Quantum Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[1710] viXra:1705.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-23 07:52:50

The Magnetic Nature of the Solar System

Authors: Fenton John Doolan
Comments: 16 pages

Since Isaac Newton first described gravity as a force of attraction between masses in the late seventeenth century mankind has been trying to explain the mechanism which creates it. Albert Einstein in 1915 proposed that matter tells space and time how to bend in his mathematical theory of General Relativity. Since then scientists have suggested the existence of the graviton a particle that creates the force of attraction between two objects. This paper suggests that gravity is a by-product of electromagnetism. The Sun and the Earth are acting like inverter magnets which creates an attractive and repulsive force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1709] viXra:1705.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 07:35:58

On the Origin of Spiritual Disruptions.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 3 Pages. temporary notes about laws behind consciousness.

I give away two simple principles indicating the cause for spiritual disruptions of different kinds of severity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1708] viXra:1705.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 08:00:19

Entanglement in Isolated Quantum Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The physicists in Göttingen are part of a German-Italian collaboration which has now published an amazing discovery in Nature Communications: even quantum systems can synchronize through self-organization, without any external control. This synchronization manifests itself in the strangest property of the quantum world – entanglement. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1707] viXra:1705.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 05:05:19

Quantum Emitter Arrays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Quantum light emitters, or quantum dots, are of interest for many different applications, including quantum communication and networks. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1706] viXra:1705.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 18:45:35

A New Quantum Algorithm in Case of a Special Function (New Version)

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Han Geurdes, Ahmed Farouk, Josep Batle, Soliman Abdalla, Germano Resconi
Comments: 4 Pages

We present a new quantum algorithm. It determines the property of a function. It is $f(x)=f(-x)$. How fast can we succeed? The quantum algorithm does not use the Hadamard transformation. All we need is of evaluating $|\overbrace{0,0,...,1}^N\rangle$. And we can know the global property, that is, we can realize $f(x)=f(-x)$ for numbers. Our quantum algorithm overcomes a classical counterpart by a factor of $O(2^N)$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1705] viXra:1705.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 10:34:05

One-Sided Magnet Unexpected Turn

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Of the many 'white whales' that theoretical physicists are pursuing, the elusive magnetic monopole-a magnetic with only one pole-is one of the most confounding. [14] The transformation of a quantum monopole into a Dirac monopole has been observed for the first time by physicists at Amherst College in the US and Aalto University in Finland. [13] Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1704] viXra:1705.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 20:27:04

Unification

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

There is a reason why general relativity cannot be unified with quantum mechanics, physicists don't realize that Einstein's reason for gravity is not real. Einstein's gravity is a mathematical gravity, you cannot unify something that is based on mathematical fiction (general relativity) with reality (quantum mechanics). I will show you how I unified general relativity with quantum mechanics, I was able to do it because I found the origin of gravity and time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1703] viXra:1705.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 04:31:59

Particle-Free Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Particle-free quantum communication is achieved in the lab. [18] In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1702] viXra:1705.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 05:39:30

Transforming Magnetic Monopoles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The transformation of a quantum monopole into a Dirac monopole has been observed for the first time by physicists at Amherst College in the US and Aalto University in Finland. [13] Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1701] viXra:1705.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 06:20:19

Graphene Quantum Bits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

In the race to produce a quantum computer, a number of projects are seeking a way to create quantum bits—or qubits—that are stable, meaning they are not much affected by changes in their environment. [18] The global race towards a functioning quantum computer is on. With future quantum computers, we will be able to solve previously impossible problems and develop, for example, complex medicines, fertilizers, or artificial intelligence. [17] The Tohoku University research group of Professor Keiichi Edamatsu and Postdoctoral fellow Naofumi Abe has demonstrated dynamically and statically unpolarized single-photon generation using diamond. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1700] viXra:1705.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 06:40:53

The Wikiversity Hilbert Book Model Project

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages.

This document introduces the Wikiversity Hilbert Book Model Project and describes its current state.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1699] viXra:1705.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 13:12:14

Quantum Monopole Destruction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1698] viXra:1705.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 13:30:31

Testing in Quantum Simulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Quantum field theories are often hard to verify in experiments. Now, there is a new way of putting them to the test. [13] Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1697] viXra:1705.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 07:21:45

Fast Wave–Wave–Particle Triality

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 7 Pages.

The de Broglie wavelength describes the wave-particle duality. The de Broglie wavelength formula and the Planck law seem to be contradicted in the University of Rochester's experiment of fast light. The fast light has longer wavelengths than the "normal" light. According to the de Broglie formula, longer wavelength means smaller momentum (smaller energy) and/or increasing Planck constant. But the fast light has the same amount of energy as the normal light. It is a contradiction between the de Broglie function and the Planck law. Here we show that the 'rest action', 'rest energy' of the fast light can resolve this contradiction. This 'rest action' of the light is a new concept that hasn't been considered. It is hidden in the Planck constant. In uncovering this part we find that the Planck constant has two parts; one part shows the 'rest action', 'rest energy' of the fast light and an other part shows the 'kinetic action', 'kinetic energy' of fast light. Fast light is a kind of fast wave. The Fast Wave–Wave–Particle Triality describes a new kind of metamorphosis of matter, for example how tunneling electrons travels faster than light without violating the special relativity. Using the Fast Wave–Wave–Particle Triality, we can realize that the speed of light is not a speed limit for particles with mass, since they can be transformed into fast waves. This model allows us to preserve the special relativity while we can accept particles with mass that may travel faster than light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1696] viXra:1705.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 02:27:13

On the Higgs Boson’s Range

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 4 Pages.

The discovery of the Higgs boson (HB) has revealed a highly massive particle, the value of which lies between 125 and 126.5 GeV/c2. Bearing in mind the basic concepts of Quantum Field Theory, and in full compliance with the Heisemberg Uncertainy Principle, we were able to calculate the maximum limit of the HB’s range: in perfect agreement with its high mass, it presents a value really very small, of slightly less than 10-15[cm], namely 9.8828 ∙ 10-16[cm].
Category: Quantum Physics

[1695] viXra:1705.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-16 09:00:51

Interaction Between Atomic Nucleus and Electron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Precision measurement on heavy ions contradicts theory of interaction between atomic nucleus and electron. [15] For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope. [14] International team solves mystery of colloidal chains. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1694] viXra:1705.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 14:14:41

Nokton Theory v2.0

Authors: L.saidani
Comments: 8 Pages.

The nokton theory is an attempt to construct a theory adapted to every physical phenomenon. Space and time have been discretized. Its laws are iterative and precise. Probability plays an important role here. At first I defined the notion of image function and its mathematical framework. The notion of nokton and its state are the basis of several definitions. I later defined the canonical image function and the canonical contribution. Two constants have been necessary to define the dynamics of this theory. With its combinatorial complexity, the theory has at present given no result which seems to me interesting. The document is only a foundation. Among the merits of this theory the absence of the infinites and its interpretation that is contrary to the quantum mechanics or the general relativity does not strike the common sense of the physicist.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1693] viXra:1705.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 10:06:53

Spectroscopy Detect Art Fraud

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

When we look at a painting, how do we know it's a genuine piece of art? [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1692] viXra:1705.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-15 06:37:31

Precision Control of Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The research team recently succeeded for the first time in precisely controlling the transition temperature of superconducting atomic layers using organic molecules. [31] For the first time, physicists have experimentally validated a 1959 conjecture that places limits on how small superconductors can be. [30] A new finding by physicists at MIT and in Israel shows that under certain specialized conditions, electrons can speed through a narrow opening in a piece of metal more easily than traditional theory says is possible. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1691] viXra:1705.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 08:02:21

Limit For Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have subjected quantum entanglement to extreme levels of acceleration, and there's nothing fragile about this "spooky action at a distance"-it's way more robust than we thought. [13] Now, new research in the American Physical Society's journal Physical Review Letters brings aspects of the two together in an experiment that shows, for the first time, that gravity stretches and squeezes quantum objects through tidal forces. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1690] viXra:1705.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-14 09:42:59

The Unification of Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Consciousness

Authors: Madonna-Megara Holloway
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Unification of Quantum Mechanics, General Relativity and Consciousness – An Excerpt from The Secret Doctrine Volume IV, The Nature of Everything
Category: Quantum Physics

[1689] viXra:1705.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 20:48:18

Quantum Nonlinear Four-Wave Mixing with a Single Atom in an Optical Cavity

Authors: Haytham Chibani
Comments: 5 Pages.

Single atom cavity quantum electrodynamics grants access to nonclassical photon statistics, while electromagnetically induced transparency exhibits a dark state of long coherence time. The combination of the two produces a new light field via four-wave mixing that shows long-lived quantum statistics. We observe the new field in the emission from the cavity as a beat with the probe light that together with the control beam and the cavity vacuum is driving the four-wave mixing process. Moreover, the control field allows us to tune the new light field from antibunching to bunching, demonstrating our all-optical control over the photon-pair emission.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1688] viXra:1705.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 12:24:55

How to Generalize Incomplete Physical Laws

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 4 Pages.

This work refers to a method of generalizing incomplete physical laws through the scale law. Generalization can only be applied when the general law exists but has not yet been discovered. It is remarkable that the very simple methodology described in this paper turns out to be so powerful.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1687] viXra:1705.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 15:03:41

Hydrogen Bonds Detected

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

For the first time, scientists have succeeded in studying the strength of hydrogen bonds in a single molecule using an atomic force microscope. [14] International team solves mystery of colloidal chains. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1686] viXra:1705.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 11:51:49

On the Scale Factors of Energy Formulas

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper explores the scale factors of three laws: (a) the Einstein's relativistic energy law, (b) Newton's law of universal gravitation and (c) the special universal uncertainty principle. Two new concepts are defined: complete energy laws and incomplete energy laws. This investigation shows that the first two laws have scale factors of 1 while the third one has a scale factor of -1. These results could be useful in the future to predict scale factors of new laws of nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1685] viXra:1705.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 08:21:12

Entropy and Quantum Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

By precisely measuring the entropy of a cerium copper gold alloy with baffling electronic properties cooled to nearly absolute zero, physicists in Germany and the United States have gleaned new evidence about the possible causes of high-temperature superconductivity and similar phenomena. [28] Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1684] viXra:1705.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 09:17:02

Laser Frequency Combs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers at ETH have now developed a method by which such frequency combs can be created much more simply and cheaply than before. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1683] viXra:1705.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 09:45:21

New Theory of Quantum Masm

Authors: God Bo
Comments: 3 Pages.

A new theory of quantum MASM, approved by hundreds of professors.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1682] viXra:1705.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 13:18:27

Molecules with Quantum Logic

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) physicists have solved the seemingly intractable puzzle of how to control the quantum properties of individual charged molecules, or molecular ions. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1681] viXra:1705.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 11:02:05

Quantum Entanglement Unbreakable

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Einstein's "spooky action at a distance" persists even at high accelerations, researchers of the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna were able to show in a new experiment. [19] Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information,
Category: Quantum Physics

[1680] viXra:1705.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 08:05:54

Skyrmions Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Jarvis Loh, Gan Chee Kwan and Khoo Khoong Hong from the Agency for Science, Technology and Research (A*STAR) Institute of High Performance Computing, Singapore, have modeled these minute spin spirals in nanoscopic crystal layers. [18] Some of the world's leading technology companies are trying to build massive quantum computers that rely on materials super-cooled to near absolute zero, the theoretical temperature at which atoms would cease to move. [17] While technologies that currently run on classical computers, such as Watson, can help find patterns and insights buried in vast amounts of existing data, quantum computers will deliver solutions to important problems where patterns cannot be seen because the data doesn't exist and the possibilities that you need to explore to get to the answer are too enormous to ever be processed by classical computers. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1679] viXra:1705.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 09:44:23

Supercurrent Information Transfer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Physicists have theoretically shown that a superconducting current of electrons can be induced to flow by a new kind of transport mechanism: the potential flow of information. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1678] viXra:1705.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 05:52:48

Research of Lunar Dust Properties for Quantum Electronics and Photonics

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 1 Page. CREATION OF LEVITATING MATERIALS AND DEVICES

Lunar dust is levitated from the surface by powerful electrostatic charges generated by interplanetary radiation swirling across the landscape. In fact, electrical charges might even produce dust 'fountains'. As the rising Sun's light and radiation sweeps across the lunar surface it could generate large positive charges, enough to levitate dust particles of active metals a mile high, until they drop back, only to get levitated again like a pulsing fountain
Category: Quantum Physics

[1677] viXra:1705.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-10 03:04:07

Opto-Mechanical Transparency

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a ground-breaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1676] viXra:1705.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 07:55:33

Quantum Computing Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Some of the world's leading technology companies are trying to build massive quantum computers that rely on materials super-cooled to near absolute zero, the theoretical temperature at which atoms would cease to move. [17] While technologies that currently run on classical computers, such as Watson, can help find patterns and insights buried in vast amounts of existing data, quantum computers will deliver solutions to important problems where patterns cannot be seen because the data doesn't exist and the possibilities that you need to explore to get to the answer are too enormous to ever be processed by classical computers. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1675] viXra:1705.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 08:27:57

Internet of Things Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The power of big data is used in a strategy developed by A*STAR to improve the security of networks of internet-connected objects, known as the Internet of Things (IoT), technology which will make everything from streetlights to refrigerators 'smart'. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1674] viXra:1705.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 06:25:08

Separable Quantum States Are Easier to Synthesize

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 11 pages

An important application of Grover's search algorithm [2] in the domain of experimental physics is its use in the synthesis of any selected superposition state [3]. This paper is about showing the utility of factorisation using [1] of the quantum state to be synthesised. We first factorise the given quantum state to be synthesised when it is factorable. We then make use of these factors and construct the corresponding operators useful for synthesis of those factors. We then build the operator called synthesizer by taking tensor product of these operators constructed using factors and useful for synthesis of those factors. We then apply the synthesizer made up of the tensor product of the operators that we built using the corresponding factors on the suitable register whose all the qubits have been initialised to |0>: Further, this register is also made up of tensor product of registers of suitable lengths and the first qubit of all these registers is ancilla qubit initialised to |0>: We show that we can achieve the speeding up of the process of synthesising the desired quantum state with our modified algorithm when the state is factorable and has at least two factors. It is shown here that the greater the number of factors of the quantum state, the easier it is to synthesise. We will see that in fact the task of synthesising an n-qubit quantum state which is completely factorable into n single qubit factors is exponentially easier than the task of synthesising an n-qubit completely entangled quantum state having no factors.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1673] viXra:1705.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 06:35:32

Advancing Quantum Technologies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

The Tohoku University research group of Professor Keiichi Edamatsu and Postdoctoral fellow Naofumi Abe has demonstrated dynamically and statically unpolarized single-photon generation using diamond. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1672] viXra:1705.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 07:01:48

Refrigerator for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

The global race towards a functioning quantum computer is on. With future quantum computers, we will be able to solve previously impossible problems and develop, for example, complex medicines, fertilizers, or artificial intelligence. [17] The Tohoku University research group of Professor Keiichi Edamatsu and Postdoctoral fellow Naofumi Abe has demonstrated dynamically and statically unpolarized single-photon generation using diamond. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1671] viXra:1705.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-08 18:10:41

Problems of Quantum Mechanics (UET7B)

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 82 Pages. A milestone paper in the author's research programme.

This paper re-opens the debate on the failure of quantum mechanics to provide an understandable view of micro-reality. A critique is offered of the commonly accepted ‘Copenhagen Interpretation’ of a theory that is only a mathematical approach to the level of reality characterized by atoms and electrons. This critique is based on the oldest approach to thinking about nature for over 2500 years, known as Natural Philosophy. Quantum mechanics (QM) was developed over the first quarter of the 20th Century, when scientists were enthralled by a new philosophy known as Positivism, whose foundations were based on the assumption that material objects exist only when measured by humans – this central assumption conflates epistemology (knowledge) with ontology (existence). The present critique rejects this human-centered view of reality by assuming material reality has existed long before (and will persist long after) human beings (“Realism”). The defensive view that the micro-world is too different to understand using regular thinking (and only a mathematical approach is possible) is rejected totally. At least 12 earlier QM interpretations are critically analyzed, indicating the broad interest in “what does QM mean?” The standard theory of quantum mechanics is thus constructed on only how the micro-world appears to macro measurements - as such, it cannot offer any view of how the foundations of the world are acting when humans are not observing it - this has generated almost 100 years of confusion and contradiction at the very heart of physics. Significantly, we live in a world that is not being measured by scientists but is interacting with itself and with us. QM has failed to provide explanations: only recipes (meaningless equations), not insights. Physics has returned to the pre-Newtonian world of Ptolemaic phenomenology: only verifiable numbers without real understanding. The focus needs to be on an explicit linkage between the micro-world, when left to itself, and our mental models of this sphere of material reality, via the mechanism of measurement. This limits the role of measurement to confirming our mental models of reality but never confusing these with a direct image of ‘the thing in itself’. This implies a deep divide between reality and appearances, as Kant suggested. This paper includes an original analysis of several major assumptions that have been implicit in Classical Mechanics (CM) that were acceptable in the macroscopic domain of reality, demonstrated by its proven successes. Unfortunately, only a few of these assumptions were challenged by the developers of QM. We now show that these other assumptions are still generating confusions in the interpretation of QM and blocking further progress in the understanding of the microscopic domain. Several of these flawed assumptions were introduced by Newton to support the use of continuum mathematics as a model of nature. This paper proposes that it is the attempt to preserve continuum mathematics (especially calculus), which drives much of the mystery and confusion behind all attempts at understanding quantum mechanics. The introduction of discrete mathematics is proposed to help analyze the discrete interactions between the quintessential quantum objects: the electrons and their novel properties. A related paper demonstrates that it is possible to create a point-particle theory of electrons that explains all their peculiar (and ‘paradoxical’) behavior using only physical hypotheses and discrete mathematics without introducing the continuum mathematical ideas of fields or waves. Another (related) paper proves that all the known results for the hydrogen atom can also be exactly calculated from this new perspective with the discrete mathematics. * Surrey, B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299 spsi99@telus.net Version 2.015 08-05-2017 Begun 23-06-2008 {pp. 82, 70.2 Kw; 800 KB}
Category: Quantum Physics

[1670] viXra:1705.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-08 07:46:32

Five Ways of Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

While technologies that currently run on classical computers, such as Watson, can help find patterns and insights buried in vast amounts of existing data, quantum computers will deliver solutions to important problems where patterns cannot be seen because the data doesn't exist and the possibilities that you need to explore to get to the answer are too enormous to ever be processed by classical computers. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1669] viXra:1705.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-08 07:59:29

Violation of Bell's Inequality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Quantum entanglement, one of the most intriguing features of multi-particle quantum systems, has become a fundamental building block in both quantum information processing and quantum computation. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1668] viXra:1705.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-08 08:59:21

Mysterious World of Quantum Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Jie Ma, a professor from Shanghai Jiao Tong University in China, is using neutrons at Oak Ridge National Laboratory's High Flux Isotope Reactor to discover a three-dimensional image of the magnetic lattice of an oxide material (Ba2CoTeO6) containing quantum properties that could provide new insight into how electron "spins" can improve data processing and storage in computers. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons - thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature - to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1667] viXra:1705.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-07 16:49:38

Derivation of the Planck Force from Heisenberg Uncertainty Relations

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper I derive the expression for the Planck force from the Heisenberg uncertainty relations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1666] viXra:1705.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-07 18:43:23

Mass of Baryons from Self-Magnetic Fields Energy: Influence of Flux Quantization.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 8 Pages. 1 table and 2 figures

In previous papers the author has analyzed data for leptons and baryons which converges to the association of magnetic energy to the rest enegies of these particles. In this paper a crucial parameter in this model, the number of flux quanta n trapped inside the region covered by an intrinsic motion of a particle, is considered in detail. Strictly fitting theory to experiment for baryons results in fractionary n which lie close but deviate from the expected numbers from a classical calculation. We show that the data diaplay a tendency to form Shapiro-like steps at integer numbers of flux quanta, which seems at least in part responsible for the observed deviations from the classical prediction.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1665] viXra:1705.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-06 11:30:37

Fluxon and Quantum of Canonical Angular Momentum Determined by the Same Conditional Equation

Authors: Uwe Kayser-Herold
Comments: 2 Pages.

