Quantum Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[2158] viXra:1802.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 01:25:45

Controlling Quantum States of Single Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have made a major breakthrough in controlling the quantum properties of single atoms. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2157] viXra:1802.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 01:50:17

Improving Quantum Information Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2156] viXra:1802.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-16 08:45:30

Collective Spins Relax

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2155] viXra:1802.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 13:28:11

Three Photons Interacting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2154] viXra:1802.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 00:28:31

The Quantum as Backwards Time, and How This Permits a First-Ever Working Algebraic Quantum Gravity

Authors: Jonathan Deutsch
Comments: 9 Pages.

ABSTRACT THE QUANTUM AS BACKWARDS TIME, AND HOW THIS PERMITS A FIRST-EVER WORKING ALGEBRAIC QUANTUM GRAVITY By Jonathan Deutsch Backwards time is inferred to exist from the superluminal implications of the universe’s proven non-locality. It exists as well in the standard quantum-mechanical formalism as an “advanced solution” to the Schrodinger wave equation. Regrettably, backwards time is ignored by most physicists, students, and by the general public. Very, very recently, however, careful experiments performed in Europe have confirmed the existence of backwards time in certain quantum situations. But nature makes absolutely no distinction at all between the quantum and the classical realms! Therefore, it won’t be long before backwards time is experimentally confirmed for you and I. We begin by creating and then using three original postulates: 1)The deBroglie wavelength (in centimeters) associated with the proton is really equal to –1. 2)The mass of the proton (in grams) is really equal to +1. 3)The time (In seconds) it takes light to travel the deBroglie wavelength associated with the proton is really equal to i, the square root of –1. With these three postulates, we demonstrate that the quantum, h, could really be a unit of backwards time. The inscrutability of quantum mechanics would then be seen as entirely due to the inscrutability of backwards time. We then combine Newton’s equation for universal gravity with the three postulates to create the first algebraic equation for quantum gravity that works for planets, quanta and everything in-between. The new gravity equation contains four elements: 1)The tiny quantum, h 2)The minute deBroglie wavelength associated with the proton 3)The miniscule time it takes light to travel that distance 4)A variable - - a coefficient for h - - that’s actually composite “quantum Newton”! We then demonstrate that this new equation magically reproduces, exactly, Newton’s classical gravity results! We begin to realize that the quantum, h, lies hidden in EVERY classical equation - - gravity, electromagnetism, etc. Therefore, classical physics becomes fully quantized too, uniting for the first time the very large - - classical physics, including gravity - - with the very small - - quantum physics - - into one essentially indivisible whole. We conclude by seeing that spacetime is the universe’s prime mover. Though invisible, it is physically real and powerful enough to create all the matter and all the gravity in the entire universe. What’s thought of as the geometric backdrop for matter is really the creator of it as well. Matter affects (warps) spacetime causatively in the forwards time-direction in Einstein’s General Relativity. And spacetime affects (creates) matter in the backwards time-direction equally significantly. Thus, a completely new window to understanding matter and gravity is opened up to us. But the outstanding feature of all this is backwards time - - a healing backwards time. Does the omnipresent existence of backwards time hold out any hope that we can get younger as we age? We strongly believe that such is the case, both quantumly and at the human, macro level. Older and younger simultaneously IS very quantum-like, after all. Could they somehow be EQUIVALENT? Again, we strongly believe that the answer is in the affirmative, and is mathematically provable! I encourage readers to respond in the Disqus comment section on the Abstract page. Or contact me personally at spqrwin@outlook.com. I will reply to all. My next article, to be published in March or April, intends to remove quantum contradictions by proving that supposed opposites are really identical. KEYWORDS Advanced solution: a backwards-time solution Backwards time: time running in reverse, from present to past; future to present; or future to past. This can be continuously, or discontinuously - - i.e., JUMPING to a much earlier time. c: the speed of light Classical physics: the science and mathematics of relatively large entities - - e.g., apples, people and planets. It also includes electromagnetism (See Entry.) Coefficient: the number (amount) of something, e.g., for 5 quanta (5h), the number “5”. A coefficient needn’t be a whole number, but it is, or should be, a positive number. deBroglie wavelength: the wavelength associated with every particle, according to Prince Louis deBroglie, famous 20th-century theoretical quantum physicist. Whether or not this deBroglie wavelength is physically real or not is a matter of some dispute, but the consensus leans toward the negative. Electromagnetism: the classical science of visible light and of invisible rays such as X-rays, infrared rays and ultraviolet rays. Electromagnetism has a quantum counterpart. General Relativity: Einstein’s theory of gravity (See the Entry for Gravity.) Its two essential ideas are: 1)Gravity is acceleration, not a force. 2)Gravity is matter warping (curving) spacetime, rather than “spooky action at a distance” - - one piece of matter affecting another without touching it. Gravity: for Newton, the attractive force between any two pieces of matter. For Einstein, it’s the warping (curving) of spacetime, caused by the presence of matter. h: the quantum of action, also known as Planck’s constant. It is absolutely central to all of quantum physics. Newton’s equation for universal gravity: the product of the two masses involved, divided by the square of the distance between them, multiplied by the strength of gravity. Non-locality: the proven fact that our world is supported by an invisible reality which links all points in space, making extremely large distances seem “on top of each other” - - i.e., very small. This means that SOME form of communication faster than light-speed exists, implying that backwards time exists for our whole universe. Non-locality does not diminish with distance. Postulate: an assumption, at least initially unproven. Our theory contains just four - - all eventually proven true. Quantized: measured in quanta - - i.e., in units of h (See Entry for h.) - - measured discontinuously, in little “chunks” or “packets”. Quantum gravity: the as-yet unaccomplished union of Einstein’s theory of gravity - - General Relativity - - and quantum mechanics. We firmly believe that our theory takes a huge first step in this direction. Quantum mechanics: that area of quantum physics which deals with the motion of extremely small subatomic particles. Quantum physics: the science and mathematics of very small subatomic particles - - e.g., protons, electrons, neutrons and neutrinos - - and their antiparticles. Schrodinger’s wave equation: the quantum mechanics equation that many physicists consider to be the only physical reality in the universe. Some physicists even believe that THIS is not physically real either. Superluminal: faster than light-speed. Unitless: a “pure” number - - e.g., 20.5 - - as opposed to 20.5 CENTIMETERS, in units Universal G: the strength of gravity - - a universal constant Variable: an entity with two or more possible values, as opposed to a constant which has one value. Variables are heavily used in algebra.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2153] viXra:1802.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 05:21:50

Structuur in de Fysieke Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 11 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model Project

De fysieke werkelijkheid bezit duidelijk structuur, en deze structuur heeft een of meer fundamenten. Deze fundamenten zijn vrij eenvoudig en derhalve gemakkelijk te begrijpen. Het belangrijkste fundament evolueert zoals een zaadje in meer gecompliceerde niveaus van de structuur, zodat na een reeks van stappen een structuur resulteert die fungeert als de structuur van de fysieke werkelijkheid die mensen tenminste gedeeltelijk kunnen waarnemen. Om de kracht van deze aanpak te tonen, verklaart dit document de oorsprong van de zwaartekracht en de fijnstructuur van fotonen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2152] viXra:1802.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 09:49:17

Quantum Entanglement Fingerprints

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Aleksandra Dimić from the University of Belgrade and Borivoje Dakić from the Austrian Academy of Sciences and the University of Vienna have developed a novel method for which even a single experimental run suffices to prove the presence of entanglement. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2151] viXra:1802.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 11:11:56

A Practical Perspective. It’s about time.

Authors: Theodore J. St. John
Comments: 14 Pages.

Physics, to some, is the study of motion. To others, it is about the underlying essence of reality. But to many practical minded (and some outraged) scientists, contemporary theoretical physics has become an uncontrolled haven for speculative theorizing giving rise to fairytale physics. It seems to have “crossed an important threshold of a kind that cannot be tested, that cannot be verified or falsified, a kind that is not subject to the mercilessness of the scientific method. The discipline has retreated into its own small, self-referential world. Its product is traded by its advocates as mainstream science within the scientific community, and peddled (or even missold) as such to the wider public.” (Baggott, 2013) The purpose of this essay is to present a practical perspective of what is meant by “time”– a perspective that opens a window to a better understanding of that “weird” world of quantum mechanics. The error of treating time as a real, absolute, independent, one-dimensional entity (that was created along with the rest of the universe in the big bang) is the source of the unanswerable question, “what happened before the beginning of time”. In this paper, by treating time as a measure of motion, quantum theory and relativity theory are integrated into a single model that makes practical sense of the particle-wave duality, the transformation of future into past, hidden variables, the constant that is perceived to be the speed of light, and the Schrodinger wave equation. Finally, it provides a practical basis for studying the holographic nature of physical reality and the field of consciousness.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2150] viXra:1802.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 11:48:27

SCÉNARIO Pour L'origine DE la MATIÈRE

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 13 pages. «SCÉNARIO POUR L'ORIGINE DE LA MATIÈRE» is the French version of «SCENARIO FOR THE ORIGIN OF MATTER» on viXra.org/abs/1802.0171

Comment est apparue la matière ? D’où vient la masse de la matière ? Les physiciens des particules ont fait appel aux connaissances acquises sur la matière et l’espace pour imaginer un scénario standard afin de fournir des réponses satisfaisantes à ces grandes interrogations. La pensée dominante pour expliquer l’absence d’antimatière dans la nature est qu’on avait un univers initialement symétrique fait de matière et d’antimatière et qu’une dissymétrie aurait suffi pour qu’il reste plus de matière ayant constitué notre monde que d’antimatière. Cette dissymétrie serait issue d’une anomalie dans le nombre de neutrinos provenant de réactions nucléaires qui laissent supposer l’existence d’un nouveau type de neutrino titanesque qui dépasserait les possibilités du modèle standard et justifierait l’absence d’antimatière dans le macrocosme. Nous pensons qu’un autre scénario pourrait mieux expliquer pour quelle raison on observe que de la matière. Il implique la validation de la solution d’énergie négative de l’équation de Dirac, issue elle-même de l’équation de l’énergie d’Einstein. La théorie de la Relation décrit un océan d’énergie négative avec création de paires particule/antiparticule réelles. L’origine des masses des particules proviendrait de cet océan. Un mécanisme physique permettrait leur séparation en sens inverse, d’où il résulterait un enrichissement de la matière au détriment de l’océan. La matière serait favorisée sans avoir recours à la négation ou l’annihilation de l’énergie négative, sans avoir besoin d’une violation de CP (différence de comportement entre particule et antiparticule) qui serait responsable de l’asymétrie matière/antimatière dans l’univers. Et sans l’apport salvateur d’un neutrino obèse indétectable : sa recherche nous apparaît plus un acte désespéré vers une « catastrophe ultramassive » qu’un effort véritable pour essayer de découvrir ce qui s’est vraiment passé.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2149] viXra:1802.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 13:03:54

Silicon Spin Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2148] viXra:1802.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 06:19:46

Scenario for the Origin of Matter

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 13 Pages.

Where did matter in the universe come from? Where does the mass of matter come from? Particle physicists have used the knowledge acquired in matter and space to imagine a standard scenario to provide satisfactory answers to these major questions. The dominant thought to explain the absence of antimatter in nature is that we had an initially symmetrical universe made of matter and antimatter and that a dissymmetry would have sufficed for more matter having constituted our world than antimatter. This dissymmetry would arise from an anomaly in the number of neutrinos resulting from nuclear reactions which suggest the existence of a new type of titanic neutrino who would exceed the possibilities of the standard model and would justify the absence of antimatter in the macrocosm. We believe that another scenario could better explain why we observe only matter. It involves the validation of the negative energy solution of the Dirac equation, itself derived from the Einstein energy equation. The theory of Relation describes a negative energy ocean with the creation of real particle/antiparticle pairs. The origin of the masses of the particles would come from this ocean. A physical mechanism would allow their separation in the opposite direction and, therefore, the matter would be enriched at the expense of the ocean. The matter would be favored without resorting to negation or annihilation of negative energy, without the need for a CP (the behavioral difference between particle and antiparticle) violation that would be responsible for matter/antimatter asymmetry in the universe. And without the savior contribution of an undetectable obese neutrino: his search appears to us more a desperate act towards an "ultra-massive catastrophe" than a real effort to try to discover what really happened.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2147] viXra:1802.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 08:55:50

Stock Market Quantum Oscillator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Traditionally, a quantum harmonic oscillator model is used to describe the tiny vibrations in a diatomic molecule, but the description is also universal in the sense that it can be extended to a variety of other situations in physics and beyond. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2146] viXra:1802.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 09:11:03

|00>+|11>=|01>+|10>?

Authors: Masataka Ohta
Comments: 1 Page.

Consider four-dimensional Hilbert space H over ℂ as a direct product of two two-dimensional Hilbert spaces over ℂ, in which two binary quantum states are represented, respectively, that is, |00 = (1, 0, 1, 0), |10> = (0, 1, 1, 0), |01> = (1, 0, 0, 1) and |11> = (0, 1, 0, 1). Then, |00>+|11> = |01> + |10> = (1, 1, 1, 1). Existence of such linear dependency is obvious considering three binary quantum states in six dimensional Hilbert space, because there are eight combinations of 0 and 1 in a six dimensional space. Moreover, though it may be surprising that basis set {|00>. |10>, |01>. |11>} is not enough to cover H, considering degree of freedom of quantum state spaces represented in four and two dimensional Hilbert spaces over ℂ counted by ℝ are 7 and 3, respectively, and 7-3*2=1, it is also obvious. The natural basis set of H is {(1, 0, 0, 0), (0, 1, 0, 0), (0, 0, 1, 0), (0, 0, 0, 1)}. Considering practical communication with two binary quantum channels, (1, 0, 0, 0), which is a valid quantum state even traditionally, should mean that the first two-dimensional Hilbert space represent |0> is sent and the second one represent no photons sent, that is, vacuum . Moreover, (0, 0, 0, 0) should also represent a valid quantum state that no photons are sent in either channel, that is, total vacuum. Violation of Bell’s inequality not by quantum entanglement is discussed in a separate paper.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2145] viXra:1802.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 08:13:39

Path for Quantum Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2144] viXra:1802.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 09:04:38

Quantum Effects for Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Researchers drawing on work conducted as part of the PAPETS project, explain in the journal Physical Review Letters how they recently managed to exploit temporality for quantum computation tasks performed on dynamic random networks. [36] An international team has shown that quantum computers can do one such analysis faster than classical computers for a wider array of data types than was previously expected. [35] A team of researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated that it is possible to use cloud-based quantum computers to conduct quantum simulations and calculations. [34] Physicists have designed a new method for transmitting big quantum data across long distances that requires far fewer resources than previous methods, bringing the implementation of long-distance big quantum data transmission closer to reality. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential—until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2143] viXra:1802.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 10:10:47

Topological Photonic Routing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2142] viXra:1802.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-11 07:39:57

Experimental Support for a Debroglie-Bohm-Post Interpretation of Microphysics from the Evidence of Quantum Interference in the Femtometer Scale.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 4 Pages.

