state that allows it to represent two logical states simultaneously. [52] By constructing a hybrid device made from two different types of qubit-the fundamental computing element of quantum computers-they have created a device that can be quickly initialized and read out, and that simultaneously maintains high control fidelity. [51] Researchers have demonstrated that an amoeba-a single-celled organism consisting mostly of gelatinous protoplasm-has unique computing abilities that may one day offer a competitive alternative to the methods used by conventional computers. [50] For the first time, researchers have used tiny gears made of germanium to generate a vortex of twisted light that turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2961] viXra:1901.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-04 08:10:20

### Quantum Spin Liquid Pathway

Authors: George Rajna

With potential roles in quantum computation, high-temperature superconductivity and a range of exotic anyonic states, why quantum spin liquids (QSLs) attract interest is no great mystery. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene-an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike-move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2960] viXra:1901.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-04 09:18:53

### Excitons for Electronics

Authors: George Rajna

After developing a method to control exciton flows at room temperature, EPFL scientists have discovered new properties of these quasiparticles that can lead to more energy-efficient electronic devices. [29] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices-small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2959] viXra:1901.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-04 10:23:00

### Hidden Spin for High-Temperature Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna

Now, researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have unveiled a clue into the cuprates' unusual properties—and the answer lies within an unexpected source: the electron spin. [40] This electronic super fluidity is a quantum state of matter, so it behaves in a very exotic way that is different from classical physics, Comin says. [39] The Fermi-Hubbard model, which is believed to explain the basis for high-temperature superconductivity, is extremely simple to describe, and yet has so far proven impossible to solve, according to Zwierlein. [38] Researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have carried out high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering and have found that high uniaxial pressure induces a long-range charge order competing with superconductivity. [37] Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors-materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss-have entered a new regime. [36] Now, in independent studies reported in Science and Nature, scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2958] viXra:1901.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-05 00:45:19

### Theory of Natural Ontology: 2. Horizon Generators and Superphase Evolutions

Authors: Wei Xu

Applying neutrally to everything of being in physical states, this manuscript gives birth to a newborn scientific theory of Natural Ontology, which is scoped at Superphase Dynamics and developed for horizon infrastructure of physical world with principles of evolutional events or classically known as dark energy. As the groundbreaking, it reveals exceptional intrinsics of the universe, prevailing over and unifying with modern physics of Gauge Theory, Quantum physics of Electrodynamics and Chromodynamics, Spontaneous Field Breaking, Standard Model, cosmology, and beyond, orchestrating all types of life events essential to the operations and processes of creation, annihilations, reproduction and communication for physical formations and virtual evolutions.

Category: Quantum Physics

[2957] viXra:1901.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-02 07:42:22

### Quantum Computer for Quantum Chemistry

Authors: George Rajna

Among many important and fundamental issues in science, solving the Schroedinger equation (SE) of atoms and molecules is one of the ultimate goals in chemistry, physics and their related fields. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing-quantum chemistry-would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2956] viXra:1901.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-02 08:08:27

### Photonic Integrated Circuits

Authors: George Rajna

The transition from electronic integrated circuits to faster, more energy-efficient and interference-free optical circuits is one of the most important goals in the development of photon technologies. [26] With novel optoelectronic chips and a new partnership with a top silicon-chip manufacturer, MIT spinout Ayar Labs aims to increase speed and reduce energy consumption in computing, starting with data centers. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2955] viXra:1901.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-02 10:09:58

### Ultrathin Digital Camera

Authors: George Rajna

The ultrathin digital camera offers a wide field of view and high resolution in a slimmer body compared to existing imaging systems. [50] The special feature of the Kiel system is its extremely high temporal resolution of 13 femtoseconds. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2954] viXra:1901.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-02 00:54:59

### Acoustic Plank Units Derived to Friedmann Units Incorporating Hubble Expansion & Photon Extinction Radius

Authors: David E. Fuller, Dahl Winters, Ruud Loeffen

ACOUSTIC Plank Units derived to Friedmann Units incorporating Hubble Expansion & Photon Extinction Radius of 13.888 billion light years Minkowski Spatial geometry & the Lorentz Transformation are Inadequate as they produce a Photon that travels Eternally, Ignoring Hubble Red Shift.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2953] viXra:1901.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-01 01:53:17

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers from MIT and elsewhere have recorded, for the first time, the "temporal coherence" of a graphene qubit-meaning how long it can maintain a special state that allows it to represent two logical states simultaneously. [52] By constructing a hybrid device made from two different types of qubit-the fundamental computing element of quantum computers-they have created a device that can be quickly initialized and read out, and that simultaneously maintains high control fidelity. [51] Researchers have demonstrated that an amoeba-a single-celled organism consisting mostly of gelatinous protoplasm-has unique computing abilities that may one day offer a competitive alternative to the methods used by conventional computers. [50] For the first time, researchers have used tiny gears made of germanium to generate a vortex of twisted light that turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2952] viXra:1812.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 10:08:37

### Topological LC Circuits Transporting EM Waves

Authors: George Rajna

NIMS has succeeded in fabricating topological LC circuits arranged in a honeycomb pattern where electromagnetic (EM) waves can propagate without backscattering, even when pathways turn sharply. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2951] viXra:1812.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 14:03:47

### Quantum-Mechanical Analysis of the Wave–Particle Duality from the Position of PQS.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

The wave-particle duality of elementary particles is analyzed using the principle of quantum superposition (PQS). It is shown that the elementary particle can no longer be regarded as a corpuscle (or as a material point), but also it cannot be regarded as a wave. A real elementary particle, for example, an electron, is a phenomenon of a higher level in which both the corpuscle and the wave are only particular manifestations of the complex internal structure of the particle. Using the oscillation hypothesis of Louis de Broglie (together with the principle of PQS), an elementary particle can be represented as an oscillator, in which the kinetic and potential energy completely transform into each other with a certain frequency.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2950] viXra:1812.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 16:05:22

### A Mechanism for Propulsion Without the Reactive Ejection of Matter or Energy

Authors: Remi Cornwall

This paper updates earlier thoughts by the author on a putative propulsion system. The concept was based around static electromagnetic momentum, as expounded in the “Feynman Disk” and experimentally verified by Graham and Lahoz. That said, naïve static electromagnetic momentum schemes to achieve linear translation are defeated by “hidden momentum” mechanisms, so too are simple arrangements just cycling the fields; we shall survey the flaws in their arguments. It may however be possible to achieve linear translation by means of arrangements of torques with a novel mechanism to break the symmetry of forces (or torques) on the second half of the cycle as the field is switched off. At the time of earlier presentation no mechanism could be found to explain the momentum balance for the process but it was believed that momentum was being given to the zero-point of the field. We show that it is possible to dump angular momentum and thence linear momentum to the ground state by standard quantum analysis of the EM field. None of this violates the conservation of momenergy.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2949] viXra:1812.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-31 03:21:23

### A Classical Interpretation of Quantum Electrodynamics (Qed)

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

This paper summarizes our papers over the past years which – taken together – effectively amount to a classical interpretation of QED. Our very first paper started exploring a basic intuition: if QED is the theory of electrons and photons, and their interactions, then why is there no good model of what electrons and photons actually are? We have tried to address this perceived gap in the theory – further building on the Zitterbewegung model of an electron – ever since. We thought we should write one final paper to provide some history – acknowledgements, basically – and summarize the key principles of the interpretation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2948] viXra:1812.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 00:04:34

### Grasp the New Image of the Spin Angular Momentum

Authors: Satoshi Hanamura

This paper presents a new image of the angular momentum of electrons that could not have clear images until now. As the movement of electrons is similar to a Slinky, we would proceed with a discussion following the movement of the Slinky. Then, the influence of the spin angular momentum due to the magnetic field gradient would be in the slinky motion which travels down the stairway inclined toward the advancing direction. Using the contents of the paper of the previous work, we extend the model to a particle which makes a single virtual photon oscillate at a linear motion toward one direction moving. All the mass energy of electrons is thermal potential energy, and particles having this energy are spinor particles. This particle emits all the energy by radiation and the total released energy is absorbed by the paired spinor particles. This transfer of energy radiation is done by a virtual photon enveloping spinor particles. Assuming that one electron particle composite composed of these three particles, 1) Emitter, 2) Absorber and 3) Transmitter, the electron could be discretely moved like Slinky.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2947] viXra:1812.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 07:24:14

### Hybrid Qubits Computing

Authors: George Rajna

By constructing a hybrid device made from two different types of qubit-the fundamental computing element of quantum computers-they have created a device that can be quickly initialized and read out, and that simultaneously maintains high control fidelity. [51] Researchers have demonstrated that an amoeba-a single-celled organism consisting mostly of gelatinous protoplasm-has unique computing abilities that may one day offer a competitive alternative to the methods used by conventional computers. [50] For the first time, researchers have used tiny gears made of germanium to generate a vortex of twisted light that turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2946] viXra:1812.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 08:57:59

### Spintronics Rashba Effect

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2945] viXra:1812.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 09:23:00

### Light-Induced Motion

Authors: George Rajna

A tightly focused, circularly polarized spatially phase-modulated beam of light formed an optical ring trap. [33] Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology proposed new quasi-1-D materials for potential spintronic applications, an upcoming technology that exploits the spin of electrons. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2944] viXra:1812.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-29 00:39:16

### A Classical Explanation for the One-Photon Mach-Zehnder Experiment

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

In previous papers, we tried to show that the lack of an agreed-upon model of the electron may have contributed to an extraordinary convoluted explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment of an electron. We also suggested a classical electron model (the Zitterbewegung or the Dirac-Kerr-Newman model) may explain what is going on. The next logical step, of course, was to re-explore the classical idea of a photon to check if it can do what John Stewart Bell said cannot be done, and that is to explain interference at the level of a single photon. We think we have a classical explanation in this paper. If Mr. Bell was right, we must be wrong – we should be – but we don’t see why.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2943] viXra:1812.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 08:52:35

### Electron Behavior During Chemical Reactions

Authors: George Rajna

In a recent publication in Science, researchers at the University of Paderborn and the Fritz Haber Institute Berlin demonstrated their ability to observe electrons' movements during a chemical reaction. [50] The special feature of the Kiel system is its extremely high temporal resolution of 13 femtoseconds. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2942] viXra:1812.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-27 23:44:20

### Please: What’s Wrong with This Refutation of Bell’s Famous Inequality?

Authors: Gordon Watson

Elementary algebra refutes Bell’s famous inequality conclusively.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2941] viXra:1812.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-26 04:22:35

### Testing QED: The Other Game in Town

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages includes title page

The measurement of the anomalous magnetic moment and its theoretical explanation in terms of perturbative quantum electrodynamics (QED) are always presented as the ‘high-precision test’ in (modern) quantum electrodynamics. This paper argues an explanation in terms of the classical Zitterbewegung or – preferably – the Dirac-Kerr-Newman electron model might be possible. Indeed, the author of the latter model (Burinskii, 2016) has updated it to incorporate the most recent theoretical developments – which include compatibility with the supersymmetric Higgs field theory and string theory based on the Landau-Ginzburg (LG) field model. However, as far as we can see, his model does reduce to the classical Zitterbewegung model in the classical limit (i.e. when assuming only general relativity and classical electromagnetism). As Dirac noted, a direct verification of these models is not possible because of the very high frequency of the oscillatory motion (the zbw charge moves at the speed of light) and the very small amplitude (the Compton radius). However, logic tells us that the form factor that comes out of the Dirac-Kerr-Newman model can easily be used in models that do not involve micro-motion at the speed of light. In other words, we should be able to indirectly verify whether these models make sense or not by inserting the form factor in models that involve relativistically slow motion of an electron around a nucleus (atomic orbitals) or – in this particular case – the motion of an electron in a Penning trap. Even if the results would only remotely explain the anomaly, we would still have achieved two very significant scientific breakthroughs. First, it would show that these seemingly irrelevant micro-models can be validated externally. More importantly, it would prove that an alternative (classical) explanation of the anomalous magnetic moment would be possible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2940] viXra:1812.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-24 14:54:09

### A Major Solution to Newton's Search May Mark the Future of Space Travel

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 64 Pages. Some claims in this paper have not been proven or fully studied, though thorough extensive testing has proven most true. Take some claims with a grain of salt

3x2(9yz)4a^inf(A)*(R)<=>RSF That is the solution to an infamous thought experiment posited by scientist Dr. Ivan Axes as a rebuke to einstein's theories, as provided "theoretical proof" in 1955 that einstein was incorrect in his equations of energy and time, and that newton's assessment of absolute time and seperate space were both still correct. The thought experiment explained how perception could not define one's temporal state or arrow based on well-proven laws of physics. The thought experiment is not really taken seriously among scientists today, mainly because einstein's equations are so well-proven and supported by actual physical tests the thought experiment was established as irrelevant long ago. However, upon further investigation, I believe this thought experiment has more meat to it than previously thought, and I developed an equation proposing how an n-dimensional field of hypermass in which space-time function differently would create a new form of kinetic energy, which would not only explain away dark energy, but could, with the correct technology, take us across the observable universe and far beyond, a sci-fi like acheivement once restricted to the realm of dreams and science-fiction writing. This papers discusses more on my fissured gen-mortaic science work, this theory, and it's possible applications in just decades, making a star wars-like civilization once millenia away a reality for our grandchildren, in a 64 pages long postulation of this formula and an accompanying thought experiment for the holidays.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2939] viXra:1812.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-25 02:08:31

### Classical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

Here we present the physical side of the quantum mechanics (QM) that emerges from the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). We showed that the quantum superposition is misinterpreted. The key to understand QM is the difference between quantum coherence and quantum entanglement. We as well explained what conditions and structures lead to relativistic invariants such as electric charge and spin, and how this affects the superposition.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2938] viXra:1812.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 06:09:05

### Cameras Captures Motions of Electrons

Authors: George Rajna

The special feature of the Kiel system is its extremely high temporal resolution of 13 femtoseconds. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2937] viXra:1812.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 11:00:22

### Dance Between Light and Sound

Authors: George Rajna

Light and high-frequency acoustic sound waves in a tiny glass structure can strongly couple to one another and perform a dance in step. [21] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2936] viXra:1812.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 11:17:56

### Quantum Tricks Unveil the Secret

Authors: George Rajna

TU Wien (Vienna) and several research groups from China have now developed new ideas and implemented them in an experiment. [22] Light and high-frequency acoustic sound waves in a tiny glass structure can strongly couple to one another and perform a dance in step. [21] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2935] viXra:1812.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 11:55:33

### Eccentric Quantum Crystals

Authors: George Rajna

There's an oddball in most families, but Rice University physicist Emilia Morosan has discovered an entire clan of eccentric compounds that could help explain the mysterious electronic and magnetic workings of other quantum materials engineers are eying for next-generation computers and electronics. [23] TU Wien (Vienna) and several research groups from China have now developed new ideas and implemented them in an experiment. [22] Light and high-frequency acoustic sound waves in a tiny glass structure can strongly couple to one another and perform a dance in step. [21] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2934] viXra:1812.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 13:16:24

### Coolest Experiment in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna

Nothing in nature is known to hit the temperatures achieved in laboratories like CAL, which means the orbiting facility is regularly the coldest known spot in the universe. [24] There's an oddball in most families, but Rice University physicist Emilia Morosan has discovered an entire clan of eccentric compounds that could help explain the mysterious electronic and magnetic workings of other quantum materials engineers are eying for next-generation computers and electronics. [23] TU Wien (Vienna) and several research groups from China have now developed new ideas and implemented them in an experiment. [22] Light and high-frequency acoustic sound waves in a tiny glass structure can strongly couple to one another and perform a dance in step. [21] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2933] viXra:1812.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 13:33:46

### Glimpse of Flat Physics

Authors: George Rajna

One reason is that flat landscapes can unlock new movement patterns in the quantum world of atoms and electrons. [25] Nothing in nature is known to hit the temperatures achieved in laboratories like CAL, which means the orbiting facility is regularly the coldest known spot in the universe. [24] There's an oddball in most families, but Rice University physicist Emilia Morosan has discovered an entire clan of eccentric compounds that could help explain the mysterious electronic and magnetic workings of other quantum materials engineers are eying for next-generation computers and electronics. [23] TU Wien (Vienna) and several research groups from China have now developed new ideas and implemented them in an experiment. [22] Light and high-frequency acoustic sound waves in a tiny glass structure can strongly couple to one another and perform a dance in step. [21] Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2932] viXra:1812.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 15:32:02

### Green is the Midst of the Whole Electromagnetic Spectrum

If green is the midst of the electromagnetic spectrum then the other two colors blue and red are the beginning and end as in the past and future and so green is the present time
Category: Quantum Physics

[2931] viXra:1812.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 05:09:56

### Programmable Photonic Molecule

Authors: George Rajna

Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46] A team of researchers based at The University of Manchester have found a low cost method for producing graphene printed electronics, which significantly speeds up and reduces the cost of conductive graphene inks. [45] Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz "could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates," Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2930] viXra:1812.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 05:32:23

### High-Capacity Data Transmission

Authors: George Rajna

For the first time, researchers have used tiny gears made of germanium to generate a vortex of twisted light that turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew. [49] Physical systems with discrete energy levels are ubiquitous in nature and form fundamental building blocks of quantum technology. [48] In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2929] viXra:1812.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 05:42:31

### New Equation of Motion of an Electron: the Covariance of Self-action

Authors: Xiaowen Tong

It is well known that our knowledge about the radiation reaction of an electron in classical electrodynamics is unambiguous, but the self-action is not. The latter corresponds to an electromagnetic mass which is not relativistically covariant. In this paper we first derive a new formula for energy density of electrostatic fields. By establishing a delay coordinate system, a classical equation of motion of an electron is then obtained based on the conservation of energy and momentum. Finally we calculate the self-energy of an electron in quantum electrodynamics and find that it merely leads to an additional mass of the electron. Thus the covariance of the self-action is proved without altering classical electrodynamics but with a direct cut-off imposed on the integral of the self-energy. The detail that the self-action becomes covariant in quantum electrodynamics is unknown. However, the interaction energy of an electron interacting with vacuum fluctuations can be easily calculated by assuming that every mode of the radiation fields is occupied by one real photon. Making use of all the results we obtain a semi-classical and covariant equation of motion of an electron.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2928] viXra:1812.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 09:35:00