A transformation of the conditional equation for the magnetic flux quantum $\vec{\Phi}_{0} = \frac{2\pi}{e} \hspace{2} \vec{\hbar}/2$ yields the conditional equation for the quantum of electromagnetic canonical angular momentum: $ \frac{e}{2 \pi} \hspace{2} \vec{\Phi}_{0} = \vec{\hbar}/2$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1664] viXra:1705.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-05 11:00:03

Chemical Memory Unit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1663] viXra:1705.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-05 11:36:44

Photonic Hypercrystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a ground-breaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1662] viXra:1705.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-05 09:04:13

Counterfactual Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

In the non-intuitive quantum domain, the phenomenon of counterfactuality is defined as the transfer of a quantum state from one site to another without any quantum or classical particle transmitted between them. [17] The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1661] viXra:1705.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-04 11:52:29

Future Quantum Internet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

The quantum internet, which connects particles linked together by the principle of quantum entanglement, is like the early days of the classical internet – no one can yet imagine what uses it could have, according to Professor Ronald Hanson, from Delft University of Technology, the Netherlands, whose team was the first to prove that the phenomenon behind it was real. [16] Through a collaboration between the University of Calgary, The City of Calgary and researchers in the United States, a group of physicists led by Wolfgang Tittel, professor in the Department of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Calgary have successfully demonstrated teleportation of a photon (an elementary particle of light) over a straight-line distance of six kilometers using The City of Calgary's fiber optic cable infrastructure. [15] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1660] viXra:1705.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-04 08:01:49

To the Map of Science and the Quantum Physics Consistency

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 7 Pages.

With all diversity of the Theoretical Physics, there is no problem to reconcile the Nature with reality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1659] viXra:1705.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-04 03:34:37

Quantum Chemistry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1658] viXra:1705.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-03 08:57:59

Atom Interferometer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A team of researchers at Sandia Labs in the U.S. has developed a type of atom interferometer that does not require super-cooled temperatures. [15] By taking advantage of a phenomenon known as "quantum mechanical squeezing," researchers have conceptually designed a new method of applying atomic force microscopy. [14] In modern physics of the past century, understanding the electronic properties and interactions between electrons inside matter has been a major challenge. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1657] viXra:1705.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-03 06:34:14

Atomic Force Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

By taking advantage of a phenomenon known as "quantum mechanical squeezing," researchers have conceptually designed a new method of applying atomic force microscopy. [14] In modern physics of the past century, understanding the electronic properties and interactions between electrons inside matter has been a major challenge. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1656] viXra:1705.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-02 08:30:38

Photoluminescent Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

By replacing the phosphor screen in a laser phosphor display (LPD) with a luminescent solar concentrator (LSC), one can harvest energy from ambient light as well as display high-resolution images. [34] A team of researchers from Japan reports this week in Applied Physics Letters, that they have discovered a phenomenon called the photodielectric effect, which could lead to laser-controlled touch displays. [33] Researchers from the ARC Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) in the University of Sydney's Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology have made a breakthrough achieving radio frequency signal control at sub-nanosecond time scales on a chip-scale optical device. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1655] viXra:1705.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-02 10:17:04

Double Slit Experiment, Complementarity Principle and Doppler Effect

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper I propose an explanation of the double slit experiment results, considered in a general form, in terms of the Doppler effect, as a consequence of applying the complementarity principle. It is shown that, if we accept the fact that both particle and wave are manifestations of the same conceptual whole, in the general form of the particle-wave dualism, then the Doppler effect will be a manifestation for both wave and particle, and the double slit experiment will be a qualitative illustration of this fact.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1654] viXra:1705.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-01 11:29:39

Schrödinger Cat States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Physicists have learned how they could breed Schrödinger cats in optics. Scientists tested a method that could potentially amplify superpositions of classical states of light beyond microscopic limits and help determine the boundaries between the quantum and classical worlds. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1653] viXra:1705.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-01 05:20:29

Quantum Forrelation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1652] viXra:1705.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-01 07:43:20

Einstein's Maze of Mathematical Fiction

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

There are a lot of mysteries in modern theoretical physics, physicists don't realize that most mysteries in the universe are in fact man-made. I will show you that the foundation of modern theoretical physics is based on fallacies, the foundation is mathematical fiction (it's not real). When you base your theory on mathematical fiction (on something that's not real) then you can only end up in mathematical fiction, your theory will always describe something that's unrealistic. Most theories are intertwined with Einstein's theory of gravity, so Einstein's theory of gravity can be seen as the foundation of modern theoretical physics. Physicists didn't notice that Einstein made several mistakes in his mathematical model of gravity (curved spacetime), those mistakes were devastating to modern theoretical physics. Why?, physicists based their theories on something that's unrealistic and all those theories resulted in Einstein's maze of mathematical fiction. 
Category: Quantum Physics

[1651] viXra:1705.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-01 09:18:51

Quantum Battery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Physicists have theoretically shown that, when multiple nanoscale batteries are coupled together, they can be charged faster than if each battery was charged individually. [15] Researchers have shown how to create a rechargeable "spin battery" made out of materials called topological insulators, a step toward building new spintronic devices and quantum computers. [14] Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1650] viXra:1704.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 04:23:17

Organic Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1649] viXra:1704.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 04:53:21

Quantum Experiments of Rogue Ocean Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

By precisely controlling the quantum behavior of an ultracold atomic gas, Rice University physicists have created a model system for studying the wave phenomenon that may bring about rogue waves in Earth's oceans. [13] Australian and German researchers have collaborated to develop a genetic algorithm to confirm the rejection of classical notions of causality. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1648] viXra:1704.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 03:45:58

Computational Power of Chaos-Based Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

New research from North Carolina State University has found that combining digital and analog components in nonlinear, chaos-based integrated circuits can improve their computational power by enabling processing of a larger number of inputs. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1647] viXra:1704.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 08:53:27

Quantum Correlations of Causal Models

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Australian and German researchers have collaborated to develop a genetic algorithm to confirm the rejection of classical notions of causality. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1646] viXra:1704.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 02:26:41

Chemical Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A "chemical imaging" system that uses a special type of laser beam to penetrate deep into tissue might lead to technologies that eliminate the need to draw blood for analyses including drug testing and early detection of diseases such as cancer and diabetes. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1645] viXra:1704.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 11:16:26

Quantum Computing Frontier

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1644] viXra:1704.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 11:52:28

Photodielectric Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of researchers from Japan reports this week in Applied Physics Letters, that they have discovered a phenomenon called the photodielectric effect, which could lead to laser-controlled touch displays. [33] Researchers from the ARC Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) in the University of Sydney's Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology have made a breakthrough achieving radio frequency signal control at sub-nanosecond time scales on a chip-scale optical device. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1643] viXra:1704.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 08:31:47

Electricity at Almost the Speed of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Physicists at the University of California, Irvine and elsewhere have fabricated new two-dimensional quantum materials with breakthrough electrical and magnetic attributes that could make them building blocks of future quantum computers and other advanced electronics. [16] NIST has been granted a patent for technology that may hasten the advent of a long-awaited new generation of high-performance, low-energy computers. [15] Researchers have shown how to create a rechargeable "spin battery" made out of materials called topological insulators, a step toward building new spintronic devices and quantum computers. [14] Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1642] viXra:1704.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 07:16:39

Spintronic Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

NIST has been granted a patent for technology that may hasten the advent of a long-awaited new generation of high-performance, low-energy computers. [15] Researchers have shown how to create a rechargeable "spin battery" made out of materials called topological insulators, a step toward building new spintronic devices and quantum computers. [14] Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1641] viXra:1704.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 08:24:21

Laser for Everything

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1640] viXra:1704.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 09:47:36

Quantum Secure Communications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important breakthrough in the theory of quantum secure communications. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1639] viXra:1704.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 21:32:08

On Anthropomorphic Principles and the Planck Fine-structure Constant

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new Planck unit - the Planck fine-structure constant –. Then, from the relativistic model of the hydrogen atom I prove that this new constant is consistent with the existence of the hydrogen atom. Therefore, it seems natural to extend this concept to the rest of the laws of physics stating that the laws of physics are consistent with the appearance of life in the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1638] viXra:1704.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 11:27:27

Nanoscopic Techniques

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Tromsø have developed a photonic chip that makes it possible to carry out super-resolution light microscopy, also called 'nanoscopy,' with conventional microscopes. In nanoscopy, the position of single fluorescent molecules can be determined with a precision of just a few nano-meters, that is, to a millionth of a millimeter. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1637] viXra:1704.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 11:57:50

Chiral Currents in Quantum Hall

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Using an atomic quantum simulator, scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have achieved the first-ever direct observation of chiral currents in the model topological insulator, the 2-D integer quantum Hall system. [22] Physicists at Bielefeld University and the Arctic University of Norway in Tromsø have developed a photonic chip that makes it possible to carry out super-resolution light microscopy, also called 'nanoscopy,' with conventional microscopes. In nanoscopy, the position of single fluorescent molecules can be determined with a precision of just a few nano-meters, that is, to a millionth of a millimeter. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1636] viXra:1704.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 00:38:54

Optical Micro-Oscillator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of engineering researchers from UCLA and OEWaves has developed an optical micro-oscillator, a key time-keeping component of clocks that could vastly improve the accuracy of time-keeping, which is essential for use in spacecraft, automobile sensing or satellite communications. [33] Researchers from the ARC Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) in the University of Sydney's Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology have made a breakthrough achieving radio frequency signal control at sub-nanosecond time scales on a chip-scale optical device. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1635] viXra:1704.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 14:54:00

Mass

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

I don't believe that the Higgs boson theory is correct, and it's obvious that there is no definite proof that a Higgs boson exists. The discovery of the Higgs boson is only based on data, the data consists of an energy trail of a particle that was found after a particle collision experiment in the LHC accelerator. Physicists were convinced that it was a Higgs boson because the data confirmed that the mass was similar to the mass of a hypothetical Higgs boson, but they cannot prove that the data was real. They didn't prove that the Higgs boson theory is correct, so the Higgs theory remains a theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1634] viXra:1704.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 19:21:32

Local Realism Cuts the Quantum Bait

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. Please see main article: ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism is now revitalized as a fully viable causal explanation of physical reality including empirical Bell violations according to detailed arguments provided at the link below. Meanwhile, by denying local realism in its account of EPR experiments, quantum theory requires a physical causal signal that is physically discontinuous, leaping out of spacetime from one locality and landing in another, like a fish leaping out of water. Quantum theory thus invokes a physical domain outside spacetime through which its causal signal is logically required to travel -- unobservable, unstoppable, and at infinite speed. It might be tempting to conclude that such domains and such signals are some sort of magic, except that would be exactly wrong. Even magic obeys local realism. A master magician, however, can provide a compelling illusion to the contrary. The causally complete local realistic model given by the article below argues compellingly that the antilocality claims of quantum physics reduce to such illusions. Please see main article: ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 ** Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - Claims to demonstrate that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, 1 graph of testable predictions, and 2 paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1633] viXra:1704.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:43:51

Hyper-Complex Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Physicists use an interferometer to test whether standard quantum mechanics is correct, or whether a more complex version is required. They used the interferometer to send photons around a loop in opposite directions. In this way, photons travelling in one direction interact with objects inside the loop in one order, while photons travelling the opposite direction interact with objects in the opposite order. [26] Physicists at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech have discovered the first three-dimensional quantum liquid crystal—a new state of matter that may have applications in ultrafast quantum computers of the future. [25] For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1632] viXra:1704.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 09:09:35

Quantum Bilocal Causality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated the violation of "bilocal causality"—a concept that is related to the more standard local causality, except that it accounts for the precise way in which physical systems are initially generated. The results show that it's possible to violate local causality in an entirely new and more general way, which could lead to a potential new resource for quantum technologies. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1631] viXra:1704.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 10:01:53

Can Quantum Mechanical Systems Influence the Geometry of the Fiber Bundle/space-Time?

Authors: Victor Atanasov, Hristo Dimov
Comments: 5 Pages.

We suggest that gravitation is an emergent phenomenon which origin is the information signal associated with quantum fields acting like test particles. We have shown how the metric (Lamè) coefficients emerge as position & time operator mean value densities. The scalar curvature of the space-time in the case of a Bose-Einstein condensate or super- fluid/conductor is calculated and an experimentally verifiable prediction of the theory is made.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1630] viXra:1704.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 13:20:56

Laser Polarization Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1629] viXra:1704.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 14:42:45

Quantum Liquid Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Physicists at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech have discovered the first three-dimensional quantum liquid crystal—a new state of matter that may have applications in ultrafast quantum computers of the future. [25] For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1628] viXra:1704.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 11:11:51

Casimir Effect on a Silicon Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

A new approach to control forces and interactions between atoms and molecules, such as those employed by geckos to climb vertical surfaces, could bring advances in new materials for developing quantum light sources. [30] Quantum mechanics rules. It dictates how particles and forces interact, and thus how atoms and molecules work—for example, what happens when a molecule goes from a higher-energy state to a lower-energy one. But beyond the simplest molecules, the details become very complex. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1627] viXra:1704.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:21:46

Ejemplo de Cómo Obtener Los Valores Energéticos de la Partícula en un Pozo de Potencial Infinito Unidimensional

Authors: Roberto Reinosa
Comments: 2 Pages. Spanish

En el presente artículo se va a exponer un ejemplo de la obtención de los valores energéticos de la partícula en un pozo de potencial infinito unidimensional.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1626] viXra:1704.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 06:46:11

Ejemplo de Obtención de Los Valores Energéticos Del Pozo de Potencial Infinito Unidimensional

Authors: Roberto Reinosa
Comments: 2 Pages. Spanish

En el presente artículo se va a exponer un ejemplo de la obtención de los valores energéticos del caso del pozo de potencial infinito unidimensional.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1625] viXra:1704.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 01:46:09

Microscopy for Biological Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1624] viXra:1704.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 11:18:30

Spin Battery for Spintronics and Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have shown how to create a rechargeable "spin battery" made out of materials called topological insulators, a step toward building new spintronic devices and quantum computers. [14] Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1623] viXra:1704.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 12:12:50

Quantum Measurement: A New View

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 24 Pages. Measurement is the bridge between quantum theory and experiment.

This report investigates the flawed foundations of standard quantum theory based on a misunderstanding of the role of measurement. The report is major part of a research programme (UET) based on a new theory of the electromagnetism (EM), centered exclusively on the interaction between electrons. All the previous papers to date in this series have presented a realistic view of the dynamics of two or more electrons as they interact only between themselves. This paper now posits a theory of how this microscopic activity is perceived by human beings in attempting to extract information about atomic systems. The standard theory of quantum mechanics (QM) is constructed on only how the micro-world appears to macro measurements - as such, it cannot offer any view of how the foundations of the world are acting when humans are not observing it (the vast majority of the time) - this has generated almost 100 years of confusion and contradiction at the very heart of physics. All human beings (and all our instruments) are vast collections of electrons, our information about atomic-scale can only be obtained destructively and statistically. This theory now extends the realistic model of digital electrons by adding an explicit measurement model of how our macro instruments interfere with nature's micro-systems when such attempts result in human-scale information. The focus here is on the connection between the micro-world (when left to itself) and our mental models of this sphere of material reality, via the mechanism of atomic measurements. The mathematics of quantum mechanics reflects the eigenvalues of the combined target system plus equipment used for measurement together. Therefore, QM has constructed a theory that inseparably conflates the ontological and epistemological views of nature. This standard approach fails to examine isolated target systems alone. It is metaphysically deficient. This investigation concludes that the Quantum State function (Ψ) is not a representation of physical reality, within a single atom, but a generator function for producing the average statistical results on many atoms of this type. In contrast, the present theory builds on the physical reality of micro-states of single atoms, where (in the case of hydrogen), a single electron executes a series of fixed segments (corresponding to the micro-states) across the atom between a finite number of discrete interactions between the electron and one of the positrons in the nucleus. The set of serial segments form closed trajectories with real temporal periods, contra to Heisenberg’s ‘papal’ decree banning such reality because of his need to measure position and momentum at all times. This is the first paper in the multi-paper series (UET7n), which is dedicated to analyzing, criticizing and replacing existing theories of quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1622] viXra:1704.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 04:35:47

Time Crystals for Quantum Machines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Harvard physicists have created a new form of matter-dubbed a time crystal-which could offer important insights into the mysterious behavior of quantum systems. [31] Two groups of researchers based at Harvard University and the University of Maryland report March 9 in the journal Nature that they have successfully created time crystals using theories developed at Princeton University. [30] Are time crystals just a mathematical curiosity, or could they actually physically exist? Physicists have been debating this question since 2012, when Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek first proposed the idea of time crystals. He argued that these hypothetical objects can exhibit periodic motion, such as moving in a circular orbit, in their state of lowest energy, or their "ground state." [28] Researchers from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), together with researchers from the Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba (Japan), have discovered an exceptional new quantum state within a superconducting material. This exceptional quantum state is characterised by a broken rotational symmetry – in other words, if you turn the material in a magnetic field, the superconductivity isn't the same everywhere in the material. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1621] viXra:1704.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 05:39:10

Bell Correlations of Million Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated Bell correlations in the largest physical system to date—an ensemble of half a million atoms at an ultracold temperature of 25 µK. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1620] viXra:1704.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 21:13:25

Universal Topology W = P ± iV and First Horizon of Quantum Fields

Authors: C. Wei Xu
Comments: Three pages, two submission letters, one letter from Nature Physics

The universal topology W = P ± iV is the nature law that intuitively constitutes a duality of Manifolds and Event Operations. Its First Horizon of this framework, naturally comes out with the dual State Equilibrium and dual Motion Dynamics, which replace the empirical “math laws” and give rise to the general quantum fields to concisely include Schrödinger and Klein–Gordon Equations. As a result, it becomes a groundbreaking in the quest for Unified Physics: the workings of a life streaming of physical and virtual dynamics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1619] viXra:1704.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 11:09:27