This short note supplements a recent paper by the author (http://vixra.org/abs/1710.0236). In that paper it is shown from detailed data analysis that rest energies and magnetic moments for baryons can be related in terms of the existence of coherent or incoherent currents in the femtometer scale. We argue that such evidence brings support to the kind of microphysics proposed by Louis de Broglie, David Bohm and Evert Post. Rest energy is concentrated in a core. In particular all results in the cited reference can be obtained from Post´s proposal of the determination of dynamical quantities of the core through period integrals involving essentially the phases of “wavefunctions”.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2141] viXra:1802.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-11 13:12:49

A Defense of Local Realism

Authors: Cristian Dumitrescu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Bell’s inequalities (and the CHSH inequalities) were used in order to rule out certain hidden variable theories (or interpretations of quantum mechanics). In this short note, I will prove that Bell’s results represent a strong argument in favor of a deeper, nonlinear underlying reality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2140] viXra:1802.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 12:45:45

Quantum Leap in Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2139] viXra:1802.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 07:08:20

Interference Cooling Quantum Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2138] viXra:1802.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 08:07:56

Silicon Quantum Photonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2137] viXra:1802.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 08:41:46

Experimental Report: Torsion Field Communication Attempts in 5 km

Authors: Gao Peng
Comments: 4 Pages.

Torsion field communication (TFC) is a very important research direction in torsion field research. A.E.Akimov conducted the first TFC experiment [1]. David. G. Yurth also made great contribution for the TFC, it’s said his group has made one prototype of torsion field transmitter and receiver for communication [2]. Author began to pay attention to this topic all because a book called “Torsion Field and Interstellar Communication [3]” by V. Shkatov and V. Zamsha. This book introduces some kinds of torsion field generators and sensors, and mainly the “Shkatov-Zamsha” approach – using the photo as the addressing component. They transmitted obvious signal in 2011 with this approach. After that, Dr. M. Krinker in New York also did successful TFC tests with Mr. Shkatov. And further, Dr. M. Krinker developed the “Cross-Photo” approach for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Cybertronica Research led by Dr. S. Kernbach developed many kinds of detectors, which can detect weak and super-weak signals – especially the torsion field non-local signals. Besides them, 1k replication experiments with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy have been finished nonlocally [4].
Category: Quantum Physics

[2136] viXra:1802.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 08:08:36

Bethe String Observed Experimentally

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

An international team of researchers has experimentally observed Bethe strings for the first time. [21] Understanding the causes and effects of the friction could pave the way for explorations into the composition of neutron stars and our universe. Here on Earth, the Aalto researchers' results will be invaluable for curtailing the production of heat and unwanted glitches in quantum computer components. [20] A half-quantum vortex combines circular spin flow and circular mass flow, leading to the formation of vortex pairs that can be observed experimentally. [19] Intricately shaped pulses of light pave a speedway for the accelerated dynamics of quantum particles, enabling faster switching of a quantum bit. [18] An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2135] viXra:1802.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 10:50:39

Structure in Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 10 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality has structure, and this structure has one or more foundations. These foundations are rather simple and easily comprehensible. The major foundation evolves like a seed into more complicated levels of the structure, such that after a series of steps a structure results that is like the structure of the physical reality that humans can partly observe. To show the power of this approach the paper explains the origin of gravitation and the fine structure of photons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2134] viXra:1802.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 10:54:28

Light can Stop Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

By hitting electrons with an ultra-intense laser, researchers have revealed dynamics that go beyond 'classical' physics and hint at quantum effects. [18] The phenomenon of ionic wind has been known about for centuries: by applying a voltage to a pair of electrodes, electrons are stripped off nearby air molecules, and the ionized air collides with neutral air molecules as it moves from one electrode to the other. [17] A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2133] viXra:1802.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-08 00:07:53

Antimatter. Hasty Name and Recognition.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubiniansky, Paved Churlyaev.
Comments: 15 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Two versions have been advanced, which explain "antimatter" as a rare quantum state of ordinary matter. Confirmatory arguments are given.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2132] viXra:1802.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 02:30:55

A New Model for Quantum Mechanics and the Invalidity of no-go Theorems

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 57 Pages.

In this paper we define and study the new model for quantum mechanics (QM) – the hybrid epistemic model. We describe in detail its axiomatic definition and its properties. The new feature of this model consists in the fact that it does not contain the formal definition of the measurement process (as it is standard in other models) but the measurement process is one of possible processes inside of QM. The hybrid-epistemic model of QM is based on two concepts: the quantum state of an ensemble and the properties of individual systems. It is assumed that the quantum state (i.e. the wave function) can be attributed only to ensembles (with some exceptions) and not to individual systems. On the other hand, the properties of individual systems can be described by properties which are collected into classifications. Properties are assumed to be exclusive, i.e. a given individual system having certain property cannot have another property. We shall describe the internal measurement process in the hybrid-epistemic model of QM in all details. This description substitutes the formal definition of the measurement process in the standard QM. We show the local nature of EPR correlations in the hybrid-epistemic model of QM in all details. We show that the anti-correlations between measurements at the Alice’s part and the Bob’s part is completely analogical to the standard classical local anti-correlations originated in the correlation in the past. We define precisely the epistemic and the ontic models of QM for the goal to prove that these three models give the same empirical predictions, i.e. that they are empirically equivalent. This theorem on the empirical equivalence is proved in all details. We show that the no-go theorems (Bell’s theorem, the Leggett-Garg’s theorem and others theorems) cannot be proved in the hybrid-epistemic model of QM. This is one of the main results of this paper. We interpret this as the invalidity of no-go theorems in QM. This interpretation is sound since the true consequences of QM must be provable in all models of QM. We shall consider the possible inconsistences of the ontic model of QM. We show that there are many consequences of the ontic model of QM which are dubious or controversial. There are many such controversial consequences. In the next part we consider the internal inconsistency of the ontic model which is more serious and we consider this argument against the ontic model as the most serious. We introduce the property-epistemic model of QM which is the special case of the hybrid-epistemic model. We describe this model in all details and we show that this model of QM is the most suitable and most elegant model of QM. In this model many proofs are extremely simplified and almost trivial. Then we discussed possible arguments in this field and our answers to these arguments. We summarize our conclusions. At the end there are three appendices. In the first appendix we give proofs of all theorems. In the second appendix we give our conjectures, opinions and suggestions. In the third appendix we describe the ontic model for the Brownian motion. We think that this model shows clearly (by analogy) the absurdity of the ontic model of QM.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2131] viXra:1802.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 03:12:18

Terahertz Wireless Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Electrical and optical engineers in Australia have designed a novel platform that could tailor telecommunication and optical transmissions. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2130] viXra:1802.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 08:50:16

Ionic Wind

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

The phenomenon of ionic wind has been known about for centuries: by applying a voltage to a pair of electrodes, electrons are stripped off nearby air molecules, and the ionized air collides with neutral air molecules as it moves from one electrode to the other. [17] A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2129] viXra:1802.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 09:46:19

Two-Atom Quantum Computation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Now, a team of scientists around Professor Gerhard Rempe, director at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics and head of the Quantum Dynamics Division, has demonstrated the feasibility a new concept for a quantum gate. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2128] viXra:1802.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-06 11:57:40

Speaking Quantum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2127] viXra:1802.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 12:54:23

Scaling Quantum Chips

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2126] viXra:1802.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-04 09:41:39

Meth8 Validation of Bayes Rule© Copyright 2017-2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2017-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

Section 1. We ask: "Can we validate Bayes rule as defined in the captioned textbook link?" Result: Not validated. Section 2. We ask: "Can the argument from the text be resuscitated in the process of continuing to evaluate it?" Result: The textbook definitions of Bayes rule are not validated as tautologous and cannot be resuscitated from the textbook. Section 3. As an experiment, we ask: "Are the definitions of Bayes rule derivable from Eq 3, the only expression tautologous, from Section 1; in other words, can Meth8 produce a correct Bayes rule because Section 1 failed to do so?" Result: No.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2125] viXra:1802.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 06:18:34

Changing the Logic of Science. a Bayesian Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: John Hemp
Comments: Pages. ERRATA available on request.

Abstract In the 1950s and 1960s it was causing interest among physicists that in the formalism of quantum mechanics (complex-valued) ‘probability amplitudes’ obeyed laws similar to the laws obeyed by probabilities in the ordinary probability calculus. But this did not then lead decisively to the claim that probabilities should be represented by complex numbers. It became fashionable instead to regard probability amplitudes as an abstract concept from which actual probabilities could be derived by taking the squared moduli of the amplitudes. In this monograph, however, we make another attempt to show how probability amplitudes might after all be identified with actual probabilities. To do this, probability itself is interpreted in a rational Bayesian manner (i.e. as an extension of logic) and a new (complex-valued) probability theory is formulated that incorporates the uncertainty principle (i.e. that takes account of the fact that acquisition of knowledge of a quantum mechanical process generally interferes with it). Taking this probability theory as the new logic of science, and assuming certain physical laws and properties of matter, an interpretation of non-relativistic quantum mechanics is built up. It is consistent with the usual quantum mechanical formalism but allows a clear distinction to be made between the physical world and our knowledge of it.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2124] viXra:1802.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 09:09:50

Quantum Turbulence in Superfluid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Understanding the causes and effects of the friction could pave the way for explorations into the composition of neutron stars and our universe. Here on Earth, the Aalto researchers' results will be invaluable for curtailing the production of heat and unwanted glitches in quantum computer components. [20] A half-quantum vortex combines circular spin flow and circular mass flow, leading to the formation of vortex pairs that can be observed experimentally. [19] Intricately shaped pulses of light pave a speedway for the accelerated dynamics of quantum particles, enabling faster switching of a quantum bit. [18] An international team of scientists has succeeded in making further improvements to the lifetime of superconducting quantum circuits. [17] A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2123] viXra:1802.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-03 10:20:48

New Way to Bend Light Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A small group of physicists from the Israel Institute of Technology and the Institute for Pure and Applied Mathematics (IMPA) in Brazil have now come up with another method, showing it's theoretically possible to weave waves of light together in such a way that they stop dead in their tracks. [16] Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2122] viXra:1802.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 14:18:23

Secure Quantum Memory Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Researchers at Laboratoire Kastler Brossel (LKB) in Paris have broken through a key barrier in quantum memory performance. Their work has enabled the first secure storage and retrieval of quantum bits. [17] Antiferromagnets have generated significant interest for future computing technologies due to their fast dynamics, their ability to generate and detect spin-polarized electric currents, and their robustness against external magnetic fields. [16] Researchers have recently been also interested in the utilization of antiferromagnets, which are materials without macroscopic magnetization but with a staggered orientation of their microscopic magnetic moments. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2121] viXra:1802.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 12:43:03

Metasurface Converts Colors of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences, together with collaborators from the Fu Foundation School of Engineering and Applied Science at Columbia University, have developed a system to convert one wavelength of light into another without the need to phase match. [15] Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2120] viXra:1802.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 07:33:06

Quantum-Cryptographic Protocols

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

An international team of scientists has proven, for the first time, the security of so-called device-independent quantum cryptography in a regime that is attainable with state-of-the-art quantum technology, thus paving the way to practical realization of such schemes in which users don't have to worry whether their devices can be trusted or not. [35] Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2119] viXra:1802.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 09:06:36

Quantum Hardy's Paradox

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2118] viXra:1802.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 10:30:32

Quantum Computing 'Hack'

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Sydney have found a 'quantum hack' that should allow for enormous efficiency gains in quantum computing technologies. [36] An international team of scientists has proven, for the first time, the security of so-called device-independent quantum cryptography in a regime that is attainable with state-of-the-art quantum technology, thus paving the way to practical realization of such schemes in which users don't have to worry whether their devices can be trusted or not. [35] Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2117] viXra:1801.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-31 10:03:07

Speed of Light Zero

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Light, which travels at a speed of 300,000 km/sec in a vacuum, can be slowed down and even stopped completely by methods that involve trapping the light inside crystals or ultracold clouds of atoms. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2116] viXra:1801.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-31 11:29:50

Energy-Time Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

A new detection system directly observes a type of entanglement in which a photon's energy is correlated with the time its partner is detected. [35] As cloud storage becomes more common, data security is an increasing concern. [34] Scientists of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) have proposed a scheme for optical encoding of information based on the formation of wave fronts, and which works with spatially incoherent illumination. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2115] viXra:1801.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-31 12:05:32

Antiferromagnetic Memory Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Antiferromagnets have generated significant interest for future computing technologies due to their fast dynamics, their ability to generate and detect spin-polarized electric currents, and their robustness against external magnetic fields. [16] Researchers have recently been also interested in the utilization of antiferromagnets, which are materials without macroscopic magnetization but with a staggered orientation of their microscopic magnetic moments. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2114] viXra:1801.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-31 13:00:58

Refutation of the Heisenberg Principle of Uncertainty by Mathematical Logic © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle written as Not[(h/(4*π))*σ(X)*σ(p)<1] is not tautologous. The expression without the scalar factor as Not[σ(X)*σ(p)<1] is also not tautologous. This means it is untenable.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2113] viXra:1801.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-31 01:55:39

A Fundamental Misunderstanding

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 24 Pages.