### Quantum Maxwell's Demon Entropy

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, ETH Zurich, and Argonne National Laboratory, U.S, have described an extended quantum Maxwell's demon, a device locally violating the second law of thermodynamics in a system located one to five meters away from the demon. [20] "We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating-something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2927] viXra:1812.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 10:24:52

### Electromagnetic Wave Breakthrough

Authors: George Rajna

In a similar vein, scientists are working to create twisting helical electromagnetic waves whose curvature allows more accurate imaging of the magnetic properties of different materials at the atomic level and could possibly lead to the development of future devices. [47] In a recent study, materials scientists Guojin Liang and his coworkers at the Department of Materials Science and Engineering, City University of Hong Kong, have developed a self-healing, electroluminescent (EL) device that can repair or heal itself after damage. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2926] viXra:1812.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 08:59:22

### Quantum Superposition Measures

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2925] viXra:1812.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 09:12:08

### Connect Quantum and Classical Physics

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists from Skoltech have invented a new method for calculating the dynamics of large quantum systems. Underpinned by a combination of quantum and classical modeling, the method has been successfully applied to nuclear magnetic resonance in solids. [55] Physicists have proposed an entirely new way to test the quantum superposition principle-the idea that a quantum object can exist in multiple states at the same time. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2924] viXra:1812.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 15:20:04

### Hubble Constant, CMBR, Fine Structure Constant & Friedmann Density Parameters

Authors: David E. Fuller, Ruud Loeffen

Hubble Constant, CMBR, Fine Structure Constant & Friedmann Density Parameters ((((7.04370151e+4 * (m / s)) / (1 Mpc)) / (160.4589 GHz)) / G) * (6.5248935 * (kg^(-1)) * (m / s)) * (c^2) * (8 s) = 1 7.04370151e+4 / (6.5248935 / (2pi)) = 67827.7459024 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hubble%27s_law#Observed_values_of_the_Hubble_constant (((7.04370151e+4 * (m / s)) / (1 Mpc)) / (160.4589 GHz)) * (hbar / planck length) * (4 (s / (m^4))) = 3.71295774e-28 kg / m^3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friedmann_equations#Density_parameter
Category: Quantum Physics

[2923] viXra:1812.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 16:05:25

### The Electromagnetic Wave is in Past Presence and Future

The electromagnetic wave lives in the past presence and future for example when we look at an electromagnetic wave we find that it has peaks and troughs the peaks represents the future as in the electromagnetic wave the height of peaks is how much does the electromagnetic wave wants to travel to the future and then there is the length of troughs where the electromagnetic wave lives in the past now when an electromagnetic wave has small heights of peaks and troughs that means they are living in the present time more than having the need to live in the past or the future
Category: Quantum Physics

[2922] viXra:1812.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 04:00:59

### Global Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers in Italy have demonstrated the feasibility of quantum communications between high-orbiting global navigation satellites and a ground station, with an exchange at the single photon level over a distance of 20,000km. [58] Living cells, regardless of the type, can be kept around for a long time and because they move constantly, can be photographed repeatedly to create new encryption keys. [57] A new electronic device can developed at the University of Michigan can directly model the behaviors of a synapse, which is a connection between two neurons. [56] "The atom-scale devices we are developing create a new basis for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/computer/" computer electronics that will be able to run at least 100 times faster or operate at the same speed as today but using 100 times less energy," continued Wolkow. [55] Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2921] viXra:1812.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 04:51:07

### (Esr Version 1.0 6 Pages 20.12.2018) an Extended Special Relativity (Esr) Containing a Set of Universal Equivalence Principles and Predicting a Quantized Spacetime

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi

This paper proposes an extended Special relativity (eSR) containing a set of universal equivalence principles (UEPs), offering an alternative interpretation of the universal physical constants and predicting a "digital"/quantized spacetime, together with the possible existence of superluminal gravitons and a set of maximum speeds (in perfect vacuum) for each type of elementary particle. Keywords: extended Special relativity (eSR), universal equivalence principles (UEPs); universal physical constants; “digital”/quantized spacetime; superluminal gravitons; set of maximum speeds (in perfect vacuum)
Category: Quantum Physics

[2920] viXra:1812.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 05:07:02

### (Ezeh Article-Like Preprint Version 1.0 8 Pages 12.12.2018) an Extended Zero-Energy Hypothesis Predicting the Existence of Negative-Energy Gravitons and Possibly Explaining the Accelerated Expansion of Our Universe

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi

This paper proposes an extended (e) zero-energy hypothesis (eZEH) starting from the “classical” speculative zero-energy universe hypothesis (ZEUH) (first proposed by physicist Pascual Jordan), which mainly states that the total amount of energy in our universe is exactly zero: its amount of positive energy (in the form of matter and radiation) is exactly canceled out by its negative energy (in the form of gravity). eZEH “pushes” ZEUH “to its quantum limits” and generates some new predictions: (1) the existence of multiple types of negative-energy gravitons; (2) a strong quantum gravitational field acting at very small subatomic length scales (which is measured by a quantum strong gravitational constant and which is predicted to make Hawking radiation very improbable to form at the first place); (3) a (macrocosmic) black hole Casimir effect which may explain the accelerated expansion of our universe etc. Keywords: the zero-energy universe hypothesis (ZEUH); an extended zero-energy hypothesis (eZEH); quantum vacuum; negative-energy graviton; quantum strong gravitational constant; Hawking radiation; black hole Casimir effect; accelerated expansion of our universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2919] viXra:1812.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 17:26:08

### Comment on Aspect's Experiment: Classical Interpretation

Authors: Kazufumi Sakai
Comments: 6 Pages. Journal for Foundations and Applications of Physics, vol. 6, No. 1 (2019)

Quantum mechanics was the foundation for physics in the 20th century and its mysterious world has presented various unique effects beyond human understanding. In particular, Aspect’s experiment and Bell’s inequality suggest a non-local interaction causing wave packet reduction, and are regarded as evidence for quantum mechanics’ validity. This short paper reconsiders the electric field of entangled light and Aspect’s experiment in terms of classical theory and shows that the experimental results can be explained equally as well.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2918] viXra:1812.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 09:47:06

### On-Demand Photons from Quantum Dots

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers from Austria, Italy and Sweden has successfully demonstrated teleportation using on-demand photons from quantum dots. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins-just a hair above absolute zero-and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2917] viXra:1812.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 23:50:20

### Fluid State of the Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Vu B Ho

In this work we discuss the nature of the electromagnetic field and show, by using Maxwell field equations, that its steady state is a fluid state. Similar to the fluid state of Dirac quantum particles that we discussed in our previous work, the quantum particles of an electromagnetic field, i.e. photons, can be formulated in terms of velocity potentials and stream functions in three dimensions in which the electric field and magnetic field are identified with the velocity fields of the fluid flows.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2916] viXra:1812.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 04:34:58

### Material Harness Power of Light

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists have long known that synthetic materials-called metamaterials-can manipulate electromagnetic waves such as visible light to make them behave in ways that cannot be found in nature. [31] A team of researchers from Austria, Italy and Sweden has successfully demonstrated teleportation using on-demand photons from quantum dots. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems-donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2915] viXra:1812.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 11:30:25

### Laser-Pointing Data Transmit

Authors: George Rajna

A new laser-pointing platform developed at MIT may help launch miniature satellites into the high-rate data game. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2914] viXra:1812.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 03:33:50

### The Meaning of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

Following a series of papers on geometric interpretations of the wavefunction, this paper offers an overview of all of them. If anything, it shows that classical physics goes a long way in explaining so-called quantum-mechanical phenomena. It is suggested that the fine-structure constant can be interpreted as a scaling constant in a layered model of electron motion. Instead of one single wave equation explaining it all, we offer a theory of superposed motions based on the fine-structure constant, which we interpret as a scaling constant. The layers are the following: 1. To explain the electron’s rest mass, we use the Zitterbewegung model. Here, we think of the electron as a pointlike charge (no internal structure or motion) with zero rest mass, and (1) its two-dimensional oscillation, (2) the E/m = c2 = a2ω2 elasticity of spacetime and (3) Planck’s quantum of action (h) explain the rest mass: it is just the equivalent mass of the energy in the oscillation. 2. We then have the Bohr model, which shows orbitals pack the same amount of physical action (h). It just packs that amount in a much larger loop (the 1st Bohr orbital) which – of course – then also packs a different amount of energy. As it turns out, the equivalent energy (E = h·f) is equal to α2mc2. Hence, the fine-structure constant effectively pops up as scaling constant here. 3. Finally, we detail the coupling between the motion in the Larmor precession and the orbital motion. there is a feedback loop there because the Larmor precession causes the magnetic moment (and angular momentum) of the orbital electron to change. Hence, the Larmor frequency must change too. It is, therefore, not a coincidence that the fine-structure constant pops up again to explain the so-called anomaly – which is not an anomaly at all: it is just the third layer in the motion.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2913] viXra:1812.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 15:21:51

### Natuurkundig Scheppingsverhaal

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. Dit behoort to het Hilbert Boek Model Project

De fundamentele beschouwing van de fysieke werkelijkheid leidt al gauw tot een scheppingsverhaal, waarin het hele verloop van de schepping van wat er in het heelal voorkomt wordt verteld.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2912] viXra:1812.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 15:23:42

### Physical Creation Story

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The fundamental consideration of physical reality quickly leads to a story of creation, in which the whole course of creation of what occurs in the universe is told.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2911] viXra:1812.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 07:34:37

### Quantum Networking Future

Authors: George Rajna

A scientist involved in expanding quantum communication to a network of users, is continuing his work at the University of Bristol. [33] In recent years, nanofabricated mechanical oscillators have emerged as a promising platform for quantum information applications. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2910] viXra:1812.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 01:59:30

### What is Anomalous about the Anomalous Magnetic Moment?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

This paper explores the geometry of the experiments measuring the anomalous magnetic moment. It is argued that there is nothing anomalous about it. The Larmor precession invalidates the usual substitution that is made for the gyromagnetic ratio of the precessional motion. In fact, if the substitution is made, one gets a value of 1/2 instead of zero. We should, therefore, not wonder why the anomalous magnetic moment is not equal to zero, but why it is so nearly zero.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2909] viXra:1812.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 02:46:32

### God Does not Play Dice.

Comments: 2 Pages. For further research.

Age old debate on whether God play dice or not can be resolved by re structuring Quantum Physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2908] viXra:1812.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 03:35:24

### Stretched Quantum Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna

By studying ultracold atoms trapped in artificial crystals of light, Guillaume Salomon, a postdoc at the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics and a team of scientists have been able to directly observe a fundamental effect of one-dimensional quantum systems. [54] Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy-a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits-utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits-adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2907] viXra:1812.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 06:10:22

### Copper Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna

Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2906] viXra:1812.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 08:40:36

### Quantum Computing a Decade Away

Authors: George Rajna

Significant technical and financial issues remain towards building a large, fault-tolerant quantum computer and one is unlikely to be built within the coming decade. [54] Chemists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany) have now synthesised a molecule that can perform the function of a computing unit in a quantum computer. [53] The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2905] viXra:1812.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 09:48:46

Authors: George Rajna

A longstanding problem in optics holds that an improved resolution in imaging is offset by a loss in the depth of focus. Now, scientists are joining computation with X-ray imaging as they develop a new and exciting technique to bypass this limitation. [25] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have successfully generated controlled electron pulses in the attosecond range. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20] For years, the people developing artificial intelligence drew inspiration from what was known about the human brain, and it has enjoyed a lot of success as a result. Now, AI is starting to return the favor. [19] Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18] Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2904] viXra:1812.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 03:04:57

### New Device Questions Quantum Physics

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers have developed a new device that can measure and control a nanoparticle trapped in a laser beam with unprecedented sensitivity. [53] Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy—a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2903] viXra:1812.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-12 01:39:33

### A Geometric Interpretation of Schrödinger’s Wave Equation

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages excludes title page and references

Following a series of papers on a geometric interpretation of the wavefunction, this paper offers a geometric interpretation of the wave equation itself. It interprets Schrödinger’s equation as a differential equation for elliptical orbitals. As such, it complements a revised Rutherford-Bohr model which is also based on the assumption that – if electron orbitals would be actual orbitals – they would be elliptical rather than circular. Keywords: Bohr model, Schrödinger’s equation, rest matter oscillation, electron orbitals, wavefunction interpretations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2902] viXra:1812.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 09:04:59

### First Optical Microchip

Authors: George Rajna

The research team developed the first optical microchip to generate, manipulate and detect a particular state of light called squeezed vacuum, which is essential for quantum computation. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2901] viXra:1812.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 10:44:07

### Relation Between Mass & Time and Electromagnetic Wave & Distance

If distance and time are related somehow then they encompass the relation between electromagnetic waves and masses that being the mass is related to time and electromagnetic waves are related to distance
Category: Quantum Physics

[2900] viXra:1812.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-10 11:08:39

### Gravity Effect on Electromagnetic Waves

The electromagnetic waves get less oscillations and more wavelength when they undergo the effect of gravitation thus losing energy
Category: Quantum Physics

[2899] viXra:1812.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 05:50:45

### 光速极限的秘密

Authors: Liu Ran

Category: Quantum Physics

[2898] viXra:1812.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 07:29:14

### Atoms Stand for High-Temperature Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna

The Fermi-Hubbard model, which is believed to explain the basis for high-temperature superconductivity, is extremely simple to describe, and yet has so far proven impossible to solve, according to Zwierlein. [38] Researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have carried out high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering and have found that high uniaxial pressure induces a long-range charge order competing with superconductivity. [37] Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss—have entered a new regime. [36] Now, in independent studies reported in Science and Nature, scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2897] viXra:1812.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 08:24:17

### Spin-Based Memory Device

Authors: George Rajna

A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2896] viXra:1812.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 08:51:21

### Nonlinearity for Wireless Communication

Authors: George Rajna

The nonlinear characteristics of metamaterials have displayed emerging potentials for frequency conversions owing to the induced local fields around the resonators. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2895] viXra:1812.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 03:49:03

### Molecules with Extreme X-Rays

Authors: George Rajna

Physicist Artem Rudenko from Kansas State University and his colleagues pondered how to improve the images of viruses and microparticles that scientists get from X-rays. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2894] viXra:1812.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 04:11:16

### Spin Orbit Coupling in Silicon

Authors: George Rajna

Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2893] viXra:1812.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 04:47:46

### Blind Spot in Atomic Force

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers have discovered a 'blind spot' in atomic force microscopy—a powerful tool capable of measuring the force between two atoms, imaging the structure of individual cells and the motion of biomolecules. [52] Australian scientists have investigated new directions to scale up qubits—utilising the spin-orbit coupling of atom qubits—adding a new suite of tools to the armory. [51] A team of international researchers led by engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) have invented a new magnetic device to manipulate digital information 20 times more efficiently and with 10 times more stability than commercial spintronic digital memories. [50] Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2892] viXra:1812.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-08 05:15:25

### Holographic Display and Encryption

Authors: George Rajna

Holography is a powerful tool that can reconstruct wavefronts of light and combine the fundamental wave properties of amplitude, phase, polarization, wave vector and frequency. [35] Physicist Artem Rudenko from Kansas State University and his colleagues pondered how to improve the images of viruses and microparticles that scientists get from X-rays. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2891] viXra:1812.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 07:25:54

### Unexplored Territory in Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss—have entered a new regime. [36] Now, in independent studies reported in Science and Nature, scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2890] viXra:1812.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 07:47:56

### Competing States in High-Temperature Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) have carried out high-resolution inelastic X-ray scattering and have found that high uniaxial pressure induces a long-range charge order competing with superconductivity. [37] Scientists mapping out the quantum characteristics of superconductors—materials that conduct electricity with no energy loss—have entered a new regime. [36] Now, in independent studies reported in Science and Nature, scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2889] viXra:1812.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 08:27:36

### Interaction Between Two Qubits Using Photons

Authors: George Rajna

Working in the lab of Mikhail Lukin, the George Vasmer Leverett Professor of Physics and co-director of the Quantum Science and Engineering Initiative, Evans is lead author of a study, described in the journal Science, that demonstrates a method for engineering an interaction between two qubits using photons. [49] Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2888] viXra:1812.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 19:14:46

### A Hybrid Model of Matter and Antimatter

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

an attempt to reconcile two seemingly incompatible concepts: General Relativity and the Standard Model via temporal elasticity
Category: Quantum Physics

[2887] viXra:1812.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 04:07:13

### Ferent Equation of the Universe

“Ferent equation of the Universe:” Adrian Ferent Today ordinary Matter, which includes atoms, stars, galaxies… accounts for only 15% of the contents of the Universe and 85% is Dark Matter. This means Dark Matter accounts for most of the matter in the Universe. Dark Matter neither emits nor absorbs electromagnetic radiation. Ordinary Matter is composed of elementary particles. “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for N elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent I consider M, the number of Dark Matter elementary particles, in the Universe. M is the number of Dark Matter elementary particles in Dark Matter and Matter in the Universe. The Universe as a quantum system! The time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe, which gives a description of the Universe as a quantum system, made of Matter, N elementary particles, and Dark Matter, M elementary particles, evolving in time. 157. I am the first who discovered the Ferent equation of the Universe:
Category: Quantum Physics