Local Realism Versus Quantum Mysticism

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. See main article ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism has been widely falsely discounted but is recently vindicated according to detailed arguments at the link below. Local realism is ordinary causal determinism. By contrast, quantum theory is mystical causation by indeterminacy. If this claim that quantum theory embeds mystical causation seems at odds with the modal signal in physics right now, we ought to ask why that should be so. In any case, it is a trivial point to establish from the quantum account of the EPR experiment. According to this account, two unmeasured particles at respective separate localities in spacetime have remarkable properties. (A) Neither has measurable properties prior to the first being measured. (B) The instant either is measured, both obtain perfectly correlated outcomes. So where do the physical properties that "decide" those outcomes come from? And how do they coordinate their instant perfect correlation across a spacetime interval, which requires violating Special Relativity? Enter the mystic. Or consider the compelling logic of a new formulation of local realism per below. http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - Claims to demonstrate that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, 1 graph of testable predictions, and 2 paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1618] viXra:1704.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 13:42:01

Novel Quantum Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team of scientists from the Quantum Dynamics Division of Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching near Munich) has now succeeded to make the first steps in this direction. Using a strongly coupled atom-cavity system, they were the first to observe the so-called two-photon blockade: the system emits at most two photons at the same time since its storage capacity is limited to that number. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1617] viXra:1704.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 02:00:52

Ten Superconducting Qubits Entangled

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

A group of physicists in China has taken the lead in the race to couple together increasing numbers of superconducting qubits. [19] The race to build larger and larger quantum computers is heating up, with several technologies competing for a role in future devices. Each potential platform has strengths and weaknesses, but little has been done to directly compare the performance of early prototypes. Now, researchers at the JQI have performed a first-of-its-kind benchmark test of two small quantum computers built from different technologies. [18] To find out whether quantum computers will work properly, scientists must simulate them on a classical computer. Now a record-breaking experiment has simulated the largest quantum computer yet. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1616] viXra:1704.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 04:03:04

Local Realism Versus Quantum Computers & Quantum Information Theory

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. See also ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism reduces to the proposition that every physical effect arises exclusively at the spacetime locality where the determinate properties of physical reality determine that it be so. The causal model of quantum theory, however, and thus all prospects for quantum computers, require that local realism is false. The essential argument favoring quantum beliefs is that local realism cannot explain empirical Bell violations, whereas quantum theory can. By contrast, the article cited below offers compelling evidence to the contrary. Furthermore, such alleged refutations of local realism are predicated on an interpretation of the Bell inequality that many researchers reject (the cited article provides specific references). Meanwhile, the causal model of quantum theory reduces to the quantum formalism itself, which distributes outcomes across separate localities without providing enough information to determine what those outcomes are. More specifically, depending on subtleties of interpretation, the quantum formalism requires either: (A) There exists a bit of physical information such that this bit exists as mutually exclusive states, or (B) there exists a bit of physical information such that this bit is not physically informed. They are both contradictions. Pick your poison. Or reconsider local realism. See ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 ** Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - for a demonstration that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, 1 graph of testable predictions, and 2 paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1615] viXra:1704.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 11:08:43

Trapped Ions and Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

The race to build larger and larger quantum computers is heating up, with several technologies competing for a role in future devices. Each potential platform has strengths and weaknesses, but little has been done to directly compare the performance of early prototypes. Now, researchers at the JQI have performed a first-of-its-kind benchmark test of two small quantum computers built from different technologies. [18] To find out whether quantum computers will work properly, scientists must simulate them on a classical computer. Now a record-breaking experiment has simulated the largest quantum computer yet. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1614] viXra:1704.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 08:39:21

Supercomputer Simulation of Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

To find out whether quantum computers will work properly, scientists must simulate them on a classical computer. Now a record-breaking experiment has simulated the largest quantum computer yet. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system,
Category: Quantum Physics

[1613] viXra:1704.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 22:23:53

Local Realism Versus Volumes of Quantum Nonsense

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. See also ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism must predict empirical Bell violations in a reasonable way to become a compelling causal explanation of physical reality. According to the paper at the link given below, it can now do that. On the other hand, quantum theory, despite its wonderful statistical predictions, must transcend its infamous paradoxes to become a compelling causal explanation of anything. Unfortunately, quantum paradoxes reduce to quantum contradictions, and thus to nonsense. Take "quantum superposition". Is this the simultaneous existence of mutually exclusive states or not? If it is, then we have a contradiction, and all further claims from quantum theory fail to have meaningful interpretations. If quantum superposition is something other than that contradiction, then what -- exactly -- is quantum superposition? And let's take "physical reality" while we are at it. Defending quantum theory as a causal explanation of physical reality requires that physical reality is not exclusively physical reality! Whoops. What -- exactly -- is so difficult about simply admitting when we have no sensible causal explanation for certain phenomena like Bell violations in EPR(B) experiments? In psychology, we know the answer to such questions. Our beliefs are evidence resistant. We thus predict that the rational threat from local realism to widespread beliefs -- its implication that physical reality might be mostly explained without appeal to antilocal mysticism -- will continue to be buried under reams of empirical observations stitched together by nonsense insinuations that that paradoxes are assets rather than contradictions. In any case, the paper below arguably formulates a theory of local realism that constitutes a causally valid description of physical reality. No nonsense required. Or, it could just be wrong. But it is waiting to be tested. Indeed, even existing data could bear on the empirical question if the theory is sound enough. See ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 ** Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - for a demonstration that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, a graph of testable predictions, and two paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1612] viXra:1704.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 08:05:19

Atom Interferometers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

The atom interferometer uses the quantum 'wave-like' nature of atoms to make precise measurements. [31] A new approach to control forces and interactions between atoms and molecules, such as those employed by geckos to climb vertical surfaces, could bring advances in new materials for developing quantum light sources. [30] Quantum mechanics rules. It dictates how particles and forces interact, and thus how atoms and molecules work—for example, what happens when a molecule goes from a higher-energy state to a lower-energy one. But beyond the simplest molecules, the details become very complex. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation,
Category: Quantum Physics

[1611] viXra:1704.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 09:13:38

Nonlocal Correlations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

In the quantum realm, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle states that accurately measuring a pair of properties of an atom puts a limit to the precision of measurement you can obtain on the same properties of another atom. [20] Scientists have pushed quantum entanglement to new levels in two experiments. In one study, researchers linked up millions of atoms, and in another, intertwined hundreds of large groups consisting of billions of atoms. [19] Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1610] viXra:1704.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 10:31:11

Controlling Particles' Spin Configurations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1609] viXra:1704.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 02:52:05

Local Realism Versus the Quantum Spooks

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page.

Local realism is causation by ordinary causal signals. What we mean by ordinary is this. First, these signals have fully determinate properties, whether measured or not. Second, they can only cause effects precisely at the spacetime locality of their physical existence. By contrast, as Einstein famously observed, quantum causal signals are spooky because they can cause effects where they do not in fact exist. Indeed, the only evidence that quantum causal signals possess any physical existence at all is that they seem to explain every effect you could ever measure. Unless you think about it. Take the simplest case: One photon, one spin measurement, up or down. The quantum explanation is essentially that we draw the answer from a bag that contains no answers such that physical reality obtains precisely from its own absence. This is known as the "measurement problem". But the problem is obviously not "measurement". The problem is that quantum theory has literally no explanation for any specific measurement result. On the other hand, local realism does. Spin Up and Spin Down for photons must, at the end of the day, be analogous to Heads Up and Heads Down for ordinary fair coins. The quantum counterclaim, here, is that there is no compelling solution set of local hidden variables that makes this analogy work for an EPR experiment. Furthermore, many claim that the Bell inequality rules out any such solution set. On the other hand, anyone who thinks that the Bell inequality has some single uncontested meaning has not been reading the literature. The paper noted below claims both to provide local hidden variables that constitute a compelling local realistic solution for an EPR experiment and to explain how such solutions have been falsely denied. See viXra:1704.0078 - Local Realism Explains Bell Violations - for a demonstration that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, a graph of testable predictions, and two paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1608] viXra:1704.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 11:16:41

Quantum Image Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Quantum image processing (QIP) is an emerging sub-discipline that is focused on extending conventional image processing tasks and operations to the quantum computing framework. [20] The team's experimental collaborators have already demonstrated the technology, yielding cluster states composed of more than 1 million entangled modes. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1607] viXra:1704.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 12:28:16

Indistinguishable Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

To really take off, advanced quantum information processing will require getting a better (experimental) grasp of an essential phenomenon called "indistinguishable photons." A high degree of "indistinguishability" requires almost complete wave-packet overlap, or perfect photon matching, of energy, space, time and polarization. [21] Quantum image processing (QIP) is an emerging sub-discipline that is focused on extending conventional image processing tasks and operations to the quantum computing framework. [20] The team's experimental collaborators have already demonstrated the technology, yielding cluster states composed of more than 1 million entangled modes. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1606] viXra:1704.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 12:55:18

Spin-Wave Information Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Computer electronics are shrinking to small-enough sizes that the very electrical currents underlying their functions can no longer be used for logic computations in the ways of their larger-scale ancestors. [22] To really take off, advanced quantum information processing will require getting a better (experimental) grasp of an essential phenomenon called "indistinguishable photons." A high degree of "indistinguishability" requires almost complete wave-packet overlap, or perfect photon matching, of energy, space, time and polarization. [21] Quantum image processing (QIP) is an emerging sub-discipline that is focused on extending conventional image processing tasks and operations to the quantum computing framework. [20] The team's experimental collaborators have already demonstrated the technology, yielding cluster states composed of more than 1 million entangled modes. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1605] viXra:1704.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 13:42:09

Local Realism Versus the Quantum of Doubt

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page.

Local realism is essentially the premise that physical reality is already physically real and that causal influence propagates through spacetime in a mechanistic way like a chain of toppling dominoes. However, local realism has been replaced by quantum theory as the scientific model of physical reality. Causal signal propagation under quantum theory is like starting with an arbitrarily long chain of dominoes, then removing all the dominoes in the middle and claiming that the first can topple the last instantly anyways -- just because we don't have any better ideas. The argument for replacing local realism with quantum theory requires that the Bell inequality is an accurate description of the predictions of local realism in an EPR experiment. However, many researchers conclude otherwise. Strangely, this substantial countersignal seems to promote fierce defensiveness rather than rational doubt among quantum believers. One begins to worry that the ongoing rejection of local realism is predicated upon motivated beliefs rather than upon motivated inquiry. Keywords: Local Realism. Local real dominoes. Quantum Dominoes. EPR. Bell inequality. Causal signal propagation. In any case, a concise paper posed as a local realistic puzzle representing an EPR experiment now claims to show that local realism explains Bell violations & thus plausibly all physical reality. The necessary logical flaw in the Bell inequality is claimed exposed in two paragraphs! See viXra:1704.0078 - Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake): 8 pages complete with figures, equations, a graph of testable predictions, and 32 references. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1604] viXra:1704.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 23:20:47

Photon Models Are Derived by Solving a Bug in Poynting and Maxwell Theory

Authors: shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 25 Pages.

It is found that the Poynting theorem is conflict with the energy conservation principle. It is a bug of the Poynting theorem. The Poynting theorem is derived from Maxwell equations by using the superimposition principle of the fields. Hence, this bug also existed at ether in superimposition principle or in the Maxwell equations. Assume it is wrong with the field superimposition, even the Maxwell equations is correct with singular charge, we can still not prove it still correct for many charges. Hence, at least something also wrong with Maxwell equations. The Poynting theorem is corrected in this article. After the correction the energy is not quadratic and hence the field is also not linear. The concept of the superposition of fields need also to be corrected. Hence the new definitions for the inner product and cross product are proposed. The corrected Poynting theorem is the mutual energy theorem. It is shown that starting from the mutual energy theorem, the whole electromagnetic theory can be reconstructed. The Maxwell equations can be proved from the mutual energy theorem by adding pseudo items. Hence if the mutual energy theorem is corrected, the Maxwell equations still can be applied with knowing its problem. Most the problems originally caused by Maxwell equations are solved. Examples of this problems are: (1) zero field infinity which need to be re-normalized in quantum physics; (2) collapse of the electromagnetic field, the waves has to be collapsed to its absorber, otherwise the energy is not conserved; (3) the emitter can send energy without absorber, this is conflict to the direct interaction principle and absorber theory; (4) if our universe is not completely opaque, a electron can continually send energy to the outside of our universe, however there is no testimony supporting that our universe is opaque. The new theory supports the exist of advanced wave, hence also strongly support the absorber theory and transactional interpretation of quantum physics. It can offer a equation for photon and a good explanation for the duality of the photon. If photon and electromagnetic field obeys the mutual energy theorem, it is very possible that all other quanta also obey their similar mutual energy theorem. Hence the mutual energy theorem can be applied as a principle for the electromagnetic theory and quantum physics. According to this theory the retarded wave and advanced wave of electromagnetic fields both are a ability or probability wave, which is also partly agree with Copenhagen interpretation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1603] viXra:1704.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 12:28:58

Gravitational Shift for Beginners

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper, which I wrote in 2006, formulates the equations for gravitational shifts from the relativistic framework of special relativity. First I derive the formulas for the gravitational redshift and then the formulas for the gravitational blueshift.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1602] viXra:1704.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 08:53:27

Quantum Model System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Two researchers at Heidelberg University have developed a model system that enables a better understanding of the processes in a quantum-physical experiment with ultracold atoms. [28] A research group from Bar-Ilan University, in collaboration with French colleagues at CNRS Grenoble, has developed a unique experiment to detect quantum events in ultra-thin films. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1601] viXra:1704.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 04:42:25

Forces Between Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A new approach to control forces and interactions between atoms and molecules, such as those employed by geckos to climb vertical surfaces, could bring advances in new materials for developing quantum light sources. [30] Quantum mechanics rules. It dictates how particles and forces interact, and thus how atoms and molecules work—for example, what happens when a molecule goes from a higher-energy state to a lower-energy one. But beyond the simplest molecules, the details become very complex. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1600] viXra:1704.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 03:13:45

Local Realism Explains Bell Violations

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 8 Pages. 1 Puzzle. 6 Equations. 4 Figures. 1 Graph of Testable Predictions. 32 References.

Local realism reduces to the proposition that local determinate reality is the necessary and sufficient cause of every physical effect. By any standard account, quantum theory requires that local realism is false, because it embeds the famously spooky premise that some physical effects require causes that are instantly effective from arbitrarily far away. Nonetheless, quantum theory has replaced local realism as the foundation of science because, whereas local realism allegedly cannot violate the Bell inequality, quantum theory is taken to do so in accord with experiments. Here we prove, however, that an epistemic contextual model of local realism solves a puzzle about independent random measurements of local hidden variables in a way that causally explains observed Bell violations. We also reveal exactly how the Bell inequality fails to represent the local realistic prediction. Finally, we show that any theory that denies local realism comprises an unfalsifiable causal claim that is freely adjustable to make arbitrary predictions, which thus provide no validation of its causal claim. Results revitalize the hypothesis that local realism prevails. Keywords: Local Realism. Bell Violations. Photons. Entanglement. Quantum Physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1599] viXra:1704.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 23:34:04

Quantum-Mechanical Analysis of the MO Method and VB Method from the Position of PQS.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: Pages.

The MO method and the VB method are analyzed using the principle of quantum superposition (PQS) and the method of describing a quantum system consisting of several parts. It is shown that the main assumption of the molecular orbitals method (namely, that the molecular orbital can be represented like a linear combination of overlapping atomic orbitals) enters into an insurmountable contradiction with the principle of quantum superposition. It is also shown that the description of a quantum system consisting of several parts (adopted in quantum mechanics) actually prohibits ascribe in VB method to members of equation corresponding canonical structures.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1598] viXra:1704.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 03:46:24

Bohmian Double Slit Interpretation by Dual Entangled Universes, and the Benjamin Libet Experiment.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages.

Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of Free Will and causality. Comparable debates are also related to the Broglie-Bohm interpretation of Quantum Mechanics also called Bohmian Mechanics, focussed on the so called single photon double slit interference experiment. I would try to answer those questions by postulating the absurd but constructive possibility that both slits are wavefunction connected and secondly even I myself is wavefunction entangled for decision making in a CP symmetric multiverse. Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?” We (and all particles and wave information) could be instant entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results. New statistical difference research on RPI and RPII of repeated Libet experiments described here could support these ideas.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1597] viXra:1704.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 11:49:07

Molecules in Action

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Quantum mechanics rules. It dictates how particles and forces interact, and thus how atoms and molecules work—for example, what happens when a molecule goes from a higher-energy state to a lower-energy one. But beyond the simplest molecules, the details become very complex. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1596] viXra:1704.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 07:17:46

Nickel Chloride Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Research by an international collaboration recently produced the equivalent of a Bose-Einstein condensate using the chemical compound nickel chloride. [9] Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are macroscopic systems that have quantum behaviour, and are useful for exploring fundamental physics. Now researchers at the Gakushuin University and the University of Electro-Communications have studied how the miscibility of multicomponent BECs affects their behaviour, with surprising results. [8] Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic antisocial behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7] Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1595] viXra:1704.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 08:41:59

Tiny Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Tiny "black holes" on a silicon wafer make for a new type of photodetector that could move more data at lower cost around the world or across a datacenter. [19] Humans are visual creatures: our brain processes images 60,000 times faster than text, and 90 percent of information sent to the brain is visual. Visualization is becoming increasingly useful in the era of big data, in which we are generating so much data at such high rates that we cannot keep up with making sense of it all. In particular, visual analytics—a research discipline that combines automated data analysis with interactive visualizations—has emerged as a promising approach to dealing with this information overload. [18] Neural networks are commonly used today to analyze complex data – for instance to find clues to illnesses in genetic information. Ultimately, though, no one knows how these networks actually work exactly. [17] Hey Siri, how's my hair?" Your smartphone may soon be able to give you an honest answer, thanks to a new machine learning algorithm designed by U of T Engineering researchers Parham Aarabi and Wenzhi Guo. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1594] viXra:1704.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 05:30:49

Dark Heat

Authors: Kadir Aydogdu
Comments: 38 Pages.

To understand the relation between heat and temperature physicist are modeling them as radiation and kinetic energy, however in this thesis we will explain them as smallest particle. In thesis this heat particle becomes the energy itself which carries constant mass, conservative forces and potential energy and we will assume that the interaction between these particles result a radiation as blackbody distributed photons, moreover, interaction of these particles with other particles that we know result kinetic and other types of potential energy exchanges like we know as photon exchange. We will start with analyzing the laws and theories that we trust than we will try to find how these heat particles behave and how are they interacts with each other by modeling the heat inside the black body box and heat inside the photons as particles. We will discuss the possible results we have. By working with many particle systems we will make some assumptions and we will try to find some proportionality about our heat particle. After finding the proportionalities we will try to predict how every physical interaction happen and we will discuss every biggest physical problem in the eyes of our theory. Finally we will be discussing one particle physics model in which everything made from just one particle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1593] viXra:1704.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 06:59:38

Unification of the Electromagnatic Force and Quantum Gravity

Authors: S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick
Comments: 13 Pages.