Quantum Mechanics claims that particles can become entangled such that there is a correlation in the detected results from EPR type experiments that cannot be explained by Classical Physics. This paper shows that the result can be fully explained by Classical Physics, and that the correlation curve for different angles between the two detectors can by reproduced when modeled this way. The model can even explain the results of the most recent supposed loophole-free Quantum Steering experiments – giving a clear violation of the Steering Inequality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2112] viXra:1801.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 18:13:27

Refutation of Operator for Quantum Simulation of Hamiltonian Spectra © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The quantum operator of interest is not tautologous. This means is not bivalent, but rather an operator for a probabilistic vector space.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2111] viXra:1801.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-30 02:27:53

Magnetic Force Not Quantized

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

For elementary particles, such as muons or neutrinos, the magnetic force applied to such charges is unique and immutable. However, unlike the electric charge, the magnetic force strength is not quantised. [12] Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2110] viXra:1801.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 05:49:29

Quantum Systems Simulating Algorithm

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

An international collaboration of quantum physicists from the University of Bristol, Microsoft, Google, Imperial College, Max Planck Institute, and the Sun Yat-sen University have introduced a new algorithm to solve the energy structure of quantum systems on quantum computers. [18] Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2109] viXra:1801.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 11:26:38

Antiferromagnetic Spintronic

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers have recently been also interested in the utilization of antiferromagnets, which are materials without macroscopic magnetization but with a staggered orientation of their microscopic magnetic moments. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2108] viXra:1801.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-28 10:33:52

Sensitive Gravitational Wave Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team of researchers from the Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics (Albert Einstein Institute; AEI) in Hannover and from the Institute for Gravitational Physics at Leibniz Universität Hannover has developed an advanced squeezed-light source for the gravitational-wave detector Virgo near Pisa. [19] Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18] Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch - the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2107] viXra:1801.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-27 06:21:53

Subquantum Leapfrog

Authors: Lev I. Verkhovsky
Comments: 5 Pages.

A new interpretation of one of the central concepts of quantum mechanics -- the reduction of the wave function in the measurement -- is proposed. The application of this approach to various phenomena of the microworld is discussed. The main provisions of this article were previously described in the article "Субквантовая чехарда», published (in Russian) in the Russian popular science journal «Chemistry and Life» (Химия и жизнь, 2005, No. 9).
Category: Quantum Physics

[2106] viXra:1801.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-27 08:13:22

Refutation of the Frequency Dependence of Mass © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The frequency dependence of mass is untenable: Since E = hν and E = mc^2, m = hν /c^2 that is the m depends only on the ν frequency is not tautologous. Hence, the frequency of mass is a suspicious statistic.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2105] viXra:1801.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-26 07:23:54

Quantum Cocktail on Memory Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Experiments based on atoms in a shaken artificial crystal made of light offer novel insight into the physics of quantum many-body systems, which might help in the development of future data-storage technologies. [34] A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2104] viXra:1801.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-25 05:21:42

Transistor Made from a Single Atom

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A groundbreaking quantum physics professor was named "Australian of the Year" on Thursday for her work heralded as ushering in a new era for computer science. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2103] viXra:1801.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-24 13:20:56

Quantum Metamaterial from Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2102] viXra:1801.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-25 00:25:20

The Origin of Planck Constant: the Mass Frequency Relation

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 1 Page. in English

In this short article, we investigate the origin of Planck constant, assuming that a clearly defined frequency can be ordered for the physical mass. The square of the mass-frequency is proportional to the physical mass. Dezso Sarkadi Hungary
Category: Quantum Physics

[2101] viXra:1801.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-25 01:08:02

Algebra of Classical and Quantum Binary Measurements

Authors: C A Brannen
Comments: 21 Pages. To be submitted Journal of Modern Physics on January 30, 2018

The simplest measurements in physics are binary; that is, they have only two possible results. An example is a beam splitter. One can take the output of a beam splitter and use it as the input of another beam splitter. The compound measurement is described by the product of the Hermitian matrices that describe the beam splitters. In the classical case the Hermitian matrices commute (are diagonal) and the measurements can be taken in any order. The general quantum situation was described by Julian Schwinger with what is now known as ``Schwinger's Measurement Algebra''. We simplify his results by restriction to binary measurements and extend it to include classical as well as imperfect and thermal beam splitters. We use elementary methods to introduce advanced subjects such as geometric phase, Berry-Pancharatnam phase, superselection sectors, symmetries and applications to the identities of the Standard Model fermions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2100] viXra:1801.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-24 07:45:15

Retrospective Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

A new scheme from researchers in Singapore and Japan could help customers establish trust in buying time on such machines—and protect companies from dishonest customers. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2099] viXra:1801.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-23 07:29:16

Optical Encoding Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Scientists of the National Research Nuclear University MEPhI (Russia) have proposed a scheme for optical encoding of information based on the formation of wave fronts, and which works with spatially incoherent illumination. [33] A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2098] viXra:1801.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-23 12:06:59

How Gravitation Works

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Spherical shock fronts deform and expand their carrier. These excitations form the footprints of the particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2097] viXra:1801.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-22 07:44:07

Quantum Circuits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

An international group of researchers, including UvA physicist Michael Walter, have devised new methods to create interesting input states for quantum computations and simulations. [29] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2096] viXra:1801.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-21 09:57:34

How Memristors Operate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2095] viXra:1801.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-21 10:24:27

International Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A joint China-Austria team has performed quantum key distribution between the quantum-science satellite Micius and multiple ground stations located in Xinglong (near Beijing), Nanshan (near Urumqi), and Graz (near Vienna). [32] In the race to build a computer that mimics the massive computational power of the human brain, researchers are increasingly turning to memristors, which can vary their electrical resistance based on the memory of past activity. [31] Engineers worldwide have been developing alternative ways to provide greater memory storage capacity on even smaller computer chips. Previous research into two-dimensional atomic sheets for memory storage has failed to uncover their potential— until now. [30] Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2094] viXra:1801.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-19 15:25:50

Science with Blinders

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

To work efficiently with objects, it is not necessary to know the detailed structure of objects. It is sufficient to know the behavior of these objects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2093] viXra:1801.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-20 03:16:14

Common Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Emil Gigov
Comments: 1 Page.

The Quantum mechanics is actually part of Classical mechanics, because the law of conservation of energy is generally valid and - because quanta are everywhere.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2092] viXra:1801.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-19 05:17:07

Pure Bound Field Theory and Bound States of Light Hydrogenlike Atoms

Authors: Alexander Kholmetskii, Tolga Yarman
Comments: 15 Pages.

We address to the Pure Bound Field Theory (PBFT) we developed earlier (e.g., Kholmetskii A.L. et al. Eur. Phys. J. Plus 126, 33 (2011), Eur. Phys. J. Plus 126, 35 (2011)), which explicitly takes into account the non-radiating nature of electromagnetic field of quantum bound particles in stationary states, and which allows eliminating the available subtle deviations between experimental and theoretical data in precise physics of light hydrogen-like atoms. In the present paper we show that the specific corrections of PBFT, being introduced into the basic equations of atomic physics, allow two different solutions for stationary energy states of electrically bound system “proton plus electron”. One of them corresponds to the ground state of usual hydrogen atom with the averaged radius near the Bohr radius rB, whereas another stationary state is characterized by the much smaller averaged radius of about 2a^2rB=5 fm (where a is the fine structure constant), and the binding energy about –255 keV. We name this bound system as the “neutronic hydrogen” and discuss possible implications of our results. In particular, we show that the interaction of neutronic hydrogen with matter can explain numerous puzzling facts of low temperature nuclear synthesis.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2091] viXra:1801.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 08:21:44

Quantum State Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Physicists from MIPT have teamed up with their colleagues in Russia and Great Britain and developed a superconducting quantum state detector. The new device can detect magnetic fields at low temperatures and is useful to both researchers and quantum computer engineers. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2090] viXra:1801.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-18 09:02:55

Superconductivity Positive Feedback Loop

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2089] viXra:1801.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 12:45:02

Coherent Quantum Phase Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2088] viXra:1801.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 18:16:05

Does Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle Predict a Maximum Velocity for Anything with Rest-Mass below the Speed of Light ?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we derive a maximum velocity for anything with rest-mass from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. The maximum velocity formula we get is in line with the maximum velocity formula suggested by Haug in a series of papers. This supports the assertion that Haug’s maximum velocity formula is useful in reconsidering the path forward in theoretical physics. In particular, it predicts that the Lorentz symmetry will break down at the Planck scale, and shows how and why this happens. Further, it shows that the maximum velocity for a Planck mass particle is zero. At first this may sound illogical, but it is a remarkable result that gives an new and important deep insight in this research domain.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2087] viXra:1801.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 21:18:35

Bell's Inequality Leaks Like a Sieve

Authors: Douglas G Danforth
Comments: 11 Pages. Danforth D. G. , "Nonrecurrence and Bell-like Inequalities", Open Physics, vol 15, issue 1, https://doi.org/10.1515/phys-2017-0089

The general class, Λ, of Bell hidden variables is composed of two subclasses ΛR and ΛN such that ΛR⋃ΛN=Λ and ΛR∩ΛN={}. The class ΛN is very large and contains random variables whose domain is the continuum, the reals. There are an uncountable infinite number of reals. Every instance of a real random variable is unique. The probability of two instances being equal is zero, exactly zero. ΛN induces sample independence. All correlations are context dependent but not in the usual sense. There is no "spooky action at a distance". Random variables, belonging to ΛN , are independent from one experiment to the next. The existence of the class ΛN makes it impossible to derive any of the standard Bell inequalities used to define quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2086] viXra:1801.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 08:16:32

Quantum Physics Reality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2085] viXra:1801.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 05:16:12

Quantum Dance in Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2084] viXra:1801.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 07:14:43

Chirality for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Scientists used spiraling X-rays at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) to observe, for the first time, a property that gives handedness to swirling electric patterns – dubbed polar vortices – in a synthetically layered material. [28] To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet— one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields’ generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors - including carbon-60 buckyballs - University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2083] viXra:1801.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 14:36:29

Wetenschap Met Oogkleppen

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model Project

Om efficiënt met objecten te kunnen werken is het niet nodig om de detailstructuur van objecten te kennen. Het is voldoende om het gedrag van deze objecten te kennen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2082] viXra:1801.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 04:02:27

Limits of Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2081] viXra:1801.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-16 02:38:43

On the Physical Explanation of the Experiments with Double-Slit and with the Mach-Zehnder Interferometer.

Authors: Vladimir A. Kuz`menko
Comments: 1 Page.

There is independent experimental evidence in favor of conspiracy theory in the explanation of the physical nature of quantum interference in experiments with slits and interferometers.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2080] viXra:1801.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 07:54:01

A Quasi-Exactly Solvable Non-Polynomial, Non-Confining Potential Well

Authors: Spiros Konstantogiannis
Comments: 49 Pages.

Using a momentum scale, we construct an n-independent, non-polynomial, symmetrized finite well, which, with the addition of a delta potential with n-dependent coupling, becomes quasi-exactly solvable. Making a polynomial ansatz for the closed-form eigenfunctions, we obtain a three-term recursion relation, from which the known energies are derived and the polynomial coefficients are factorized. The coupling is then written in terms of a continued fraction, which, as n tends to infinity, reveals a triangular symmetry and converges. Finally, the location of the closed-form eigenfunctions is determined and the first ones are examined.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2079] viXra:1801.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-13 03:48:51

General Relativistic Formulation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this work we show that it is possible to formulate quantum mechanics from general relativity in both pseudo-Euclidean and Euclidean metric by showing that the three-dimensional differentiable spacetime structure of a quantum particle can be converted to that of a manifestly Minkowski spacetime or a manifestly Euclidean spacetime. This is equivalent to viewing and describing three-dimensional quantum particles as normal particles in classical and quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2078] viXra:1801.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 08:08:31

Quantum Speed Limit on Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

In recent years, however, the limits to that technology have become clear: Chip components can only get so small, and be packed only so closely together, before they overlap or short-circuit. If companies are to continue building ever-faster computers, something will need to change. [29] This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2077] viXra:1801.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-12 10:50:03

Light Beams in Curved Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In their experiments, the researchers first transformed an ordinary laser beam into an accelerating one by reflecting the laser beam off of a spatial light modulator. [18] Researchers from Umeå University and Linköping University in Sweden have developed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) that emit strong light at high efficiency. As such, the thin, flexible and lightweight LEC promises future and improved applications within home diagnostics, signage, illumination and healthcare. [17] Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2076] viXra:1801.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-11 07:35:08

Light-Emitting Electrochemical Cell

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Researchers from Umeå University and Linköping University in Sweden have developed light-emitting electrochemical cells (LECs) that emit strong light at high efficiency. As such, the thin, flexible and lightweight LEC promises future and improved applications within home diagnostics, signage, illumination and healthcare. [17] Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16] In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2075] viXra:1801.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-11 09:02:38

3-Qubit Grover Search

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Searching large, unordered databases for a desired item is a time-consuming task for classical computers, but quantum computers are expected to perform these searches much more quickly. [29] This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2074] viXra:1801.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 16:03:06

The Big Bang Fizzled

Authors: Gary Osborn
Comments: 1 Page.