[2886] viXra:1812.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 03:00:05

### Ferent Equation for N Elementary Particles

“Ferent equation for N elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent A quantum system involves the wave function. The wave function is the most complete description that can be given of a quantum system. The evolution of N elementary particles quantum system is governed through the Ferent equation for N elementary particles. “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity, Gravitation gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent That is why: The Higgs mechanism doesn't explains the source of any masses, the Higgs mechanism is not a mechanism for generating mass. “The Ferent mechanism: the interaction energy of gravitons emitted by Dark Matter gives mass to the elementary particles” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for elementary particle, made of 2 particles, a Matter particle and a Dark Matter particle, is the Unification between Matter and Dark Matter!” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for N elementary particles:” Adrian Ferent 156. I am the first who discovered the Ferent equation for N elementary particles
Category: Quantum Physics

[2885] viXra:1812.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-06 03:29:36

### Who Needs Wave Equations?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages excludes title page and references

This paper further explores a dual interpretation of the Uncertainty Principle as applied to the classical Rutherford-Bohr calculations of the geometry of the hydrogen electron orbitals. It shows the Rutherford-Bohr model has some advantages over the quantum-mechanical model (Schrödinger’s equation for the hydrogen atom). As such, it basically continues a development started in my previous paper (http://vixra.org/abs/1812.0028). What is novel in this paper is the exploration of the mathematical equivalence between both models.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2884] viXra:1812.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 07:29:36

### Quantum Materials as Computing Devices

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45] Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43] Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network. [42] New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2883] viXra:1812.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 10:43:20

### Building Block in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers with the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory have demonstrated a new level of control over photons encoded with quantum information. [48] Researchers from Intel Corp. and the University of California, Berkeley, are looking beyond current transistor technology and preparing the way for a new type of memory and logic circuit that could someday be in every computer on the planet. [47] A team of scientists from Arizona State University's School of Molecular Sciences and Germany have published in Science Advances online today an explanation of how a particular phase-change memory (PCM) material can work one thousand times faster than current flash computer memory, while being significantly more durable with respect to the number of daily read-writes. [46] A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2882] viXra:1812.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 09:23:09

### Force of the Vacuum

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists from the Theory Department of the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter (MPSD) at the Center for Free-Electron Laser Science (CFEL) in Hamburg, Germany have shown through theoretical calculations and computer simulations that the force between electrons and lattice distortions in an atomically thin two-dimensional superconductor can be controlled with virtual photons. [48] A research group led by Yasuhiro Kuramitsu at Osaka University has revealed a magnetic reconnection driven by electron dynamics for the first time ever in laser-produced plasmas using the Gekko XII laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. [47] By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2881] viXra:1812.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 10:26:08

### Infrared Image Encoding

Authors: George Rajna

Plasmonic materials can uniquely control the electromagnetic spectrum due to nano-scale surface architecture. [48] A research group led by Yasuhiro Kuramitsu at Osaka University has revealed a magnetic reconnection driven by electron dynamics for the first time ever in laser-produced plasmas using the Gekko XII laser facility at the Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University. [47] By using this method for microscopic failure analysis, researchers and manufacturers could improve the reliability of the MEMS components that they are developing, ranging from miniature robots and drones to tiny forceps for eye surgery and sensors to detect trace amounts of toxic chemicals. [46] A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2880] viXra:1812.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-03 03:34:21

### Bohr’s Atom, the Photon and the [un]certainty Principle

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages include title page and references

This is a didactic exploration of a possible dual interpretation of the Uncertainty Principle as applied to the classical Rutherford-Bohr calculations of the geometry of the hydrogen electron orbitals. It highlights, in particular, a classical mistake in regard to the interpretation of atoms as atomic oscillators – and the calculation of their Q. It also offers a substantial correction to the model of a photon that was presented in a previous paper (The Metaphysics of Physics).
Category: Quantum Physics

[2879] viXra:1812.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-01 10:03:01

### Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory:part B: Granular Space-Time

Authors: Carlton Frederick

A previous publication in Phys. Rev. D, (Part A of this paper) pointed out that vacuum energy fluctuations implied mass fluctuations which implied curvature fluctuations which then implied fluctuations of the metric tensor. The metric fluctuations were then taken as fundamental and a stochastic space-time was theorized. A number of results from quantum mechanics were derived. This paper (Part B), in addressing some of the difficulties of Part A, required an extension of the model: In so far as the fluctuations are not in space-time but of space-time, a granular model was deemed necessary. For Lorentz invariance, the grains have constant 4-volume. Further, as we wish to treat time and space similarly, we propose fluctuations in time. In order that a particle not appear at different points in space at the same time, we find it necessary to introduce a new model for time where time as we know it is emergent from an analogous coordinate, tau-time, τ, where ' τ -Time Leaves No Tracks' (that is to say, in the sub-quantum domain, there is no 'history'). The model provides a 'meaning' of curvature as well as a (loose) derivation of the Schwartzschild metric without need for the General Relativity field equations. The purpose is to fold the seemingly incomprehensible behaviors of quantum mechanics into the (one hopes) less incomprehensible properties of space-time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2878] viXra:1811.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-30 08:41:32

### Macroscopic Quantum Physics

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at Delft University of Technology and the University of Vienna have now devised a macroscopic system that exhibits entanglement between mechanical phonons and optical photons. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40] The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39] A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2877] viXra:1811.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-30 14:23:49

### Discussions of the Weak ‘Force’ and More

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

the weak 'force' is discussed relative to other 'forces' we claim exist in our universe; a viable alternative is presented
Category: Quantum Physics

[2876] viXra:1811.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-29 07:51:05

### Light Using Spatiotemporal Boundary

Authors: George Rajna

A KAIST team developed an optical technique to change the color (frequency) of light using a spatiotemporal boundary. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2875] viXra:1811.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-29 09:52:03

### Dipolar Quantum Matter

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information in Austria have succeeded in creating the first ever dipolar quantum mixture in which two Bose-Einstein condensates made of two different highly magnetic species coexist and interact with each other over a long range. [41] Harvard Assistant Professor of Chemistry and Chemical Biology Kang-Kuen Ni and colleagues have combined two atoms for the first time into what researchers call a dipolar molecule. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2874] viXra:1811.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-29 10:17:41

### Silicon Qubits for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna

A new two-qubit quantum processor that is fully programmable and single electron spins that can be coherently coupled to individual microwave-frequency photons are two of the latest advances in the world of solid-state spin-based quantum computing. [45]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2873] viXra:1811.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-29 19:02:08

### Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory: Part a

Authors: Carlton Frederick

Abstract Much of quantum mechanics may be derived if one adopts a very strong form of Mach's Principle, requiring that in the absence of mass, space-time becomes not flat but stochastic. This is manifested in the metric tensor which is considered to be a collection of stochastic variables. The stochastic metric assumption is sufficient to generate the spread of the wave packet in empty space. If one further notes that all observations of dynamical variables in the laboratory frame are contravariant components of tensors, and if one assumes that a Lagrangian can be constructed, then one can derive the uncertainty principle. Finally, the superposition of stochastic metrics and the identification of the square root of minus the determinant of the metric tensor as the indicator of relative probability yields the phenomenon of interference, as will be described for the two-slit experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2872] viXra:1811.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-29 20:36:42

### Refutation of the Frauchiger-Renner Thought Experiment with Modal Operators as a Paradox

Authors: Colin James III

We use modal logic to evaluate a quantum rendition of the Frauchiger-Renner thought experiment to refute it as paradox (contradiction) and as tautology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2871] viXra:1811.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 07:25:46

### A New Cosmic Establishment

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 13 Pages. All claims in this document have been scientifically proven under controlled experiments through my own research using DIY-SOTA tech, as explained in the document. Mechanical Methods of research, such as nuclear acceleration, are authorized by the NSA.

The cosmic mandelbrot scan, how neurotomic waves were used to map out the entire universe in my laboratory, what this map actually is, and the spatially tessellated void of space-time and other models. Also explains temporal fields, the detection of chronon radiation, and the latest scientific report from inside the lab.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2870] viXra:1811.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 09:14:43

### Completely Secure Quantum Communication Network

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network. [42] New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40] The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39] A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2869] viXra:1811.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 09:24:36

### Postselectability of Optical Graph

Authors: George Rajna

New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40] The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2868] viXra:1811.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 10:27:29

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a highly efficient converter that enlarges the diameter of a light beam by 400 times. [44] There's little doubt the information technology revolution has improved our lives. But unless we find a new form of electronic technology that uses less energy, computing will become limited by an "energy crunch" within decades. [43] Researchers at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have recently succeeded in boosting the storage time of quantum information, using a small glass container filled with room temperature atoms, taking an important step towards a secure quantum encoded distribution network. [42] New work by a team at the University of Bristol's Centre for Quantum Photonics has uncovered fundamental limits on the quantum operations which can be carried out with postselection. [41] The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40] The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39] A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2867] viXra:1811.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 20:27:03

### Higgs in the Standard Model and More

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

the history of the Higgs taken from Wikipedia launches a detailed analysis of the etiology of the concept as part of the Standard Model, the circular logic of the weak 'force', and steps toward remediation
Category: Quantum Physics

[2866] viXra:1811.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 08:27:27

### Ultracold Quantum Matter

Authors: George Rajna

The experimental investigation of ultracold quantum matter makes it possible to study quantum mechanical phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible. [40] The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39] A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2865] viXra:1811.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 09:00:38

Authors: George Rajna

Professor Michelle Simmons' team at UNSW Sydney has demonstrated a compact sensor for accessing information stored in the electrons of individual atoms—a breakthrough that brings us one step closer to scalable quantum computing in silicon. [37] Using micromagnetic simulation, scientists have found the magnetic parameters and operating modes for the experimental implementation of a fast racetrack memory module that runs on spin current, carrying information via skyrmionium, which can store more data and read it out faster. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2864] viXra:1811.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 09:35:26

### New Technique Make Objects Invisible

Authors: George Rajna

This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2863] viXra:1811.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 09:55:39

### Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory: Part C: Five-Dimensional Space-Time

Authors: Carlton Frederick

This is a continuation of Parts A and B which describe a stochastic, granular space-time model. In this, Part C, in order to tessellate the space-time manifold, it was necessary to introduce a fifth dimension which is 'rolled up' at the Planck scale. The dimension is associated with mass and energy (in a non-trivial way). Further, it addresses other problems in the granular space-time model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2862] viXra:1811.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 10:19:14

### Moving Tiny Objects with Light

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser light, to control and manipulate minute objects such as single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2861] viXra:1811.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 10:44:41

### Star Wars-like Tractor Beam

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists from ITMO University have developed a model of an optical tractor beam to capture particles based on new artificial materials. [45] Researchers from the Structured Light group from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand in Johannesburg, South Africa, have found a way to use the full beam of a laser single cells in a human body, tiny particles in small volume chemistry, or working on future on-chip devices. [44] This research work by the UEx, which has been published in Scientific Reports, explored the electromagnetic properties of specific materials that can make certain objects invisible when they are introduced into its interior. [43] A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2860] viXra:1811.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 16:04:09

### Biggest Thing Since the Split Atom

Authors: Savior F. Eason

My research and theory of programmable matter, the science behind, how we could mass-produce the stuff, and dimensionkinetic technology; Using my theory of everything for Pocket dimension creation, Tech allowing Extra-dimensional access, novistic technology and how it would render the magical as basic tech taken for granted by the time many children are seniors, a logopolitan computer and how we could one day turn ourselves into them, real mother-boxes and infinity stones in a few decades, how we could give ourselves editing access to the cosmic html in just a few years if this proposal was accepted, perhaps the most profound of these propositions, dimensional transmutation; How we could "magically" one day transform ourselves into multi-dimensional beings. Godhood just around the corner. A radical set of proposals in quantum technology. But they truly would be the grandest advancement in science since the splitting of the atom, or perhaps even our discovery of fire.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2859] viXra:1811.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-26 08:10:21

### Modularity, Consciousness, and Intelligence

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 7 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality has a modular structure. Consciousness gets introduced in the higher levels of the module hierarchy. Intelligence is introduced at the top level.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2858] viXra:1811.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-26 09:14:29

### Molecule Turns into a Switch

Authors: George Rajna

The molecular switch is the fruit of a collaboration of members from the Departments of Experimental and Theoretical Physics at the University of Würzburg: Dr. Jens Kügel, a postdoc at the Department of Experimental Physics II, devised and ran the experiments. [39] A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2857] viXra:1811.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-26 09:40:23

### Accelerator on a Microchip

Authors: George Rajna

Electrical engineers in the accelerator physics group at TU Darmstadt have developed a design for a laser-driven electron accelerator so small it could be produced on a silicon chip. [42] Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41] Trapping light with an optical version of a whispering gallery, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a nanoscale coating for solar cells that enables them to absorb about 20 percent more sunlight than uncoated devices. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2856] viXra:1811.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-26 20:00:37

### Quantum Physics, an Abstract Universe and the Human Mind.

Authors: Royan Rosche

An in-depth explanation of an Abstract Universe. the Human Mind, sense organs and living creatures and their relation to Quantum Physics. In this paper, I hone in on how Quantum Physics explains the true Nature of Reality. Note: For serious inquiring minds only.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2855] viXra:1811.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-25 06:35:57

### Fads and Fashions in Physics vs Conspiracies

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

some recent fads/fashions in physics are discussed relative to a hybrid framework incorporating concepts from both sides: determinism & randomness
Category: Quantum Physics

[2854] viXra:1811.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-25 13:02:13

### The Metaphysics of Physics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages includes title page and references

Abstract: This wavefunction is a didactic exploration of the basic assumptions and concepts of the Zitterbewegung interpretation of quantum mechanics. Its novelty is in applying the concepts to photons. Keywords: Zitterbewegung, mass-energy equivalence, wavefunction interpretations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2853] viXra:1811.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-25 23:16:10

### 5 Different Superposition Principles With/without Test Charge, Retarded Waves/advanced Waves Applied to Dynamic Equation of the Photon

Authors: Shuang-ren Zhao

Category: Quantum Physics

[2852] viXra:1811.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-24 08:46:58

### Ferent Equation for Elementary Particles

Category: Quantum Physics

[2851] viXra:1811.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-24 08:57:36

### Golden ‘Children’ of Physics and More

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

three darlings of physics are illuminated, in particular Peter Higgs and his infamous God particle, presenting a viable alternative with more evidence
Category: Quantum Physics

[2850] viXra:1811.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-23 09:33:19

### Quantum Chaos Theory

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 36 Pages. All claims in this document have been scientifically proven under controlled experiments through my own research using DIY-SOTA tech, as explained in the document. Mechanical Methods of research, such as nuclear acceleration, are authorized by the NSA.

Proposes how a previous theory solving dark matter(Stating that all gravity has mass as all mass has gravity, and this mass would be 5th-dimensional) and dark energy(Suggesting this mass could cause the super-fluid displacement of space-time) could prove a vibrational Quantum multiverse numbering infinitely, as well as another theory of Quantum chaos, which proposes a new state of "weirdness" devoid of any consistent physical state or laws, would provide concrete evidence of an infinite multiverse and hyperspace(Proving the bulk-mass of dark matter), and ending with a brief exploration of possibilities for Inter-universal travel using infinite improbability particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2849] viXra:1811.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-24 01:53:30

### Proceedings in Qualitative and Quantitave Psychology

Authors: Johan Noldus

Quantum theory is extended towards the spiritual domain.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2848] viXra:1811.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-24 01:55:39

### Proceedings in Qualitative and Quantitative Psychology: Restrictions on Extra Senses.

Authors: Johan Noldus

Quantum theory is extended towards the spiritual domain.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2847] viXra:1811.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-24 04:45:05

### Einstein’s Mass-Energy Equivalence Relation: an Explanation in Terms of the Zitterbewegung

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages includes title page and page with references

The radial velocity formula and the Planck-Einstein relation give us the zbw frequency (E = ħω = E/ħ) and zbw radius (a = c/ω = cħ/mc2 = ħ/mc) of the electron. We interpret this by noting that the c = aω identity gives us the E = mc2 = ma2ω2 equation, which suggests we should combine the total energy (kinetic and potential) of two harmonic oscillators to explain the electron mass. We do so by interpreting the elementary wavefunction as a two-dimensional (harmonic) electromagnetic oscillation in real space which drives the pointlike charge along the zbw current ring. This implies a dual view of the reality of the real and imaginary part of the wavefunction: 1.The x = a·cos(ωt) and y = a·sin(ωt) equations describe the motion of the pointlike charge. 2.As an electromagnetic oscillation, we write it as E = E·cos(ωt+π/2) + i·E·sin(ωt+π/2). The magnitudes of the oscillation a and E are expressed in distance (m) and force per unit charge (N/C) respectively and are related because the energy of both oscillations is one and the same. The model – which implies the energy of the oscillation and, therefore, the effective mass of the electron is spread over the zbw disk – offers an equally intuitive explanation for the angular momentum, magnetic moment and the g-factor of charged spin-1/2 particles. Most importantly, the model also offers us an intuitive interpretation of Einstein’s enigmatic mass-energy equivalence relation. Going from the stationary to the moving reference frame, we argue that the plane of the zbw oscillation should be parallel to the direction of motion so as to be consistent with the results of the Stern-Gerlach experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2846] viXra:1811.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-22 08:24:17

### Tricks of Quantum Technology

Authors: George Rajna

A new test to spot where the ability to exploit the power of quantum mechanics has evolved in nature has been developed by physicists at the University of Warwick. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2845] viXra:1811.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-21 10:48:37

### Quantum Cybersecurity Revolution

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at the RDECOM Research Laboratory, the Army's corporate research laboratory (ARL) have found a novel way to safeguard quantum information during transmission, opening the door for more secure and reliable communication for warfighters on the battlefield. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2844] viXra:1811.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-21 11:16:28

### Symmetry Breaking Optical Nonlinearity

Authors: George Rajna

Second-order nonlinear optical processes play a pivotal role in both classical and quantum applications, ranging from extension of the accessible frequencies to generation of quantum entangled photon pairs and squeezed states. [36] Scientists at the RDECOM Research Laboratory, the Army's corporate research laboratory (ARL) have found a novel way to safeguard quantum information during transmission, opening the door for more secure and reliable communication for warfighters on the battlefield. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2843] viXra:1811.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-21 12:28:12