Abstract In this paper the graviton or the quantum of gravity has been identified as the Planck mass (Planck Mass mpl=2.17651x10-8Kg Quantum of gravity, graviton particle or the God particle), Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck[1] 23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) and hence the unification of the electromagnetic force with the quantum of gravity by definition of the Ampere, It is named after André-Marie Ampère [2] (1775–1836), F=2x10-7N, and the theoretical values by calculation of the force of attraction or repulsion which acts between two 1 m wires placed in vacuum 1 m apart with negligible cross-sectional area each carrying 1 Coulomb of charge per second or 6.24x1018es at any point on the circuit has been calculated to be: F=1.973181x10-7N. Furthermore the Bohr’s theory of the Hydrogen atom Niels Bohr[3] in 1913, has been explored showing how the factor of V2/C2 plays part in the Ionisation of atoms w.r.t kinetic energy of the orbiting electrons in Hydrogen and Helium as well as some other elements.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1592] viXra:1704.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 10:44:46

'Virtual' Interferometers for Optical Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The team's experimental collaborators have already demonstrated the technology, yielding cluster states composed of more than 1 million entangled modes. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1591] viXra:1704.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 01:19:04

Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Communication, and Quantum Computer in a Noisy Environment

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 9 Pages. International Journal of Theoretical Physics, (2017), DOI 10.1007/s10773-017-3352-4

First, we study several information theories based on quantum computing in a desirable noiseless situation. (1) We present quantum key distribution based on Deutsch's algorithm using an entangled state. (2) We discuss the fact that the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm can be used for quantum communication including an error correction. Finally, we discuss the main result. We study the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm in a noisy environment. The original algorithm determines a noiseless function. Here we consider the case that the function has an environmental noise. We introduce a noise term into the function $f(x)$. So we have another noisy function $g(x)$. The relation between them is $ g(x)=f(x)\pm O(\epsilon). $ Here $O(\epsilon)\ll 1$ is the noise term. The goal is to determine the noisy function $g(x)$ with a success probability. The algorithm overcomes classical counterpart by a factor of $N$ in a noisy environment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1590] viXra:1704.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 01:45:44

A Method of Computing Many Functions Simultaneously by Using Many Parallel Quantum Systems

Authors: Koji Nagata, Germano Resconi, Tadao Nakamura, Josep Batle, Soliman Abdalla, Ahmed Farouk, Han Geurdes
Comments: 3 Pages. Asian Journal of Mathematics and Physics (accepted)

We suggest a method of computing many functions in the same time by using many parallel quantum systems. We use the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm. Given the set of real values $\{a_1,a_2,a_3,\ldots,a_N\}$, and the function $g:{\bf R}\rightarrow \{0,1\}$, we shall determine the following values $\{g(a_1),g(a_2),g(a_3),\ldots, g(a_N)\}$ simultaneously. By using $M$ parallel quantum systems, we can compute $M$ functions $g^1,g^2,...,g^M$ simultaneously. The speed of determining the $N\times M$ values will be shown to outperform the classical case by a factor of $N$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1589] viXra:1704.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-01 12:00:28

A Children's Primer on Bell's Inequality and Quantum Entanglement

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 7 Pages.

An elementary overview of Bell's inequality and electron-pair entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1588] viXra:1704.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-01 09:19:43

A Testable CP Symmetric Multiverse Model by Extended Experiments, Done by the Late Benjamin Libet in 1964.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 8 Pages.

Benjamin Libet measured two different electric Readiness Potentials time profiles called RPI and RPII. to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students related to the Time of Conscious Awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come about 400 m.sec behind the RP I or RPII. All “volitional acts” were in principle based on the free choice to press an electric switch button. The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of free will and causality. However I woud propose the seemingly absurd but constructive possibility that we are not alone for decision making if we live inside a Charge/Parity (CP) symmetric multiverse as one part of a CP symmetric set of persons. Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?” In line with Max Tegmark, my proposal is, that we could be long distance entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric anti-material copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results between RPI and RPII, because new statistical difference research on RPI and RPII of extended Libet experiments described here could give answer on the number of participating copy persons living inside the same number of copy universes.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1587] viXra:1703.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 11:27:03

Photonics Wireless Breakthrough

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers from the ARC Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) in the University of Sydney's Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology have made a breakthrough achieving radio frequency signal control at sub-nanosecond time scales on a chip-scale optical device. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1586] viXra:1703.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 11:49:29

Acceleration Measuring with Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Most people have never seen an accelerometer—a device that measures change in velocity—and wouldn't know where to look. Yet accelerometers have become essential to modern life, from controlling automobile airbags, to earthquake monitoring, inertial navigation for spaceflight, aircraft, and autonomous vehicles, and keeping the screen image rotated the right way on cell phones and tablets, among other uses. [33] Researchers from the ARC Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) in the University of Sydney's Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology have made a breakthrough achieving radio frequency signal control at sub-nanosecond time scales on a chip-scale optical device. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1585] viXra:1703.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-30 16:35:49

The Gravitational Electric Charge

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new concept which I called: gravitational electric charge. The physical meaning of this quantity is still not clear, however, if confirmed it would indicate that gravity not only acts as a force between masses, in the Newtonian sense, but also as an extremely feeble electromagnetic force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1584] viXra:1703.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-30 05:07:21

Entangled Photon States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Scientists have discovered a new mechanism involved in the creation of paired light particles, which could have significant impact on the study of quantum physics. [20] In a new study, physicists have shown a way to establish real entanglement between two identical particles—a topic that has been disputed until now. The results provide a better understanding of the fundamental nature of entanglement between identical particles and have potential applications in quantum information processing. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1583] viXra:1703.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-29 08:52:35

Quantum Information Transfer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1582] viXra:1703.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-29 10:20:02

Identical Particle Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

In a new study, physicists have shown a way to establish real entanglement between two identical particles—a topic that has been disputed until now. The results provide a better understanding of the fundamental nature of entanglement between identical particles and have potential applications in quantum information processing. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1581] viXra:1703.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-28 11:14:36

Ion Pairs Spooky Action

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1580] viXra:1703.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-28 12:09:24

Quantum Vacuum, Big Bang, Entropy: Which is the Starting Point?

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 4 Pages.

The quantum vacuum is a material medium capable of polarization and equipped with its own electric permittivity, permeability and dielectric constant. It has been hypothesized that our Universe arose from a perturbation in the quantum vacuum, when an inflationary mechanism, correlated with a false vacuum state, led to the production of cosmic matter and to the huge expansion that took place 1-35 seconds after the Big Bang. Therefore, according to this framework, the vacuum endowed in our Universe is primitive to it. In this brief note, we go through a different scenario.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1579] viXra:1703.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-27 14:06:55

Millions of Atoms Entangled

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists have pushed quantum entanglement to new levels in two experiments. In one study, researchers linked up millions of atoms, and in another, intertwined hundreds of large groups consisting of billions of atoms. [19] Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1578] viXra:1703.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-28 03:56:05

Classical Analysis Resolves Bell's Questions: Local Realistic Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 13 Pages.

‘... all this action at a distance business will pass [like the ether]. If we're lucky it will be to some big new development like the theory of relativity. Maybe someone will just point out that we were being rather silly, with no big new development. But anyway, I believe the questions will be resolved,' after Bell (1990:9). ‘Nobody knows where the boundary between the classical and quantum domain is situated. More plausible to me is that we'll find that there is no boundary: the hidden-variable possibility,' after Bell (2004:28-29).

Abstract: Studying Bell's work, using classical analysis and author-date referencing suited to undergraduate STEM students, we arrive at a new classical theory: local realistic quantum mechanics. Adjusting EPR (to accord with Bohr's insight), and accepting Bell's principles (but not his false inferences), our method follows: (i) we allow Bell's pristine λ (and its pairwise twin μ ) to be classical vectors in 3-space; (ii) we complete the QM account of EPR correlations in a classical way; (iii) we deliver Bell's hope for a simple constructive model of EPRB; (iv) we justify EPR's belief that additional variables would bring locality and causality to QM's completion; (v) we refute key claims that such variables are impossible; (vi) we show that interactions between particles and polarizers are driven by the total angular momentum; (vii) we thus bypass Pauli's vector-of-matrices; (viii) at the same time retaining all the tools of the quantum trade. In short: (ix) we classically derive the related results of quantum theory; (x) we classically endorse Einstein's locally-causal Lorentz-invariant worldview.


Category: Quantum Physics

[1577] viXra:1703.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-27 09:28:39

Quantum of Canonical Electromagnetic Angular Momentum = $\hbar/2$

Authors: U. Kayser-Herold
Comments: 3 Pages.

\begin{abstract} It is analytically determined that the smallest theoretically possible nonzero canonical electromagnetic angular momentum $\hbar/2$ arises when an electron is inserted into one magnetic flux quantum. The analysis further reveals how magnetic flux quantization is inherently linked up with angular momentum quantization. Bohr's correspondence principle is satisfied. \end{abstract}
Category: Quantum Physics

[1576] viXra:1703.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-26 13:18:53

The Mass Gap, Kg and the Planck Constant

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we discuss and calculate the mass gap. Based on the mass gap we are redefining what a kilogram likely truly represents. This enables us to redefine the Planck constant into what we consider to be more fundamental units. Part of the analysis is based on recent developments in mathematical atomism. Haug [1, 2] has shown that all of Einstein’s special relativity mathematical end results [3] can be derived from two postulates in atomism. However, atomism gives some additional boundary conditions and removes a series of infinite challenges in physics in a very simple and logical way. While the mass gap in quantum field theory is an unsolved mystery, under atomism we have an easily defined, discrete and “exact” mass gap. The minimum rest mass that exists above zero is 1.1734 × 10−51 kg, assuming the observational time window of one second. Under our theory it seems meaningless to talk about a mass gap without also talking about the observational time-window. The mass gap in one Planck second is the Planck mass. Further, the mass gap of just 1.1734 × 10−51 kg has a relativistic mass equal to the Planck mass. The very fundamental particle that makes up all mass and energy has a rest-mass of 1.1734 × 10−51 kg. This is also equivalent to a Planck mass that last for one Planck second. We are not trying to solve the Millennium mass gap problem in terms of the Yang-Mills theory. We think the world is better understood by atomism and its recent mathematical framework. If there also could be a possible link between these tow theories we leave up to others to find out.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1575] viXra:1703.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-24 13:48:47

Quantum Winner and Loser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

However, even if we held such a quantum race, how could we verify that both racers won in superposition? Part of the problem is that quantum mechanics says when we observe the race it "collapses". This means that we only see either Alice win or lose the race: we can't see the superposition. [29] Thus far, models have not been able to fully account for the complexity of humor or exactly why we find puns and jokes funny, but a research article recently published in Frontiers in Physics suggests a novel approach: quantum theory. [28] As machine learning breakthroughs abound, researchers look to democratize benefits. [27] Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1574] viXra:1703.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-24 05:25:22

Two-Ion Quantum Logic Gate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The theory group led by Gonzalo Muga of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry has teamed up with the experimental group of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, United States, led by David Wineland, the 2012 Nobel Physics Laureate, to design a two-ion, robust, ultrarapid quantum logic gate capable of functioning in less than a microsecond. [20] The new substance may be useful for phonon-based quantum computers, and it may also shed light on the conditions required to form biological Fröhlich condensates of collective modes. [19] Scientists have built tiny logic machines out of single atoms that operate completely differently than conventional logic devices do. [18] Extremely short, configurable "femtosecond" pulses of light demonstrated by an international team could lead to future computers that run up to 100,000 times faster than today's electronics. [17] Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they’ve done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1573] viXra:1703.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-24 08:38:12

Brain Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A proposed computer made of superconductors communicating via light could carry out more operations than a human brain while using less energy. [31] For the first time, physicists have experimentally validated a 1959 conjecture that places limits on how small superconductors can be. [30] A new finding by physicists at MIT and in Israel shows that under certain specialized conditions, electrons can speed through a narrow opening in a piece of metal more easily than traditional theory says is possible. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1572] viXra:1703.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-22 14:11:54

Evade the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

ICFO Researchers report the discovery of a new technique that could drastically improve the sensitivity of instruments such as magnetic resonance imagers (MRIs) and atomic clocks. [17] Research groups at Aalto University and the University of Jyväskylä have demonstrated a new microwave measurement method that goes to the quantum limit of measurement and beats it. [16] New method allows for quick, precise measurement of quantum states. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1571] viXra:1703.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-23 03:01:56

Particle-Wave Symmetry in Quantum Mechanics and Special Relativity Theory

Authors: XiaoLin Li
Comments: 12 Pages.

In 5-dimensional space-time, Quantum Mechanics have a special particle-wave symmetry. To particle wave, its phase velocity, and its group velocity, is equal, and the two speed value is invariant. This is very similar with the light speed C in Special Relativity Theory. We mark this speed with Vc . But, different particle has different Vc , not all particles have same Vc . To one Vc value, there exist one kind of particle. Particle in Special Relativity Theory is just one kind. In Special Relativity Theory, Vc = C. Light speed C is just a special instance of Vc . Quasi-particle in Condensed Matter Physics, is another sample of Vc . The new particle-wave symmetry contain the Lorentz symmetry. The new particle-wave symmetry is a extension to Lorentz symmetry. The Lorentz symmetry is just a special instance of particle-wave symmetry. But the new particle-wave symmetry no longer is limited by speed light C. The particle-wave symmetry has variable speed Vc . So, Special Relativity Theory will be just a derived result of Quantum Mechanics. In 5-dimensional space-time, in new theory , space and time is not relative, space and time is obsolute. We need rethink about these physical concepts, mass-energy equation, rest mass, inertial mass, gravitational mass. From the new symmetry, we can get new kind of particles which perhaps have relationship with cosmic dark matter and radio burst.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1570] viXra:1703.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-23 03:53:53

Quantum Salesman

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A traveling salesman may seem like a relic from a bygone era, but the emblematic problem facing this profession hasn't gone away: what's the shortest path for visiting multiple cities and then returning home? [29] Thus far, models have not been able to fully account for the complexity of humor or exactly why we find puns and jokes funny, but a research article recently published in Frontiers in Physics suggests a novel approach: quantum theory. [28] As machine learning breakthroughs abound, researchers look to democratize benefits. [27] Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1569] viXra:1703.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-22 09:35:59

Soft Magnetic Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Magnetic materials are a vital ingredient in the components that store information in computers and mobile phones. Now, A*STAR researchers have developed a material that could help these magnetic-based memory devices to store and retrieve data faster while using less power. [23] A team of researchers with members from institutions in Germany and Israel has developed a way to launch plasmons with controlled amounts of angular momentum using spiral-like structures fashioned into a smooth layer of gold plate. [22] Work at the New York Genome Centre represents a big step towards DNA-based information storage. Andrew Masterson reports. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1568] viXra:1703.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-21 11:14:49

Electrons Control Ultrashort Laser Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro- and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8] Optical scientists from the Warsaw Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable - and not constant as Einstein suggested - have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.” This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1567] viXra:1703.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-21 13:07:45

A New Quantum Algorithm in Case of a Special Function

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Ahmed Farouk
Comments: 3 pages

We present a new quantum algorithm. It determines a property of a function. It is $f(x)=f(-x)$ or it is not so. Our quantum algorithm overcomes a classical counterpart by a factor of $O(2^N)$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1566] viXra:1703.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-20 12:11:32

Phonon-Based Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

The new substance may be useful for phonon-based quantum computers, and it may also shed light on the conditions required to form biological Fröhlich condensates of collective modes. [19] Scientists have built tiny logic machines out of single atoms that operate completely differently than conventional logic devices do. [18] Extremely short, configurable "femtosecond" pulses of light demonstrated by an international team could lead to future computers that run up to 100,000 times faster than today's electronics. [17] Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1565] viXra:1703.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-20 09:04:45

Small Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Small Superconductors For the first time, physicists have experimentally validated a 1959 conjecture that places limits on how small superconductors can be. [30] A new finding by physicists at MIT and in Israel shows that under certain specialized conditions, electrons can speed through a narrow opening in a piece of metal more easily than traditional theory says is possible. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1564] viXra:1703.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-19 11:19:15

Quantum Jokes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Thus far, models have not been able to fully account for the complexity of humor or exactly why we find puns and jokes funny, but a research article recently published in Frontiers in Physics suggests a novel approach: quantum theory. [28] As machine learning breakthroughs abound, researchers look to democratize benefits. [27] Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1563] viXra:1703.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-19 08:50:24

The Kochen-Specker Theorem with Two Results of Finite-Precision Measurements

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Ahmed Farouk
Comments: 3 Pages. Asian Journal of Mathematics and Physics (accepted)

We review non-classicality of quantum datum. We consider whether we can assign the predetermined ^^ ^^ hidden'' result to numbers 1 and $-1$ as in results of measurements in a thought experiment. We assume the number of measurements is two. If we detect $|\uparrow\rangle$ as 1 and detect $|\downarrow\rangle$ as $-1$, then we can derive the Kochen-Speker theorem. The same situation occurs when we use a finite-precision measurement theory that the results of measurements are either $1-\epsilon$ or $-1+\epsilon$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1562] viXra:1703.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-19 10:41:24

Quantum Shortcuts Thermodynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Over the past several years, physicists have developed quantum shortcuts that speed up the operation of quantum systems. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1561] viXra:1703.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-16 14:59:39

Quantum Cognition: A New Demonstration of Quantum Collapse Using Mathematical Formulation of Quantum Mechanics by using Clifford Algebra.

Authors: Elio Conte
Comments: 25 Pages.

Starting with 2010 we gave demonstration of Von Neumann postulates of measurements in quantum mechanics by using Clifford algebra. In this paper we give proof by adding a further demonstration following our previous results on the logical origins of quantum mechanics and on the algebraic nature of mental entities intended as abstract elements of Clifford algebra
Category: Quantum Physics

[1560] viXra:1703.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-16 11:11:37

Quantum Limit of Microwave Measurements

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Research groups at Aalto University and the University of Jyväskylä have demonstrated a new microwave measurement method that goes to the quantum limit of measurement and beats it. [16] New method allows for quick, precise measurement of quantum states. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1559] viXra:1703.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-16 08:55:27

Photons Change Chemistry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1558] viXra:1703.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-15 11:43:50

Quantum Mobile Transactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have demonstrated a prototype device that can send unbreakable secret keys from a handheld device to a terminal. [32] But the potential introduction of ultra-powerful quantum computers renders our personal information vulnerable to direct attack. [31] When future users of quantum computers need to analyze their data or run quantum algorithms, they will often have to send encrypted information to the computer. [30] Quantum systems were believed to provide perfectly secure data transmission because until now, attempts to copy the transmitted information resulted in an altered or deteriorated version of the original information, thereby defeating the purpose of the initial hack. [29] Researchers have developed a new type of light-enhancing optical cavity that is only 200 nanometers tall and 100 nanometers across. Their new nanoscale system represents a step toward brighter single-photon sources, which could help propel quantum-based encryption and a truly secure and future-proofed network. [28] Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1557] viXra:1703.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-15 06:37:29

Quantum Entanglement Witness

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1556] viXra:1703.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-15 08:54:56

Quantum Vibrato Analysis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) are bringing us closer to understanding the musical experience through a novel approach to analysing a common musical effect known as vibrato. [19] Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information,
Category: Quantum Physics

[1555] viXra:1703.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-13 14:44:44

Electron Spin of Quantum Dots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

While traditional computing is based on a binary information system, electron spin states in quantum dots can display further degrees of freedom because of the possibility of superposition of both states at the same time. [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1554] viXra:1703.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-14 02:06:38

Lightwave Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Extremely short, configurable "femtosecond" pulses of light demonstrated by an international team could lead to future computers that run up to 100,000 times faster than today's electronics. [17] Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1553] viXra:1703.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-10 10:17:16

Wave Signal Theory on the Nature of Particle

Authors: Carmen N. Wrede, Gunter J. Koch, Michael Skiera
Comments: 6 Pages.