An argument is presented that we cannot see more than about half way back to the beginning of time. The cosmological redshift may be explainable with a gravitational version of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2073] viXra:1801.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-09 09:48:51

Images of the Square of the Quantum Wave Function

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have developed a method to visually image the entanglement between electrons. [15] In a recent study, a realistic interpretation (REIN) for the wave function was proposed by Gui-Lu Long, a researcher at the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, in the Chinese city of Beijing. [14] Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2072] viXra:1801.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 07:16:40

Quantum Loop Topography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Now, scientists have provided a bridge, which they call the quantum loop topography technique. This is a machine-learning algorithm based on neural networks. [10] A team from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics in Australia have demonstrated how to rigorously test if pairs of photons-particles of light-display Einstein's "spooky action at a distance", even under adverse conditions that mimic those outside the lab. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2071] viXra:1801.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 11:01:54

Noise Eating Quantum Bits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2070] viXra:1801.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 11:14:47

Three-Slit Loop Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Physicists have performed a variation of the famous 200-year-old double-slit experiment that, for the first time, involves "exotic looped trajectories" of photons. These photons travel forward through one slit, then loop around and travel back through another slit, and then sometimes loop around again and travel forward through a third slit. [15] In a recent study, a realistic interpretation (REIN) for the wave function was proposed by Gui-Lu Long, a researcher at the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, in the Chinese city of Beijing. [14] Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2069] viXra:1801.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 07:14:08

Realistic Nature of Quantum Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

In a recent study, a realistic interpretation (REIN) for the wave function was proposed by Gui-Lu Long, a researcher at the Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, in the Chinese city of Beijing. [14] Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2068] viXra:1801.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 14:16:36

Quantum Spooky Action

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A team from Griffith's Centre for Quantum Dynamics in Australia have demonstrated how to rigorously test if pairs of photons-particles of light-display Einstein's "spooky action at a distance", even under adverse conditions that mimic those outside the lab. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2067] viXra:1801.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 07:59:33

Quantum Hall Physics in 4-D

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Using ultracold atoms trapped in a periodically modulated two-dimensional superlattice potential, the scientists could observe a dynamical version of a novel type of quantum Hall effect that is predicted to occur in four-dimensional systems. [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2066] viXra:1801.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-04 01:59:10

The Incredible Story About the Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The reality is far more absurd than current physics demonstrates us
Category: Quantum Physics

[2065] viXra:1801.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-03 07:16:46

Quantum Consciousness Observer Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2064] viXra:1801.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 12:41:13

Tweaking Quantum Dots

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2063] viXra:1801.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-02 13:58:00

Het Ongelofelijke Verhaal Over de Realiteit

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model

De werkelijkheid is veel ongelofelijker dan de huidige natuurkunde ons voorspiegelt.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2062] viXra:1801.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-03 03:49:26

Quantum Radio

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have demonstrated that quantum physics might enable communications and mapping in locations where GPS and ordinary cellphones and radios don't work reliably or even at all, such as indoors, in urban canyons, underwater and underground. [11] Using two types of "designer" quantum dots, researchers are creating double-pane solar windows that generate electricity with greater efficiency and create shading and insulation for good measure. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2061] viXra:1801.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-03 05:40:37

Concerning the Dirac γ-Matrices Under a Lorentz Transformation of the Dirac Equation

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 7 Pages.

We embolden the idea that the Dirac 4 × 4 γ-matrices are four-vectors where the space components (γ i) represent spin and the forth component (γ 0) should likewise represent the time component of spin in the usual four-vector formalism of the Special Theory of Relativity. With the γ-matrices as four-vectors, it is seen that the Dirac equation admits two kinds of wavefunctions – (1) the usual four component Dirac bispinor ψ and (2) a scalar four component bispinor φ. Realizing this, and knowing forehand of the existing mystery as to why Leptons and Neutrinos come in pairs, we seize the moment and make the suggestion that the pair (ψ, φ) can be used as a starting point to explain mystery of why in their three generations [(e ± , ν e), (µ ± , ν µ), (τ ± , ν τ)], Leptons and Neutrinos come in doublets. In this suggestion, the scalar-bispinor φ can be thought of as the Neutrino while the usual Dirac bispinor ψ can be thought of as the Lepton.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2060] viXra:1712.0670 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-30 17:09:55

The Time Asymmetry of Quantum Mechanics and Concepts of Physical Directionality of Time. Part 1. T Asymmetry of Quantum Probability Laws.

Authors: Andrew Thomas Holster
Comments: 29 Pages.

This is Part 1 of a four part paper, intended to redress some of the most fundamental confusions in the subject of physical time directionality, and represent the concepts accurately. There are widespread fallacies in the subject that need to be corrected in introductory courses for physics students and philosophers. Parts 1 and 2 are about quantum mechanics, Part 3 is about fundamental concepts, and Part 4 is about cosmology. We start in Part 1 by analysing the time reversal symmetry of quantum probability laws. Time reversal symmetry is defined as the property of invariance under the time reversal transformation, T: t -> -t. It is shown that quantum mechanics (classical or relativistic) is strongly time asymmetric in its probability laws. This contradicts the orthodox analysis, found throughout the conventional literature on physical time, which claims that quantum mechanics is time symmetric or reversible. This is widely claimed as settled scientific fact, and large philosophical and scientific conclusions are drawn from it. But it is an error. The fact is that while quantum mechanics is widely claimed to be reversible on the basis of two formal mathematical properties (that it does have), these properties do not represent invariance under the time reversal transformation. A recent experiment (Batalhão at alia, 2015) showing irreversibility of quantum thermodynamics is discussed as an illustration of this result. Most physicists remain unaware of the errors, decades after they were first demonstrated. Orthodox specialists in the philosophy of time who are aware of the error continue to refer to the ‘time symmetry’ or ‘reversibility’ of quantum mechanics anyway – and exploit the ambiguity to claim false implications about physical time reversal symmetry in nature. The excuse for perpetrating the confusion is that, since it is has now become customary to refer to the formal properties of quantum mechanics as ‘reversibility’ or ‘time reversal symmetry’, we should just keep referring to them by this name, even though they are not time reversal symmetry. This causes endless confusion, in attempts to explain the physical irreversibility of our universe, and in philosophical discussions of implications of physics for the nature of time. The failure of time reversal symmetry in quantum mechanics changes the interpretation of modern physics in a deep way. It changes the problem of explaining the real irreversibility found throughout nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2059] viXra:1712.0666 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-29 12:48:01

Theoretical Interpretation of Quantum Chemistry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researchers at The University of New Mexico, led by Distinguished Professor of Chemistry Hua Guo, have been working with experimentalists to help them gain an understanding by providing theoretical interpretations of experimental observations. Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology and their team involving researchers of JASRI, Osaka University, Nagoya Institute of Technology and Nara Institute of Science and Technology have just developed a novel approach to determine and visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of individual dopant atoms using SPring-8. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2058] viXra:1712.0664 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-29 15:30:14

Electron Toroidal Moment

Authors: Oliver Consa
Comments: 8 Pages.

This Toroidal Solenoid Electron model describe the electron as an infinitesimal electric charge moving at the speed of light along a helical path. From this semiclassical model, we can derive all the electron characteristics as the electron magnetic moment, the g-factor, its natural frequency, the value of Quantum Hall Resistance and the value of the Magnetic Flux Quantum. In this new work, we obtain other features such as the helicity, the chirality, the Schwinger limits and, especially, the Toroidal Moment of the electron. The experimental detection of the Toroidal Moment of the electron could be used to validate this model. The toroidal moment of the electron is a direct consequence of Helical Solenoid Electrón model and it is calculated qualitatively and quantitatively. This feature of the electron (and any other subatomic particle) is not contained in the standard model, but appears as a requirement to explain the violation of the parity symmetry of the subatomic particles. The existence of a toroidal moment has been experimentally verified in nuclei of heavy atoms and also serves as basis to explain the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2057] viXra:1712.0643 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-28 07:33:23

Viewing Atomic Structures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Scientists at Tokyo Institute of Technology and their team involving researchers of JASRI, Osaka University, Nagoya Institute of Technology and Nara Institute of Science and Technology have just developed a novel approach to determine and visualize the three-dimensional (3-D) structure of individual dopant atoms using SPring-8. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2056] viXra:1712.0637 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-27 16:49:10

The Canonical Commutation Relation Derives from the Homogeneity Symmetry, But Needs Accidental Coincident Scalings to be Unitary

Authors: Steve Faulkner
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract
Textbook theory says that the Canonical Commutation Relation derives from the homogeneity of space. This paper shows that additionally, an accidental coincidence of scales is needed, as extra information, without which the Canonical Commutation Relation is left non-unitary and broken. This single counter-example removes symmetry, as intrinsic ontological reason, for axiomatically imposing unitarity (or self-adjointness) — by Postulate — on quantum mechanical systems.

Keywords
foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space, unitary.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2055] viXra:1712.0622 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-27 09:38:19

Two-Dimensional Quantum Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2054] viXra:1712.0620 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-26 16:04:18

Fundamental Waves and the Reunification of Physics

Authors: Alan M. Kadin
Comments: 12 Pages. Submitted to Foundational Questions Institute Essay Contest on "What is Fundamental?"

In the 20th century, physics was split into quantum mechanics on the microscale, classical mechanics on the macroscale, and general relativity on the cosmic scale, each with a distinct conceptual framework. On the contrary, a simple realistic picture of fundamental waves can provide the basis for reunifying physics on all scales. This neoclassical synthesis combines aspects of classical, quantum, and relativistic physics, but is distinct from each of them. Electrons are soliton-like waves with quantized spin, which locally define time and space. In contrast, nucleons and atoms are simply composites, with no wave nature of their own. There are no point particles, quantum entanglement, or gravitational singularities. Furthermore, mathematical abstractions such as curved spacetime and complex quantum waves in Hilbert space are not fundamental at all. This approach makes predictions that differ from orthodox theory, which can be tested.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2053] viXra:1712.0614 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-27 03:09:10

On the Quantum Memory

Authors: Vladimir A. Kuz`menko
Comments: 1 Page.

Nonequivalence of forward and reversed processes in quantum physics directly demands the existence of the memory of quantum system about its initial state. The vacuum is best suited for storing this memory. A careful study of the inequality of differential cross sections of forward and reversed quantum transitions, perhaps, will allow finding in the future new tools for experimental studying of properties of dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2052] viXra:1712.0596 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-25 23:16:14

The Quantum Mechanical Time Reversal Operator

Authors: Andrew Thomas Holster
Comments: 24 Pages. Originally 2003 on philsci-archive, with >4000 downloads from 2010-2017

The analysis of the reversibility of quantum mechanics depends upon the choice of the time reversal operator for quantum mechanical states. The orthodox choice for the time reversal operator on QM states is known as the Wigner operator, T*, where * performs complex conjugation. The peculiarity is that this is not simply the unitary time reversal operation, but an anti-unitary operator, involving complex conjugation in addition to ordinary time reversal. The alternative choice is the Racah operator, which is simply ordinary time reversal, T. Orthodox treatments hold that it is either logically or empirically necessary to adopt the Wigner operator, and the Racah operator has received little attention. The basis for this choice is analysed in detail, and it is concluded that all the conventional arguments for rejecting the Racah operator and adopting the Wigner operator are mistaken. The additional problem of whether the deterministic part of quantum mechanics should be judged to be reversible or not is also considered. The adoption of the Racah operator for time reversal appears prima facie to entail that quantum mechanics is irreversible. However, it is concluded that the real answer to question depends upon the choice of interpretation of the theory. In any case, the conventional reasons for claiming that quantum mechanics is reversible are incorrect.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2051] viXra:1712.0579 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-24 00:01:29

Why Quantum Jump Essay

Authors: Cres Huang
Comments: 4 Pages.

Atomic electron transition appears leaping from one energy level to another. The issue is, atomic particles are too small and too fast for our detectors to recognize their action and identity. I believe it is due to the sensors can only detect and register the repeated trajectory. Particle would have to revolving on the same orbit long enough. Otherwise, it would not trigger the reaction of the detectors. Transitional trajectory is short, and it does not repeat. It can not be detected, hence, jump.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2050] viXra:1712.0573 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-22 12:49:13

Quantum Noise Reduction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2049] viXra:1712.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-22 13:41:33

Challenge in Quantum Chemistry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A group of Michigan State University (MSU) researchers specializing in quantum calculations has proposed a radically new computational approach to solving the complex many-particle Schrödinger equation that holds the key to explaining the motion of electrons in atoms and molecules. [19] This method, called atomic spin squeezing, works by redistributing the uncertainty unevenly between two components of spin in these measurements systems, which operate at the quantum scale. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2048] viXra:1712.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-22 14:17:01

Exotic State of Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2047] viXra:1712.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-23 03:42:08

On the Experimental Proofs of Strong Time Reversal Noninvariance in Nonlinear Optics.

Authors: Vladimir A. Kuz`menko
Comments: 5 Pages. The report at the Conference: Foundations of Quantum Mechanics and Technology (FQMT), At Växjö, June 2017

A number of direct and indirect experimental proofs of nonequivalence of forward and reversed processes in quantum physics are discussed. Their strong inequality is a real physical base of nonlinear optics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2046] viXra:1712.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-22 07:59:12

Secret Movement of Quantum Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2045] viXra:1712.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-22 10:05:27

Explaining Duality Without Complementarity or "Which Way" and Also Retro-Causality and Non-Locality

Authors: Sarma N Gullapalli
Comments: 1 Page. This helps remove much confusion and mystery that still surrounds duality and effect of "which way" observation

An Axiom is presented and justified which (a) Explains duality in interference without complementarity or “which way” (welcher-weg) observation (b) Shows the equivalence: Coherence and alignment ≡ Interference ≡ No “which way” observation; No coherence or alignment ≡ No interference ≡ “which way” observation (c) Explains Wheeler’s delayed choice thought experiment (d) Explains results of experimental implementations of Wheeler’s experiment which show retro-causality with and without entanglement (e) Explains non-local action at a distance, and (f) Rephrases Albert Einstein’s unanswered question “Is quantum mechanics complete?” at a more fundamental level than just duality and non-locality. The explanation given does not require that the particle (photon) somehow “know” about the test setup or “which way” observation or change its behavior from particle to wave and vice versa as required by currently accepted explanation based on Niels Bohr’s complementarity principle. No new assumptions are made, only a new complete interpretation of probability which is already a fundamental assumption of quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2044] viXra:1712.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-21 12:03:44

Experimental Demonstration of Quantum Tunneling in IBM Quantum Computer

Authors: Narendra N. Hegade, Bikash K. Behera, Prasanta K. Panigrahi
Comments: 5 Pages.