### Quantum Theory of Dispersion of Light

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 9 Pages. the original article

We derive the index of refraction of light from quantum theory of atoms and from the Dirac equation with the plane wave. The result is the integral a part of the mainstream of the quantum optics. The article involves also discussion on the possibility to create the electron-positron pairs during the Cherenkov process with the adequate intex of refraction.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2842] viXra:1811.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-21 12:50:52

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists have discovered that semiconducting molecules with unpaired electrons, termed 'radicals' can be used to fabricate very efficient organic-light-emitting diodes (OLEDs), exploiting their quantum mechanical 'spin' property to overcome efficiency limitations for traditional, non-radical materials. [43] Research led by a University of Sussex scientist has turned a 156-year-old law of physics on its head in a development which could lead to more efficient recharging of batteries in cars and mobile phones. [42] Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41] Trapping light with an optical version of a whispering gallery, researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have developed a nanoscale coating for solar cells that enables them to absorb about 20 percent more sunlight than uncoated devices. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2841] viXra:1811.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-21 16:40:19

### Understanding Uncertainty

Authors: Royan Roshce

I outline why Quantum Uncertainty exists and how it applies to living creatures.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2840] viXra:1811.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-22 01:19:06

### Concept of Fast Non-Volatile Memory

Authors: George Rajna

Using micromagnetic simulation, scientists have found the magnetic parameters and operating modes for the experimental implementation of a fast racetrack memory module that runs on spin current, carrying information via skyrmionium, which can store more data and read it out faster. [36] Scientists at the RDECOM Research Laboratory, the Army's corporate research laboratory (ARL) have found a novel way to safeguard quantum information during transmission, opening the door for more secure and reliable communication for warfighters on the battlefield. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2839] viXra:1811.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-22 03:58:13

### Quantum Sound Waves Sensors

Authors: George Rajna

In a first, scientists with the Institute for Molecular Engineering at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory have built a mechanical system—a tiny "echo chamber" for sound waves—that can be controlled at the quantum level, by connecting it to quantum circuits. [19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2838] viXra:1811.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-20 06:47:27

### Quantum World Error Correction

Authors: George Rajna

Sebastian Krinner is the first winner of the Lopez-Loreta Prize at ETH Zurich. The physicist has a clear goal: he wants to build a quantum computer that is not only powerful, but also works without errors. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2837] viXra:1811.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-20 10:50:44

### Quantum Adiabatic and Circuit Equivalent

Authors: George Rajna

Practical quantum computers could be one step closer thanks to physicists in China, who have published a rigorous proof that “quantum circuit” algorithms can be transformed into algorithms that can be executed at the same running time on adiabatic quantum computers. [36] Sebastian Krinner is the first winner of the Lopez-Loreta Prize at ETH Zurich. The physicist has a clear goal: he wants to build a quantum computer that is not only powerful, but also works without errors. [35] Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2836] viXra:1811.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-20 20:41:40

### A Model of an Electron Including Two Perfect Black Bodies

Authors: Satoshi Hanamura

This paper modifies two significant points of existing quantum electrodynamics. First, the image of a virtual photon is replaced with a real one, i.e., till date, we consider virtual photon as being capable of exchanging its energy between two particles along with self interaction, and that it is a transient fluctuation. We shall change this definition such that what we call “an electron” would include two bare electrons and these two would interact within a real photon. The virtual photon in this study is the same as the real photon which is not to observe, but difference from traditional virtual photon because the re-imaged virtual photon would exist continuously not temporally. Second, it is assumed that the bare electron is a perfect black body. To meet the constraints of charge conservation, a virtual photon must include two bare electrons. There is a temperature gradient between the two because the two particles alternate between behaving as emitters and absorbers. The proposed study extends this model by considering that an electron comprises two blinking bare electrons and at least one real photon by exchanging the energies within the three. Consequently, we attempt to create an electron model that exhibits spinor behavior by setting and modifying a trigonometric function which could periodically achieve the value of zero-point energy.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2835] viXra:1811.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-19 09:46:36

### X-ray Microscopy 10 Times Faster

Authors: George Rajna

Now, scientists at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II)—a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory—have developed a TXM that can image samples 10 times faster than previously possible. [36] In a new study published Aug. 17 in Nature Communications, Nemsak, Fadley, Schneider and colleagues demonstrate the use of new techniques in X-ray spectroscopy to illuminate the internal structure of manganese-doped gallium arsenide. [35] With the publication of the first experimental measurements performed at the facility, the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) has passed another critical milestone since its launch in September 2017. [34] Purdue University researchers are developing a novel biomedical imaging system that combines optical and ultrasound technology to improve diagnosis of life-threatening diseases. [33] Heart scans for patients with chest pains could save thousands of lives in the UK, research suggests. [32] Unnecessary heart procedures can be avoided with a non-invasive test, according to late breaking research presented today at ESC Congress 2018 and published in Journal of the American College of Cardiology. [31] Now, Columbia University researchers report a new way to zoom in at the tiniest scales to track changes within individual cells. [30] One of the main challenges in tissue engineering today is to create a complete network of blood vessels and capillaries throughout an artificial tissue. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2834] viXra:1811.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-18 15:04:00

### The Formless Nature of Matter

Authors: Royan rosche

I outline why the Universe is not a set concrete physical thing.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2833] viXra:1811.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-17 06:20:43

### Anomaly in Sign Function Probability Function Integration

Authors: Han Geurdes

In the paper it is demonstrated that integration of products of sign functions and probability density functions such as in Bell's formula for +/-1 measurement functions, leads to inconsistencies.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2832] viXra:1811.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-17 14:36:06

### Refutation of Tropical Sum for Bell's Theorem

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate the tropical sum definition to show topped summing is refuted by mathematical logic and hence cannot occur in physics realty.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2831] viXra:1811.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-17 15:28:50

### White Spots in Physics

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physics appears to include quite a few white holes. Apparently, this is not very essential for the proper functioning of applied physics. Through some clever steps, some of the white patches can be addressed. That delivers striking and not thought results
Category: Quantum Physics

[2830] viXra:1811.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-16 07:32:20

### Quantum Artificial Life

Authors: George Rajna

A project by the UPV/EHU-University of the Basque Country has for the first time implemented a model of quantum artificial life on a quantum computer. [30] Researchers in a lab at Aarhus University have developed a versatile remote gaming interface that allowed external experts as well as hundreds of citizen scientists all over the world to optimize a quantum gas experiment through multiplayer collaboration and in real time. [29] "As crazy as all this looks, there appears to be strong reliability in these behaviors that could even be predictably and practically manipulated," Landman said. [28] A team of physicists from ICTP-Trieste and IQOQI-Innsbruck has come up with a surprisingly simple idea to investigate quantum entanglement of many particles. [27] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/probability/" probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum/" quantum HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/probability/" probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2829] viXra:1811.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-16 08:14:49

### Magnetic Properties of Cuprates

Authors: George Rajna

An international team of researchers has identified and proved that adding impurities with a lower concentration of electrons stabilizes the antiferromagnetic state of cuprates, high-temperature superconducting compounds based on copper. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2828] viXra:1811.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-17 02:06:07

### On Bell's Experiment

Authors: Han Geurdes

With the use of tropical algebra operators and a d=2 parameter vectors space, Bell's theorem does not forbid a, physics valid, reproduction of the quantum correlation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2827] viXra:1811.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-15 07:08:10

### Social Quantum Science

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers in a lab at Aarhus University have developed a versatile remote gaming interface that allowed external experts as well as hundreds of citizen scientists all over the world to optimize a quantum gas experiment through multiplayer collaboration and in real time. [29] "As crazy as all this looks, there appears to be strong reliability in these behaviors that could even be predictably and practically manipulated," Landman said. [28] A team of physicists from ICTP-Trieste and IQOQI-Innsbruck has come up with a surprisingly simple idea to investigate quantum entanglement of many particles. [27] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20] For years, the people developing artificial intelligence drew inspiration from what was known about the human brain, and it has enjoyed a lot of success as a result. Now, AI is starting to return the favor. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2826] viXra:1811.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 07:48:20

### Hubble Expansion & CMBR & Bekenstein Hawking Entropy

Authors: David E. Fuller, Ruud Loeffen

Universe as a Self Similar Fractal Friedmann Density, Electron Compton Density, Planck Density
Category: Quantum Physics

[2825] viXra:1811.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 08:46:13

### Resonance Tuning of Optics

Authors: George Rajna

A research team from ITMO University and the Australian National University has discovered that different metasurfaces exhibit the same behavior provided a symmetry breaking is introduced to their unit cells "meta-atoms."[42] Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2824] viXra:1811.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-15 03:32:48

### Witte Vlekken in de Natuurkunde

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. Dit behoort to het Hilbert Boek Model Project

De natuurkunde blijkt nog een flink aantal witte gaten te omvatten. Kennelijk is dat niet erg essentieel voor de goede werking van de toegepaste natuurkunde. Via wat slimme stappen kunnen een aantal van de witte vlekken worden aangepakt. Dat levert frappante en niet gedachte resultaten op.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2823] viXra:1811.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-15 04:45:35

### Fluid State of Dirac Quantum Particles

Authors: Vu B Ho

In our previous works we suggest that quantum particles are composite physical objects endowed with the geometric and topological structures of their corresponding differentiable manifolds that would allow them to imitate and adapt to physical environments. In this work we show that Dirac equation in fact describes quantum particles as composite structures that are in a fluid state in which the components of the wavefunction can be identified with the stream function and the velocity potential of a potential flow described in the theory of classical fluids. We also show that Dirac quantum particles can manifest as standing waves which are the result of the superposition of two fluid flows moving in opposite directions. For a steady motion a Dirac quantum particle does not exhibit a wave motion even though it has the potential to establish a wave within its physical structure, therefore, without an external disturbance a Dirac quantum particle may be considered as a classical particle defined in classical physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2822] viXra:1811.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-13 07:07:23

### Chiral Majorana Fermions

Authors: George Rajna

Now, researchers have proposed a scheme to control the transport of chiral Majorana edge modes in a ring-shaped Josephson junction of a topological superconductor using magnetic flux. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2821] viXra:1811.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-13 08:25:23

### Encrypted Quantum Keys Record

Authors: George Rajna

Encrypted quantum keys have been sent across a record-breaking 421 km of optical fibre at the fastest data rate ever achieved for long-distance transmission. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2820] viXra:1811.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-10 05:45:15

### Calculation of the Atomic Masses

Category: Quantum Physics

[2819] viXra:1811.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 10:04:25

### Spin Waves in 2-D Magnet

Authors: George Rajna

In a recently published paper in Science, researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS), were able to both excite and detect spin waves in a quantum Hall ferromagnet, demonstrating a new platform to investigate some of the possibilities of this promising material. [34] Taichi Goto at the Toyohashi University of Technology and Caroline Ross of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology and others collaborated to create a single-crystalline yttrium iron garnet (YIG) film as a magnetic insulator on multiple substrates, and transmit the spin waves. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits
Category: Quantum Physics

[2818] viXra:1811.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 10:32:00

Authors: George Rajna

The UK's first quantum accelerometer for navigation has been demonstrated by a team from Imperial College London and M Squared. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2817] viXra:1811.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-10 04:41:02

### Quantum Duet

Authors: George Rajna

Different systems behave identically in many ways, if they belong to the same "universality class."]32] Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum+mechanics/" quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2816] viXra:1811.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-08 08:03:06

### Nanocrystals as Quantum Light Source

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2815] viXra:1811.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-08 08:18:52

### Same but Different Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna

Different systems behave identically in many ways, if they belong to the same "universality class."]32] Researchers from Empa and ETH Zurich, together with colleagues from IBM Research Zurich, have recently been able to create this effect with long-range ordered nanocrystal superlattices. [31] The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/quantum+mechanics/" quantum mechanics , the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2814] viXra:1811.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-07 10:46:07

### Optical Test of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna

The optical tweezer is revealing new capabilities while helping scientists understand quantum mechanics, the theory that explains nature in terms of subatomic particles. [30] In the perspective, Gabor and Song collect early examples in electron metamaterials and distil emerging design strategies for electronic control from them. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2813] viXra:1811.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 08:10:16

### Complex Quantum Teleportation

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have broken new ground. They sought to use more complex quantum systems than two-dimensionally entangled qubits and thus can increase the information capacity with the same number of particles. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist – a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2812] viXra:1811.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 08:30:31

### Certify Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna

"The power of quantum computers is what makes them difficult to certify," says Sangouard. "Even the fastest ordinary computers are too slow to check the calculations made by such devices." [29] Scientists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have broken new ground. They sought to use more complex quantum systems than two-dimensionally entangled qubits and thus can increase the information capacity with the same number of particles. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist – a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2811] viXra:1811.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 10:08:40

### Laser Blasting Antimatter

Authors: George Rajna

Antimatter is an exotic material that vaporizes when it contacts regular matter. If you hit an antimatter baseball with a bat made of regular matter, it would explode in a burst of light. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2810] viXra:1811.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 12:32:09

### Quantum Ontology Suggested by a Kochen-Specker Loophole

Authors: Archibald Ulrich Thor

We discuss a specific way in which the conclusions of the Kochen-Specker theorem may be avoided while, at the same time, closing the gap in a practical but usually neglected matter regarding scientific methodology in general. Implications of the possibilities of hidden variables thus defined are discussed, and a tentative connexion with cosmology is delineated.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2809] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 20:49:01

### Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2808] viXra:1811.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 03:18:04

### Quantum Hard Drive for Light

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2807] viXra:1811.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 04:29:15

### Silicon Device and Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/light/" light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2806] viXra:1811.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-04 20:19:54

### Gravitational Angels

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov

Based on the quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger), gravitational angel (gravitangel) is introduced as a cloud of the background gravitons hovering over the ordinary matter (OM). According to Qmoger, the background gravitons are ultralight and they form the quantum condensate even for high temperature. The quantum entanglement of OM particles is explained in terms of splitting gravitangels. A hierarchy of gravitangels of different scale is considered. One of the simplest gravitangel is hovering over neutrino, which explains the neutrino oscillations. A more large-scale gravitangels are hovering over the neuron clusters in the brain, which explains the subjective experiences (qualia). The global gravitangel (GG) is connected to all processes happening with OM in the universe. GG can be considered as a gigantic quantum supercomputer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2805] viXra:1811.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-05 03:50:29

### Linear and Circular Photon Polarization States in the Mach-Zehnder Interference Experiment

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

This paper continues to explore a possible physical interpretation of the wavefunction but with a focus on the wavefunction(s) of a single photon in the Mach-Zehnder experiment. It focuses, in particular, on how one might visualize linear and circular polarization states for photon waves, and how beam splitters may or may not split a circular polarization state into two independent linear polarization states or – vice versa – recombine two linear polarization states into one circular state. As such, it attempts to provide a more refined approach to the rather crude hidden-variable theory for explaining quantum-mechanical interference that was presented in a previous paper (http://vixra.org/pdf/1811.0005v1.pdf). The outcome is the same, however: the theory does not work. Hence, this paper again shows the limit of such physical interpretations, thereby confirming the intuition behind Bell’s Theorem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2804] viXra:1811.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-03 07:01:06

### Plasmons in Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna

US researchers studying high-temperature cuprate superconductors outside the superconducting regime have used cutting-edge X-ray scattering to detect long-predicted – but never previously observed – excitations called plasmons perpendicular to the material's atomic planes. [27] Using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) techniques, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory discovered a new quantum criticality in a superconducting material, leading to a greater understanding of the link between magnetism and unconventional superconductivity. [26] Improving these devices could mean more powerful computers, better detectors of disease and technological advances scientists can't even predict yet. [25] Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2803] viXra:1811.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 07:37:32

### Powerful Quantum Sensors

Authors: George Rajna

Improving these devices could mean more powerful computers, better detectors of disease and technological advances scientists can't even predict yet. [25] Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2802] viXra:1811.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 10:28:11

### Quantum Monte Carlo Predictions

Authors: George Rajna

To take QMC to the next level, Kent and colleagues start with materials such as vanadium dioxide that display unusual electronic behavior. [25] Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2801] viXra:1811.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 11:05:08

### Quantum Criticality in Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna

Using solid state nuclear magnetic resonance (ssNMR) techniques, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory discovered a new quantum criticality in a superconducting material, leading to a greater understanding of the link between magnetism and unconventional superconductivity. [26] Improving these devices could mean more powerful computers, better detectors of disease and technological advances scientists can't even predict yet. [25] Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2800] viXra:1811.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-03 03:35:09

### Precise Diode Laser Measurements

Authors: George Rajna

This makes their device a useful replacement for the more complex and expensive single-frequency lasers, enabling the creation of compact chemical analyzers that can fit into smartphones, cheap lidars for self-driving cars, as well as security and structural health monitoring systems on bridges, gas pipelines and elsewhere. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41] All systems are go for launch in November of NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, which will use high-resolution laser ranging to study Earth's forests and topography from the International Space Station (ISS). [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2799] viXra:1811.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 07:53:31

### Quantum Drum Noise Control

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the Schliesser Lab at the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, have demonstrated a new way to address a central problem in quantum physics: at the quantum scale, any measurement disturbs the measured object. [24] An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2798] viXra:1811.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 08:48:56

### Key Factors of Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna

University report two important advances: They measured collective vibrations of electrons for the first time and showed how collective interactions of the electrons with other factors appear to boost superconductivity. [35] At the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), a group, led by Jimmy Williams, is working to develop new circuitry that could host such exotic states. [34] The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2797] viXra:1811.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 11:11:19

### Topological Insulator and Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna

"This is the first time that the exact same material can be tuned either to a topological insulator or to a superconductor," says Pablo Jarillo-Herrero, the Cecil and Ida Green Professor of Physics at MIT. [34] For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2796] viXra:1811.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 13:19:13