Over one century ago the double slit experiment presented science with a mystique riddle. The Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) not only confirmed Young’s opinion that light has a wave character, but also described a fifth state of matter in which matter transforms into a wave. But the double slit has a profound secret. It reveals the illusion of wave-particle duality by taking a closer look at the behavior of particles send through the double-slit apparatus. It turns out that the wavefunction rather describes the mutual play between particles and their own electromagnetic fields. This paper will not only question wave-particle dualism and quantum physics, but also the validity of a handful of physical theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1552] viXra:1703.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-09 11:16:38

Quantum Blurred Times

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

When measuring time, we normally assume that clocks do not affect space and time, and that time can be measured with infinite accuracy at nearby points in space. However, combining quantum mechanics and Einstein's theory of general relativity theoretical physicists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have demonstrated a fundamental limitation for our ability to measure time. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1551] viXra:1703.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-09 08:38:31

World's Smallest Magnet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

An international team of researchers working at IBMs' San Jose research facility announced recently that they had created the world's smallest magnet—it was made from a single atom. [29] Light interacting with hydrogen atoms enclosed in hollow cages composed of carbon atoms-referred to as fullerene material-produces ionisation. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1550] viXra:1703.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-09 05:24:49

Researchers Create Time Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Are time crystals just a mathematical curiosity, or could they actually physically exist? Physicists have been debating this question since 2012, when Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek first proposed the idea of time crystals. He argued that these hypothetical objects can exhibit periodic motion, such as moving in a circular orbit, in their state of lowest energy, or their "ground state." [28] Researchers from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), together with researchers from the Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba (Japan), have discovered an exceptional new quantum state within a superconducting material. This exceptional quantum state is characterised by a broken rotational symmetry – in other words, if you turn the material in a magnetic field, the superconductivity isn't the same everywhere in the material. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1549] viXra:1703.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-09 07:49:37

Ionization Mechanisms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Light interacting with hydrogen atoms enclosed in hollow cages composed of carbon atoms-referred to as fullerene material-produces ionisation. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1548] viXra:1703.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-08 13:34:15

Bell's Theorem Refuted in Our Locally-Causal Lorentz-Invariant World

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 12 Pages.

Adjusting EPR (to accord with Bohr's insight), and accepting Bell's principles (but not his false inferences), we:— (i) complete the QM account of EPR correlations in a classical way; (ii) deliver Bell's hope for a simple constructive model of EPRB; (iii) justify EPR's belief that additional variables would bring locality and causality to QM's completion; (iv) refute key claims that such variables are impossible — including CHSH, Mermin's three-particle always-vs-never variant of GHZ, and this: in the context of Bell's theorem ‘it's a proven scientific fact that a violation of local realism has been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally,' (Annals of Physics Editors, 2016). In short: we refute Bell's theorem and endorse Einstein's locally-causal Lorentz-invariant worldview.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1547] viXra:1703.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-08 07:20:09

Control over Single Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1546] viXra:1703.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-07 11:11:06

Newly Discovered Phenomenon Accelerates Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A new finding by physicists at MIT and in Israel shows that under certain specialized conditions, electrons can speed through a narrow opening in a piece of metal more easily than traditional theory says is possible. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1545] viXra:1703.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-07 09:12:35

Quantum Mechanics Protect Security Online

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

But the potential introduction of ultra-powerful quantum computers renders our personal information vulnerable to direct attack. [31] When future users of quantum computers need to analyze their data or run quantum algorithms, they will often have to send encrypted information to the computer. [30] Quantum systems were believed to provide perfectly secure data transmission because until now, attempts to copy the transmitted information resulted in an altered or deteriorated version of the original information, thereby defeating the purpose of the initial hack. [29] Researchers have developed a new type of light-enhancing optical cavity that is only 200 nanometers tall and 100 nanometers across. Their new nanoscale system represents a step toward brighter single-photon sources, which could help propel quantum-based encryption and a truly secure and future-proofed network. [28] Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1544] viXra:1703.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-07 01:49:57

Should We Interpret Quantum Mechanics According to Bohr?

Authors: Shubhayan Sarkar
Comments: 6 Pages.

I present here a thought experiment which violates the most widely accepted interpretation of quantum mechanics “The Copenhagen Interpretation” and Bohr’s complementarity which says that there is no meaning of the state of a particle until it is observed and the act of observation might change it. The experiment consists of a double slit apparatus which is modified by putting a second double slit apparatus between the source and the original apparatus with certain conditions imposed on both the apparatuses using the facts of interference and diffraction. A striking paradox emerges if we consider the arguments of Bohr’s complementarity, i.e. the photon travels through both the paths simultaneously in a double slit apparatus whenever there is interference. It turns out that this paradox can be resolved only if the photon travels through one path even if interference fringes are visible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1543] viXra:1703.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-04 12:30:39

On the Origin of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Joseph F. Messina
Comments: Pages.

It is shown, utilizing dimensional analysis, that the quantization of electric charge can be explained, in a fundamentally consistent manner, as a manifestation of the quantization of the intrinsic vibrational energy of the fabric of spacetime by a non-Planckian "action" in sub-Planckian spacetime. It is found that this conceptualization of the elementary charge provides a natural explanation of some of the more vexing questions that have plagued quantum electrodynamics since its inception. A possible experiment is suggested that might test for the presence of such a non-Planckian "action" in gravitational radiation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1542] viXra:1703.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-03 08:18:22

Superconducting Josephson Junction Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8] University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1541] viXra:1703.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-02 11:44:33

Plasmonic Optical Links

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Mapping photons to a metal surface and converting them to a particular kind of electron oscillations, called plasmons, researchers from Switzerland, Germany and the US collaborated to develop a new way to impart information into the light signals sent over the Internet's optical fiber networks. [8] University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1540] viXra:1703.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-02 07:03:47

Quantum Hybrid Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1539] viXra:1702.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-28 11:08:28

Light-by-Light Scattering

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Scientists from the ATLAS collaboration at the LHC have found evidence for light-by-light scattering, in which two photons interact and change their trajectory. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1538] viXra:1702.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-27 16:32:07

Quantum-Mechanical Aspects of the L. Pauling's Resonance Theory.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 4 Pages.

The L. Pauling's resonance theory analyzed using principle of quantum superposition, that is the principle of superposition "wave function", which is the main positive principle of quantum mechanics. The principle of quantum superposition is essentially a basic property of the wave function. By example of benzene molecule is shown that the principle of quantum superposition, and hence the quantum mechanics in general is in insurmountable conflict with the resonance theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1537] viXra:1702.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-27 05:52:43

Использование силы Казимира для управляемого движения макротел (Ru)

Authors: A.V. Antipin
Comments: 13 Pages.

Рассмотрен эффект Казимира для конструкции «уголок». Теоретически обнаружена некомпенсируемая сила в направлении от вершины уголка к его раствору. Проведены оценки величины этой силы. ///// Considered the Casimir effect for construction «angle bar». Theoretically discovered uncompensated force in the direction from the top of the angle bar to its opening angle. Assessment of the magnitude of this force. (see http://vixra.org/abs/1404.0097)
Category: Quantum Physics

[1536] viXra:1702.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-24 07:25:20

Ultrashort Laser Pulses in Optical Fiber

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1535] viXra:1702.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-23 10:55:33

Quantum Topology, Quantum Gravity

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaty
Comments: 1 Page.

We consider a particle as a topological knot
Category: Quantum Physics

[1534] viXra:1702.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-22 06:43:41

Grondbeginselen Van de Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 9 Pages.

Een onderzoek naar de grondbeginselen van de fysieke realiteit is alleen mogelijk met hulp van een wiskundig model
Category: Quantum Physics

[1533] viXra:1702.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-22 07:13:53

Entropy of a Single Molecule

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1532] viXra:1702.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-22 08:50:18

Quantum Critical Behavior

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

A research group from Bar-Ilan University, in collaboration with French colleagues at CNRS Grenoble, has developed a unique experiment to detect quantum events in ultra-thin films. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1531] viXra:1702.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-21 13:48:19

Quantum State is Real

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1530] viXra:1702.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-20 11:05:29

Vacuum Friction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

When three physicists first discovered through their calculations that a decaying atom moving through the vacuum experiences a friction-like force, they were highly suspicious. [10] A small team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Italy, Japan and the U.S. has created a simulation that suggests that it should be possible for a single photon to simultaneously excite two atoms. [9] Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1529] viXra:1702.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 12:55:29

Neglected Properties of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

University of Toronto (U of T) researchers have demonstrated a way to increase the resolution of microscopes and telescopes beyond long-accepted limitations by tapping into previously neglected properties of light. [18] Research led by ANU on the use of magnets to steer light has opened the door to new communications systems which could be smaller, cheaper and more agile than fibre optics. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1528] viXra:1702.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:53:24

Relativistic Velocity Stabilization of Particle Sets in Gravity Fields

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

The analogy of electromagnetism for gravity was proposed by O. Heaviside in 1893 and applied by O. Jefimenko at the end of last millennium. In one intriguing example of two falling masses in a gravity field, he found that the two masses are mutually over-accelerating, more than the gravity acceleration field. I find here the result of his example in the form of a relativistic equation of velocity stabilization in that gravity field, related to the distance of the two masses. When I look for the conditions for the upper limit velocity, the speed of light, I deduce that the distance between the two masses at that relativistic speed equals the Planck length. Hence, this gives the first physical meaning of Planck length in a practical application, i.e. that very small particles such as gravitons and neutrinos with a rest mass can propagate in a gravity field at the speed of light without being just a wave that is propagated by the specific natural constants of a medium.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1527] viXra:1702.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:13:22

A Stroll Around E=mc² and Planck’s Constant

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

Since generations it has been taught that the relationship between energy and mass for E-M waves is E = m c². However, in this paper we will discover that this equation unveils the intrinsic potential energy of the carrier of waves, formerly called ‘aether’. We will find the mass of an electron and Planck’s constant in terms of the aether’s density.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1526] viXra:1702.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-16 02:13:22

Quantum Relativity as the Way Towards Reality

Authors: Peter Leifer
Comments: 10 Pages. FQXi_contest_2016

Wandering in quantum researches should lead to the rational goal - understanding. All history of the science shows how meaningful mathematical laws in physics, engineering, chemistry, etc., arose on the ground of rational human practice. I would like show that in the contradictory development of quantum physics, the theory ultimately follows the same line. ``Elementary" particles do exist. This fact does not depend on the procedure of a measurement. The existence, however, requires some description that mostly based on relations between measurable values. Our goal is to bridge this objective reality and its mental reflection. It is assumed that existence should be based on the invariant relations between measurable values. What kind of the invariance should be used?
Category: Quantum Physics

[1525] viXra:1702.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-16 04:14:01

G-Factor and the Helical Solenoid Electron Model

Authors: Oliver Consa
Comments: 16 Pages.

A new model of the electron with Helical Solenoid geometry is presented. This new model is an extension of the Parson’s Ring Electron Model and the Hestenes’ Zitter Electron Model. In this new electron model, the g-factor appears as a simple consequence of the geometry of the electron. The calculation of the g-factor is performed in a simple manner and we obtain the value of 1.0011607. This value of the g-factor is more accurate that the value provided by the Schwinger’s factor.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1524] viXra:1702.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-15 06:15:13

Creation of Entangled Photon States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1523] viXra:1702.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 12:15:30

Frequency Combs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

EPFL scientists have found a way to miniaturize frequency combs, realizing a new step toward miniaturization of such tools. Their device can measure light oscillations with a precision of 12 digits. [20] Technion researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, that laser emissions can be created through the interaction of light and water waves. This "water-wave laser" could someday be used in tiny sensors that combine light waves, sound and water waves, or as a feature on microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices used to study cell biology and to test new drug therapies. [18] Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1522] viXra:1702.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-13 15:50:27

Radius of Single Fluxon Electron Model Identical with Classical Electron Radius

Authors: U. Kayser-Herold
Comments: 6 Pages.

Analytical determination of the magnetic flux included in the electron's dipole field - with consideration of magnetic flux quantization - reveals that it precisely comprises one magnetic flux quantum $\Phi_{0}$. The analysis further delivers a redefinition of classical electron radius $r_{e}$ by a factorized relation among electron radius $r_{e}$, vacuum permeability $\mu_{0}$, magneton $\mu_{B}$ and fluxon $\Phi_{0}$, exclusively determined by the electron's quantized magnetic dipole field: \begin{center} $r_{e} =\mu_{0}\hspace{1} \mu_{B}\hspace{1}(\Phi_{0})^{-1}= e^{2}/ 4 \pi \epsilon_{0} m_{e} c^{2}$ \end{center} The single fluxon electron model further enables analytical determination of its vector potential at $r_{e}$: $\vec{A}_{re} = \vec{\Phi}_{0}/2\pi r_{e}}$ and canonical angular momentum: $ e \vec{A}_{re}\hspace{2} 2 \hspace{2}\pi r_{e} %= e \hspace{2}\vec{\Phi_{0}} 2 \hspace{2}\pi = \hbar/2$.\\ Consideration of flux-quantization supports a toroidal electron model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1521] viXra:1702.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-12 00:00:48

Resolving the Mystery of the Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 2 Pages.

A quantized magnetic flux version of Planck's reduced constant is deduced from first principles. The magnetic flux quantum can explain the fine structure constant and the “anomalous” magnetic moment of an electron.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1520] viXra:1702.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-09 14:05:45

Atoms Sorting Machine

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Bonn have cleared a further hurdle on the path to creating quantum computers: in a recent study, they present a method with which they can very quickly and precisely sort large numbers of atoms. [17] Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1519] viXra:1702.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-09 11:28:03

Large Groups of Photons on Demand

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1518] viXra:1702.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-09 02:40:39

Ultrasmall Atom Motions Recorded

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Periodic motions of atoms over a length of a billionth of a millionth of a meter (10-15 m) are mapped by ultrashort x-ray pulses. [11] High-energy electrons synced to ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time. [10] A small team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Italy, Japan and the U.S. has created a simulation that suggests that it should be possible for a single photon to simultaneously excite two atoms. [9] Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a meter. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1517] viXra:1702.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-09 03:01:39

Surprising Spin Behavior

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

The field of spintronics focuses on spin transport behavior in magnetic metals, and the major findings in this area have important implications for the field of electronics. [12] Periodic motions of atoms over a length of a billionth of a millionth of a meter (10-15 m) are mapped by ultrashort x-ray pulses. [11] High-energy electrons synced to ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time. [10] A small team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Italy, Japan and the U.S. has created a simulation that suggests that it should be possible for a single photon to simultaneously excite two atoms. [9] Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a meter. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1516] viXra:1702.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-09 03:46:16

Bohr's Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Niels Bohr's atomic model was utterly revolutionary when it was presented in 1913. Although it is still taught in schools, it became obsolete decades ago. However, its creator also developed a much wider-ranging and less known quantum theory, the principles of which changed over time. Researchers at the University of Barcelona have now analysed the development in the Danish physicist's thought – a real example of how scientific theories are shaped. [13] The field of spintronics focuses on spin transport behavior in magnetic metals, and the major findings in this area have important implications for the field of electronics. [12] Periodic motions of atoms over a length of a billionth of a millionth of a meter (10-15 m) are mapped by ultrashort x-ray pulses. [11] High-energy electrons synced to ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time. [10] A small team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Italy, Japan and the U.S. has created a simulation that suggests that it should be possible for a single photon to simultaneously excite two atoms. [9] Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a meter. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1515] viXra:1702.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-08 03:46:10

Measuring Photoemission Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

When light shines on certain materials, it causes them to emit electrons. This is called "photoemission" and it was discovered by Albert Einstein in 1905, winning him the Nobel Prize. But only in the last few years, with advancements in laser technology, have scientists been able to approach the incredibly short timescales of photoemission. [11] High-energy electrons synced to ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time. [10] A small team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Italy, Japan and the U.S. has created a simulation that suggests that it should be possible for a single photon to simultaneously excite two atoms. [9] Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1514] viXra:1702.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-07 12:52:08

Tests of Bell's Inequality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In numerous previous experiments, physicists have observed correlations between particles in excess of the limit set by Bell's inequality, which suggests that they are indeed entangled, just as predicted by quantum theory. But each such test has been subject to various "loopholes," scenarios that might account for the observed correlations even if the world were not governed by quantum mechanics. [11] Using a Bose-Einstein condensate composed of millions of sodium atoms, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have observed a sharp magnetically-induced quantum phase transition where they expect to find entangled atomic pairs. The work moves scientists closer to an elusive entangled state that would have potential sensing and computing applications beyond its basic science interests. [10] A team of researchers at the University of Cambridge has succeeded in creating turbulence in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) and in the process, have possibly opened the door to a new avenue of research. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they achieved this feat and the evidence they found for a cascade. Brian Anderson with the University of Arizona offers a News & Views piece describing the work done by the team in the same journal issue and offers a brief overview of the characteristic distribution of kinetic energy in turbulent fluids. [9] Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are macroscopic systems that have quantum behaviour, and are useful for exploring fundamental physics. Now researchers at the Gakushuin University and the University of Electro-Communications have studied how the miscibility of multicomponent BECs affects their behaviour, with surprising results. [8] Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic antisocial behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7] Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1513] viXra:1702.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-06 14:22:10

Ensemble Discrimination Via Selective Random Rotations and Projective Measurements

Authors: C S Sudheer Kumar
Comments: 17 Pages.

Consider two ensembles of N qubits each: E1 and E2. The ratio Na1/N (Na2/N) is approximately 1/2 (1/2), where Na1 (Na2) is the total number of qubits in E1 (E2) which are in the state |a1> (|a2>), a1=0,1 (a2=+,-). |0>, |1> are eigenkets of Z (Pauli-z matrix), and |+>=(|0>+|1>)/sqrt(2), |->=(|0>-|1>)/sqrt(2). If we cannot address and control each of the N qubits in the ensemble separately (i.e., no local control, but only global control), like in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spin ensembles, then both E1 and E2 are said to be maximally mixed, and hence it is not possible to discriminate between them. This is because, both E1 and E2 give same expectation value of an arbitrary observable. As number of measurements increases, variance of sample mean (of measurement outcomes) decreases, and hence sample mean approaches expectation value of the observable being measured. We are going to show that, if we have local control (like in experiments with single photons), then selectively rotating about x-axis (on Bloch sphere) each of the N qubits in the ensemble by a random angle, reduces variance of sample mean in E1 (this is due to sort of convoluting two independent probability distributions). As random x-rotations does nothing (up to an insignificant global phase) to the states |+>, |->, variance of sample mean remains unaltered in E2. Without random x-rotations, both E1 and E2 give same variance of sample mean. Hence we can discriminate between E1 and E2, via variance of sample mean. We also show that, numerical simulation results support theoretical predictions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1512] viXra:1702.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-05 12:11:01

Why Theory of Quantum Computing Should be Based on Finite Mathematics

Authors: Felix M Lev
Comments: 8 Pages.