According to Feynman, we should make nature to be quantum mechanical to simulate it better. Simulating quantum systems in a computer had been remained a challenging problem to tackle. It's mainly in case of a large quantum system. However, Feynman's 1982 conjecture that `physics can be simulated using a quantum computer other than using a Turing machine or a classical computer' has been proved to be correct. It is widely known that quantum computers have superior power as compared to classical computers in simulating quantum systems efficiently. Here we report the experimental realization of quantum tunneling through potential barriers by simulating it in the IBM quantum computer, which here acts as a universal quantum simulator. We take a two-qubit system for visualizing the tunneling process, which has a truly quantum nature. We clearly observe the tunneling through a barrier by our experimental results. This experiment inspires us to simulate other quantum mechanical problems which possess such quantum nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2043] viXra:1712.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-21 15:12:29

Neutron Tracks Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2042] viXra:1712.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-21 22:32:37

Quantum Mechanics in Multiply Connected Spaces

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 23 Pages. This paper is an extract from my PhD thesis GEOMETRICAL AND TOPOLOGICAL METHODS IN CLASSICAL AND QUANTUM PHYSICS at Monash University in Australia. The paper was published in J. Phys. A: Math. Gen in 1996 under my name and my supervisor name.

This paper analyses quantum mechanics in multiply connected spaces. It is shown that the multiple connectedness of the configuration space of a physical system can determine the quantum nature of physical observables, such as the angular momentum. In particular, quantum mechanics in compactified Kaluza Klein spaces is examined. These compactified spaces give rise to an additional angular momentum which can adopt half integral values and therefore may be identified with the intrinsic spin of a quantum particle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2041] viXra:1712.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-21 09:39:07

Hybrid Quantum Coupling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2040] viXra:1712.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-21 10:07:50

Structure in Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Study of the physical reality can happen in two different ways that meet and complement each other at a certain point.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2039] viXra:1712.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-20 10:04:24

Excitons for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

To build tomorrow's quantum computers, some researchers are turning to dark excitons, which are bound pairs of an electron and the absence of an electron called a hole. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2038] viXra:1712.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-19 13:18:54

Electrical Current with Spinning Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2037] viXra:1712.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-19 13:45:25

Control Superconductivity using Spin Current

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2036] viXra:1712.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-19 09:22:11

Structuur in de Realiteit

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model

Bestudering van de fysieke realiteit kan op twee verschillende wijzen gebeuren die elkaar op een bepaald moment ontmoeten en aanvullen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2035] viXra:1712.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-19 09:29:20

New Type of Quantum Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2034] viXra:1712.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-19 10:29:58

Quantum Experiments and Graph Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

An answer to a quantum-physical question provided by the algorithm Melvin has uncovered a hidden link between quantum experiments and the mathematical field of Graph Theory. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2033] viXra:1712.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-18 12:40:48

Quantum Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2032] viXra:1712.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-16 09:24:13

Single Photon Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Engineers have shown that a widely used method of detecting single photons can also count the presence of at least four photons at a time. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27]Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2031] viXra:1712.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 10:21:17

Collective Quantum Modes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

ICFO researchers created a novel type of liquid 100 million times more dilute than water and 1 million times thinner than air. The experiments, published in Science, exploit a fascinating quantum effect to produce droplets of this exotic phase of matter. [14] "In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2030] viXra:1712.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 11:09:58

Quantum Behavior of Resonant Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2029] viXra:1712.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-14 08:26:10

浅谈量子理论的客观实在性,观察改变世界

Authors: Liu Ran
Comments: 2 Pages.

现在科学上的客观存在,其实是一种“可观测的存在”,不是“无法观测的存在”,即存在等于可观测;不存在等于无法观测。并且,每一次观测,都会减少物体的存在,增加物体的不存在。
Category: Quantum Physics

[2028] viXra:1712.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 05:11:59

Quantum Liquid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

ICFO researchers created a novel type of liquid 100 million times more dilute than water and 1 million times thinner than air. The experiments, published in Science, exploit a fascinating quantum effect to produce droplets of this exotic phase of matter. [14] "In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2027] viXra:1712.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-15 06:19:20

Silicon Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Physicists have built one of the first basic elements of a trapped Rydberg ion quantum computer: a single-qubit Rydberg gate. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2026] viXra:1712.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 08:35:07

A Equação Guedes-Schroedinger: Sobre a Solução Estacionária Oriunda do Oscilador Harmônico Amortecido

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 10 Pages.

Derivamos algumas soluções gerais para o estado estacionário, oriundas do oscilador harmônico amortecido, por meio da equação Guedes-Schroedinger.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2025] viXra:1712.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 10:19:11

Unconventional Origins of Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2024] viXra:1712.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 11:25:22

Trapped Rydberg Ion Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Physicists have built one of the first basic elements of a trapped Rydberg ion quantum computer: a single-qubit Rydberg gate. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27] Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2023] viXra:1712.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 10:47:52

Storage of a Photonic Qubit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2022] viXra:1712.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-13 05:18:45

Quantum Photonic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27]Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2021] viXra:1712.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 06:41:17

Stochastic Control of the Universe

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

In contrast to the approach taken by mainstream physics, the Hilbert Book Model applies stochastic control of dynamic coherence and binding of module components. Each module owns its private stochastic process. All stochastic processes own a characteristic function.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2020] viXra:1712.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 06:45:22

Diversity of Floating Platforms

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality archives its dynamic geometric data in a read-only repository. This repository emerges from its foundation which is an orthomodular lattice. The repository is a combination of a series of separable Hilbert spaces that share the same infinite dimensional vector space. For the definition of the inner product of pairs of vectors the separable Hilbert spaces apply a private version of the quaternionic number system. A non-separable Hilbert space embeds the separable Hilbert spaces. The version of the quaternionic number system acts as a parameter space. These parameter spaces float over a background parameter space.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2019] viXra:1712.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 06:49:19

Nature's Basic Dark Quanta

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Two kinds of super-tiny shock fronts represent nature’s basic dark quanta. All other discrete objects in nature are configured by these dark quanta.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2018] viXra:1712.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 14:05:38

Delphi

Authors: M. W. Roberts
Comments: 15 Pages.

An optical communication system is described. The system provides a unique operational capability.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2017] viXra:1712.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 09:05:29

Strong Light-Matter Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2016] viXra:1712.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 14:22:18

Quantum Processes in Physical and Biological Systems

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 250 Pages.

PhD thesis, 1993
Category: Quantum Physics

[2015] viXra:1712.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-06 03:30:55

Quantum Entanglement in Biological System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2014] viXra:1712.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-04 10:56:12

Photon Upconversion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2013] viXra:1712.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-03 12:36:27

Einstein was Likely Right: ``God Does Not Play Dice". Do Randomness Breaks Down at the Planck Scale ?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note briefly outlines how numbers that appear to be totally and independently random switch to become deterministic at the Planck scale. In other words, God does not play dice.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2012] viXra:1712.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-04 01:02:42

Derivation of Interactions from Dirac Equation

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this work, we show that a massless physical field that accompanies a massive particle can be derived from Dirac equation, such as an electron is accompanied by the Coulomb electrostatic field, and we show that Dirac equation can also be generalised to form a field equation to describe internal dynamics of massless physical fields by considering the components of the momentum operators as matrix operators rather than scalar operators as in the original Dirac equation. One of many remarkable results that can be obtained from the generalised Dirac field equation is a linear potential that may be used to describe the quark confinement at large distances in the quark model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2011] viXra:1712.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-03 05:42:39

Reverse Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A group of scientists at the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI), University of Copenhagen, has figured out how to make spin qubits perform controlled backward rotations. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2010] viXra:1712.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-01 18:37:11

Bell's Theorem Refuted Mathematically for Professor X.

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: Bringing an elementary knowledge of sums and averages to Bell (1964), we refute Bell's theorem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2009] viXra:1712.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-02 00:42:06

Quantum State of an Entangled Particle is not Real

Authors: Shubhayan Sarkar
Comments: under reveiw in PRA, 3 pages

Is quantum state real or just knowledge of some underlying reality? This question has been asked time and time again but the answer still remains unclear. In the following paper, using the property of the entangled state the author shows that the underlying hidden-variable model for a particle in an entangled state has to be psi-epistemic. This implies that the wavefunction can't correspond to reality of such a system where the quantum state is entangled. However the result doesn0t contradict the PBR result which says that quantum state is real as those results do not include entangled systems.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2008] viXra:1712.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-01 08:25:47

SLAC High-Temperature Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates – the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures – contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2007] viXra:1711.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-30 10:42:15

Superconducting Qubits 3-D Integration

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2006] viXra:1711.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-30 02:12:34

Aharonov Bohm Effect and the Period of Electric Current Oscillation

Authors: Daehyeon KANG
Comments: 6 Pages.

Recently, in the measurement of the current of the quantum interference device made of metal in the normal state, the current value oscillates according to the intensity of the magnetic field, and there is a period, and the numerical value is (hc/2e). In this paper, we show theoretically why the period is (hc/2e) without charge pair.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2005] viXra:1711.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-27 16:42:40

The Fifth Force

Authors: Alexandre
Comments: 59 Pages. This version is work under way.

A fifth force, the Cohesion Force, becomes necessary when building a toy universe based on a fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. The four forces of nature plus the new one are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode first version implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2004] viXra:1711.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-26 16:05:46

What We Can Know: is Marcus du Sautoy Right re Bell's Theorem?

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM. Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964)—en route to refuting Bell's inequality and his theorem—we aim to help STEM students study one of the strangest double-errors in the history of science. To that end we question Marcus du Sautoy's claim that Bell's theorem is as mathematically robust as they come.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2003] viXra:1711.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-25 23:52:35

Electron & Positron Model Wave Function and Field Calculation Code

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 6 Pages.

This is a portion of the model I wrote to model the Electron/Positron and their associated fields; such as Electric, Magnetic, Vector Potential fields. It is written in the Delphi language and is the function that calculates the fields from the mathematical wave function.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2002] viXra:1711.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-19 06:12:38

Real-Valued Dirac Equation and Three-Dimensional Differentiable Structures of Quantum Particles

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 16 Pages.

Having shown in our previous works that the real-valued Schrödinger wave equation can be used to find mathematical functions to construct spacetime structures of quantum particles, in this work, we will discuss the possibility to formulate a real-valued Dirac equation in which all physical objects and all differential operators that are used to describe the dynamics of a particle are real quantities and, furthermore, since solutions to the Dirac equation are wavefunctions that have four components, it is possible to suggest that solutions to the real-valued Dirac equation should be interpreted as a parameterisation of 3-dimensional differentiable manifolds which are embedded submanifolds of the Euclidean space R^4.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2001] viXra:1711.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-18 03:59:09

Spinning Electrons as Physics Fantasy

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 9 Pages.

Otto Stern and Walter Gerlach demonstrated in 1922 experimentally the “existence of space quantization in a magnetic field”, using their own words. The result of this experiment is later on used to introduce the so-called intrinsic spin angular moment of elementary and other particles. This article describes what went wrong in the applied argumentation. In 1896 Zeeman and Lorentz showed experimentally and theoretically that atoms emit ‘shifted’ frequencies when exposed to an external magnetic field. This phenomenon has been used to demonstrate the existence of spinning electrons. However, it is shown that this demonstration is not convincing at all.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2000] viXra:1711.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-14 11:11:27

A Equação Guedes-Schroedinger: Uma Teoria Quântica-Relativística Para O Átomo Com um Núcleo e um Elétron

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 12 Pages.

Nós ampliamos a apresentação da teoria proposta no artigo precedente [1], a fim de que nossa concepção alcançasse um público mais amplo.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1999] viXra:1711.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-10 21:33:15

On the EPR Paradox and Dirac Equation in Euclidean Relativity

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 19 Pages.

Recent experimental results have shown a violation of Bell’s inequalities, which are a mathematical formulation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. The violation leads to the conclusion that there are no local hidden variable theories that underlie quantum mechanics. However, the Bell’s inequalities do not rule out the possibility to construct non-local hidden variable theories that comply with quantum mechanics, in particular, a theory of special and general relativity that permits an instantaneous transmission of interaction. In this work we show that a special relativity with a Euclidean metric that allows not only local interactions but also interactions that can be transmitted instantaneously can be constructed and, furthermore, such special relativity can also be generalised to formulate a general theory of relativity that leads to the same experimental results as Einstein theory of general relativity. We also show that it is possible to formulate Dirac-like relativistic wave equations in this Euclidean relativity with either real mass or imaginary mass, which suggests that the proper mass of a quantum particle may be defined in terms of a differential operator that is associated with a spacetime substructure of the particle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1998] viXra:1711.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-10 08:37:13

Explanation of Gravitation

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This document is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

This explanation of gravitation supports the idea that basic discrete objects are excitations of a field. The massive basic discrete objects are spherical shock fronts that carry a standard bit of mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1997] viXra:1711.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-07 19:20:26

Bell (1964) Revisited for High-School STEM Students

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: Pages.

Abstract: Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964), we eliminate 13 false or unnecessary expressions and negate Bell's famous inequality. We hope this interesting result will move STEM students to study one of the most famous—and strangest—works in the history of physics: for who else but famous Bell uses the flawed approximation of an unnecessary experiment to invalidate their flawed use of a mathematical fact? And then rejects the fact?
Category: Quantum Physics

[1996] viXra:1711.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-05 13:51:59

Understanding the Path-Entangled Communications Device

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 27 Pages. Also available as video: http://webspace.qmul.ac.uk/rocornwall/QSE_video.htm

This slide/show animation (also available as video: http://webspace.qmul.ac.uk/rocornwall/QSE_video.htm) is meant to explain some of the concepts people find confusing about the entangled communications device and various interpretations of quantum mechanics. We find the wavefunction and its collapse to be very real phenomenon.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1995] viXra:1711.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-05 15:39:38

Singlet, Spin and Clock

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 3 Pages.

A simple explanation is given for the continuation of the singlet state over large distances in an EPRBA experiment. The paper answers this question with clocks ticking in synchronized frequencies that can be carried by the particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1994] viXra:1711.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-04 15:12:41

Limitation on Effective Degree of Quantum Parallelism

Authors: Masataka Ohta
Comments: 2 Pages.