### New Pathway to Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists in Australia have for the first time demonstrated the protection of correlated states between paired photons—packets of light energy—using the intriguing physical concept of topology. [40] A team of scientists, led by Professor Winfried Hensinger at the University of Sussex, have made a major breakthrough concerning one of the biggest problems facing quantum computing: how to reduce the disruptive effects of environmental "noise" on the highly sensitive function of a large-scale quantum computer. [39] Watch a movie backwards and you'll likely get confused—but a quantum computer wouldn't. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2795] viXra:1811.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 04:20:13

### Polarization States as Hidden Variables?

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

This paper explores a possible physical interpretation of the wavefunction by examining if it can be used to provide a hidden-variable theory for explaining quantum-mechanical interference. The hidden variable is the polarization state of the photon. The outcome is as expected: the theory does not work. Hence, this paper clearly shows the limits of such physical interpretations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2794] viXra:1811.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 03:44:46

### Environmental Effects on Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna

A team of scientists, led by Professor Winfried Hensinger at the University of Sussex, have made a major breakthrough concerning one of the biggest problems facing quantum computing: how to reduce the disruptive effects of environmental "noise" on the highly sensitive function of a large-scale quantum computer. [39] Watch a movie backwards and you'll likely get confused—but a quantum computer wouldn't. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2793] viXra:1810.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-31 13:57:18

### Interactive Quantum Matter

Authors: George Rajna

JILA researchers have, for the first time, isolated groups of a few atoms and precisely measured their multi-particle interactions within an atomic clock. [25] University of Adelaide researchers have delved into the realm of Star Wars and created a powerful tractor beam – or light-driven energy trap – for atoms. [24] The Purcell effect also has another advantage: It shortens the time it takes the rubidium atom to store and release the quantum information. [23] Monika Aidelsburger uses a special type of optical lattice to simulate quantum many-body phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to experimental exploration. [22] University of Illinois Professor Harry Hilton brought together several mathematical and physical theories to help look at problems in more unified ways and solve physical engineering problems. [21] A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2792] viXra:1810.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 07:33:44

### Qubit State Represented by Pendulum Oscillations

Authors: Masataka Ohta

As qubit can be a polarization division multiplexed (PDM) quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) symbol of light, its state has direct correspondence with polarization state of classical light. Even more intuitively, the state may be represented by pendulum oscillations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2791] viXra:1810.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 07:43:43

### Quantum Beats Classical Computer

Authors: George Rajna

As multiple research groups around the world race to build a scalable quantum computer, questions remain about how the achievement of quantum supremacy will be verified. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2790] viXra:1810.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 10:24:59

### Electron Microscope Revealed

Authors: George Rajna

The chips that drive everyday electronic gadgets such as personal computers and smartphones are made in semiconductor fabrication plants. These plants employ powerful transmission electron microscopes. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2789] viXra:1810.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 11:05:20

### Trapping Atoms

Authors: George Rajna

University of Adelaide researchers have delved into the realm of Star Wars and created a powerful tractor beam – or light-driven energy trap – for atoms. [24] The Purcell effect also has another advantage: It shortens the time it takes the rubidium atom to store and release the quantum information. [23] Monika Aidelsburger uses a special type of optical lattice to simulate quantum many-body phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to experimental exploration. [22] University of Illinois Professor Harry Hilton brought together several mathematical and physical theories to help look at problems in more unified ways and solve physical engineering problems. [21] A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2788] viXra:1810.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 15:21:40

### On Bell's Theorem

Authors: Jorma Jormakka

Bell's Theorem implies that quantum correlation of entangled particles as calculated in quantum mechanics violates elementary probabilistic inequalities. It is shown that the reason is a problem in scaling of detector directions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2787] viXra:1810.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 15:23:17

### A Hidden Variable Solution to the EPR Paradox

Authors: Jorma Jormakka

The hidden variable solution to the EPR paradox proposes that correlation of measurements of entangled particles is due to variables that get decided when the entangled particles get created. It is shown that the correlation of spin measurements in Bell's form of the EPR paradox can be explained as deriving from spin of the entangled particles in the x-direction. This spin parameter is not hidden as it is included in the standard quantum mechanical formulation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2786] viXra:1810.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-29 22:36:02

### Observation Noise

Authors: Masataka Ohta

When a qubit interacts with environment, it may, instead of lose coherence, be observed. As is well known in quantum cryptography, such observation destroys entangled state causing noise, in this letter, called “observation noise”. As quantum error correction fundamentally depends on entangled states, the observation noise makes error correction impossible. As such, quantum computation with practically large quantum parallelism is impossible. Classical computers are better than quantum ones.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2785] viXra:1810.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 06:21:12

### Integrated Quantum Chip Operations

Authors: George Rajna

Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2784] viXra:1810.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-28 13:05:56

### The Theories of the Graviton, Part 2: The Quantum Framework of the Particle's Nature and Mechanics

Authors: Aaron Bain, Noah MacKay, Didier Rojas

Gravitons are the quanta of gravity that, if proven to exist, would potentially connect quantum mechanics with gravitation. The second part of the Graviton Theory entity focuses on the quantum side of the graviton’s mechanics and nature (which were ﬁrst proposed in the classical framework in Part One). They will be explained in depth, as to how gravitons act as quantum particles, and how they can act as both strings in Sting Theory and as loops in Loop Quantum Gravity. This analysis is to propose how gravitons behave, not only in our set of four-dimensional spacetime, but also in higher dimensional sets of spacetime.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2783] viXra:1810.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-28 17:31:22

### “The Photon Double-Helicoidal Model” the Key to Solving the Problems of Modern Physics

Authors: Oreste Caroppo

Category: Quantum Physics

[2782] viXra:1810.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-27 09:59:33

### Electron Quantized Impedance Network Calculations (From 2011-2012)

Authors: Peter Cameron

Category: Quantum Physics

[2781] viXra:1810.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 09:05:39

### Quantum Bits Shielded

Authors: George Rajna

A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2780] viXra:1810.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 10:25:12

### Superconducting Informatics

Authors: George Rajna

A NIMS-Ehime University joint research team succeeded in discovering new materials that exhibit superconductivity under high pressure using materials informatics (MI) approaches (data science-based material search techniques). [36] Measuring the properties of superconducting materials in magnetic fields at close to absolute zero temperatures is difficult, but necessary to understand their quantum properties. [35] Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2779] viXra:1810.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 22:34:10

### Topological Materials, Unnatural Fermions, the Higgs, and Geometry

Authors: Rodney Bartlett

Category: Quantum Physics

[2778] viXra:1810.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-27 04:31:05

### Maximum Velocity for Matter in Relation to the Schwarzschild Radius

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

This is a short note on a new way to describe Haug's newly introduced maximum velocity for matter in relation to the Schwarzschild radius. This leads to a probabilistic Schwarzschild radius for elementary particles with mass smaller than the Planck mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2777] viXra:1810.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-24 07:37:13

### Quantum Soccer

Authors: George Rajna

The Purcell effect also has another advantage: It shortens the time it takes the rubidium atom to store and release the quantum information. [23] Monika Aidelsburger uses a special type of optical lattice to simulate quantum many-body phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to experimental exploration. [22] University of Illinois Professor Harry Hilton brought together several mathematical and physical theories to help look at problems in more unified ways and solve physical engineering problems. [21] A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2776] viXra:1810.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-24 10:22:05

### Random Transistor Laser

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at Case Western Reserve University, in collaboration with partners around the world, have been able to control the direction of a laser's output beam by applying external voltage. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2775] viXra:1810.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-24 11:18:23

### On the Physical Nature of the Hong-ou-Mandel Effect

Authors: V.A. Kuz`menko

It is noted that widely known Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) effect is one of numerous manifestations of fundamental property of quantum physics – its time reversal noninvariance.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2774] viXra:1810.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-25 03:04:44

### Unhackable Quantum Network

Authors: George Rajna

As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2773] viXra:1810.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-25 03:09:46

### Experimental Detection in Matter of the Quantum Electromagnetic Field

Authors: V.Vikulin, V. Korniienko

It is shown that any matter has the quantum electromagnetic field (QEF) which existence follows from STR Einstein. Therefore elastic deformation of matter causes indignation of her QEF in a wave mode of quantum electromagnetic energies (S-radiation). This property of matter causes that generators of power plants together with electric current develop quantum currents. On networks they come to the equipment which will transform them to high-frequency quantum fields which pollutes the environment. It makes changes to parameters of energies of elementary particles of matter of which the human body consists that has negative effect on health. Therefore it is offered to limit on the basis of standards emission of S-radiations from the world equipment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2772] viXra:1810.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-23 06:45:55

### Chip-Based Spectrometry

Authors: George Rajna

A new advance by researchers at MIT could make it possible to produce tiny spectrometers that are just as accurate and powerful but could be mass produced using standard chip-making processes. [32] Scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology have demonstrated a surprisingly simple way of flipping a material from one state into another, and then back again, with single flashes of laser light. [31] Materials scientists at Duke University computationally predicted the electrical and optical properties of semiconductors made from extended organic molecules sandwiched by inorganic structures. [30] KU Leuven researchers from the Roeffaers Lab and the Hofkens Group have now put forward a very promising direct X-ray detector design, based on a rapidly emerging halide perovskite semiconductor, with chemical formula Cs2AgBiBr6. [29] Physicists at Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) have proven that incoming light causes the electrons in warm perovskites to rotate, thus influencing the direction of the flow of electrical current. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2771] viXra:1810.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-23 23:16:58

### The Generation of Gamma Ray Bursts by the Intermodulation of Static Magnetic Fields

Authors: Michael Harney

It is shown that by introducing two static magnetic fields into the same iron core which drives the core into its saturation region, that the non‐linear response of the core intermodulates the magnetic fields and produces gamma rays. This is consistent with the Wave Structure of Matter model which shows that a static magnetic field is a free‐space wave with a Compton wavelength equal to that of the electron. The intermodulation of these free‐space waves produces sum and difference products, generating gamma rays in the energy range that is measurable by a common Geiger counter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2770] viXra:1810.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-24 04:55:14

### Cosmological Redshift

Based on observations, it is clear that universe expands faster than the speed of light. Traveling photons for distances more than several mega parsecs become redshifted, so that photon loses some of its energy. To explain this event, we will try to create a logic in which photons have quasi-expansion-potential to carry the wave by redshift process. We will start with studying the energy density functions and modeling the vacuum as a standing wave. Later on, we will be studying about the functions of distribution of photons produced from the black body box to compare the energy densities of vacuum and photons with the logic of heat transfer as radiation. After we have shown all the cases about black body radiation, we will try to build up a conserved function dependent to the energy density of vacuum that results Planck’s distribution. We will see that there is an expansion energy that carries the thermodynamic energy. Contrary to popular belief, this new energy has no relation with the heat or thermodynamic energy but it only gives a motion to it. We will see a logarithmic energy that forces photons to move at the speed of light. This quasi-potential must be responsible for the cosmological redshift of light because it forces photon to move at the speed of light as it changes its medium.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2769] viXra:1810.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 09:36:02

### Quantum World Bridge

Authors: George Rajna

Monika Aidelsburger uses a special type of optical lattice to simulate quantum many-body phenomena that are otherwise inaccessible to experimental exploration. [22] University of Illinois Professor Harry Hilton brought together several mathematical and physical theories to help look at problems in more unified ways and solve physical engineering problems. [21] A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2768] viXra:1810.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 11:48:52

### Denial of the Manipulation of Quaternions in Bivalent Logic

Authors: Colin James III

Quaternions do not map onto bivalent logic, and because of that cannot be manipulated by rules of classical logic "out of convenience".
Category: Quantum Physics

[2767] viXra:1810.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-21 07:13:19

### Toward Quantum Internet

Authors: George Rajna

Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2766] viXra:1810.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-21 15:35:40

### A Biquaternion Based Generalization of the Dirac Current Into a Dirac Current Probability Tensor with Closed System Condition

Authors: E. P. J. de Haas

By taking spin away from particles and putting it in the metric, thus following Dirac's vision, I start my attempt to formulate an alternative math-phys language, biquaternion based and incorporating Clifford algebra. At the Pauli level of two by two matrix representation of biquaternion space, a dual base is applied, a space-time and a spin-norm base. The chosen space-time base comprises what Synge called the minquats and in the same spirit I call their spin-norm dual the pauliquats. Relativistic mechanics, electrodynamics and quantum mechanics are analyzed using this approach, with a generalized Poynting theorem as the most interesting result. Then moving onward to the Dirac level, the M{\"o}bius doubling of the minquat/pauliquat basis allows me to formulate a generalization of the Dirac current into a Dirac probability/field tensor with connected closed system condition. This closed system condition includes the Dirac current continuity equation as its time-like part. A generalized Klein Gordon equation that includes this Dirac current probability tensor is formulated and analyzed. The usual Dirac current based Lagrangians of relativistic quantum mechanics are generalized using this Dirac probability/field tensor. The Lorentz transformation properties the generalized equation and Lagrangian is analyzed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2765] viXra:1810.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 04:56:28

### Euler's Wavefunction

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

This paper is the 5th in a series of explorations to see if simple geometric and physical interpretations of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction could possibly make sense. It acknowledges the usual objections to naive interpretations head-on, but it also challenges these objections by presenting some heuristic arguments on how the basic axioms of quantum mechanics may be subject to some interpretation themselves. The arguments in this paper are what they are: heuristic. They do, therefore, not provide any mathematical proof. This is to be expected, as we are discussing interpretations of the wavefunction only: we surely do not want to challenge the math ! Hence, one should not expect formal proofs: thought experiments were the initial inspiration for quantum mechanics, and they still play the same role in contemporary physics. The paper focuses on two of the usual objections to geometric or physical interpretations of the wavefunction: 1.The superposition of wavefunctions is done in the complex space and, hence, the assumption of a real-valued envelope for the wavefunction is, therefore, not acceptable. 2.The wavefunction for spin-1/2 particles cannot represent any real object because of its 720-degree symmetry in space. Real objects have the same spatial symmetry as space itself, which is 360 degrees. Hence, physical interpretations of the wavefunction are nonsensical. The author hopes that this paper might contribute to a less dogmatic interpretation of the quantum-mechanical mathematical framework. If anything, the ideas presented in this paper – which is, in essence, a detailed discussion on why some visualizations make more sense than others – might contribute to a better didactic model for teaching quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2764] viXra:1810.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-20 07:15:12

### Optical Centrifuge Superrotors

Authors: George Rajna

Using corkscrew-shaped laser pulses, scientists at DESY have devised a sophisticated optical centrifuge that can make molecules rotate rapidly about a desired molecular axis. [30] Neutron diffraction strain scanning measurements at ANSTO have validated a new theoretical model that successfully predicts the residual stresses and critical deposition heights for laser additive manufacturing. [29] Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2763] viXra:1810.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-20 04:39:59

### Ultracold Trapped Atoms

Authors: George Rajna

Now NIST scientists have designed a vacuum gauge that is small enough to deploy in commonly used vacuum chambers. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2762] viXra:1810.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-18 10:09:44

### Limit on Electric Dipole Moment

Authors: George Rajna

The most precise measurement yet of the electron's electric dipole moment (EDM) casts doubt on " split supersymmetry " and some other theories of physics beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. [21] In a new study, researchers at Northwestern, Harvard and Yale universities examined the shape of an electron's charge with unprecedented precision to confirm that it is perfectly spherical. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2761] viXra:1810.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-19 03:56:04

### High-Temperature Single-Molecule Magnet

Authors: George Rajna

A team of scientists led by Professor Richard Layfield at the University of Sussex has published breakthrough research in molecule-based magnetic information storage materials. [34] Just like their biological counterparts, hardware that mimics the neural circuitry of the brain requires building blocks that can adjust how they synapse, with some connections strengthening at the expense of others. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2760] viXra:1810.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-19 04:14:42

### Tiny Magnet Within a Single Atom

Authors: George Rajna

In an international collaboration with IBM Research, the University of Oxford and the International Iberian Nanotechnology Laboratory, QNS scientists used advanced and novel techniques to measure the nuclear spin of individual atoms on surfaces for the first time. [35] A team of scientists led by Professor Richard Layfield at the University of Sussex has published breakthrough research in molecule-based magnetic information storage materials. [34] Just like their biological counterparts, hardware that mimics the neural circuitry of the brain requires building blocks that can adjust how they synapse, with some connections strengthening at the expense of others. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2759] viXra:1810.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-19 05:07:44

### Extra Cold Superconducting

Authors: George Rajna

Measuring the properties of superconducting materials in magnetic fields at close to absolute zero temperatures is difficult, but necessary to understand their quantum properties. [35] Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2758] viXra:1810.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 07:26:33

### Elliptically Polarized Light

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at TU Wien, the University of Innsbruck and the ÖAW have for the first time demonstrated a wave effect that can lead to measurement errors in the optical position estimation of objects. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2757] viXra:1810.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 08:00:20

### Complete Micro-physics Unifying Copenhagen QM and EPR: Non-connected Space Embedding

Authors: Bowen Liu

We unexpectedly show that complete micro-physics unifying Copenhagen QM and EPR (that restores to micro-matter causality and locality) is possible. There are two ways to unify physics: the Standard Model approach is that mathematics first and experimental foundation second, the priority of matter evolution over anything; our approach is that experimental foundation first and mathematics second, the priority of space evolution over matter evolution. Our work gives a brand new approach in the field of unified physics. First, similar to Turing’s modeling of computation, we model the spatial process of quantum experiments; give the barest essentials of the space process (as a necessary condition for unified physics): the micro-to-current space process does not have the exchangeability of observers. Second, the revolutionary concepts produced by space process modeling forces us to introduce a new geometry model: non-connected space embedding. Namely, 3-dimensional micro-space is embedded in the 3-dimensional current space in a non-connected way, and the embedding produces a mapping from microscopic space to current space and makes the complete microscopic form into an incomplete quantum form described in terms of state space. In this way, the unification of Copenhagen QM and EPR can be achieved. Space embedding, which has a more reliable experimental basis than the Standard Model, overturns the traditional space theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2756] viXra:1810.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 12:33:12