We discuss finite quantum theory (FQT) developed in our previous publications and give a simple explanation that standard quantum theory is a special case of FQT in the formal limit $p\to\infty$ where $p$ is the characteristic of the ring or field used in FQT. Then we argue that FQT is a more natural basis for quantum computing than standard quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1511] viXra:1702.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 02:25:16

Free Dirac Current for Superposed States

Authors: Anamitra palit
Comments: 10 Pages.

The article aims to investigate the four current due to the superposition of free Dirac states with a special view towards the terms containing oscillatory factors responsible for “the trembling motion of electrons”----Zitterbewegung. As we shall see that these terms simply disappear. Zitterbewegung is not possible with free Dirac States
Category: Quantum Physics

[1510] viXra:1702.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 08:23:18

Quantum Devices Cleaning

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

The advancement of quantum computing faces a tremendous challenge in improving the reproducibility and robustness of quantum circuits. One of the biggest problems in this field is the presence of noise intrinsic to all these devices, the origin of which has puzzled scientists for many decades. [25] Characterising quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light the researchers demonstrate the startling result that sometimes Nature cannot tell the difference between particular types of laser beams and quantum entangled photons. [24] Physicists at Princeton University have revealed a device they've created that will allow a single electron to transfer its quantum information to a photon. [23] A strong, short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. This was discovered by researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and Bialystok University in Poland. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives, allowing the fastest read-write magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load. [22] It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21] Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1509] viXra:1702.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 04:44:49

Quantum State Tomography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Quantum state tomography is the process of reconstructing – or more precisely completely characterizing – the quantum state of an object as it is emitted by its source, before a possible measurement or interaction with the environment takes place. [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1508] viXra:1702.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 06:21:57

The Hybrid-Epistemic Model of Quantum Mechanics and the Solution to the Measurement Problem

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this study we introduce and describe in details the hybrid-epistemic model for quantum mechanics. The main differences with respect to the standard model are following: (1) the measurement process is considered as an internal process inside quantum mechanics, i.e. it does not make a part of axioms and (2) the process of the observation of the state of the individual measuring system is introduced into axioms. It is clear that the measurement problem in quantum mechanics is important. It is also clear that the possible solution to the measurement problem is important. The intrinsic measurement process is described in two variants (simplified and generalized). Our model contains hybrid, epistemic and hybrid-epistemic systems. Each hybrid system contains a unique orthogonal base composed from homogeneous, i.e. ontic states. We show that in our model the measurement problem is consistently solvable. Our model represents the rational compromise between the Bohr’s view (the ontic model) and the Einstein’s view (the epistemic model). Our solution is a result of a long study of the inner structure of quantum mechanics (see [8], [1], [6], [3]). The measurement problem of quantum mechanics is at least 22 years old (see [2]), probably 85 years old (see [10]). Its possible solution is given here.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1507] viXra:1702.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 07:15:38

Entangled Atoms in a Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Using a Bose-Einstein condensate composed of millions of sodium atoms, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have observed a sharp magnetically-induced quantum phase transition where they expect to find entangled atomic pairs. The work moves scientists closer to an elusive entangled state that would have potential sensing and computing applications beyond its basic science interests. [10] A team of researchers at the University of Cambridge has succeeded in creating turbulence in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) and in the process, have possibly opened the door to a new avenue of research. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they achieved this feat and the evidence they found for a cascade. Brian Anderson with the University of Arizona offers a News & Views piece describing the work done by the team in the same journal issue and offers a brief overview of the characteristic distribution of kinetic energy in turbulent fluids. [9] Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are macroscopic systems that have quantum behaviour, and are useful for exploring fundamental physics. Now researchers at the Gakushuin University and the University of Electro-Communications have studied how the miscibility of multicomponent BECs affects their behaviour, with surprising results. [8] Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic antisocial behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7] Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1506] viXra:1702.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 03:01:17

Chiral Quantum Optics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Surprising direction-dependent effects emerge when light is guided in microscopic structures. This discovery shows promise for both classical and quantum information processing. [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1505] viXra:1702.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-02 19:15:37

Theoretical Analysis of a Possible Method to Quantum Communication of Exceed Velocity of Light

Authors: Jue Wang
Comments: 5 Pages.

If the projection of two photon entangled state in two orthogonal state basis are not equal,the direction of observation of one photon would have influence on the probability distribution of the polarization state of the other photon, which affects the statistical results of a large number of photons. non-local communication can be realized with this method. To get these type of two photon entangled state, this paper designs a method: put the calcium atoms in strong magnetic field.According to the Zeeman effect,calcium atoms would have energy level splitting. Then if the angle between the direction of observation and magnetic field is acute angle, the π light of the calcium atoms’ cascade radiation from 4p2 1S0→4s4p 1P1→4s1 1S0 would meet the requirement. Thus we demonstrate the method of non fixed domain transfer information is feasible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1504] viXra:1702.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-02 19:10:49

Quantum Waves in Nature, a New Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: John R. Carlson
Comments: 24 Pages. You may email me at: johncarlson33@aol.com

We propose a new interpretation of quantum mechanics to address challenges of the Copenhagen Interpretation and to explain observations from certain double-slit experiments. We explore some characteristics of quantum mechanics and analyze a quantum mechanical model which leads us to the assumptions for our new interpretation. We show how quantized waves, like those in Schrödinger’s wave equation, might exist in nature and explain the fundamentals of quantum-scale processes including: the above-mentioned double-slit experiments, wave function collapse, quantum entanglement and quantum tunneling. We classify our interpretation based on commonly used criteria. Finally, we consider some future theoretical points and list some experimental questions. Our new interpretation has the potential to facilitate new theory and experiments leading to a better understanding of fundamental processes in nature and possibly new applications for quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1503] viXra:1702.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-02 11:29:09

Large Scale Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

An international team, led by a scientist from the University of Sussex, have today unveiled the first practical blueprint for how to build a quantum computer, the most powerful computer on Earth. [26] Data centers are the central point of many, if not most, information systems today, but the masses of wires interconnecting the servers and piled high on racks begins to resemble last year's tangled Christmas-tree lights disaster. Now a team of engineers is proposing to eliminate most of the wires and substitute infrared free-space optics for communications. [25] Characterising quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light the researchers demonstrate the startling result that sometimes Nature cannot tell the difference between particular types of laser beams and quantum entangled photons. [24] Physicists at Princeton University have revealed a device they've created that will allow a single electron to transfer its quantum information to a photon. [23] A strong, short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. This was discovered by researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and Bialystok University in Poland. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives, allowing the fastest read-write magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load. [22] It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21] Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1502] viXra:1702.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-02 08:24:23

Experiment About Advanced Wave or Advanced Potential by Classical Method

Authors: Shuang-ren Zhao, Kevin Yang, Kang Yang, Xingang Yang, Xintie Yang
Comments: 7 Pages. Hope someone spend time to make this experiment. The result is positive or negative all will be very interesting.

Experiments to produce advanced wave and send single from current to the past is proposed using classical method. The experiment method is by change the impedance of the load, then output power of the power source is measured. According to the mutual energy theorem, the load will suck the energy form the source by advanced wave or potential, hence the change in the power source should happens before the change of the load. Hence it is possible to send the signal to the past. The communication from current time to the past time should be possible. 3 experiments will be applied to test it. The experiments are all classical with using the quantum entangle effects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1501] viXra:1702.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-02 09:44:49

Superconducting Quantum Phase Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1500] viXra:1702.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-02 10:12:13

Exotic Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1499] viXra:1702.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 11:57:13

A Simple Quantum Algorithm for Exponentially Fast Target Searching in the Unstructured Database

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 11 Pages.

We present an exponentially fast simple quantum algorithm to run on a quantum computer for searching the unknown target in the unstructured database. This algorithm provides an eloquent example that clearly demonstrates the enormous advantage of quantum parallalism. This novel quantum algorithm is based on the idea of simultaneously utilising $(n/2)$ oracles or black-box functions followed by $(n/2)$ diffusion transforms for searching target in the unordered data set of size $N = 2^n.$ We show that we can attain the (explicitly unknown) target in the unstructured database of size $N = 2^n$ by giving only one call, simultaneously (parallely) and independently, to just $(n/2)$ oracles or black-box functions followed by $(n/2)$ diffusion transforms that we define and implement using a quantum computer. This algorithm thus demonstrates the exponential speedup that can be achieved in obtaining the desired target from unstructed data set of size $N = 2^n$ which is indeed amazing! For a typical $NP-$complete problem in which one has to find an assignment of one of some $b$ values to each of some $m$ variables, the number of candidate solutions, $N = b^m,$ grows exponentially with $m.$ Hence a classical exhaustive algorithm would take $O(b^m)$ operations, Grover's quantum algorithm would take $O(b^{m/2})$ operations, while the algorithm that we propose in this paper does this job in just a single operation!! Thus, using our quantum algorithm on a quantum computer one can establish the validity of $NP = P$ through a quantum mechanical procedure run on a quantum computer!!
Category: Quantum Physics

[1498] viXra:1701.0683 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-31 07:15:53

The Einstein De Broglie Feynman Quantum Equivalence Principle

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 6 Pages.

Combining the equation for mass energy equivalence and the De Broglie equations for wavelength with Feynman’s work on Quantum Electrodynamics, this paper will provide an equation of quantum equivalence using the fine structure constant which is measured to incredible accuracy in the study of QED. This equation will serve to prove that energy mass equivalence is a product/consequence of quantum effects. Electrons will be used to test the equation for both rest mass and rest energy as well as the wavelength, with the help of using the Rydberg constant to simplify the calculus.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1497] viXra:1701.0674 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-31 03:50:36

Ultrafast Laser and Vibrational States of Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

High-energy electrons synced to ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time. [10] A small team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Italy, Japan and the U.S. has created a simulation that suggests that it should be possible for a single photon to simultaneously excite two atoms. [9] Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1496] viXra:1701.0652 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-28 12:49:11

Uncover Magnetic Reconnection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Physicists uncover clues to mechanism behind magnetic reconnection. [12] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1495] viXra:1701.0645 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-28 04:38:58

Absorbing Electromagnetic Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Electrical engineers at Duke University have created the world's first electromagnetic metamaterial made without any metal. The device's ability to absorb electromagnetic energy without heating up has direct applications in imaging, sensing and lighting. [14] Paint these days is becoming much more than it used to be. Already researchers have developed photovoltaic paint, which can be used to make "paint-on solar cells" that capture the sun's energy and turn it into electricity. Now in a new study, researchers have created thermoelectric paint, which captures the waste heat from hot painted surfaces and converts it into electrical energy. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1494] viXra:1701.0642 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-28 06:24:00

Single Photon Excite Two Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A small team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Italy, Japan and the U.S. has created a simulation that suggests that it should be possible for a single photon to simultaneously excite two atoms. [9] Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1493] viXra:1701.0637 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-27 10:57:05

The Corpuscular Structure of Matter, the Interactions Between Material Particles, Quantum Phenomena, and Cosmological Data as a Consequence of Selfvariations.

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos
Comments: 164 Pages.

With the term “Law of Selfvariations” we mean an exactly determined increase of the rest mass and electric charge of material particle. In this article we present the basic theoretical investigation of the law of selfvariations. We arrive at the central conclusion that the interaction of material particles, the corpuscular structure of matter, and the quantum phenomena can be justified by the law of Selfvariations. We predict a unified interaction between material particles with a unified mechanism (Unified Selfvariations Interaction, USVI). Every interaction is the result of three clearly distinct terms with clearly distinct consequences in the USVI. We predict a wave equation, whose special cases are the Maxwell equations, the Schrödinger equation, and the related wave equations. We determine a mathematical expression for the total of the conservable physical quantities, and we calculate the current density 4-vector. The corpuscular structure and wave behaviour of matter and their relation emerge clearly, and we give a calculation method for the rest masses of material particles. We prove the «internal symmetry» theorem which justifies the cosmological data. From the study we present, the method for the further investigation of the Selfvariations and their consequences also emerges.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1492] viXra:1701.0632 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-27 05:26:55

Faster Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

New theoretical work shows how much faster quantum information can travel through a system than classical information. [25] Characterising quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light the researchers demonstrate the startling result that sometimes Nature cannot tell the difference between particular types of laser beams and quantum entangled photons. [24] Physicists at Princeton University have revealed a device they've created that will allow a single electron to transfer its quantum information to a photon. [23] A strong, short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. This was discovered by researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and Bialystok University in Poland. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives, allowing the fastest read-write magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load. [22] It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21] Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1491] viXra:1701.0621 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 12:29:22

How Well Do Classically Produced Correlations Match Quantum Theory?

Authors: Colin Walker
Comments: 11 Pages.

A two-dimensional vector can be made from a constant signal component plus a randomly oriented noise component. This simple model can exploit detection and post-selection loopholes to produce Bell correlations within 0.01 of the theoretical cosine expected from quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1490] viXra:1701.0609 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 10:02:39

Helium Impact on Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Utilizing electrons on a liquid helium surface for quantum computing requires isolating individual electrons on a helium surface and controlling their quantum degrees of freedom, either motional or spin. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1489] viXra:1701.0606 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 13:02:07

Photonic Quantum Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Advanced photonic nanostructures are well on their way to revolutionising quantum technology for quantum networks based on light. Researchers from the Niels Bohr Institute have now developed the first building blocks needed to construct complex quantum photonic circuits for quantum networks. [25] Characterising quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light the researchers demonstrate the startling result that sometimes Nature cannot tell the difference between particular types of laser beams and quantum entangled photons. [24] Physicists at Princeton University have revealed a device they've created that will allow a single electron to transfer its quantum information to a photon. [23] A strong, short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. This was discovered by researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and Bialystok University in Poland. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives, allowing the fastest read-write magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load. [22] It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21] Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1488] viXra:1701.0583 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-23 10:13:23

Convert Sunlight into Electrical Current

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A team of scientists has compositionally modified magnetite to capture visible sunlight and convert this light energy into electrical current. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1487] viXra:1701.0581 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-23 10:59:24

Error Correction in Quantum Communications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Characterising quantum channels with non-separable states of classical light the researchers demonstrate the startling result that sometimes Nature cannot tell the difference between particular types of laser beams and quantum entangled photons. [24] Physicists at Princeton University have revealed a device they've created that will allow a single electron to transfer its quantum information to a photon. [23] A strong, short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. This was discovered by researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and Bialystok University in Poland. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives, allowing the fastest read-write magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load. [22] It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21] Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1486] viXra:1701.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-22 09:14:10

Schrodinger's Cat of Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Postdoctoral Fellow Dr Seb Weidt, PhD students Kim Lake and Joe Randall at work on the experiment creating 'entanglement' using microwave radiation. [23] A strong, short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. This was discovered by researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and Bialystok University in Poland. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives, allowing the fastest read-write magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load. [22] It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21] Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1485] viXra:1701.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-21 03:08:08

Send Information Using a Single Particle of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Physicists at Princeton University have revealed a device they’ve created that will allow a single electron to transfer its quantum information to a photon. [23] A strong, short light pulse can record data on a magnetic layer of yttrium iron garnet doped with Co-ions. This was discovered by researchers from Radboud University in the Netherlands and Bialystok University in Poland. The novel mechanism outperforms existing alternatives, allowing the fastest read-write magnetic recording accompanied by unprecedentedly low heat load. [22] It goes by the unwieldy acronym STT-MRAM, which stands for spin-transfer torque magnetic random access memory. [21] Memory chips are among the most basic components in computers. The random access memory is where processors temporarily store their data, which is a crucial function. Researchers from Dresden and Basel have now managed to lay the foundation for a new memory chip concept. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1484] viXra:1701.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-20 06:31:09

Molecular Duet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1483] viXra:1701.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-20 07:23:35

New Type of Quantum Phase Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1482] viXra:1701.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-18 22:00:17

The Quantum Measurement Problem: Collapse of the Wave Function Explained

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 11 Pages.

Quantum physicists have made many attempts to solve the quantum measurement problem, but no solution seems to have received widespread acceptance. The time has come for a new approach. In Sense Perception and Reality: A Theory of Perceptual Relativity, Quantum Mechanics and the Observer Dependent Universe and in a new paper The End of Realism I suggest the quantum measurement problem is caused by a failure to understand that each species has its own sensory world and that when we say the wave function collapses and brings a particle into existence we mean the particle is bought into existence in the human sensory world by the combined operation of the human sensory apparatus, particle detectors and the experimental set up. This is similar to the Copenhagen Interpretation suggested by Niels Bohr and others, but the understanding that the collapse of the wave function brings a particle into existence in the human sensory world removes the need for a dividing line between the quantum world and the macro world. The same rules can apply to both worlds and the ideas stated in this paper considerably strengthen the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1481] viXra:1701.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-18 12:41:29

Traffic Jam in Empty Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

An important step towards a completely new experimental access to quantum physics has been made at University of Konstanz. The team of scientists headed by Professor Alfred Leitenstorfer has now shown how to manipulate the electric vacuum field and thus generate deviations from the ground state of empty space which can only be understood in the context of the quantum theory of light. [10] Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have cooled a mechanical object to a temperature lower than previously thought possible, below the so-called "quantum limit." [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1480] viXra:1701.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 20:05:38

Mechanism for the Generation of a Fundamental Unit of Charge

Authors: J. P. Lestone
Comments: 3 Pages. 3 pg, 1 figure.

Virtual photons, with a reduced wavelength of ƛ, are assumed to interact with isolated charged leptons with a cross section of piƛ2. This interaction is assumed to generate stimulated virtual photon emissions that are capable of being exchanged with other particles. This exchange of virtual photons is assumed to define the strength of electromagnetism. With the inclusion of near-field effects, the model choices presented give a calculated fundamental unit of charge of 1.60218x10^-19 C. If these choices are corroborated by detailed calculations then an understanding of the numerical value of the fine structure constant may emerge.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1479] viXra:1701.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 10:26:57

Light Source Discovery Challenge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A widely held understanding of electromagnetic radiation has been challenged in newly published research led at the University of Strathclyde. [19] Technion researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, that laser emissions can be created through the interaction of light and water waves. This "water-wave laser" could someday be used in tiny sensors that combine light waves, sound and water waves, or as a feature on microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices used to study cell biology and to test new drug therapies. [18] Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1478] viXra:1701.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 17:39:14

A New Boundary for Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle – Good Bye to the Point Particle Hypothesis?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we are combining Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle with Haug’s new insight on the maximum velocity for anything with rest-mass; see [1, 2, 3]. This leads to a new and exact boundary condition on Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. The uncertainty in position at the potential maximum momentum for subatomic particles as derived from the maximum velocity is half of the Planck length. Perhaps Einstein was right after all when he stated, “God does not play dice.” Or at least the dice may have a stricter boundary on possible outcomes than we have previously thought. We also show how this new boundary condition seems to make big G consistent with Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. We obtain a mathematical expression for big G that is fully in line with empirical observations. Hopefully our analysis can be a small step in better understanding Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and its interpretations and by extension, the broader implications for the quantum world.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1477] viXra:1701.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 15:13:07

Quantum Future Literally

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Sydney have demonstrated the ability to "see" the future of quantum systems, and used that knowledge to preempt their demise, in a major achievement that could help bring the strange and powerful world of quantum technology closer to reality. [16] New method allows for quick, precise measurement of quantum states. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1476] viXra:1701.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 05:07:46

Analysis of Electron Diffraction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Diffraction-based analytical methods are widely used in laboratories, but they struggle to study samples that are smaller than a micrometer in size. [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1475] viXra:1701.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 01:22:09

Theory of Matter:“Just Waves”.