Unlimited quantum parallelism is the key to make, in theory, quantum computers more powerful than classical ones. However, in practice, noisy quantum devices have limited quantum parallelism, which is directly derived from limited channel capacity of noisy quantum channels. As a result, in practice, quantum computers are only as powerful as classical ones.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1993] viXra:1711.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-04 22:14:49

Science

Authors: Irene Galtung
Comments: 53 pages

Science is mathematics. What is mathematics? Science seeks to uncover truths. “Science” is based on factually incorrect “mathematics”. “Science” is false. “Science” is factually incorrect. “Mathematics” is factually incorrect. Science is factually correct. Mathematics is factually correct. Let's look at: quantum mechanics -- the Standard Model of particle physics -- special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity -- Newton’s “science” -- Archimedes’ “science” -- etc.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1992] viXra:1711.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-04 22:27:17

Proof of Magnetic Flux Quantization by Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Daehyeon KANG
Comments: 5 Pages.

At present, By the requirement that the phase factor of the wave function has unity, Quantum values of magnetic flux are calculated, which seems to lack quantum logic. Thus, in this paper, we apply the quantum mechanics logic strictly to this problem,The unit value is derived and the result is (hc/2e). It is exactly the same as that obtained by Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction and classical quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1991] viXra:1711.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-04 05:47:27

Gravity or Quantum of Action for each Boson

Authors: Vladimir Aksayskiy
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper presents estimations of parameters of phonon, photon and graviton – which all represent boson family, derived with assumption that each of them has its own set of constants in Planck’s formula for boson gas in thermal equilibrium.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1990] viXra:1711.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-03 04:52:42

Simulated Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima
Comments: 5 Pages.

The paper deals with simulated interpretation of quantum mechanics. This interpretation is based on possibilities of computer simulation of our Universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1989] viXra:1711.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-02 11:21:56

A Densidade Lagrangeana Para Uma Generalização da Equação de Schroedinger e O Berço de Píon

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 6 pages.

Nós derivamos a densidade Lagrangeana para uma generalização da equação de Schroedinger para o átomo com um életron e um núcleo; e concluímos, por meio da equação generalizada, que este átomo seria o berço de píon.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1988] viXra:1711.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-02 12:39:27

Wave Properties of Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1987] viXra:1710.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-30 15:11:56

Electromagnetic Synthesis of Four Fundamental Forces from Quantized Impedance Networks of Geometric Wavefunction Interactions

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: Pages.

Quantum Mechanics is all about wavefunctions and their interactions. If one seeks to understand QM, then a deep intuitive understanding of wavefunctions and wavefunction collapse would seem essential, indispensable. That’s where it all starts, the causal origin of the quantum as manifested in the physical world. We introduce a wavefunction comprised of the geometric elements of the Pauli algebra of space - point, line, plane, and volume elements - endowed with quantized electromagnetic fields. Wavefunction interactions are described by the geometric product of geometric Clifford algebra, generating the Dirac algebra of flat Minkowski spacetime, the particle physicist’s S-matrix.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1986] viXra:1710.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-27 17:16:55

Science Fiction

Authors: Peter Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

A theory (physics) needs to describe something that can exist in nature/reality, it needs to be realistic. But a lot of theories in modern theoretical physics are unnatural/unrealistic, theoretical physicists don't realize that they are lost in science fiction.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1985] viXra:1710.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-28 03:27:44

Test of Quantum Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1984] viXra:1710.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-25 02:59:18

The Photoelectric Effect with Phonon Emission

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 7 Pages. The original ideas

We egeneralize the relativistic energy relation for the photoelectric effect in case of the simultaneous emission of electrons and phonons in the metal medium.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1983] viXra:1710.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-26 03:35:47

On Achieving Superluminal Communication

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 10 pages

We develop a simple yet impossible looking quantum protocol for achieving instantaneous teleportation of any arbitrary quantum state from Alice to Bob even when Bob is several light years away. We construct this quantum protocol by approriately combining two celebrated results: the existing quantum teleportation protocol [1] and the quantum algorithm for searching an unknown target [2]. The existing quantum teleportation protocol [1] requires certain classical communication between the participents, Alice and Bob. Alice has to send certain classical information in terms of classical bits generated during her Bell basis measurement over a classical channel to Bob using which Bob determines the exact recovery operation to be performed on the qubit(s) in his possession for the creation of the same unknown quantum state at his place and thus to complete the protocol. This classical information in Alice's possession in terms of certain classical bits cannot be sent to Bob with the speed faster than that of light which is the well known experimentally varied universal upper limit on the speed for the transmission of signals over a classical channel. We show that by appropritely using Grover's algorithm [2] at the appropriate place in the teleportation protocol [1] and its extension for teleporting multiqubit state [6] we can eliminate the requirement of the transmission of the classical bits by Alice over a classical channel to Bob for the creation of the unknown quantum state at his place and thus provide an eloquent way out to free ourselves from the universal upper limit on speed that is preventing us from the superluminal information transfer. Thus our new modied teleportation protocol clearly demonstrates the enormous advantage of remaining in the quantum regime and avoiding the requirement of any classical communication.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1982] viXra:1710.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-26 04:33:00

Pursuit of a Quantum Spin Liquid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

"In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1981] viXra:1710.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-26 05:12:19

The World is Binary! When the Speed of Light is Zero from Any Reference Frame

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 2 Pages.

This is a very short non-technical note pointing out a key finding from modern mathematical atomism, namely that the world is Binary, and that the Planck mass, the Planck length, and the Planck second are invariant entities. With Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks, the speed of light (in a vacuum) is the same in every direction, it is isotropic and it is often represented with the character c. The speed of light is, per definition, exactly 299 792 458 m/s, a tremendous speed. We do not contest that this is the speed of light as measured with Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks, but still we ask: ``Is this truly always the case?".
Category: Quantum Physics

[1980] viXra:1710.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-26 06:34:58

Quantization of a Three-Dimensional Damped Harmonic Oscillator

Authors: Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin
Comments: 11 Pages.

An explicitly time independent Lagrangian functional of a three-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator has been proposed. I derive results for the motion of the three-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator with a pure imaginary three dimensional vector and oscillator’s position-dependent friction coefficient. The Hamiltonians corresponding to the Lagrangian is also explicitly time independent. The choice of functional form of the friction coefficient on the oscillator position determines and plays a vital role in the form of the equation of motion classically and quantum mechanically. One choice of the form of the friction coefficient I made lead to breaking the symmetry of the isotropy of oscillations in the three dimensional space.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1979] viXra:1710.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-23 06:57:37

Neutronium or Neutron?

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 9 Pages. Submitted to Prespacetime Journal

In the reading Nyambuya (2015), we proposed a hypothetical state of the Hydrogen atom whose name we coined 'Neutronium'. That is to say, in the typical Hydrogen atom, the Electron is assumed to orbit the Proton, while in the Neutronium, the converse is assumed, i.e., the Proton orbits the Electron. In the present reading, we present some seductive argument which lead us to think that this Neutronium may actually be the usual Neutron that we are used to know. That is to say, we show that under certain assumed conditions, a free Neutronium may be unstable while a non-free Neutronium is stable in its confinement. Given that a free Neutron is stable in it confinement of the nucleus and unstable where free with a lifetime of ∼ 15 min, one wonders whether or not this Neutronium might be the Neutron if we are to match the lifetime of a free Neutronium to that of a free Neutron.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1978] viXra:1710.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-21 23:23:19

The Simple Magnetic Compass Destroys Modern Physics.

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 1 Page.

A LITTLE LATE TO THE PARTY

At this point in time they are debating whether or not space is empty? But the magnetic compass has been around for thousands of years.

With a simple compass you can easily verify:
● There is something filling supposed empty space.
● Whatever is filling space is also lining-up
● Whatever is lining-up also has a direction.

Can General or Special Relativity explain something in space is lining-up and having a direction? Of course not.
String theory with tiny vibration strings can also absolutely NOT explain it.
The supposed Higgs Field does NOT explain it.
There is nothing in the Standard Model that can explain it.
Loop Quantum Gravity? Quantum Mechanics? Nope, nothing explains it.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1977] viXra:1710.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-21 08:33:55

Quantum Mechanics Expressed in Terms of the Approach "Emission & Regeneration" Uft.

Authors: Osvaldo Domann
Comments: 33 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

Quantum mechanics differential equations are based on the de Broglie postulate. This paper presents the repercussions on quantum mechanics differential equations when the de Broglie wavelength is replaced by a relation between the radius and the energy of a particle. This relation results from a theoretical work about the interaction of charged particles, where the particles are modelled as focal points of rays of fundamental particles with longitudinal and transversal angular momenta. Interaction of subatomic particles is described as the interaction of the angular momenta of their fundamental particles. All four known forces are the result of electromagnetic interactions so that only QED is required to describe them. The potential well of an atomic nucleus is shown with the regions that are responsible for the four types of interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1976] viXra:1710.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-20 13:25:03

Tomonaga–Luttinger Theory Test

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have found ways to test aspects of the Tomonaga–Luttinger theory that describes interacting quantum particles in 1-D ensembles in a Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid (TLL). [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1975] viXra:1710.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 23:30:00

A Conjecture On The Nature Of Time

Authors: Felix M Lev
Comments: 37 Pages.

In our previous publications we argue that finite mathematics is fundamental, classical mathematics (involving such notions as infinitely small/large, continuity etc.) is a degenerate special case of finite one, and ultimate quantum theory will be based on finite mathematics. We consider a finite quantum theory (FQT) based on a finite field or ring with a large characteristic $p$ and show that standard continuous quantum theory is a special case of FQT in the formal limit $p\to\infty$. Space and time are purely classical notions and are not present in FQT at all. In the present paper we discuss how classical equations of motions arise as a consequence of the fact that $p$ changes, i.e. $p$ is the evolution parameter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1974] viXra:1710.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 09:09:35

Quantum Simulator of Plant Metabolism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

A quantum simulator is the preliminary stage of a quantum computer. [25] By finding materials that act in ways similar to the mechanisms that biology uses to retain and process information, scientists hope to find clues to help us build smarter computers. [25] Scientists have made a crucial step towards unlocking the "holy grail" of computing-microchips that mimic the way the human brain works to store and process information. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[1973] viXra:1710.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-17 13:36:27

The Photoeffect by Dressed Photon

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 6 Pages. The original ideas

We calculate the photoelectric effect initiated by dressed photon. The photon propagator is composed from the electron positron pair.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1972] viXra:1710.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-15 01:31:22

The Quantum Theory of the Electron and the Photon

Authors: Jay R. Yablon
Comments: 87 Pages. I still plan to add a few more sections detailing the quantum behavior of the magnetic moment Hamiltionian, as has been done for the Schroedinger Hamiltionian. But the paper is sufficiently developed that sharing is warranted at this time.

Dirac’s seminal 1928 paper “The Quantum Theory of the Electron” is the foundation of how we presently understand the behavior of fermions in electromagnetic fields, including their magnetic moments. In sum, it is, as titled, a quantum theory of individual electrons, but in classical electromagnetic fields comprising large numbers of photons. Based on the electrodynamic time dilations which the author has previously presented and which arise by geometrizing the Lorentz Force motion, there arises an even-richer variant of the Dirac equation which merges into the ordinary Dirac equation in the linear limits. This advanced Dirac theory naturally enables the magnetic moment anomaly to be entirely explained without resort to renormalization and other ad hoc add-ons, and it also permits a detailed, granular understanding of how individual fermions interact with individual photons strictly on the quantum level. In sum, it advances Dirac theory to a quantum theory of the electron and the photon and their one-on-one interactions. Seven distinct experimental tests are proposed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1971] viXra:1710.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 13:01:16

Quantum Entanglement of 16 Million Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1970] viXra:1710.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-14 07:23:08

Spin Current Detection in Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1969] viXra:1710.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 10:17:33

Quest for the Ultimate Automaton

Authors: Alexandre Furtado Neto
Comments: 40 Pages.

Abstract A fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton is presented axiomatically using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. In this toy universe, the four forces of nature are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix. This is the first, raw, version of this document. I expect to make corrections in future releases.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1968] viXra:1710.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-13 10:30:41

Fundamental Connection Between the Planck and Hubble Constants

Authors: Nikitin A P
Comments: 10 Pages. (RUS)

In this article it is stated that there is a fundamental connection between the basic constant of the quantum theory - the Planck constant h and the basic constant of astrophysics - the Hubble constant H, which states the material-energy unity of our world in theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1967] viXra:1710.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 13:27:10

Electron Still Seems Round

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

JILA physicists have for the first time used their spinning molecules technique to measure the "roundness" of the electron, confirming the leading results from another group and suggesting that more precise assessments are possible. [18] The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1966] viXra:1710.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 17:03:35

On the Validity of Quantum Physics Below the Planck Length

Authors: Joseph F. Messina
Comments: 7 Pages.

The widely held expectation that quantum physics breaks down below the Planck length ($10^{-33}$ cm) is brought into question. A possible experiment is suggested that might test its validity at a sub-Planckian length scale.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1965] viXra:1710.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-10 15:05:43

Quantum Equitation in Empty Space Using Mutual Energy and Self-Energy Principle

Authors: shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 9 Pages.

Abstract For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended this to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results is that a electron for example travel in the empty space from point A to the point B there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return wave corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these wave. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flow corresponding the above two flow. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the space is a complicated process and not only with one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further widen to to Dirac equation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1964] viXra:1710.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-09 08:00:16

Reversal of Current Flow in a Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[945] viXra:1802.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-15 16:01:47

Structuur in de Fysieke Werkelijkheid

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 11 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

De fysieke werkelijkheid bezit duidelijk structuur, en deze structuur heeft een of meer fundamenten. Deze fundamenten zijn vrij eenvoudig en derhalve gemakkelijk te begrijpen. Het belangrijkste fundament evolueert zoals een zaadje in meer gecompliceerde niveaus van de structuur, zodat na een reeks van stappen een structuur resulteert die fungeert als de structuur van de fysieke werkelijkheid die mensen tenminste gedeeltelijk kunnen waarnemen. Om de kracht van deze aanpak te tonen, verklaart dit document de oorsprong van de zwaartekracht en de fijnstructuur van fotonen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[944] viXra:1802.0104 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-09 21:53:37

Experimental Report: Torsion Field Communication Attempts in 5 km

Authors: Gao Peng
Comments: 4 Pages.