### Memristor on Atomic Scale

Authors: George Rajna

Just like their biological counterparts, hardware that mimics the neural circuitry of the brain requires building blocks that can adjust how they synapse, with some connections strengthening at the expense of others. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2755] viXra:1810.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 13:06:58

### Reservoir Neural Network Application

Authors: George Rajna

As artificial intelligence has become increasingly sophisticated, it has inspired renewed efforts to develop computers whose physical architecture mimics the human brain. [34] Just like their biological counterparts, hardware that mimics the neural circuitry of the brain requires building blocks that can adjust how they synapse, with some connections strengthening at the expense of others. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2754] viXra:1810.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 13:16:25

### CMBR as Brownian Motion

Authors: David E. Fuller

Brownian Motion = Kinematic Planck Viscosity The Brownian Motion Relation is D= (R*T/(NA6πηa)) = (Kb*T) /(6πηa) Brownian Motion Related to Planck Density & Friedmann Density
Category: Quantum Physics

[2753] viXra:1810.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-17 03:10:27

### Dark Matter Quantum Technology

Authors: George Rajna

Fermilab scientists are harnessing quantum technology in the search for dark matter. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2752] viXra:1810.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-17 03:17:07

### An Introduction to Generally Covariant Quantum Theory.

Authors: Johan Noldus

An eleven page introduction to some of my results over the last three years in an original jacket.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2751] viXra:1810.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-17 04:19:11

### Uranium Hydride Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists from Russia, China and the United States predicted and have now experimentally identified new uranium hydrides, predicting superconductivity for some of them. [34] Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2750] viXra:1810.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-13 10:47:42

### Null-Cone Integral Formulation of Qed

Authors: Julian Brown

It is shown that a transformation of the Dirac equation to a zero sum integral over the past null cone, together with a simple transformation of the electromagnetic field source equation, yields a series, each of whose terms corresponds to one Feynman diagram. A feature of this alternative formulation of QED is that neither propagator factors nor off-shell states appear explicitly.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2749] viXra:1810.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-12 06:59:07

### Physics Fudge Factors

Authors: George Rajna

Science is poised to take a "quantum leap" as more mysteries of how atoms behave and interact with each other are unlocked. [35] A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2748] viXra:1810.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-12 10:27:45

### Ferromagnetic Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna

Russian physicists from MIPT teamed up with foreign colleagues for a groundbreaking experimental study of a material that possesses both superconducting and ferromagnetic properties. [33] An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2747] viXra:1810.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-12 15:23:41

### A Generalized Klein Gordon Equation with a Closed System Condition for the Dirac-Current Probability/field Tensor

Authors: E.P.J. de Haas

I begin with a short historical analysis of the problem of the electron from Lorentz to Dirac. It is my opinion that this problem has been quasi frozen in time because it has always been formulated within the paradigm of the Minkowski-Laue consensus, the relativistic version of the Maxwell-Lorentz theory. By taking spin away from particles and putting it in the metric, thus following Dirac's vision, I start my attempt to formulate an alternative math-phys language. In the created non-commutative math-phys environment, biquaternion and Clifford algebra related, I formulate an alternative for the Minkowski-Laue consensus. This math-phys environment allows me to formulate a generalization of the Dirac current into a Dirac probability/field tensor with connected closed system condition. This closed system condition includes the Dirac current continuity equation as its time-like part. A generalized Klein Gordon equation that includes this Dirac current probability tensor is formulated and analyzed. The Standard Model's Dirac current based Lagrangians are generalized using this Dirac probability/field tensor. The Lorentz invariance or covariance of the generalized equations and Lagrangians is proven. It is indicated that the Dirac probability/field tensor and its closed system condition closes the gap with General Relativity quite a bit.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2746] viXra:1810.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-11 07:19:13

### Quantum Communication Without Encryption

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum secure direct communication transmits secret information directly without encryption. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2745] viXra:1810.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-12 04:51:39

### Topological Anderson Insulator

Authors: George Rajna

Topological insulators (TIs) host exotic physics that could shed new light on the fundamental laws of nature. [25] A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2744] viXra:1810.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 07:25:16

### Quantum Optical Circuits

Authors: George Rajna

A new study by scientists from the University of Bristol brings us a significant step closer to unleashing the revolutionary potential of quantum computing by harnessing silicon fabrication technology to build complex on-chip quantum optical circuits. [24] Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2743] viXra:1810.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-09 08:51:26

### Anomaly in Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna

An international group of scientists, including a researcher from Skoltech, has completed an experimental and theoretical study into the properties displayed by strongly disordered superconductors at very low temperatures. [32] The researchers found that via quick-freeze technique, the metal changed into a superconducting state for over a week. [31] Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2742] viXra:1810.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-09 11:27:35

### Superconducting Quantum Circuits

Authors: George Rajna

Superconducting quantum microwave circuits can function as qubits, the building blocks of a future quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2741] viXra:1810.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-09 13:21:31

### Electron Spin Memory Storage

Authors: George Rajna

Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2740] viXra:1810.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 03:51:45

### Quantum Materials Atom by Atom

Authors: George Rajna

A novel technique that nudges single atoms to switch places within an atomically thin material could bring scientists another step closer to realizing theoretical physicist Richard Feynman's vision of building tiny machines from the atom up. [34] One of the most enduring "Holy Grail" experiments in science has been attempts to directly observe atomic motions during structural changes. [33] Faster and more compact memory storage devices will become a reality when physicists gain precise control of the spins of electrons. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2739] viXra:1810.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-08 07:19:02

### Optimized Laser Material Deposition

Authors: George Rajna

Neutron diffraction strain scanning measurements at ANSTO have validated a new theoretical model that successfully predicts the residual stresses and critical deposition heights for laser additive manufacturing. [29] Tensorial neutron tomography promises new insights into superconductors, battery electrodes and other energy-related materials. [28] CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2738] viXra:1810.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-07 09:21:12

### Chemical Impact Parameter

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at the University of Toronto have found a way to select the outcome of chemical reaction by employing an elusive and long-sought factor known as the 'impact parameter'. [31] Tailor-made protein drugs in the fight against cancer and other diseases are a step close, with the Centre for NanoScale Science and Technology at Flinders playing a part in one of the latest chemistry discoveries in effectively modifying therapeutic proteins. [30] New research published in Nature Methods will dramatically improve how scientists "see inside" molecular structures in solution, allowing for much more precise ways to image data in various fields, from astronomy to drug discovery. [29] Prof WANG Zhisong and his research team from the Department of Physics, NUS have developed two sets of conceptually new mechanisms that enable artificial nanowalkers to move in a self-guided direction using their internal mechanics. [28] Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2737] viXra:1810.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-07 11:09:53

### Dirac Theory's Breaches of Quantum Correspondence and Relativity; Nonrelativistic Pauli Theory's Unique Relativistic Extension

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

A single-particle Hamiltonian independent of the particle's coordinate ensures the particle conserves momentum, i.e., is free. This free-particle Hamiltonian is completely determined by Lorentz covariance of its energy-momentum and the particle's rest-energy value; such a free particle has velocity which vanishes when its momentum vanishes. Dirac required his free-particle Hamiltonian to be inhomogeneously linear in momentum, which contrariwise produces velocity that is independent of momentum; he also required his Hamiltonian's square to equal the above relativistic Hamiltonian's square, forcing many observables to anticommute and breach the quantum correspondence principle, as well as forcing the speed of any Dirac "free particle" to be c times the square root of three, which remains true when the particle interacts electromagnetically. The quantum correspondence principle breach causes a Dirac "free particle" to exhibit spontaneous acceleration that becomes unbounded in the classical limit; an artificial "spin" is also made available. Unlike the Dirac Hamiltonian, the nonrelativistic Pauli Hamiltonian is free of unphysical anomalies. Its relativistic extension is worked out via Lorentz-invariant upgrade of its associated action functional at zero particle velocity, and is obtained in closed form when there is no applied magnetic field; when there is, a successive approximation scheme must be used.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2736] viXra:1810.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-04 07:24:11

### Ultra-Fast Laser Research

Authors: George Rajna

The technique for generating high-intensity, ultra-short optical pulses developed by the 2018 Nobel Prize for Physics winners, Professor Gérard Mourou and Dr. Donna Strickland, provides the basis for important scientific approaches used in Swinburne's research. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2735] viXra:1810.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-04 08:56:25

### Quantum Cryptography Network

Authors: George Rajna

Spanish researchers have developed a quantum cryptography network integrated in a commercial optical network through technologies based on software defined networking (SDN), allowing for the implementation of quantum and classical network services in a flexible, dynamic and scalable manner. [37] Physicists at the University of Sydney have found a 'quantum hack' that should allow for enormous efficiency gains in quantum computing technologies. [36] An international team of scientists has proven, for the first time, the security of so-called device-independent quantum cryptography in a regime that is attainable with state-of-the-art quantum technology, thus paving the way to practical realization of such schemes in which users don't have to worry whether their devices can be trusted or not. [35] Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2734] viXra:1810.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-04 11:35:10

### Gravitational Coupling Constant is 1/(modified Boltzmann’s Constant/2pi)^2 = 1.7517516e-45

Authors: David E. Fuller

(Electron parameters) are dictated by the Geometry of the Aether Medium (Matter & Energy) are (Relativistic Ballast) maintaining the (Fluid Dynamic Balance Of Space Time) relative to (Bulk Modulus Period and Bjerknes Forces) Gravitational coupling constant is 1/(Modified Boltzmann’s Constant/2pi)^2 = 1.7517516e-45 KronosPrime@outlook.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[2733] viXra:1810.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-03 08:42:58

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists from ITMO University developed a laser for precise measurement of the distance between the moon and Earth. [41] Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have used common electronics to build a laser that pulses 100 times more often than conventional ultrafast lasers. [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2732] viXra:1810.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-03 11:31:01

### Topological Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists of the University of Twente and the University of Amsterdam now demonstrate a new property: the non-superconducting material bismuth shows lossless current conduction. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2731] viXra:1810.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-03 13:25:57

### Full-Color Imaging

Authors: George Rajna

Columbia Engineering researchers have created the first flat lens capable of correctly focusing a large range of colors of any polarization to the same focal spot without the need for any additional elements. [19] Discovered by Professor John Nye in Bristol over 35 years ago, polarisation singularities occur at points where the polarisation ellipse is circular, with other polarisations wrapping around them. In 3 dimensions, these singularities occur along lines, in this case creating knots. [18] The detectors created by ATI researchers are able to achieve high sensitivity levels that strongly compete with current technologies, while still operating at low voltages, as well as over the whole X-ray energy range spectrum. [17] There's nothing quite like an ice cream on a hot day, and eating it before it melts too much is part of the fun. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14] The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro-and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2730] viXra:1810.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 10:12:01

### Two Ways to Distinguish One Inertial Frame from Another (No General Causality Without Superluminal Velocities)

Authors: Tamas Lajtner

According to physicists, the laws of physics don’t allow us to discern one inertial frame from another. It does allow. This study shows two ways to distinguish one inertial frame from another. Physics hasn’t defined what is space, what is matter, what is time. In this study (in Space-Matter Theory), space is what matter uses as space, regardless of its texture. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. Both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. When action and reaction occurs between matter and space, the result is time. Time appears as a given wave of space. No particle, no frame of reference can exist without generating space waves. A and B inertial frames of reference are not identical if e.g. two identical electrons (electronA and electronB) create different wavelengths of space waves. One way to distinguish one inertial frame from another is to calculate or measure the length of the wavelength of the space wave. Via tunneling, a particle (with or without mass) travels through the barrier with superluminal velocity. In this case the barrier is a “special” space made out of matter (matter-space), where the particle travels with c velocity. This velocity appears in our space as superluminal velocity. Saying this, there are more spaces and more times instead of one spacetime. The different spaces make changes in the particle, too. The particle builds its action out of Planck constants h, where h has two parts which depend on the velocity of the particle in the given space. So there is also a phenomenon in the matter that makes it possible to distinguish one inertial frame from another.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2729] viXra:1810.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 10:55:12

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe

Certain theories/conclusions in (modern) theoretical physics contain a contradiction and/or a fallacy, those theories/conclusions are incorrect and/or unrealistic.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2728] viXra:1810.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-03 03:00:44

### A Minimum Rindler Horizon When Accelerating?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

When a particle is in constant acceleration, it has been suggested it has a Rindler horizon given by c^2/ a, where a is the proper acceleration. The Rindler event horizon tells us that we cannot receive information outside the horizon during the time period in which we are accelerating at this uniform rate. If we accelerate uniformly, sooner or later we will reach the speed of light, or at least very close to it. In this paper, we will look more closely at the Rindler horizon in relation to Haug’s newly-suggested maximum velocity for matter and see that there likely is a minimum Rindler horizon for a particle with mass that is accelerating; this minimum Rindler horizon may, in fact, be the Planck length.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2727] viXra:1810.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-01 08:06:15

### Space-Borne Quantum Secure Communication

Authors: George Rajna

Entangled photons generated by a spaceborne quantum source could enable hack-proof key exchange for ultra high security applications. [24] These qubits are based on silicon carbide in which molybdenum impurities create color centers. [23] Scientists at Radboud University discovered a new mechanism for magnetic storage of information in the smallest unit of matter: a single atom. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2726] viXra:1810.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-01 09:37:09

### Atomic Quantum Information Carrier

Authors: George Rajna

For the first time, Kaiserslautern researchers were able to implant individual impurities formed by caesium atoms into an ultracold quantum gas of rubidium atoms in a controlled manner. [23] Scientists at Radboud University discovered a new mechanism for magnetic storage of information in the smallest unit of matter: a single atom. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2725] viXra:1810.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-01 15:00:23

### Friedmann Kinematic Viscosity V 3.0

Authors: David E. Fuller, Dahl Winters

Transitions from (Classical Friedmann Kinematic Viscosity) to (electron Compton Kinematic Viscosity) to (Planck Kinematic Viscosity)in a Ideal Fluid Under Pressure KronosPrime@outlook.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[2724] viXra:1809.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 07:15:25

### Quantum Mechanics for Oil Industry

Authors: George Rajna

With their current approach, energy companies can extract about 35 percent of the oil in each well. [36] An international team has shown that quantum computers can do one such analysis faster than classical computers for a wider array of data types than was previously expected. [35] A team of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to use cloud-based quantum computers to conduct quantum simulations and calculations. [34] Physicists have designed a new method for transmitting big quantum data across long distances that requires far fewer resources than previous methods, bringing the implementation of long-distance big quantum data transmission closer to reality. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2723] viXra:1809.0583 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 14:54:28

### Refutation of Deformation Field of Van Leunen

Authors: Colin James III

The arguments by implication or equivalence of van Leunen's deformation field are refuted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2722] viXra:1809.0582 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 15:22:28

### Refraction

Authors: John Wallace, Michael J. Wallace

Reflection of light is well understood refraction is a more difficult problem. Refraction has been treated as a classical property and recently it became apparent where this property finds its quantum origin. The Schr¨odinger equation is a non-relativistic truncation of a more general five term equation that is consistent with relativity in the laboratory frame (Wallace and Wallace, 2017). It is the solution of this five term equation that supplies the quantum nature of refraction. Three different components of the solar neutrino survival data supports a massless electron neutrino, νe, not processes where the electron-neutrino oscillates to different flavors. The neutrino’s weak force interaction with matter is sufficient to produce a measurable refractive index for the neutrino. The ratio of refraction index between the neutrino passing through the earth and the photon in transparent materials reduced to the ratio of a weak force to the electromagnetic force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2721] viXra:1809.0580 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 17:04:14

### A New Mass Measure and a Simplification and Extension of Modern Physics

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

Recent experimental research has shown that mass is linked to Compton periodicity. We suggest a new way to look at mass: Namely that mass at its most fundamental level can simply be seen as reduced Compton frequency over the Planck time. In this way, surprisingly, neither the Planck constant nor Newton’s gravitational constant are needed to observe the Planck length, nor in any type of calculation, except when we want to convert back to old and less informative mass measures such as kg. The theory gives the same predictions as Einstein’s special relativity theory, with one very important exception: anything with mass must have a maximum velocity that is a function of the Planck length and the reduced Compton wavelength. For all observed subatomic particles, such as the electron, this velocity is considerably above what is achieved in particle accelerators, but always below the speed of light. This removes a series of infinity challenges in physics. The theory also offers a way to look at a new type of quantum probabilities. As we will show, a long series of equations become simplified in this way.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2720] viXra:1809.0575 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-30 04:25:08

### Electron Structure, Ultra-dense Hydrogen and Low Energy Nuclear Reactions

Authors: Antonino Oscar Di Tommaso, Giorgio Vassallo

In this paper, a simple Zitterbewegung electron model, proposed in a previous work, is presented from a different perspective that does not require advanced mathematical concepts. A geometric-electromagnetic interpretation of mass, relativistic mass, De Broglie wavelength, Proca, Klein-Gordon and Aharonov-Bohm equations in agreement with the model is proposed. Starting from the key concept of mass-frequency equivalence a non-relativistic interpretation of the 3.7 keV deep hydrogen level found by J. Naudts is presented. Abstract According to this perspective, ultra-dense hydrogen can be conceived as a coherent chain of bosonic electrons with protons or deuterons at center of their Zitterbewegung orbits. The paper ends with some examples of the possible role of ultra-dense hydrogen in some aneutronic low energy nuclear reactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2719] viXra:1809.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 05:44:17

### Skyrmions Magnetic Frustration

Authors: George Rajna

Skyrmions are formed in magnetic systems via a variety of mechanisms, some of which work together. [32] Unique physical properties of these "magic knots" might help to satisfy demand for IT power and storage using a fraction of the energy. [31] A skyrmion is the magnetic version of a tornado which is obtained by replacing the air parcels that make up the tornado by magnetic spins, and by scaling the system down to the nanometre scale. [30] A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2718] viXra:1809.0573 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 06:47:45

### Superconducting and Diamond Qubits

Authors: George Rajna

Important challenges in creating practical quantum computers have been addressed by two independent teams of physicists in the US. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2717] viXra:1809.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 08:03:27