Authors: Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez
Comments: 87 pages. (In spanish)

A new theory of matter and energy is proposed. The main postulate is this, all matter and energy are composed of vibrations of space-time, which is formed by a single 5-brane extended in the three spatial dimensions and compacted in two additional dimensions up to an order of 10 -6 m. It also postulates the existence of a central hole in the plane of compacted dimensions. The substance forming this 5-brane is considered to have properties similar to a liquid crystal. It is also postulated that all interactions are originated from the modification of space-time caused by the vibrations that forming matter and energy. In particular we analyze three mechanisms: the drag, deformation and the modification of the index of refraction of the space-time. With these postulates and by resolving the wave equation we can deduce the D'Broglie wavelength, the uncertainty principle, the charge and mass of the electron only from its mass, the origin of inertia, the centrifugal force, the electric forces, the gravitational forces, hydrogen atom orbitals and the existence of a system of elementary particles formed by the three known neutrinos, the electron and four partons formed by the combination of the previous four with surface waves in the hypothetical central hole in the plane of the compacted dimensions. The masses and the strength of their interactions of these particles are estimated. Then it is possible to propose a system for hadrons that allows to estimate their masses, magnetic moments, internal distribution of charges and the Reid potential for the residual nuclear force. Finally an intuitive explanation of the spin of the particles is provided.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1474] viXra:1701.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-12 10:57:20

New Measurement of Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

New method allows for quick, precise measurement of quantum states. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1473] viXra:1701.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-12 05:04:13

Cool Below Quantum Limit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have cooled a mechanical object to a temperature lower than previously thought possible, below the so-called "quantum limit." [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1472] viXra:1701.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-11 09:46:23

New Rotational Doppler-Effect

Authors: U. Kayser-Herold
Comments: 3 Pages.

By oblique reflection of circularly polarized photons on a rotating cylindrical mirror the frequency of the reflected photons is shifted against the ferquency of incident photons by nearly twice the rotational frequency $n$ of the mirror: $\Delta \nu = 2\hspace{2} n \hspace{2}\sin \alpha$, where $\alpha$ is the axial angle of incidence. $\Delta \nu$ can be substantially enhanced by multiple reflections between counter-rotating coaxial mirrors.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1471] viXra:1701.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-10 07:18:39

Question of Quantum and Physical Reality II

Authors: Zhang ChengGang
Comments: 2 Pages.

Time-independent Shrodinger equation is derived in mathematics and physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1470] viXra:1701.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 10:31:33

Fine Structure Constant a Mystery Resolved

Authors: Jose P. Koshy
Comments: 5 Pages. The paper will soon be submitted to a relevent journal

The Fine Structure Constant, regarded as a magic number, was introduced in 1916. Now, after 100 years, the mystery of it is revealed: it is a constant related to spherical-packing. The approximate value of it can be given as a ≈ (42/1838)/(3.14), where 1838 represents the number of entities packed and 42, the number of entities in the diameter, and 3.14, the mathematical constant pi.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1469] viXra:1701.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 11:49:30

Three-Slit Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Physicists have performed a variation of the famous 200-year-old double-slit experiment that, for the first time, involves "exotic looped trajectories" of photons. These photons travel forward through one slit, then loop around and travel back through another slit, and then sometimes loop around again and travel forward through a third slit. [24] Now in a new paper published in Physical Review Letters, physicists Gael Sentís et al. have taken the change point problem to the quantum domain. [23] When a quantum system changes its state, this is called a quantum jump. Usually, these quantum jumps are considered to be instantaneous. Now, new methods for high-precision measurements allow us to study the time evolution of these quantum jumps. On a time scale of attoseconds, there time structure becomes visible. It is he most accurate time measurement of quantum jumps to date. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1468] viXra:1701.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-05 11:13:15

Quantum Cascade Infrared Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Researchers have developed a microscope that can chemically identify individual micron-sized particles. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]`
Category: Quantum Physics

[1467] viXra:1701.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-05 04:25:49

Electromagnetic Nanofield and Planck Frequency

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 8 Pages.

Planck's relation isn't quantum in intrinsic manner because of frequency that changes with continuity into a largest range of frequencies that includes classic electromagnetic waves, microwaves and nanowaves. These last are placed inside spectrum after microwaves and they are associated with electromagnetic nanofield. The distinction between micro and nanowaves enables to define Planck's frequency that is the threshold frequency between the two types of wave and it is located where microwaves end and the infrared band begins (300GHz). Planck's frequency enables to complete the effective quantization of Planck's relation because for energy quanta frequency cannot be smaller than Planck's frequency.
Category: Quantum Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[777] viXra:1705.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-08 12:24:02

Einstein's Maze of Mathematical Fiction

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

There are a lot of unsolved mysteries in modern theoretical physics, physicists don't realize that most mysteries in the universe are in fact man-made. I will show you that the foundation of modern theoretical physics is based on fallacies, the foundation is mathematical fiction (it's not real). When you base your theory on mathematical fiction then you can only end up in mathematical fiction, your theory will always describe something that's unrealistic. Most theories in modern theoretical physics are intertwined with Einstein's theory of gravity, so Einstein's theory of gravity can be seen as the foundation of modern theoretical physics. Physicists didn't notice that Einstein made several mistakes in his mathematical model of gravity (curved spacetime), those mistakes were devastating to modern theoretical physics. Why?, physicists based their theories on something that's unrealistic and all those theories resulted in Einstein's maze of mathematical fiction. 
Category: Quantum Physics

[776] viXra:1704.0338 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-29 14:31:16

On the Planck Fine-structure Constant

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new Planck constant – the Planck fine-structure constant –. Then, from the relativistic model of the hydrogen atom I prove that this new constant is consistent with the existence of hydrogen, and hence, consistent with the appearance of life in the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[775] viXra:1704.0338 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-26 10:51:40

On Anthropomorphic Principles and the Planck Fine-structure Constant

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new Planck constant - the Planck fine-structure constant –. Then, from the relativistic model of the hydrogen atom I prove that this new constant is consistent with the existence of the hydrogen atom. Therefore, it seems natural to extend this concept to the rest of the laws of physics stating that the laws of physics are consistent with the appearance of life in the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[774] viXra:1704.0221 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-18 21:18:24

Universal Topology W = P ± iV and First Horizon of Quantum Fields

Authors: C. Wei XU
Comments: 7 Pages. Restored original introduction and Converted to the 1 column style

The universal topology W = P ± iV is the nature law that intuitively constitutes a duality of Manifolds and Event Operations. Its First Horizon of this framework, naturally comes out with the dual State Equilibrium and dual Motion Dynamics, which replace the empirical “math laws” and give rise to the general quantum fields to concisely include Schrödinger and Klein– Gordon Equations. As a result, it becomes a groundbreaking in the quest for Unified Physics: the workings of a life streaming of physical and virtual dynamics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[773] viXra:1704.0128 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-21 17:30:08

Photon Models Are Derived by Solving a Bug in Poynting and Maxwell Theory

Authors: Shuang Ren Zhao
Comments: 38 Pages.

It is found that the Poynting theorem is conflict with the energy conservation principle. It is a bug of the Poynting theorem. The Poynting theorem is derived from Maxwell equations by using the superimposition principle of the fields. Hence, this bug also existed at ether in superimposition principle or in the Maxwell equations. Assume it is wrong with the field superimposition, even the Maxwell equations are correct with singular charge, we can still not prove that they are still correct for many charges. Hence, at least something are also wrong with Maxwell equations. The Poynting theorem is corrected in this article. After the correction the energy is not quadratic and hence the field is also not linear. The concept of the superposition of fields need also to be corrected. Hence the new definitions for the inner product and cross product are proposed. The corrected Poynting theorem is the mutual energy formula, it is strongly related to the mutual energy theorems. It is shown that starting from the mutual energy formula, the whole electromagnetic theory can be reconstructed. The Poynting theorem can be proved from the mutual energy formula by adding pseudo items. The Maxwell equations can be derived from Poynting theorem as sufficient conditions. Hence if the mutual energy formula is corrected, the Maxwell equations still can be applied with knowing its problem. Most the problems originally caused by Maxwell equations are solved. Examples of this problems are: (1) electric field infinity which need to be re-normalized in quantum physics; (2) collapse of the electromagnetic field, the waves has to be collapsed to its absorber, otherwise the energy is not conserved; (3) the emitter can send energy without absorber, this is conflict to the direct interaction principle and absorber theory; (4) if our universe is not completely opaque, the charge will continually send energy to the outside of our universe, our universe will have a continual loss of energy. However there is no testimony supporting that our universe is opaque. The new theory supports the existence of advanced wave, hence also strongly support the absorber theory and transactional interpretation of quantum physics. It can offer a equation for photon and a good explanation for the duality of the photon. If photon and electromagnetic field obeys the mutual energy formula, it is very possible that all other quanta also obey their similar mutual energy formula. Hence the mutual energy formula can be applied as a principle or axiom for the electromagnetic theory and quantum physics. According to this theory the asychronous retarded wave and the asychronous advanced wave of electromagnetic fields both are a ability or probability wave, which is also partly agree with Copenhagen interpretation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[772] viXra:1704.0128 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-03 22:21:49

Photon Models Are Derived by Solving a Bug in Poynting and Maxwell Theory

Authors: Shuang Ren Zhao
Comments: 29 Pages.

Abstract It is found that the Poynting theorem is conflict with the energy conservation principle. It is a bug of the Poynting theorem. The Poynting theorem is derived from Maxwell equations by using the superimposition principle of the fields. Hence, this bug also existed at ether in superimposition principle or in the Maxwell equations. Assume it is wrong with the field superimposition, even the Maxwell equations are correct with singular charge, we can still not prove that they are still correct for many charges. Hence, at least something are also wrong with Maxwell equations. The Poynting theorem is corrected in this article. After the correction the energy is not quadratic and hence the field is also not linear. The concept of the superposition of fields need also to be corrected. Hence the new definitions for the inner product and cross product are proposed. The corrected Poynting theorem is the mutual energy formula, it is strongly related to the mutual energy theorems. It is shown that starting from the mutual energy formula, the whole electromagnetic theory can be reconstructed. The Poynting theorem can be proved from the mutual energy formula by adding pseudo items. The Maxwell equations can be derived from Poynting theorem as sufficient conditions. Hence if the mutual energy formula is corrected, the Maxwell equations still can be applied with knowing its problem. Most the problems originally caused by Maxwell equations are solved. Examples of this problems are: (1) electric field infinity which need to be re-normalized in quantum physics; (2) collapse of the electromagnetic field, the waves has to be collapsed to its absorber, otherwise the energy is not conserved; (3) the emitter can send energy without absorber, this is conflict to the direct interaction principle and absorber theory; (4) if our universe is not completely opaque, the charge will continually send energy to the outside of our universe, our universe will have a continual loss of energy. However there is no testimony supporting that our universe is opaque. The new theory supports the existence of advanced wave, hence also strongly support the absorber theory and transactional interpretation of quantum physics. It can offer a equation for photon and a good explanation for the duality of the photon. If photon and electromagnetic field obeys the mutual energy formula, it is very possible that all other quanta also obey their similar mutual energy formula. Hence the mutual energy formula can be applied as a principle or axiom for the electromagnetic theory and quantum physics. According to this theory the asychronous retarded wave and the asychronous advanced wave of electromagnetic fields both are a ability or probability wave, which is also partly agree with Copenhagen interpretation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[771] viXra:1704.0128 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-11 06:30:33

Photon Models Are Derived by Solving a Bug in Poynting and Maxwell Theory

Authors: Shuang Ren Zhao
Comments: 25 Pages. Could you accept that there is a bug in Poynting theorem and Maxwell's equations?

It is found that the Poynting theorem is conflict with the energy conservation principle. It is a bug of the Poynting theorem. The Poynting theorem is derived from Maxwell equations by using the superimposition principle of the fields. Hence, this bug also existed at ether in superimposition principle or in the Maxwell equations. Assume it is wrong with the field superimposition, even the Maxwell equations is correct with singular charge, we can still not prove it still correct for many charges. Hence, at least something also wrong with Maxwell equations. The Poynting theorem is corrected in this article. After the correction the energy is not quadratic and hence the field is also not linear. The concept of the superposition of fields need also to be corrected. Hence the new definitions for the inner product and cross product are proposed. The corrected Poynting theorem is the mutual energy theorem. It is shown that starting from the mutual energy theorem, the whole electromagnetic theory can be reconstructed. The Maxwell equations can be proved from the mutual energy theorem by adding pseudo items. Hence if the mutual energy theorem is corrected, the Maxwell equations still can be applied with knowing its problem. Most the problems originally caused by Maxwell equations are solved. Examples of this problems are: (1) zero field infinity which need to be re-normalized in quantum physics; (2) collapse of the electromagnetic field, the waves has to be collapsed to its absorber, otherwise the energy is not conserved; (3) the emitter can send energy without absorber, this is conflict to the direct interaction principle and absorber theory; (4) if our universe is not completely opaque, a electron can continually send energy to the outside of our universe, however there is no testimony supporting that our universe is opaque. The new theory supports the exist of advanced wave, hence also strongly support the absorber theory and transactional interpretation of quantum physics. It can offer a equation for photon and a good explanation for the duality of the photon. If photon and electromagnetic field obeys the mutual energy theorem, it is very possible that all other quanta also obey their similar mutual energy theorem. Hence the mutual energy theorem can be applied as a principle for the electromagnetic theory and quantum physics. According to this theory the retarded wave and advanced wave of electromagnetic fields both are a ability or probability wave, which is also partly agree with Copenhagen interpretation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[770] viXra:1704.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-29 14:27:10

Why Does Gravity Obey an Inverse Square Law?

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper uncovers the reason why gravity obeys an inverse square law and not, for example, an inverse cubic law, or any other law with any other power. A relativistic approach, coupled to the scale law and the Plank force, are sufficient to understand the answer to this question. I also show that the approach presented here is, qualitatively, in agreement with Einstein's general relativity's field equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[769] viXra:1704.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-10 13:11:08

Why Does Gravity Obey an Inverse Square Law?

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper uncovers the reason why gravity obeys an inverse square law and not, for example, an inverse cubic law, or any other law with any other power. A relativistic approach is sufficient to understand the answer to this question as the answer is not obvious. I also show that the approach presented here is, qualitatively, in agreement with Einstein's general relativity's field equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[768] viXra:1703.0291 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-10 12:35:07

The Gravitational Electric Charge

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new concept which I called: gravitational electric charge. The physical meaning of this quantity is still not clear, however, if confirmed it would indicate that gravity not only acts as a force between masses, in the Newtonian sense, but also as an extremely feeble electromagnetic force.
Category: Quantum Physics

[767] viXra:1703.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-19 14:25:09

A Physical Electron-Positron Model in Geometric Algebra

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments: 23 Pages. The second draft of an ongoing research project

This paper is to present a physical model of the Electron & Positron particles constructed as the interaction of two photons The photons and subsequently a model of the Electron will be defined in the math of Geometric Algebra using, and expanding on the correspondence relations between GA and QM developed by Doran, & Lasenby [3]. The vector constructs defining the electromagnetic components of a quantum system can be extended to define the physical structure of a particle. By defining a complete physical vector boson i.e. the photon, in terms of a GA vectors, is straightforward to show that an electron can be modeled as an interaction of two such photons and has the known physical attributes of an electron. The attributes include mass, spin, & charge. A clear advantage of the model is the absence of infinities that are dealt with in QFT, by the process of renormalization. The infinities of a point electron is supplanted by two point vector bosons that do not have an infinity and operate under the rules of QFT.
Category: Quantum Physics

[766] viXra:1703.0264 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-14 09:19:29

First Clear Definitions of Space, Time and Matter

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 18 Pages.

In space-matter model both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. Time is the result of the action-reaction of space and matter. Space is what matter uses as space. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. In space-matter model solely through the use of space waves, we can express spatial distance, time and energy. It is possible to express all these phenomena in eVolt, so meters can be converted into seconds or into kgs and vice versa. Saying this, we must realize that there is a surprising gateway between space and matter. Using this approach we can give new definitions of space, matter and time. Our Space we know as Space has the biggest density. Matter has always smaller density. From the viewpoint of a given matter there can be more than one space. Matter is able to use another matter as space, if the proportion of their densities is in a given range. This kind of space has its own time. This time is different from our known time. There are more spaces and more times, and even one given space can have more times.
Category: Quantum Physics

[765] viXra:1703.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-20 04:07:56

Bell's Questions Resolved Via Local Realistic Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 16 Pages.

‘... all this action at a distance business will pass [like the ether]. If we're lucky it will be to some big new development like the theory of relativity. Maybe someone will just point out that we were being rather silly, with no big new development. But anyway, I believe the questions will be resolved,' after Bell (1990:9). ‘Nobody knows where the boundary between the classical and quantum domain is situated. More plausible to me is that we'll find that there is no boundary: the hidden-variable possibility,' after Bell (2004:28-29).

Abstract: Studying Bell's work, using classical analysis and author-date referencing suited to undergraduate STEM students, we arrive at a new classical theory: local realistic quantum mechanics. Adjusting EPR to accord with Bohr's insight, and accepting Bell's principles (but not his false inferences), our method follows: (i) we allow Bell's pristine λ (and its pairwise twin μ) to be classical fair-coin vectors in 3-space; (ii) we complete the QM account of EPR correlations in a classical way; (iii) we deliver Bell's hope for a simple constructive model of EPRB; (iv) we justify EPR's belief that additional variables would bring locality and causality to QM's completion; (v) we refute key claims that such variables are impossible; (vi) we show that interactions between particles and polarizers are driven by the total angular momentum; (vii) we bypass Pauli's vector-of-matrices, but retain all the tools of the quantum trade. In short, under local realism: classically deriving the related results of quantum theory, we classically endorse Einstein's locally-causal Lorentz-invariant worldview.