Torsion field communication (TFC) is a very important research direction in torsion field research. A.E.Akimov conducted the first TFC experiment [1]. David. G. Yurth also made great contribution for the TFC, it’s said his group has made one prototype of torsion field transmitter and receiver for communication [2]. In 2010, Dr. M. Krinker conducted successful TFC experiments with colleagues in Moscow [3]. Author began to pay attention to this topic all because a book called “Torsion Field and Interstellar Communication [4]” by V. Shkatov and V. Zamsha. This book introduces some kinds of torsion field generators and sensors, and mainly the “Shkatov- Zamsha” approach – using the photo as the addressing component. They transmitted obvious signal in 2011 with this approach. After that, Dr. M. Krinker in New York also did successful TFC tests with Mr. Shkatov. And further, Dr. M. Krinker developed the “Cross-Photo” approach for improving the signal-to-noise ratio. Cybertronica Research led by Dr. S. Kernbach developed many kinds of detectors, which can detect weak and super-weak signals – especially the torsion field non-local signals. Besides them, 1k replication experiments with Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy have been finished nonlocally [5].
Category: Quantum Physics

[943] viXra:1802.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-16 04:50:04

Structure in Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 10 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality has structure, and this structure has one or more foundations. These foundations are rather simple and easily comprehensible. The major foundation evolves like a seed into more complicated levels of the structure, such that after a series of steps a structure results that is like the structure of the physical reality that humans can partly observe. To show the power of this approach the paper explains the origin of gravitation and the fine structure of photons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[942] viXra:1802.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-15 05:15:39

Structure in Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 10 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality has structure, and this structure has one or more foundations. These foundations are rather simple and easily comprehensible. The major foundation evolves like a seed into more complicated levels of the structure, such that after a series of steps a structure results that is like the structure of the physical reality that humans can partly observe. To show the power of this approach the paper explains the origin of gravitation and the fine structure of photons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[941] viXra:1801.0326 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-30 23:57:24

Algebra of Classical and Quantum Binary Measurements

Authors: C A Brannen
Comments: 22 Pages. Added derivation of complex numbers in QM and minor changes. As submitted to journal.

The simplest measurements in physics are binary; that is, they have only two possible results. An example is a beam splitter. One can take the output of a beam splitter and use it as the input of another beam splitter. The compound measurement is described by the product of the Hermitian matrices that describe the beam splitters. In the classical case the Hermitian matrices commute (are diagonal) and the measurements can be taken in any order. The general quantum situation was described by Julian Schwinger with what is now known as ``Schwinger's Measurement Algebra''. We simplify his results by restriction to binary measurements and extend it to include classical as well as imperfect and thermal beam splitters. We use elementary methods to introduce advanced subjects such as geometric phase, Berry-Pancharatnam phase, superselection sectors, symmetries and applications to the identities of the Standard Model fermions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[940] viXra:1801.0294 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-07 06:37:00

How Gravitation Works

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

Spherical shock fronts deform and expand their carrier. These excitations form the footprints of the particles that exist in the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[939] viXra:1801.0294 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-06 09:44:13

How Gravitation Works

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

Spherical shock fronts deform and expand their carrier. These excitations form the footprints of the particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[938] viXra:1801.0254 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-20 05:36:08

Science with Blinders

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

To work efficiently with objects, it is not necessary to know the detailed structure of objects. It is sufficient to know the behavior of these objects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[937] viXra:1801.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-22 04:37:16

Does Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle Predict a Maximum Velocity for Anything with Rest-Mass below the Speed of Light ?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we derive a maximum velocity for anything with rest-mass from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The maximum velocity formula we get is in line with the maximum velocity formula suggested by Haug in a series of papers. This supports the assertion that Haug's maximum velocity formula is useful in considering the path forward in theoretical physics. In particular, it predicts that the Lorentz symmetry will break down at the Planck scale, and shows how and why this happens. Further, it shows that the maximum velocity for a Planck mass particle is zero. At first this may sound illogical, but it is a remarkable result that gives a new and important insight into this research domain. We also show that the common assumed speed limit of v<c for anything with rest-mass is likely incompatible with the assumption of a minimum length equal to the Planck length. So one either has to eliminate the idea of the Planck length as something special, or one has to modify the speed limit of matter slightly to obtain the formula we get from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[936] viXra:1801.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-20 12:24:17

Does Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle Predict a Maximum Velocity for Anything with Rest-Mass below the Speed of Light ?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we derive a maximum velocity for anything with rest-mass from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The maximum velocity formula we get is in line with the maximum velocity formula suggested by Haug in a series of papers. This supports the assertion that Haug's maximum velocity formula is useful in considering the path forward in theoretical physics. In particular, it predicts that the Lorentz symmetry will break down at the Planck scale, and shows how and why this happens. Further, it shows that the maximum velocity for a Planck mass particle is zero. At first this may sound illogical, but it is a remarkable result that gives a new and important insight into this research domain. We also show that the common assumed speed limit of v<c for anything with rest-mass is likely incompatible with the assumption of a minimum length equal to the Planck length. So one either has to eliminate the idea of the Planck length as something special, or one has to modify the speed limit of matter slightly to obtain the formula we get from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[935] viXra:1801.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-20 03:59:41

Does Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle Predict a Maximum Velocity for Anything with Rest-Mass below the Speed of Light ?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we derive a maximum velocity for anything with rest-mass from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. The maximum velocity formula we get is in line with the maximum velocity formula suggested by Haug in a series of papers. This supports the assertion that Haug's maximum velocity formula is useful in considering the path forward in theoretical physics. In particular, it predicts that the Lorentz symmetry will break down at the Planck scale, and shows how and why this happens. Further, it shows that the maximum velocity for a Planck mass particle is zero. At first this may sound illogical, but it is a remarkable result that gives a new and important insight into this research domain. We also show that the common assumed speed limit of v<c for anything with rest-mass is likely incompatible with the assumption of a minimum length equal to the Planck length. So one either has to eliminate the idea of the Planck length as something special, or one has to modify the speed limit of matter slightly to obtain the formula we get from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[934] viXra:1801.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-19 07:59:39

Wetenschap Met Oogkleppen

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

Om efficiënt met objecten te kunnen werken is het niet nodig om de detailstructuur van objecten te kennen. Het is voldoende om het gedrag van deze objecten te kennen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[933] viXra:1801.0152 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-24 07:44:59

A Quasi-Exactly Solvable Non-Confining Potential Well Constructed from a Shifted Coulomb Potential

Authors: Spiros Konstantogiannis
Comments: 49 Pages.

Using a length scale, we construct an n-independent, one-dimensional shifted Coulomb potential, which, with the addition of a delta potential with n-dependent coupling, forms a quasi-exactly solvable model. Making a polynomial ansatz for the closed-form eigenfunctions, we obtain a three-term recursion relation, from which the known energies are derived and the polynomial coefficients are factorized. The coupling is then written in terms of a continued fraction, which, as n tends to infinity, reveals a triangular symmetry and converges. Finally, the location of the closed-form eigenfunctions is determined and the first ones are examined.
Category: Quantum Physics

[932] viXra:1801.0152 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-21 04:00:29

A Quasi-Exactly Solvable Non-Confining Potential Well Constructed from a Shifted Coulomb Potential

Authors: Spiros Konstantogiannis
Comments: 49 Pages.

Using a momentum scale, we construct an n-independent, one-dimensional shifted Coulomb potential, which, with the addition of a delta potential with n-dependent coupling, forms a quasi-exactly solvable model. Making a polynomial ansatz for the closed-form eigenfunctions, we obtain a three-term recursion relation, from which the known energies are derived and the polynomial coefficients are factorized. The coupling is then written in terms of a continued fraction, which, as n tends to infinity, reveals a triangular symmetry and converges. Finally, the location of the closed-form eigenfunctions is determined and the first ones are examined.
Category: Quantum Physics

[931] viXra:1801.0124 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-23 08:00:32

Did the Big Bang Fizzle?

Authors: Gary Osborn
Comments: 1 Page.

The cosmological redshift may be explainable with a gravitational version of the Aharonov-Bohm effect.
Category: Quantum Physics

[930] viXra:1801.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-12 09:38:46

The Incredible Story About the Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

The reality is far more absurd than current physics demonstrates us
Category: Quantum Physics

[929] viXra:1801.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-05 06:07:46

The Incredible Story About the Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

The reality is far more absurd than current physics demonstrates us
Category: Quantum Physics

[928] viXra:1801.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-05 06:05:52

Het Ongelofelijke Verhaal Over de Realiteit

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

De werkelijkheid is veel ongelofelijker dan de huidige natuurkunde ons voorspiegelt.
Category: Quantum Physics

[927] viXra:1801.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-04 01:55:42

Het Ongelofelijke Verhaal Over de Realiteit

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

De werkelijkheid is veel ongelofelijker dan de huidige natuurkunde ons voorspiegelt.
Category: Quantum Physics

[926] viXra:1801.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-08 14:57:12

The Logic of Imaginary Time and Space

Authors: Philip J. Carter
Comments: 29 pages, 16 figures. Adds step to derivation on page 10.

With scant regard for conventional paradigms we look squarely at the evidence and derive a space-time framework accounting for quantum non-locality and retro-causality. On this basis we gather insight into the origins of time, space and mass. We derive the mass-transformation formula according to Special Relativity and provide a context for the internal symmetries of the Standard Model. To provide a philosophical context we derive the central structure of the esoteric cosmological model from first principles while demonstrating its consistency with the framework. As a result of this unification, consciousness enters physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[925] viXra:1712.0664 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-11 13:23:56

Electron Toroidal Moment

Authors: Oliver Consa
Comments: 6 Pages. latex version

This Toroidal Solenoid Electron model describe the electron as an infinitesimal electric charge moving at the speed of light along a helical path. From this semiclassical model, we can derive all the electron characteristics as the electron magnetic moment, the g-factor, its natural frequency, the value of Quantum Hall Resistance and the value of the Magnetic Flux Quantum. In this new work, we obtain other features such as the helicity, the chirality, the Schwinger limits and, especially, the Toroidal Moment of the electron. The experimental detection of the Toroidal Moment of the electron could be used to validate this model. The toroidal moment of the electron is a direct consequence of Helical Solenoid Electrón model and it is calculated qualitatively and quantitatively. This feature of the electron (and any other subatomic particle) is not contained in the standard model, but appears as a requirement to explain the violation of the parity symmetry of the subatomic particles. The existence of a toroidal moment has been experimentally verified in nuclei of heavy atoms and also serves as basis to explain the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[924] viXra:1712.0637 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-11 06:16:31

The Canonical Commutation Relation is Unitary Due to Scaling Between Complementary Variables

Authors: Steve faulkner
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract
Abstract Textbook theory says that the Canonical Commutation Relation derives from the homogeneity of space. This paper shows that the Canonical Commutation Relation does not derive from homogeneity of space or the homogeneity symmetry itself, but derives from a duality viewpoint of homogeneity, seen both from the viewpoint of position space, and from the viewpoint of momentum space, combined. Additionally, a specific particular fixed scale factor, relating position space with momentum space is necessary. It is this additional scaling information which enables complementarity between the system variables and makes the system unitary. Without this particular scaling, the Canonical Commutation Relation is left non-unitary and broken. Indeed, unitarity is separate information, unconnected and logically independent of the quantum system's underlying symmetry. This single counter-example contradicts the current consensus that foundational symmetries, underlying quantum systems, are ontologically, intrinsically and unavoidably unitary. And thus removes ‘unitary ontology’, as reason, for axiomatically imposing unitarity (or self-adjointness) — by Postulate — on quantum mechanical systems.

Keywords
foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space, unitary.
Category: Quantum Physics

[923] viXra:1712.0637 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-09 06:55:55

The Canonical Commutation Relation is Unitary Due to Scaling Between Complementary Variables

Authors: Steve faulkner
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract
Textbook theory says that the Canonical Commutation Relation derives from the homogeneity of space. This paper shows that additionally, an a dual of accidental coincident scalings is needed, as extra information, without which the Canonical Commutation Relation is left non-unitary and broken. This single counter-example removes symmetry, as intrinsic ontological reason, for axiomatically imposing unitarity (or self-adjointness) — by Postulate — on quantum mechanical systems.