### Refutation of the no-Cloning Theorem in Statistical Models

Authors: Colin James III

The assumptions comprising the conjecture of the no-cloning theorem on statistical models is refuted. What follows is that the no-cloning theorem itself is also refuted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2716] viXra:1809.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 10:44:00

### Refutation of Axiom of Probability for Quantum Theory

Authors: Colin James III

An axiom of probability theory is refuted and hence is unusable for quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2715] viXra:1809.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 15:02:24

### Mass and Field Deformation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The target of this document is the explanation of the essentials of gravity and its characteristic, the mass of discrete objects. The paper explains the deformation and the expansion of fields by massive objects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2714] viXra:1809.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-27 08:18:00

### Generalization of the Bernstein-Vazirani Algorithm Beyond Qubit Systems

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Shahrokh Heidari, Ahmed Farouk, Do Ngoc Diep

First, we review the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm for determining a bit string. Next, we discuss the generalized Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm for determining a natural number string. Finally, we discuss the generalized Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm for determining an integer string. All of the generalized algorithms presented here have the following structure. Given the set of real values $\{a_1,a_2,a_3,\ldots,a_N\}$ and a special function $g$, we determine $N$ values of the function $g(a_1),g(a_2),g(a_3),\ldots, g(a_N)$ simultaneously. The speed of determining the strings is shown to outperform the best classical case by a factor of $N$ in every case.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2713] viXra:1809.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-27 08:25:28

### The no-Cloning Theorem Based on a Statistical Model

We investigate the no-cloning theorem that relies on the properties of a statistical model. Usually, the no-cloning theorem implies that two quantum states are identical or orthogonal if we allow a cloning to be on the two quantum states. Here, we rely on a statistical model. We may result in the fact that the two quantum states under consideration could not be orthogonal if we accept the statistical model. The no-cloning theorem may imply that the two quantum states under consideration may be identical if we accept the statistical model. The no-cloning theorem itself has this character.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2712] viXra:1809.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 01:55:05

### Superconducting Traps Quantum Light

Authors: George Rajna

New research from the lab of Oskar Painter, John G Braun Professor of Applied Physics and Physics in the Division of Engineering and Applied Science, explores the use of superconducting metamaterials to overcome this challenge. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2711] viXra:1809.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 03:32:51

### Electro-Optic Laser Pulses

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have used common electronics to build a laser that pulses 100 times more often than conventional ultrafast lasers. [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2710] viXra:1809.0544 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 05:02:26

### Single, Scattered Exposure

Authors: George Rajna

Engineers at Duke University have developed a way to extract a sequence of images from light scattered through a mostly opaque material—or even off a wall—from one long photographic exposure. [41] Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have used common electronics to build a laser that pulses 100 times more often than conventional ultrafast lasers. [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2709] viXra:1809.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 07:21:59

### Ultra-Sensitive Quantum Sensors

Authors: George Rajna

New research from MIT's interdisciplinary Quantum Engineering Group (QEG) is addressing one of the fundamental challenges facing these quantum sensor systems: removing environmental noise from the signal being measured. [21] An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20] Scientists at Forschungszentrum Jülich have now discovered another class of particle-like magnetic object that could take the development of data storage devices a significant step forward. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2708] viXra:1809.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 12:50:33

### (Classical Friedmann Kinematic Viscosity) to (electron Compton Kinematic Viscosity) to (Planck Kinematic Viscosity)

Authors: David E. Fuller, Dahl Winters

Transitions from (Classical Friedmann Kinematic Viscosity) to (electron Compton Kinematic Viscosity) to (Planck Kinematic Viscosity)in a Ideal Fluid Under Pressure KronosPrime@outlook.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[2707] viXra:1809.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 13:19:02

### (Classical Friedmann Kinematic Viscosity) to (electron Compton Kinematic Viscosity) to (Planck Kinematic Viscosity) 2.0

Authors: David E. Fuller, Dahl Winters

Transitions from (Classical Friedmann Kinematic Viscosity) to (electron Compton Kinematic Viscosity) to (Planck Kinematic Viscosity)in a Ideal Fluid Under Pressure KronosPrime@outlook.com
Category: Quantum Physics

[2706] viXra:1809.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-25 08:08:55

### Quantum Pancake

Authors: George Rajna

An experiment with a cloud of ultracold atoms squashed into a quantum pancake has revealed never-before seen quantum effects that could lead to more efficient electronics, including high temperature superconductors. [35] Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2705] viXra:1809.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-25 08:51:37

### Quantum Leap for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna

Amherst will develop sensors that enlist the seemingly weird properties of quantum physics to probe for dark matter particles in new ways, with increased sensitivity, and in uncharted regions. [33] A huge U.K.-built titanium chamber designed to keep its contents at a cool-100C and weighing as much as an SUV has been shipped to the United States, where it will soon become part of a next-generation dark matter detector to hunt for the long-theorised elusive dark matter particle called a WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle). [32] An international team of scientists that includes University of California, Riverside, physicist Hai-Bo Yu has imposed conditions on how dark matter may interact with ordinary matter—constraints that can help identify the elusive dark matter particle and detect it on Earth. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert.
Category: Quantum Physics

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[1159] viXra:1901.0056 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-14 03:09:13

### This Contagious Error Voids Bell-1964, CHSH-1969, Etc.

Authors: Gordon Watson

Elementary instance-tracking identifies a contagious error in Bell (1964). To wit, and against his own advice: in failing to match instances, Bell voids his own conclusions. The contagion extends to Aspect, Griffiths, Levanto, Motl, Peres and each of CHSH.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1158] viXra:1812.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-13 00:55:47

### A New Representation of Spin Angular Momentum

Authors: Satoshi Hanamura

This paper aims to present intuitive imagery of the angular momentum of electrons, which has not been attempted yet. As electrons move similarly to a slinky spring, we first discuss the motions of a slinky progressing down a stairway. The spin angular momentum under a magnetic field gradient is analogous to a slinky traveling down a stairway inclined perpendicular to the advancing direction. The study extends our previous work from a single virtual oscillating photon to a particle moving linearly in one direction. The entire mass-energy of the electrons is assumed as thermal potential energy. Particles (spinors) possessing this energy emit all their energy by radiation, which is then absorbed by a paired spinor particle. This transfer of radiative energy is accomplished by a virtual photon enveloping the spinor particles. If one electron is a composite of an emitter particle, absorber particles, and transmitter particle, it can discretely move like a slinky spring.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1157] viXra:1812.0437 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-06 01:48:45

### Please: What's Wrong with This Refutation of Bell's Famous Inequality?

Authors: Gordon Watson

Elementary algebra refutes Bell’s famous inequality conclusively.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1156] viXra:1812.0437 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-01 17:14:05

### Please: What's Wrong with This Refutation of Bell's Famous Inequality?

Authors: Gordon Watson

Elementary algebra refutes Bell’s famous inequality conclusively.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1155] viXra:1812.0437 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-31 01:53:28

### Please: What’s Wrong with This Refutation of Bell’s Famous Inequality?

Authors: Gordon Watson

Elementary algebra refutes Bell’s famous inequality conclusively.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1154] viXra:1812.0408 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-01 06:53:36

### Classical Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

Here we present the physical side of the quantum mechanics (QM) that emerges from the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). We showed that the quantum superposition is misinterpreted. The key to understand QM is the difference between quantum coherence and quantum entanglement. We as well explained what conditions and structures lead to relativistic invariants such as electric charge and spin, and how this affects the superposition.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1153] viXra:1812.0273 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-23 03:32:50

### Layered Motions: the Meaning of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

Following a series of papers on geometric interpretations of the wavefunction, this paper offers an overview of all of them. If anything, it shows that classical physics goes a long way in explaining so-called quantum-mechanical phenomena. It is suggested that the fine-structure constant can be interpreted as a scaling constant in a layered model of electron motion. Hence, instead of one single wave equation explaining it all, we offer a theory of superposed motions based on the fine-structure constant, which we interpret as a scaling constant. The layers are the following: 1. To explain the electron’s rest mass, we use the Zitterbewegung model. Here, we think of the electron as a pointlike charge (no internal structure or motion) with zero rest mass, and (1) its two-dimensional oscillation, (2) the E/m = c2 = a2ω2 elasticity of spacetime and (3) Planck’s quantum of action (h) explain the rest mass: it is just the equivalent mass of the energy in the oscillation. 2. We then have the Bohr model, which shows orbitals pack the same amount of physical action (h) or a multiple of it (S = n·h). It just packs that amount in much larger loops which – of course – then also pack a different amount of energy. As it turns out, the equivalent energy (E = h·f) is equal to α2mc2. The fine-structure constant also acts as a scaling constant for all other dimensions (radii, velocities, and frequencies). 3. The difference between the energies of the Bohr orbitals is, of course, the energy of the photon when an electron makes a transition. Hence, we also offer an elegant one-cycle model of a photon and show the meaning of the fine-structure constant as a coupling constant in QED. This all leads to a much more comprehensive interpretation of the fine-structure constant as a scaling constant. As an added bonus, we argue that the fine-structure constant also introduces a form factor (the electron is now viewed as a disk-like structure), which might explain the anomalous magnetic moment. We argue that the anomalous magnetic moment may, therefore, not be anomalous at all.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1152] viXra:1812.0273 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-19 06:03:31

### Layered Motions: the Meaning of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

Following a series of papers on geometric interpretations of the wavefunction, this paper offers an overview of all of them. If anything, it shows that classical physics goes a long way in explaining so-called quantum-mechanical phenomena. It is suggested that the fine-structure constant can be interpreted as a scaling constant in a layered model of electron motion. Instead of one single wave equation explaining it all, we offer a theory of superposed motions based on the fine-structure constant, which we interpret as a scaling constant. The layers are the following: 1. To explain the electron’s rest mass, we use the Zitterbewegung model. Here, we think of the electron as a pointlike charge (no internal structure or motion) with zero rest mass, and (1) its two-dimensional oscillation, (2) the E/m = c2 = a2ω2 elasticity of spacetime and (3) Planck’s quantum of action (h) explain the rest mass: it is just the equivalent mass of the energy in the oscillation. 2. We then have the Bohr model, which shows orbitals pack the same amount of physical action (h). It just packs that amount in a much larger loop (the 1st Bohr orbital) which – of course – then also packs a different amount of energy. As it turns out, the equivalent energy (E = h·f) is equal to α2mc2. Hence, the fine-structure constant effectively pops up as scaling constant here. 3. Finally, we suggest the new form factor (the electron as a disk-like structure) might explain the anomalous magnetic moment and, therefore, be related to a very classical coupling between the motion in the Larmor precession and the orbital motion. Indeed, we argue it is not a coincidence that the fine-structure constant pops up once again to explain the so-called anomaly – which might not be an anomaly at all: it is just the third layer in the motion.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1151] viXra:1812.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-02 16:08:36

### Natuurkundig Scheppingsverhaal

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

De fundamentele beschouwing van de fysieke werkelijkheid leidt al gauw tot een scheppingsverhaal, waarin het hele verloop van de schepping van wat er in het heelal voorkomt wordt verteld.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1150] viXra:1812.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-27 06:44:33

### Natuurkundig Scheppingsverhaal

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 Pages. Dit is onderdeel van het Hilbert Book Model Project

De fundamentele beschouwing van de fysieke werkelijkheid leidt al gauw tot een scheppingsverhaal, waarin het hele verloop van de schepping van wat er in het heelal voorkomt wordt verteld.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1149] viXra:1812.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-24 04:30:32

### Natuurkundig Scheppingsverhaal

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 Pages. Dit is onderdeel van het Hilbert Book Model Project

De fundamentele beschouwing van de fysieke werkelijkheid leidt al gauw tot een scheppingsverhaal, waarin het hele verloop van de schepping van wat er in het heelal voorkomt wordt verteld.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1148] viXra:1812.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-22 07:09:47

### Natuurkundig Scheppingsverhaal

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 Pages. Dit is onderdeel van het Hilbert Book Model Project

De fundamentele beschouwing van de fysieke werkelijkheid leidt al gauw tot een scheppingsverhaal, waarin het hele verloop van de schepping van wat er in het heelal voorkomt wordt verteld.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1147] viXra:1812.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-16 13:14:41

### Natuurkundig Scheppingsverhaal

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. Dit is onderdeel van het Hilbert Book Model Project

De fundamentele beschouwing van de fysieke werkelijkheid leidt al gauw tot een scheppingsverhaal, waarin het hele verloop van de schepping van wat er in het heelal voorkomt wordt verteld.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1146] viXra:1812.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-03 15:57:39

### Physical Creation Story

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The fundamental consideration of physical reality quickly leads to a story of creation, in which the whole course of creation of what occurs in the universe is told.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1145] viXra:1812.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-27 06:45:49

### Physical Creation Story

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The fundamental consideration of physical reality quickly leads to a story of creation, in which the whole course of creation of what occurs in the universe is told.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1144] viXra:1812.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-24 04:31:57

### Physical Creation Story

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The fundamental consideration of physical reality quickly leads to a story of creation, in which the whole course of creation of what occurs in the universe is told.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1143] viXra:1812.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-21 14:52:56

### Physical Creation Story

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 6 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The fundamental consideration of physical reality quickly leads to a story of creation, in which the whole course of creation of what occurs in the universe is told.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1142] viXra:1812.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-19 10:45:29

### Physical Creation Story

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The fundamental consideration of physical reality quickly leads to a story of creation, in which the whole course of creation of what occurs in the universe is told.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1141] viXra:1812.0259 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-16 13:17:16

### Physical Creation Story

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The fundamental consideration of physical reality quickly leads to a story of creation, in which the whole course of creation of what occurs in the universe is told.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1140] viXra:1812.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-21 12:18:08

### The Not-So Anomalous Magnetic Moment

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

This paper is a didactic exploration of the geometry of the experiments measuring the anomalous magnetic moment. It is argued that there may be nothing anomalous about it. We argue that Schwinger’s α/2π factor and the other quantum-mechanical corrections might be explained by a form factor: the electron should, perhaps, not be thought of as a perfect sphere or a perfect disk. If this possibility is allowed for, the anomalous magnetic moment might possibly be explained in terms of a classical explanation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1139] viXra:1812.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-19 05:41:18

### The Not-So Anomalous Magnetic Moment

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

This paper is a very short didactic exploration of the geometry of the experiments measuring the anomalous magnetic moment. It is argued that there is nothing anomalous about it. The Larmor precession invalidates the usual substitution that is made for the gyromagnetic ratio of the precessional motion. In fact, if the substitution is made, one gets a value of 1/2 instead of zero. We should, therefore, not wonder why the anomalous magnetic moment is not equal to zero, but why it is so nearly zero. We suggest the geometry of the situation – and the related classical calculations – explains all, except, of course, Schwinger’s α/2π factor and the other quantum-mechanical corrections. However, we argue these might be explained by the Zitterbewegung model of an electron. That model is associated with a form factor: a disk-like structure, which relates the Bohr and the Compton radius through the fine-structure constant. It would, therefore, be worthwhile to re-attempt to explain the anomalous magnetic moment in terms of a classical explanation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1138] viXra:1812.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-02 08:37:38

### Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory:part B: Granular Space-Time

Authors: Carlton Frederick

A previous publication in Phys. Rev. D, (Part A of this paper) pointed out that vacuum energy fluctuations implied mass fluctuations which implied curvature fluctuations which then implied fluctuations of the metric tensor. The metric fluctuations were then taken as fundamental and a stochastic space-time was theorized. A number of results from quantum mechanics were derived. This paper (Part B), in addressing some of the difficulties of Part A, required an extension of the model: In so far as the fluctuations are not in space-time but of space-time, a granular model was deemed necessary. For Lorentz invariance, the grains have constant 4-volume. Further, as we wish to treat time and space similarly, we propose fluctuations in time. In order that a particle not appear at different points in space at the same time, we find it necessary to introduce a new model for time where time as we know it is emergent from an analogous coordinate, tau-time, τ, where ' τ -Time Leaves No Tracks' (that is to say, in the sub-quantum domain, there is no 'history'). The model provides a 'meaning' of curvature as well as a (loose) derivation of the Schwartzschild metric without need for the General Relativity field equations. The purpose is to fold the seemingly incomprehensible behaviors of quantum mechanics into the (one hopes) less incomprehensible properties of space-time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1137] viXra:1811.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-02 08:34:19

### Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory: Part a

Authors: Carlton Frederick

Abstract Much of quantum mechanics may be derived if one adopts a very strong form of Mach's Principle, requiring that in the absence of mass, space-time becomes not flat but stochastic. This is manifested in the metric tensor which is considered to be a collection of stochastic variables. The stochastic metric assumption is sufficient to generate the spread of the wave packet in empty space. If one further notes that all observations of dynamical variables in the laboratory frame are contravariant components of tensors, and if one assumes that a Lagrangian can be constructed, then one can derive the uncertainty principle. Finally, the superposition of stochastic metrics and the identification of the square root of minus the determinant of the metric tensor as the indicator of relative probability yields the phenomenon of interference, as will be described for the two-slit experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1136] viXra:1811.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-30 08:37:57

### Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory: Part a

Authors: Carlton Frederick

Abstract Much of quantum mechanics may be derived if one adopts a very strong form of Mach's Principle, requiring that in the absence of mass, space-time becomes not flat but stochastic. This is manifested in the metric tensor which is considered to be a collection of stochastic variables. The stochastic metric assumption is sufficient to generate the spread of the wave packet in empty space. If one further notes that all observations of dynamical variables in the laboratory frame are contravariant components of tensors, and if one assumes that a Lagrangian can be constructed, then one can derive the uncertainty principle. Finally, the superposition of stochastic metrics and the identification of the square root of minus the determinant of the metric tensor as the indicator of relative probability yields the phenomenon of interference, as will be described for the two-slit experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1135] viXra:1811.0481 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-19 12:28:35

### Further Analysis of the Schrdinger Cat; Who is the Observer and Why it Sounds Impossible to Reach to the Final Theory of Physics