Category: Quantum Physics

[764] viXra:1703.0254 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-04 09:01:31

The Mass Gap, Kg, the Planck Constant and the Gravity Gap

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we discuss and calculate the mass gap. Based on the mass gap we are redefining what a kilogram likely truly represents. This enables us to redefine the Planck constant into what we consider to be more fundamental units. Part of the analysis is based on recent developments in mathematical atomism. Haug [1, 2] has shown that all of Einstein’s special relativity mathematical end results [3] can be derived from two postulates in atomism. However, atomism gives some additional boundary conditions and removes a series of infinite challenges in physics in a very simple and logical way. While the mass gap in quantum field theory is an unsolved mystery, under atomism we have an easily defined, discrete and “exact” mass gap. The minimum rest mass that exists above zero is 1.1734 × 10−51 kg, assuming the observational time window of one second. Under our theory it seems meaningless to talk about a mass gap without also talking about the observational time-window. The mass gap in one Planck second is the Planck mass. Further, the mass gap of just 1.1734 × 10−51 kg has a relativistic mass equal to the Planck mass. The very fundamental particle that makes up all mass and energy has a rest-mass of 1.1734 × 10−51 kg. This is also equivalent to a Planck mass that last for one Planck second. We are not trying to solve the Millennium mass gap problem in terms of the Yang-Mills theory. We think the world is better understood by atomism and its recent mathematical framework. If there also could be a possible link between these tow theories we leave up to others to find out.
Category: Quantum Physics

[763] viXra:1703.0254 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-02 13:01:22

The Mass Gap, Kg, the Planck Constant and the Gravity Gap

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we discuss and calculate the mass gap. Based on the mass gap we are redefining what a kilogram likely truly represents. This enables us to redefine the Planck constant into what we consider to be more fundamental units. Part of the analysis is based on recent developments in mathematical atomism. Haug [1, 2] has shown that all of Einstein’s special relativity mathematical end results [3] can be derived from two postulates in atomism. However, atomism gives some additional boundary conditions and removes a series of infinite challenges in physics in a very simple and logical way. While the mass gap in quantum field theory is an unsolved mystery, under atomism we have an easily defined, discrete and “exact” mass gap. The minimum rest-mass that exists above zero is 1.1734 × 10^(−51) kg, assuming the observational time window of one second. Under our theory it seems meaningless to talk about a mass gap without also talking about the observational time-window. The mass gap in one Planck second is the Planck mass. Further, the mass gap of just 1.1734 × 10^(−51) kg has a relativistic mass equal to the Planck mass. The very fundamental particle that makes up all mass and energy has a rest-mass of 1.1734 × 10^(−51) kg. This is also equivalent to a Planck mass that lasts for one Planck second. In this paper we are not trying to solve the Millennium mass gap problem in terms of the Yang-Mills theory. We think the world is better understood by atomism and its recent mathematical framework. Whether or not a link between these two theories exists, we may leave up to others to find out.
Category: Quantum Physics

[762] viXra:1703.0208 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-20 00:44:13

Quantum Algorithms Are Determining the Property of a Certain Function

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Han Geurdes, Ahmed Farouk, Josep Batle, Soliman Abdalla
Comments: 3 Pages

We discuss a character of quantum algorithms. In fact, all of them determine the property of a certain function. The function under study must have the property $f(x) = f(-x)$ when $f(x)\neq 0$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[761] viXra:1703.0208 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-18 09:43:29

Quantum Algorithms Are Determining the Property of a Certain Function

Authors: K. Nagata, T. Nakamura, H. Geurdes, A. Farouk, J. Batle, S. Abdalla
Comments: 3 Pages

We discuss a character of quantum algorithms. In fact, all of them determine the property of a certain function. The function under study must have the property $f(x) = f(-x)$ when $f(x)\neq 0$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[760] viXra:1703.0208 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-31 08:54:33

A New Quantum Algorithm Without the Hadamard Transformation in Case of a Special Function

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Ahmed Farouk
Comments: 3 Pages.

We present a new quantum algorithm. It determines a property of a function. It is either $f(x)=f(-x)$ or $f(x)\neq f(-x)$. The quantum algorithm does not use the Hadamard transformation. Our quantum algorithm overcomes a classical counterpart by a factor of $O(2^N)$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[759] viXra:1702.0333 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-18 18:56:11

Quantum-Mechanical Aspects of the L. Pauling's Resonance Theory.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 4 Pages.

The L. Pauling's resonance theory analyzed using principle of quantum superposition, that is the principle of superposition "wave function", which is the main positive principle of quantum mechanics. The principle of quantum superposition is essentially a basic property of the wave function. By example of benzene molecule is shown that the principle of quantum superposition, and hence the quantum mechanics in general is in insurmountable conflict with the resonance theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[758] viXra:1702.0291 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-23 23:32:08

Quantum Topology, Quantum Gravity

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 1 Page.

We consider a particle as a topological knot
Category: Quantum Physics

[757] viXra:1702.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-12 10:20:00

Resolving the Mystery of the Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 3 Pages.

A quantized magnetic flux version of Planck's reduced constant is deduced from first principles. The magnetic flux quantum can explain the fine structure constant and the “anomalous” magnetic moment of an electron.
Category: Quantum Physics

[756] viXra:1702.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-12 05:39:27

Resolving the Mystery of the Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 3 Pages.

A quantized magnetic flux version of Planck's reduced constant is deduced from first principles. The magnetic flux quantum can explain the fine structure constant and the “anomalous” magnetic moment of an electron.
Category: Quantum Physics

[755] viXra:1702.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-23 13:45:58

Can Two Differently Prepared Mixed Quantum-Ensembles be Discriminated Via Measurement Variance ?

Authors: C S Sudheer Kumar
Comments: 21 Pages.

Alice prepares two large qubit-ensembles E1 and E2 in the following states: She individually prepares each qubit of E1 in |0> or |1>, the eigenstates of Pauli-z operator Z, depending on the outcome of an unbiased coin toss. Similarly, she individually prepares each qubit of E2 in |+> or |-> the eigenstates of Pauli-x operator X. Bob, who is aware of the above states preparation procedures, but knows neither which of the two is E1 nor Alice's outcomes of coin tosses, needs to discriminate between the two maximally mixed ensembles. Here we argue that Bob can partially purify the mixed states (E1, E2), using the information supplied by central limit theorem. We will show that, subsequently Bob can discriminate between ensembles E1 and E2 by individually rotating each qubit state about the x-axis on Bloch sphere by a random angle, and then projectively measuring Z. By these operations, the variance of sample mean of Z measurement outcomes corresponding to the ensemble E1 gets reduced. On the other hand, qubit states in E2 are invariant under the x-rotations and therefore the variance remains unaltered. Thus Bob can discriminate between the two maximally mixed ensembles. We analyse the above problem both analytically as well as numerically, and show that the latter supports the former.
Category: Quantum Physics

[754] viXra:1702.0044 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-04 06:33:28

The Hybrid-Epistemic Model of Quantum Mechanics and the Possible Solution to the Measurement Problem

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this study we introduce and describe in details the hybrid-epistemic model for quantum mechanics. The main differences with respect to the standard model are following: (1) the measurement process is considered as an internal process inside quantum mechanics, i.e. it does not make a part of axioms and (2) the process of the observation of the state of the individual measuring system is introduced into axioms. The intrinsic measurement process is described in two variants (simplified and generalized). Our model contains hybrid, epistemic and hybrid-epistemic systems. Each hybrid system contains a unique orthogonal base composed from homogeneous (i.e. ontic) states. We show that in our model the measurement problem is consistently solvable. Our model represents the rational compromise between the Bohr’s view (the ontic model) and the Einstein’s view (the epistemic model).
Category: Quantum Physics

[753] viXra:1702.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-04 14:43:56

Quantum Waves in Nature, a New Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: John R. Carlson
Comments: 24 Pages. You may contact me at johncarlson33@aol.com

We propose a new interpretation of quantum mechanics to address challenges of the Copenhagen Interpretation and to explain observations from certain double-slit experiments. We explore some characteristics of quantum mechanics and analyze a quantum mechanical model which leads us to the assumptions for our new interpretation. We show how quantized waves, like those in Schrödinger’s wave equation, might exist in nature and explain the fundamentals of quantum-scale processes including: the above-mentioned double-slit experiments, wave function collapse, quantum entanglement and quantum tunneling. We classify our interpretation based on commonly used criteria. Finally, we consider some future theoretical points and list some experimental questions. Our new interpretation has the potential to facilitate new theory and experiments leading to a better understanding of fundamental processes in nature and possibly new applications for quantum theory. Page 18 is updated and there is a new suggestion about entanglement on page 20.
Category: Quantum Physics

[752] viXra:1701.0637 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-26 13:21:27

The Corpuscular Structure of Matter, the Interactions Between Particles, Quantum Phenomena, and Cosmological Data as a Consequence of Selfvariations.

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos
Comments: 215 Pages.

With the term “Law of Selfvariations” we mean an exactly determined increase of the rest mass and the absolute value of the electric charge of material particles. In this article we present the basic theoretical investigation of the law of selfvariations. We arrive at the central conclusion that the interaction of material particles, the corpuscular structure of matter, and the quantum phenomena can be justified by the law of Selfvariations. We predict a unified interaction between particles with a unified mechanism (the Unified Selfvariation Interaction, USVI). Every interaction is described by the three distinct terms with distinct consequences in the USVI. The theory predicts a wave equation, whose special cases are the Maxwell equations, the Schrödinger equation and the related wave equations. The theory provides a mathematical expression for any conservable physical quantity, and the current density 4-vector in every case. The corpuscular structure and wave behaviour of matter and the relation between this emerge clearly and the theory also predicts the rest masses of material particles. We prove an «internal symmetry» theorem which justifies the cosmological data. The study we present can be the basis for further investigation of the theory and their consequences.
Category: Quantum Physics

[751] viXra:1701.0637 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-15 14:41:57

The Corpuscular Structure of Matter, the Interactions Between Particles, Quantum Phenomena, and Cosmological Data as a Consequence of Selfvariations.

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos
Comments: 221 Pages.

With the term “Law of Selfvariations” we mean an exactly determined increase of the rest mass and the absolute value of the electric charge of material particles. In this article we present the basic theoretical investigation of the law of selfvariations. We arrive at the central conclusion that the interaction of material particles, the corpuscular structure of matter, and the quantum phenomena can be justified by the law of Selfvariations. We predict a unified interaction between particles with a unified mechanism (the Unified Selfvariation Interaction, USVI). Every interaction is described by the three distinct terms with distinct consequences in the USVI. The theory predicts a wave equation, whose special cases are the Maxwell equations, the Schrödinger equation and the related wave equations. The theory provides a mathematical expression for any conservable physical quantity, and the current density 4-vector in every case. The corpuscular structure and wave behaviour of matter and the relation between this emerge clearly and the theory also predicts the rest masses of material particles. We prove an «internal symmetry» theorem which justifies the cosmological data. The study we present can be the basis for further investigation of the theory and their consequences.
Category: Quantum Physics

[750] viXra:1701.0637 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-09 11:34:11

The Corpuscular Structure of Matter, the Interactions Between Particles, Quantum Phenomena, and Cosmological Data as a Consequence of Selfvariations.

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos
Comments: 218 Pages.

With the term “Law of Selfvariations” we mean an exactly determined increase of the rest mass and the absolute value of the electric charge of material particles. In this article we present the basic theoretical investigation of the law of selfvariations. We arrive at the central conclusion that the interaction of material particles, the corpuscular structure of matter, and the quantum phenomena can be justified by the law of Selfvariations. We predict a unified interaction between particles with a unified mechanism (the Unified Selfvariation Interaction, USVI). Every interaction is described by the three distinct terms with distinct consequences in the USVI. The theory predicts a wave equation, whose special cases are the Maxwell equations, the Schrödinger equation and the related wave equations. The theory provides a mathematical expression for any conservable physical quantity, and the current density 4-vector in every case. The corpuscular structure and wave behaviour of matter and the relation between this emerge clearly and the theory also predicts the rest masses of material particles. We prove an «internal symmetry» theorem which justifies the cosmological data. The study we present can be the basis for further investigation of the theory and their consequences.
Category: Quantum Physics

[749] viXra:1701.0637 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-01 13:15:31

The Corpuscular Structure of Matter, the Interactions Between Material Particles, Quantum Phenomena, and Cosmological Data as a Consequence of Selfvariations.

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos
Comments: 215 Pages.

With the term “Law of Selfvariations” we mean an exactly determined increase of the rest mass and electric charge of material particle. In this article we present the basic theoretical investigation of the law of selfvariations. We arrive at the central conclusion that the interaction of material particles, the corpuscular structure of matter, and the quantum phenomena can be justified by the law of Selfvariations. We predict a unified interaction between material particles with a unified mechanism (Unified Selfvariations Interaction, USVI). Every interaction is the result of three clearly distinct terms with clearly distinct consequences in the USVI. We predict a wave equation, whose special cases are the Maxwell equations, the Schrödinger equation, and the related wave equations. We determine a mathematical expression for the total of the conservable physical quantities, and we calculate the current density 4-vector. The corpuscular structure and wave behaviour of matter and their relation emerge clearly, and we give a calculation method for the rest masses of material particles. We prove the «internal symmetry» theorem which justifies the cosmological data. From the study we present, the method for the further investigation of the Selfvariations and their consequences also emerges.
Category: Quantum Physics

[748] viXra:1701.0637 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-21 15:39:52

The Corpuscular Structure of Matter, the Interactions Between Material Particles, Quantum Phenomena, and Cosmological Data as a Consequence of Selfvariations.

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos
Comments: 212 Pages.

With the term “Law of Selfvariations” we mean an exactly determined increase of the rest mass and electric charge of material particle. In this article we present the basic theoretical investigation of the law of selfvariations. We arrive at the central conclusion that the interaction of material particles, the corpuscular structure of matter, and the quantum phenomena can be justified by the law of Selfvariations. We predict a unified interaction between material particles with a unified mechanism (Unified Selfvariations Interaction, USVI). Every interaction is the result of three clearly distinct terms with clearly distinct consequences in the USVI. We predict a wave equation, whose special cases are the Maxwell equations, the Schrödinger equation, and the related wave equations. We determine a mathematical expression for the total of the conservable physical quantities, and we calculate the current density 4-vector. The corpuscular structure and wave behaviour of matter and their relation emerge clearly, and we give a calculation method for the rest masses of material particles. We prove the «internal symmetry» theorem which justifies the cosmological data. From the study we present, the method for the further investigation of the Selfvariations and their consequences also emerges.
Category: Quantum Physics

[747] viXra:1701.0637 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-29 13:24:16

The Corpuscular Structure of Matter, the Interactions Between Material Particles, Quantum Phenomena, and Cosmological Data as a Consequence of Selfvariations.

Authors: Emmanuil Manousos
Comments: 164 Pages.

With the term “Law of Selfvariations” we mean an exactly determined increase of the rest mass and electric charge of material particle. In this article we present the basic theoretical investigation of the law of selfvariations. We arrive at the central conclusion that the interaction of material particles, the corpuscular structure of matter, and the quantum phenomena can be justified by the law of Selfvariations. We predict a unified interaction between material particles with a unified mechanism (Unified Selfvariations Interaction, USVI). Every interaction is the result of three clearly distinct terms with clearly distinct consequences in the USVI. We predict a wave equation, whose special cases are the Maxwell equations, the Schrödinger equation, and the related wave equations. We determine a mathematical expression for the total of the conservable physical quantities, and we calculate the current density 4-vector. The corpuscular structure and wave behaviour of matter and their relation emerge clearly, and we give a calculation method for the rest masses of material particles. We prove the «internal symmetry» theorem which justifies the cosmological data. From the study we present, the method for the further investigation of the Selfvariations and their consequences also emerges.
Category: Quantum Physics

[746] viXra:1701.0621 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-06 17:28:19

How Well Do Classically Produced Correlations Match Quantum Theory?

Authors: Colin Walker
Comments: 11 Pages.

A two-dimensional vector can be made from a constant signal component plus a randomly oriented noise component. This simple model can exploit detection and post-selection loopholes to produce Bell correlations within 0.01 of the theoretical cosine expected from quantum mechanics. The model is shown to be in accord with McEachern's hypothesis that quantum correlations are associated with processes which can provide only one bit of information per sample.
Category: Quantum Physics

[745] viXra:1701.0589 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-16 10:36:06

Meter and Second Expressed in eV

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 18 Pages.

In space-matter model both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. Time is the result of the action-reaction of space and matter. The action-reaction motions of space and matter must be synchronized. The synchronization of these motions needs algorithms of both sides; matter and space must have algorithms. Space cannot be defined without matter. Space is what matter uses as space. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. The relation of space and matter cannot be created if the amount of information of space and matter cannot maintain the relationship of space and matter. In space-matter model solely through the use of space waves, we can express spatial distance, time and energy. It is possible to express all these phenomena in eVolt, so meters can be converted into seconds or into kgs and vice versa. Saying this, we must realize that there is a surprising gateway between space and matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[744] viXra:1701.0497 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-21 14:16:05

A Suggested Boundary for Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we are combining Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle with Haug’s suggested maximum velocity for anything with rest-mass; see [1, 2, 3]. This leads to a suggested exact boundary condition on Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. The uncertainty in position at the potential maximum momentum for subatomic particles (as derived from the maximum velocity) is half of the Planck length. Perhaps Einstein was right after all when he stated, “God does not play dice.” Or at least the dice may have a stricter boundary on possible outcomes than we have previously thought. We also show how this suggested boundary condition seems to make big G consistent with Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. We obtain a mathematical expression for big G that is fully in line with empirical observations. Hopefully our analysis can be a small step in better understanding Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and its interpretations and by extension, the broader implications for the quantum world.
Category: Quantum Physics

[743] viXra:1701.0497 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-15 05:04:48

A New Boundary for Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle – Good Bye to the Point Particle Hypothesis?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we are combining Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle with Haug’s new insight on the maximum velocity for anything with rest-mass; see [1, 2, 3]. This leads to a new and exact boundary condition on Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. The uncertainty in position at the potential maximum momentum for subatomic particles as derived from the maximum velocity is half of the Planck length. Perhaps Einstein was right after all when he stated, “God does not play dice.” Or at least the dice may have a stricter boundary on possible outcomes than we have previously thought. We also show how this new boundary condition seems to make big G consistent with Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. We obtain a mathematical expression for big G that is fully in line with empirical observations. Hopefully our analysis can be a small step in better understanding Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle and its interpretations and by extension, the broader implications for the quantum world.
Category: Quantum Physics

[742] viXra:1701.0345 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-10 22:26:14

Question of Quantum and Physical Reality II

Authors: Zhang ChengGang
Comments: 2 Pages.

Time-independent Shrodinger equation is derived in mathematics and physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[741] viXra:1701.0345 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-10 08:23:13

Question of Quantum and Physical Reality II

Authors: Zhang ChengGang
Comments: 2 Pages.

Time-independent Shrodinger equation is derived in mathematics and physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[740] viXra:1701.0289 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-15 08:55:50

Speeds of Mass and Light in Different Spaces Depend on the Volume of Information that the Given Space Contains (Draft)

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 3 Pages.

Space is a three-dimensional extent; matter also has three spatial dimensions. Time is the result of the action-reaction of space and matter. Space is what matter uses as space. Space is not dependent on its texture; it can be made out of matter or non-matter. Time is one characteristic of the given space used by a given matter. Using this new approach called space-matter theory, we can find that there are different spaces (cp. tunneling), where the same matter has different velocities. These velocities can be greater than c; their value depends on the amount of information that the given space contains.
Category: Quantum Physics