Keywords
foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space, unitary.
Category: Quantum Physics

[922] viXra:1712.0558 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-23 12:24:04

Explaining Duality Without Complementarity or "Which Way" (Welcher-Weg) and Also Retro-Causality and Non-Locality

Authors: Sarma N Gullapalli
Comments: Number of pages: 9

An Axiom is presented and justified which (a) Explains duality in interference without complementarity or “which way” (welcher-weg) observation (b) Shows the equivalence: Coherence and alignment ≡ Interference ≡ No “which way” observation; No coherence or alignment ≡ No interference ≡ “which way” observation (c) Explains Wheeler’s delayed choice thought experiment (d) Explains results of experimental implementations of Wheeler’s experiment which show retro-causality with and without entanglement (e) Explains non-local action at a distance, and (f) Rephrases Albert Einstein’s unanswered question “Is quantum mechanics complete?” at a more fundamental level than just duality and non-locality. The explanation given does not require that the particle (photon) somehow “know” about the test setup or “which way” observation or change its behavior from particle to wave and vice versa as required by currently accepted explanation based on Niels Bohr’s complementarity principle. No new assumptions are made, only a new complete interpretation of probability which is already a fundamental assumption of quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[921] viXra:1712.0558 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-22 15:09:29

Explaining Duality Without Complementarity or "Which Way" (Welcher-Weg) and Also Retro-Causality and Non-Locality

Authors: Sarma N Gullapalli
Comments: Number of pages: 9

Explaining Duality without Complementarity or “which way” (welcher-weg) And also Retro-Causality and Non-Locality Sarma N. Gullapalli sngullapalli@hotmail.com Abstract An Axiom is presented and justified which (a) Explains duality in interference without complementarity or “which way” (welcher-weg) observation (b) Shows the equivalence: Coherence and alignment ≡ Interference ≡ No “which way” observation; No coherence or alignment ≡ No interference ≡ “which way” observation (c) Explains Wheeler’s delayed choice thought experiment (d) Explains results of experimental implementations of Wheeler’s experiment which show retro-causality with and without entanglement (e) Explains non-local action at a distance, and (f) Rephrases Albert Einstein’s unanswered question “Is quantum mechanics complete?” at a more fundamental level than just duality and non-locality. The explanation given does not require that the particle (photon) somehow “know” about the test setup or “which way” observation or change its behavior from particle to wave and vice versa as required by currently accepted explanation based on Niels Bohr’s complementarity principle. No new assumptions are made, only a new complete interpretation of probability which is already a fundamental assumption of quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[920] viXra:1712.0540 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-31 07:39:19

Structure in Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

Study of the physical reality can happen in two different ways that meet each other at a certain point and then complement each other.
Category: Quantum Physics

[919] viXra:1712.0540 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-29 07:44:35

Structure in Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

Study of the physical reality can happen in two different ways that meet each other at a certain point and then complement each other.
Category: Quantum Physics

[918] viXra:1712.0540 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-22 03:31:06

Structure in Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This paper is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Study of the physical reality can happen in two different ways that meet each other at a certain point and then complement each other.
Category: Quantum Physics

[917] viXra:1712.0509 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-04 02:02:34

Structuur in de Realiteit

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

Bestudering van de fysieke realiteit kan op twee verschillende wijzen gebeuren die elkaar op een bepaald moment ontmoeten en aanvullen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[916] viXra:1712.0509 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-22 03:27:16

Structuur in de Realiteit

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

Bestudering van de fysieke realiteit kan op twee verschillende wijzen gebeuren die elkaar op een bepaald moment ontmoeten en aanvullen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[915] viXra:1712.0509 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-19 16:06:09

Structuur in de Realiteit

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Bestudering van de fysieke realiteit kan op twee verschillende wijzen gebeuren die elkaar op een bepaald moment ontmoeten en aanvullen.
Category: Quantum Physics

[914] viXra:1712.0243 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-10 06:59:03

Stochastic Control of the Universe

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

In contrast to the approach taken by mainstream physics, the Hilbert Book Model applies stochastic control of dynamic coherence and binding of module components. Each module owns its private stochastic process. All stochastic processes own a characteristic function.
Category: Quantum Physics

[913] viXra:1712.0242 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-09 03:30:52

Diversity of Floating Platforms

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

Physical reality archives its dynamic geometric data in a read-only repository. This repository emerges from its foundation which is an orthomodular lattice. The repository is a combination of a series of separable Hilbert spaces that share the same infinite dimensional vector space. For the definition of the inner product of pairs of vectors the separable Hilbert spaces apply a private version of the quaternionic number system. A non-separable Hilbert space embeds the separable Hilbert spaces. The version of the quaternionic number system acts as a parameter space. These parameter spaces float over a background parameter space.
Category: Quantum Physics

[912] viXra:1712.0241 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-09 03:33:59

Nature's Basic Dark Quanta

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages.

Two kinds of super-tiny shock fronts represent nature’s basic dark quanta. All other discrete objects in nature are configured by these dark quanta.
Category: Quantum Physics

[911] viXra:1712.0079 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-09 06:44:26

Einstein was Likely Right: “God Does Not Play Dice” Does Randomness Break Down at the Planck Scale ?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note briefly outlines how numbers that appear to be totally and independently random switch to become deterministic at the Planck scale. In other words, God does not play dice.
Category: Quantum Physics

[910] viXra:1712.0079 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-06 06:13:16

Einstein was Likely Right: ``God Does Not Play Dice" \\ Does Randomness Break Down Randomness Breaks Down at the Planck Scale ?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note briefly outlines how numbers that appear to be totally and independently random switch to become deterministic at the Planck scale. In other words, God does not play dice.
Category: Quantum Physics

[909] viXra:1712.0079 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-05 09:44:30

Einstein was Likely Right: ``God Does Not Play Dice". Do Randomness Breaks Down at the Planck Scale ?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note briefly outlines how numbers that appear to be totally and independently random switch to become deterministic at the Planck scale. In other words, God does not play dice.
Category: Quantum Physics

[908] viXra:1712.0010 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-06 04:06:06

Bell’s Theorem Refuted Mathematically for Professor X.

Authors: Gordon watson
Comments: 3 Pages.

Bringing an elementary knowledge of sums and averages to Bell (1964), we refute Bell’s theorem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[907] viXra:1711.0434 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-30 02:19:06

Bell's Theorem Refuted Mathematically: du Sautoy Cannot be Right.

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM. Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964)—en route to refuting Bell's inequality and his theorem—we aim to help STEM students study one of the strangest double-errors in the history of science. To that end we question Marcus du Sautoy's claim that Bell's theorem is as mathematically robust as they come.
Category: Quantum Physics

[906] viXra:1711.0421 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-28 22:07:18

Electron & Positron Model Wave Function and Field Calculation Code

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is a portion of the model I wrote to model the Electron/Positron and their associated fields; such as Electric, Magnetic, Vector Potential fields. It is written in the Delphi language and is the function that calculates the fields from the mathematical wave function.
Category: Quantum Physics

[905] viXra:1711.0340 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-26 12:30:18

Spinning Electrons as Physics Fantasy

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 10 Pages. Version 1 presents the wrong expression ‘angular moment’ in stead of ‘angular momentum’, now used in version 2.

Otto Stern and Walter Gerlach demonstrated in 1922 experimentally the “existence of space quantization in a magnetic field”, using their own words. The result of this experiment is later on used to introduce the so-called intrinsic spin angular momentum of elementary and other particles. This article describes what went wrong in the applied argumentation. In 1896 Zeeman and Lorentz showed experimentally and theoretically that atoms emit ‘shifted’ frequencies when exposed to an external magnetic field. This phenomenon has been used to demonstrate the existence of spinning electrons. However, it is shown that this demonstration is not convincing at all.
Category: Quantum Physics

[904] viXra:1711.0244 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-23 22:39:18

Bell's Theorem Refuted for Stem Students

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: Pages.

Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM. Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964)—en route to refuting Bell’s inequality and his theorem—we aim to help STEM students study one of the strangest double-errors in the history of science. To that end we question du Sautoy’s (2016) claim that Bell’s theorem is as mathematically robust as they come.
Category: Quantum Physics

[903] viXra:1711.0244 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-16 18:38:56

Bell's Theorem Refuted for Stem Students

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: Pages.

Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964), we amend Bell's inequality, reveal his mistake, refute his theorem: all in the hope of helping STEM students study one of the most famous—and strangest—works in the history of physics. For who else but Bell uses flawed approximations of unnecessary experiments to invalidate the flawed use of a fact: and then rejects that fact? Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM.
Category: Quantum Physics

[902] viXra:1711.0141 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-14 08:58:42

Limitation on Effective Degree of Quantum Parallelism

Authors: Masataka Ohta
Comments: 4 Pages.

Consider a binary quantum channel with binary states |0> and |1> as an output channel of some quantum computation device and assume that, if the channel is used as a classical binary channel where |0> and |1> represent bit values of 0 and 1, respectively, the channel has small error probability of p. Then, |0> transmitted over the channel will typically be sqrt(1-p)|0> + exp(i*theta)|1> (0 ≤ theta < 2*pi). That is, error of the channel makes|0> and sqrt(1-p)|0> + exp(i*theta)|1> indistinguishable, which means different results of parallel execution of the device can’t be represented by |0> and sqrt(1-p)|0> + exp(i*theta)|1>. As representing N parallel binary results needs 2^N distinguishable states, effective degree of quantum parallelism of the device, which is defined as degree of parallelism of binary results with arbitrary small error probability by ideal encoding and ideal error correction, is limited by log2(π/2*sqrt(p) + 1). That is, in practice, quantum computers are only as powerful as classical ones. Then, a brief introduction on modern communication technology over photons is provided to show that capacity of a binary quantum channel is almost twice better than quantum physicists had thought, that a classical state representing an entangled state exists and that“qubit”is a bad idea. Finally, it is shown that, without error caused by noise, ideal classical computers can be arbitrary fast.
Category: Quantum Physics

[901] viXra:1710.0325 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-01 07:47:38

Electromagnetic Synthesis of Four Fundamental Forces from Quantized Impedance Networks of Geometric Wavefunction Interactions

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: Pages.

Quantum Mechanics is all about wavefunctions and their interactions. If one seeks to understand Quantum Mechanics, then a deep intuitive understanding of wavefunctions and wavefunction collapse would seem essential, indispensable. That’s where it all starts, the causal origin of the quantum as manifested in the physical world. We introduce a wavefunction comprised of the geometric elements of the Pauli algebra of space - point, line, plane, and volume elements - endowed with quantized electromagnetic fields. Wavefunction interactions are described by the geometric product of geometric Clifford algebra, generating the Dirac algebra of flat Minkowski spacetime, the particle physicist’s S-matrix. Electromagnetic synthesis of four fundamental forces becomes apparent via this Geometric Wavefunction Interpretation (GWI).
Category: Quantum Physics

[900] viXra:1710.0316 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-04 16:21:39

Science Fiction

Authors: Peter Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

A theory (physics) needs to describe something that can exist in nature/reality, it needs to be realistic. But a lot of theories in modern theoretical physics are unnatural/unrealistic, physicists don't realize that they are lost in science fiction.
Category: Quantum Physics

[899] viXra:1710.0290 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-19 05:22:58

On Achieving Superluminal Communication

Authors: Dhananjay P. Mehendale
Comments: 9 pages

What is proposed here is a simple modication in the quantum protocol [1] for achieving instantaneous teleportation of arbitrary quantum state from Alice to Bob even when Bob is several light years away. This modied quantum protocol is constructed by adding a step the in the celebrated quantum teleportation protocol [1]. It consists of the action of a unitary operator to be performed by Alice on the qubits in her possession before she does the Bell basis measurement. It is important to note that the existing quantum teleportation protocol [1] requires certain classical communication between the participants, Alice and Bob, and we are going to eliminate this classical communication through our modification. In the existing protocol [1] Alice requires sending the classical bits generated during her Bell basis measurement over a classical channel to Bob for Bob to use these classical bits to determine the exact recovery operation to be performed on the qubit(s) in his possession for creating the exactly identical copy of unknown quantum state that was with Alice and got destroyed during her Bell basis measurement. Alice cannot send the classical bits she obtained to Bob with the speed faster than that of light since it is the well known experimentally veried universal upper limit on the speed. We show that by incorporating suitable unitary operation to be performed by Alice on her qubits before the Bell basis measurement the requirement of the transmission of classical bits by Alice to Bob for the creation of the unknown quantum state by Bob at his place can be completely eliminated. Our modification in the teleportation protocols [1], [2] thus clearly demonstrates the enormous advantage of remaining in the quantum regime and avoiding the requirement of any classical communication for the teleportation of the quantum states.
Category: Quantum Physics

[898] viXra:1710.0238 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-17 04:13:34

Quantum Mechanics Expressed in Terms of the Approach "Emission & Regeneration" UFT.

Authors: Osvaldo Domann
Comments: 39 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

Quantum mechanics differential equations are based on the de Broglie postulate. This paper presents the repercussions on quantum mechanics differential equations when the de Broglie wavelength is replaced by a relation between the radius and the energy of a particle. This relation results from a theoretical work about the interaction of charged particles, where the particles are modelled as focal points of rays of fundamental particles with longitudinal and transversal angular momentum. Interaction of subatomic particles is described as the interaction of the angular momenta of their fundamental particles. The relationship between the solution of the differential equation for a radial Coulomb field and the Correspondence Principle is presented. All four known forces are the result of electromagnetic interactions, so that only QED is required to describe them. The potential well of an atomic nucleus is shown with the regions that are responsible for the four type of interactions defined in quantum mechanics. Also the compatibility of the gravitation model derived in the theoretical work with quantum mechanics is shown, model where gravitation is the result of the reintegration of migrated electrons and positrons to their nuclei.
Category: Quantum Physics

[897] viXra:1710.0135 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-17 17:26:10

Quest for the Ultimate Automaton

Authors: Alexandre Furtado Neto
Comments: 43 Pages.

Abstract A fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton is presented axiomatically using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. In this toy universe, the four forces of nature are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix. This is the first, raw, version of this document. I expect to make corrections in future releases.
Category: Quantum Physics

[896] viXra:1710.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-21 11:12:46

Quantum Equations in Empty Space Using Mutual Energy and Self-Energy Principle

Authors: shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 21 Pages.

For photon we have obtained the results that the waves of photon obey the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation are introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A to infinite big sphere. The advanced wave started from point B to infinite big sphere. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding to the above two return waves. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found that the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge intensity flow or electric current of the the electron. Hence the electron travel in the empty space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result can also extend to to Dirac equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[895] viXra:1710.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-14 14:51:41

Quantum Equations in Empty Space Using Mutual Energy and Self-Energy Principle

Authors: Shuang-Ren Zhao
Comments: 15 Pages. some math error is corrected. 3 picture is added.

For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding to the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found that the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge intencity flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the empty space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[894] viXra:1710.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-14 10:06:35

Quantum Equations in Empty Space Using Mutual Energy and Self-Energy Principle

Authors: shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 15 Pages. some math error is corrected. 3 picture is added.

Abstract For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[893] viXra:1710.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-11 12:50:04

Quantum Equations in Empty Space Using Mutual Energy and Self-Energy Principle

Authors: Shuang-ren Zhao
Comments: 10 Pages.

Abstract For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equation.
Category: Quantum Physics