Comments: 10 Pages. i am under mind control. mk ultra darpa mind reader mind control. behsharifi@gmx.com ut.ac.ir only publish as second version thanks alot

In this paper we analyze the subject of the wave function and observer. we propose a solution to the problem of the Schrdinger cat. we elucidate the relation between consciousness, identity and the nal theory of physics and nally explain the hardship that we face in reaching to the nal theory of physics in passing from the quantum model to another mechanism that admit the nal reasonable and universal answer to the paradox of the Schrdinger cat.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1134] viXra:1811.0463 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-02 08:39:05

### Stochastic Space-Time and Quantum Theory: Part C: Five-Dimensional Space-Time

Authors: Carlton Frederick

This is a continuation of Parts A and B which describe a stochastic, granular space-time model. In this, Part C, in order to tessellate the space-time manifold, it was necessary to introduce a fifth dimension which is 'rolled up' at the Planck scale. The dimension is associated with mass and energy (in a non-trivial way). Further, it addresses other problems in the granular space-time model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1133] viXra:1811.0432 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-03 14:47:34

### Modularity, Consciousness, and Intelligence

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 8 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality has a modular structure. Consciousness gets introduced in the higher levels of the module hierarchy. Intelligence is introduced at the top level.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1132] viXra:1811.0432 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-28 10:34:06

### Modularity, Consciousness, and Intelligence

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 7 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality has a modular structure. Consciousness gets introduced in the higher levels of the module hierarchy. Intelligence is introduced at the top level.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1131] viXra:1811.0399 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-29 14:19:35

### The Metaphysics of Physics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: No. of pages includes title page and page with references

This is a didactic exploration of the basic assumptions and concepts of the Zitterbewegung interpretation of quantum mechanics. Its novelty is in applying the concepts to photons and relating it to other uses of the wavefunction. As such, we could have chosen another title for this paper: the physics of quantum physics. However, we only present interpretations, hypotheses and assumptions. As such, we thought we should stick to the title above: the metaphysics of physics - which sounds somewhat less arrogant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1130] viXra:1811.0399 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-26 20:54:02

### The Metaphysics of Physics

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

This is a didactic exploration of the basic assumptions and concepts of the Zitterbewegung interpretation of quantum mechanics. Its novelty is in applying the concepts to photons and relating it to other uses of the wavefunction. As such, we could have chosen another title for this paper: the physics of quantum physics. However, all we present are interpretations, hypotheses and assumptions only, of course. As such, we preferred the title above: the metaphysics of physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1129] viXra:1811.0396 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-27 22:27:44

### 5 Different Superposition Principles With/without Test Charge, Retarded Waves/advanced Waves Applied to Dynamic Equation of the Photon

Authors: Shuang-Ren Zhao

Category: Quantum Physics

[1128] viXra:1811.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-26 01:15:00

### Proceedings on Qualitative and Quantitative Psychology I

Authors: Johan Noldus

Quantum theory is extended towards the spiritual domain.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1127] viXra:1811.0368 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-26 01:16:56

### Proceedings in Qualitative and Quantitative Psychology: Restrictions on Extra Senses.

Authors: Johan Noldus

Quantum theory is extended towards the spiritual domain.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1126] viXra:1811.0312 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-21 17:16:30

### A Model of an Electron Including Two Perfect Black Bodies

Authors: Satoshi Hanamura

This paper modifies two significant points of existing quantum electrodynamics. First, the image of a virtual photon is replaced with a real one, i.e., till date, we consider virtual photon as being capable of exchanging its energy between two particles along with self interaction, and that it is a transient fluctuation. We shall change this definition such that what we call “an electron” would include two bare electrons and these two would interact within a real photon. The virtual photon in this study is the same as the real photon which is not to observe, but difference from traditional virtual photon because the re-imaged virtual photon would exist continuously not temporally. Second, it is assumed that the bare electron is a perfect black body. To meet the constraints of charge conservation, a virtual photon must include two bare electrons. There is a temperature gradient between the two because the two particles alternate between behaving as emitters and absorbers. The proposed study extends this model by considering that an electron comprises two blinking bare electrons and at least one real photon by exchanging the energies within the three. Consequently, we attempt to create an electron model that exhibits spinor behavior by setting and modifying a trigonometric function which could periodically achieve the value of zero-point energy.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1125] viXra:1811.0266 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-19 10:31:32

### White Spots in Physics

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physics appears to include quite a few white holes. Apparently, this is not very essential for the proper functioning of applied physics. Through some clever steps, some of the white patches can be addressed. That delivers striking and not thought results
Category: Quantum Physics

[1124] viXra:1811.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-19 01:19:09

### On Bell's Experiment

Authors: Han Geurdes

With the use of tropical algebra operators and a d=2 parameter vectors space, Bell's theorem does not forbid a, physics vvalid, reproduction of the quantum correlation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1123] viXra:1811.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-19 10:29:18

### Witte Vlekken in de Natuurkunde

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

De natuurkunde blijkt nog een flink aantal witte plekken te omvatten. Kennelijk is dat niet erg essentieel voor de goede werking van de toegepaste natuurkunde. Via wat slimme stappen kunnen een aantal van de witte vlekken worden aangepakt. Dat levert frappante en niet gedachte resultaten op.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1122] viXra:1811.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-17 15:24:33

### Witte Vlekken in de Natuurkunde

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Project

De natuurkunde blijkt nog een flink aantal witte gaten te omvatten. Kennelijk is dat niet erg essentieel voor de goede werking van de toegepaste natuurkunde. Via wat slimme stappen kunnen een aantal van de witte vlekken worden aangepakt. Dat levert frappante en niet gedachte resultaten op.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1121] viXra:1811.0217 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-13 03:25:53

### Fluid State of Dirac Quantum Particles

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 18 Pages. This paper has been published in Journal of Modern Physics,9, 2402-2419, 2018.

In our previous works we suggest that quantum particles are composite physical objects endowed with the geometric and topological structures of their corresponding differentiable manifolds that would allow them to imitate and adapt to physical environments. In this work we show that Dirac equation in fact describes quantum particles as composite structures that are in a fluid state in which the components of the wavefunction can be identified with the stream function and the velocity potential of a potential flow formulated in the theory of classical fluids. We also show that Dirac quantum particles can manifest as standing waves which are the result of the superposition of two fluid flows moving in opposite directions. However, for a steady motion a Dirac quantum particle does not exhibit a wave motion even though it has the potential to establish a wave within its physical structure, therefore, without an external disturbance a Dirac quantum particle may be considered as a classical particle defined in classical physics. And furthermore, from the fact that there are two identical fluid flows in opposite directions within their physical structures, the fluid state model of Dirac quantum particles can be used to explain why fermions are spin-half particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1120] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-20 11:07:51

### The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin. At the end of the day, the physics of life shows a hit to quantum gravity and spacetime engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1119] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-11 09:44:51

### The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin. At the end of the day, the physics of life shows a hit to quantum gravity and spacetime engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1118] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-31 03:21:44

### The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin. At the end of the day, the physics of life shows a hit to quantum gravity and spacetime engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1117] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-27 14:11:47

### The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin. At the end of the day, the physics of life shows a hit to quantum gravity and spacetime engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1116] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-22 08:37:47

### The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin. At the end of the day, the physics of life shows a hit to quantum gravity and spacetime engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1115] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-15 14:47:14

### The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin. At the end of the day, the physics of life shows a hit to quantum gravity and spacetime engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1114] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-09 06:30:45

### The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin. At the end of the day, the physics of life shows a hit to quantum gravity and spacetime engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1113] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-04 07:53:02

### The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin. It is suggested that the physics of life can offer a hit of quantum gravity and spacetime engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1112] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-28 08:49:45

### The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox and the physics of life are difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1111] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-25 05:36:36

### The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox and the physics of life are difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1110] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-21 08:07:47

### The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 5 Pages. Text expanded and typos corrected.

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox and the physics of life are difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1109] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-18 08:23:50

### The Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox and the physics of life are difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1108] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-11 07:02:08

### Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox and the physics of life are difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1107] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-08 17:03:27

### Physics of Life: Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1106] viXra:1811.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-06 07:24:46

### Flipping a Quantum Coin

Authors: D. Chakalov

If Schrödinger’s cat paradox is difficult to understand, consider flipping a quantum coin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1105] viXra:1810.0437 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-01 05:02:05

### Maximum Velocity for Matter in Relation to the Schwarzschild Radius Predicts Zero Time Dilation for Quasars

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

This is a short note on a new way to describe Haug’s newly introduced maximum velocity for matter in relation to the Schwarzschild radius. This leads to a probabilistic Schwarzschild radius for elementary particles with mass smaller than the Planck mass. In addition, our maximum velocity, when linked to the Schwarzschild radius, seems to predict that particles just at that radius cannot move. This implies that radiation from the Schwarzschild radius not can undergo velocity time dilation. Our maximum velocity of matter, therefore, seems to predict no time dilation, even in high Z quasars, as has surprisingly been observed recently.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1104] viXra:1810.0437 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-28 13:19:21

### Maximum Velocity for Matter in Relation to the Schwarzschild Radius Predicts Zero Time Dilation for Quasars

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

This is a short note on a new way to describe Haug's newly introduced maximum velocity for matter in relation to the Schwarzschild radius. This leads to a probabilistic Schwarzschild radius for elementary particles with mass smaller than the Planck mass. In addition, our maximum velocity, when linked to the Schwarzschild radius, seems to predict that particles just at that radius cannot move. This implies that radiation from the Schwarzschild radius not can undergo velocity time dilation. Our maximum velocity of matter, therefore, seems to predict no time dilation, even in high Z quasars, as has surprisingly been observed recently. If this is correct, there must be a different explanation for cosmological red-shift than the most popular one of the present time; this could also indicate that a new cosmological red-shift theory is needed. We do not offer an explanation here, but encourage other researchers to look more closely at red-shift and quasar time dilation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1103] viXra:1810.0382 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-27 13:52:51

### The Generation of Gamma Ray Bursts by the Intermodulation of Static Magnetic Fields

Authors: Michael Harney

It is shown that by introducing two static magnetic fields into the same iron core which drives the core into its saturation region, that the non-linear response of the core inter-modulates the magnetic fields and produces gamma rays. This is consistent with the Wave Structure of Matter model which shows that a static magnetic field is a free-space wave with a Compton wavelength equal to that of the electron. The intermodulation of these free-space waves produces sum and difference products, generating gamma rays in the energy range that is measurable by a common Geiger counter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1102] viXra:1810.0382 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-28 14:54:08

### The Generation of Gamma Ray Bursts by the Intermodulation of Static Magnetic Fields

Authors: Michael Harney

It is shown that by introducing two static magnetic fields into the same iron core which drives the core into its saturation region, that the non-linear response of the core inter-modulates the magnetic fields and produces gamma rays. This is consistent with the Wave Structure of Matter model which shows that a static magnetic field is a free-space wave with a Compton wavelength equal to that of the electron. The intermodulation of these free-space waves produces sum and difference products, generating gamma rays in the energy range that is measurable by a common Geiger counter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1101] viXra:1810.0349 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-23 06:00:17

### A Generalized Klein Gordon Equation with a Closed System Condition for the Dirac-Current Probability Tensor

Authors: E. P. J. de Haas
Comments: 42 Pages. Improved Lorentz transformation of the Dirac spinors.

By taking spin away from particles and putting it in the metric, thus following Dirac's vision, I start my attempt to formulate an alternative math-phys language, biquaternion based and incorporating Clifford algebra. At the Pauli level of two by two matrix representation of biquaternion space, a dual base is applied, a space-time and a spin-norm base. The chosen space-time base comprises what Synge called the minquats and in the same spirit I call their spin-norm dual the pauliquats. Relativistic mechanics, electrodynamics and quantum mechanics are analyzed using this approach, with a generalized Poynting theorem as the most interesting result. Then moving onward to the Dirac level, the M{\"o}bius doubling of the minquat/pauliquat basis allows me to formulate a generalization of the Dirac current into a Dirac probability/field tensor with connected closed system condition. This closed system condition includes the Dirac current continuity equation as its time-like part. A generalized Klein Gordon equation that includes this Dirac current probability tensor is formulated and analyzed. The usual Dirac current based Lagrangians of relativistic quantum mechanics are generalized using this Dirac probability/field tensor. The Lorentz transformation properties the generalized equation and Lagrangian is analyzed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1100] viXra:1810.0339 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-30 17:30:36

### Euler’s Wavefunction: the Double Life of 1

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

This paper is the 5th in a series of explorations to see if a simple physical interpretation of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction could possibly make sense. It challenges two of the usual objections to such interpretation: 1. The superposition of wavefunctions is done in the complex space and, hence, the assumption of a real-valued envelope for the wavefunction is, therefore, not acceptable. 2. The wavefunction for spin-1/2 particles cannot represent any real object because of its 720-degree symmetry in space. Real objects have the same spatial symmetry as space itself, which is 360 degrees. Hence, physical interpretations of the wavefunction are nonsensical. The heuristic arguments in this paper will, hopefully, convince the reader these objections are subject to interpretation themselves. If anything, the ideas presented in this paper might contribute to a better didactic model for teaching quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1099] viXra:1810.0251 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-19 10:04:08

### An Introduction to Generally Covariant Quantum Theory.

Authors: Johan Noldus

An eleven page introduction to some of my results over the last three years in an original jacket.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1098] viXra:1810.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-07 14:41:32

### Null-Cone Integral Formulation of Qed

Authors: Julian Brown

In these preliminary notes it is shown that the positive(negative) energy solutions of the Dirac equation also solve a specific integral equation over the past(future) null cone. It is shown that this integral equation yields the same scattering amplitudes as in the Feynman propagator picture, except for an intrinsic energy cutoff for emitted photons at $\omega_{max} = m_e$ due to the positive (negative) energy constraint imposed by the past(future) cone geometry. Fermionic self-energy is therefore finite and calculable.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1097] viXra:1810.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-07 12:26:02

### Two Ways to Distinguish One Inertial Frame from Another (No General Causality Without Superluminal Velocities)

Authors: Tamas Lajtner

According to physicists, the laws of physics don’t allow us to discern one inertial frame from another. It does allow. This study shows two ways to distinguish one inertial frame from another. Physics hasn’t defined what is space, what is matter, what is time. In this study (in Space-Matter Theory), space is what matter uses as space, regardless of its texture. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. Both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. When action and reaction occurs between matter and space, the result is time. Time appears as a given wave of space. No particle, no frame of reference can exist without generating space waves. A and B inertial frames of reference are not identical if e.g. two identical electrons (electronA and electronB) create different wavelengths of space waves. One way to distinguish one inertial frame from another is to calculate or measure the length of the wavelength of the space wave. Via tunneling, a particle (with or without mass) travels through the barrier with superluminal velocity. In this case the barrier is a “special” space made out of matter (matter-space), where the particle travels with c velocity. This velocity appears in our space as superluminal velocity. Saying this, there are more spaces and more times instead of one spacetime. The different spaces make changes in the particle, too. The particle builds its action out of Planck constants h, where h has two parts which depend on the velocity of the particle in the given space. So there is also a phenomenon in the matter that makes it possible to distinguish one inertial frame from another.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1096] viXra:1810.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-03 09:32:43

### Two Ways to Distinguish One Inertial Frame from Another (No General Causality Without Superluminal Velocities)

Authors: Tamas Lajtner

According to physicists, the laws of physics don’t allow us to discern one inertial frame from another. It does allow. This study shows two ways to distinguish one inertial frame from another. Physics hasn’t defined what is space, what is matter, what is time. In this study (in Space-Matter Theory), space is what matter uses as space, regardless of its texture. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. Both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. When action and reaction occurs between matter and space, the result is time. Time appears as a given wave of space. No particle, no frame of reference can exist without generating space waves. A and B inertial frames of reference are not identical if e.g. two identical electrons (electronA and electronB) create different wavelengths of space waves. One way to distinguish one inertial frame from another is to calculate or measure the length of the wavelength of the space wave. Via tunneling, a particle (with or without mass) travels through the barrier with superluminal velocity. In this case the barrier is a “special” space made out of matter (matter-space), where the particle travels with c velocity. This velocity appears in our space as superluminal velocity. Saying this, there are more spaces and more times instead of one spacetime. The different spaces make changes in the particle, too. The particle builds its action out of Planck constants h, where h has two parts which depend on the velocity of the particle in the given space. So there is also a phenomenon in the matter that makes it possible to distinguish one inertial frame from another.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1095] viXra:1809.0582 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-02 18:38:08

### Refraction

Authors: John Wallace, Michael J. Wallace

Reflection of light is well understood refraction is a more difficult problem. Refraction has been treated as a classical property and recently it became apparent where this property finds its quantum origin. The Schr¨odinger equation is a non-relativistic truncation of a more general five term equation that is consistent with relativity in the laboratory frame (Wallace and Wallace, 2017). It is the solution of this five term equation that supplies the quantum nature of refraction. Three different components of the solar neutrino survival data supports a massless electron neutrino, νe, not processes where the electron-neutrino oscillates to different flavors. The neutrino’s weak force interaction with matter is sufficient to produce a measurable refractive index for the neutrino. The ratio of refraction index between the neutrino passing through the earth and the photon in transparent materials reduced to the ratio of a weak force to the electromagnetic force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1094] viXra:1809.0564 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-18 07:56:23

### Mass and Field Deformation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 10 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The target of this document is the explanation of the essentials of gravity and its characteristic, the mass of discrete objects. The paper explains the deformation and the expansion of fields by massive objects. Special attention is paid to elementary particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1093] viXra:1809.0564 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-10 04:56:23

### Mass and Field Deformation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 10 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Project

The target of this document is the explanation of the essentials of gravity and its characteristic, the mass of discrete objects. The paper explains the deformation and the expansion of fields by massive objects. Special attention is paid to elementary particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1092] viXra:1809.0564 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-24 02:57:05

### Mass and Field Deformation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen