# Quantum Physics

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## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[2710] viXra:1809.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 23:23:42

### In Search of Schrödinger’s Electron

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

This article continues to explore a possible physical interpretation of the wavefunction that has been elaborated in previous papers (see http://vixra.org/author/jean_louis_van_belle). It basically zooms in on the physical model it implies for an electron in free space. It concludes that the mainstream interpretation of quantum physics (the Copenhagen interpretation) is and remains the most parsimonious explanation, but that one or two extra assumptions – the wavefunction as a two-dimensional self-sustaining oscillation of a pointlike charge in space – make more frivolous explanations (many-worlds, pilot-wave, etc.) redundant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2709] viXra:1809.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 06:16:36

### Hydrogen-Rich Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna

The effect appears in compounds of lanthanum and hydrogen squeezed to extremely high pressures. [33] University of Wisconsin-Madison engineers have added a new dimension to our understanding of why straining a particular group of materials, called Ruddlesden-Popper oxides, tampers with their superconducting properties. [32] Nuclear techniques have played an important role in determining the crystal structure of a rare type of intermetallic alloy that exhibits superconductivity. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2708] viXra:1809.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 06:34:32

### Graphene Electronics Superfast

Authors: George Rajna

Graphene-based computer components that can deal in terahertz " could be used, not in a normal Macintosh or PC, but perhaps in very advanced computers with high processing rates, " Ozaki says. This 2-D material could also be used to make extremely high-speed nanodevices, he adds. [44] Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41] All systems are go for launch in November of NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, which will use high-resolution laser ranging to study Earth's forests and topography from the International Space Station (ISS). [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2707] viXra:1809.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 20:12:27

### Experimental Verification of Wave Packet Collapse Using Fourth-Order Interference

Authors: Kazufumi Sakai
Comments: 8 Pages. Journal for Foundations and Applications of Physics, vol. 5, No. 2 (2018) 221-224

The concept of wave packet collapse is the most interesting and difficult to understand assumption of quantum mechanics and it remains an unresolved issue. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully examine its principle and process experimentally. We fabricated a new fourth-order interference apparatus capable of verifying the collapse of a wave packet. Contrary to expectation, a “collapse” was not observed in our experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2706] viXra:1809.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 17:24:23

### The Dirac Hamiltonian's Egregious Violations of Special Relativity; the Nonrelativistic Pauli Hamiltonian's Unique Relativistic Extension

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

A single-particle Hamiltonian independent of the particle's coordinate ensures the particle conserves momentum, i.e., is free. If the Hamiltonian's energy-momentum is also Lorentz-covariant, it is uniquely determined by the particle's rest energy, and the particle has speed below c and constant velocity parallel to its conserved momentum (Newton's First Law), so its orbital angular momentum is conserved. Dirac set the square of his free-particle Hamiltonian equal to the square of this Hamiltonian, but he unwittingly ruined his Hamiltonian's energy-momentum Lorentz-covariance by making it inhomogeneously linear in momentum. A Dirac particle's speed is thus independent of its momentum, so by elimination can involve only c. Dirac free-particle speed comes out fixed to c times the square root of three, and the same fixed speed is obtained with the electromagnetically minimally coupled Dirac Hamiltonian, destroying the very basis of the textbook idea that Dirac Hamiltonians reduce to nonrelativistic Pauli Hamiltonians for weak fields and nonrelativistic particle speed. Dirac Hamiltonians egregiously violate the special-relativistic speed limit c, so must be discarded, and the actual relativistic extension of the nonrelativistic Pauli Hamiltonian worked out, which is done via Lorentz-invariant upgrade of the rest-frame Pauli action functional. The relativistic Pauli Hamiltonian is obtained in closed form for zero external magnetic field, otherwise a successive approximation scheme applies.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2705] viXra:1809.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 06:43:59

### Quantum Optics Metamaterials

Authors: George Rajna

Two teams of scientists from the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have collaborated to conduct groundbreaking research leading to the development of a new and innovative scientific field: Quantum Metamaterials. [23] An international team consisting of Russian and German scientists has made a breakthrough in the creation of seemingly impossible materials. They have created the world's first quantum metamaterial that can be used as a control element in superconducting electrical circuits. [22] ETH physicists have developed a silicon wafer that behaves like a topological insulator when stimulated using ultrasound. They have thereby succeeded in turning an abstract theoretical concept into a macroscopic product. [21] Cheng Chin, professor in the Department of Physics, and his team looked at an experimental setup of tens of thousands of atoms cooled down to near absolute zero. As the system crossed a quantum phase transition, they measured its behavior with an extremely sensitive imaging system. [20] Scientists from three UK universities are to test one of the fundamental laws of physics as part of a major Europe-wide project awarded more than £3m in funding. ]19] A team of researchers has devised a simple way to tune a hallmark quantum effect in graphene—the material formed from a single layer of carbon atoms—by bathing it in light. [18] Researchers from the University of Cambridge have taken a peek into the secretive domain of quantum mechanics. [17] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2704] viXra:1809.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 02:25:47

### Photonic Topological Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists have developed a topological photonic chip to process quantum information, promising a more robust option for scalable quantum computers. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2703] viXra:1809.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 04:35:03

### Near-Infrared Laser Systems

Authors: George Rajna

All systems are go for launch in November of NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, which will use high-resolution laser ranging to study Earth's forests and topography from the International Space Station (ISS). [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2702] viXra:1809.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 05:11:38

### Ultracompact Laser

Authors: George Rajna

A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41] All systems are go for launch in November of NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, which will use high-resolution laser ranging to study Earth's forests and topography from the International Space Station (ISS). [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2701] viXra:1809.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 05:26:53

### Laser Printed Electronics

Authors: George Rajna

Printed electronics use standard printing techniques to manufacture electronic devices on different substrates like glass, plastic films, and paper. [43] A tiny laser comprising an array of nanoscale semiconductor cylinders (see image) has been made by an all-A*STAR team. [42] A new instrument lets researchers use multiple laser beams and a microscope to trap and move cells and then analyze them in real-time with a sensitive analysis technique known as Raman spectroscopy. [41] All systems are go for launch in November of NASA's Global Ecosystem Dynamics Investigation (GEDI) mission, which will use high-resolution laser ranging to study Earth's forests and topography from the International Space Station (ISS). [40] Scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI) in Berlin combined state-of-the-art experiments and numerical simulations to test a fundamental assumption underlying strong-field physics. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2700] viXra:1809.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 06:43:42

### Spontaneous T-Symmetry Breaking

Authors: George Rajna

Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2699] viXra:1809.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 07:24:35

### Model of Trapped Atoms and Ions

Authors: George Rajna

A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2698] viXra:1809.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 07:47:20

### Tunable Quantum State

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum particles can be difficult to characterize, and almost impossible to control if they strongly interact with each other—until now. [21] A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2697] viXra:1809.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 08:44:48

### Building Blocks for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the University of Twente, working with colleagues at the Technical Universities of Delft and Eindhoven, have successfully developed a new and interesting building block. [22] Researchers at the Institut d'Optique Graduate School at the CNRS and Université Paris-Saclay in France have used a laser-based technique to rearrange cold atoms one-by-one into fully ordered 3D patterns. [21] Reduced entropy in a three-dimensional lattice of super-cooled, laser-trapped atoms could help speed progress toward creating quantum computers. [20] Under certain conditions, an atom can cause other atoms to emit a flash of light. At TU Wien (Vienna), this quantum effect has now been measured. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2696] viXra:1809.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 22:07:32

### The Löb Axiom and Sub-Conjecture ◻⊥>⊥ as Contra-Examples to Gödel Incompleteness Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

We show the Löb axiom ◻(◻⊥>⊥)>◻⊥ is not tautologous, and the conjecture ◻⊥>⊥ is not contradictory. These serve as two contra-examples to the Gödel incompleteness theorem, hence refuting it.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2695] viXra:1809.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 04:52:07

### Tiny Camera Link Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna

An international team of researchers led by The Australian National University (ANU) has invented a tiny camera lens, which may lead to a device that links quantum computers to an optical fibre network. [34] The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2694] viXra:1809.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-12 10:11:11

### Individual Edge States

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists of the University of Basel present the new method together with American scientists in Nature Communications. [30] A team of international scientists including Maia G. Vergniory, Ikerbasque researcher at DIPC and UPV/EHU associate, has discovered a new class of materials, higher-order topological insulators. [29] A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2693] viXra:1809.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-12 17:12:47

### Two Ways to Distinguish One Inertial Frame from Another (Why is the Speed of Light Constant?)

Authors: Tamas Lajtner

According to physicists, the laws of physics don’t allow us to discern one inertial frame from another. It does allow. This study shows two ways to distinguish one inertial frame from another. Physics hasn’t defined what is space, what is matter, what is time. In this study (in Space-Matter Theory) space is what matter uses as space, regardless of its texture. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. Both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. When between matter and space action and reaction occurs, the result is time. Time appears as a given wave of space. No particle, no frame of reference can exist without generating space waves. A and B inertial frames of reference are not identical if e.g. two identical electrons (electronA and electronB) create different wavelengths of space waves. One way to distinguish one inertial frame from another is to calculate or measure the length of the wavelength of the space wave. Via tunneling, a particle (with or without mass) travels through the barrier with superluminal velocity. In this case the barrier is a “special” space made out of matter (matter-space), were the particle travels with c_matter-space. This velocity appears in our space as superluminal velocity. Saying this, there are more spaces and more times instead of one spacetime. The different spaces make changes in the particle, too. The particle builds its action out of Planck constants h, where h has two parts which depend on the velocity of the particle in the given space. So there is also a phenomenon in the matter that makes it possible to distinguish one inertial frame from another.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2692] viXra:1809.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 08:18:11

### Pristine Quantum Light Source

Authors: George Rajna

The team says that this finding could open up a new avenue of research, which unites quantum light with photonic devices having built-in protective features. [29] Engineers have shown that a widely used method of detecting single photons can also count the presence of at least four photons at a time. [28] An international team of researchers, affiliated with UNIST has presented a core technology for quantum photonic devices used in quantum information processing. They have proposed combining of quantum dots for generating light and silicon photonic technologies for manipulating light on a single device. [27]Concerning the development of quantum memories for the realization of global quantum networks, scientists of the Quantum Dynamics Division led by Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (MPQ) have now achieved a major breakthrough: they demonstrated the long-lived storage of a photonic qubit on a single atom trapped in an optical resonator. [26] Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2691] viXra:1809.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 10:04:01

### Quantum Cryptographic Communications

Authors: George Rajna

The companies constructed an application for data transmission via optical fiber lines, which when combined with high-speed quantum cryptography communications technologies demonstrated practical key distribution speeds even in a real-world environment. [33] Nanosized magnetic particles called skyrmions are considered highly promising candidates for new data storage and information technologies. [32] They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2690] viXra:1809.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-12 02:51:11

### Finding the Planck Length Independent of Newtons Gravitational Constant and the Planck Constant

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

It is assumed by modern physics that the Planck length is a derived constant from the Newton's gravitational constant, the Planck constant and the speed of light. This was first discovered by Max Planck in 1899. We suggest a way to find the Planck length independent of any knowledge of the Newton's gravitational constant or the Planck constant, but still dependent on the speed of light (directly or indirectly).
Category: Quantum Physics

[2689] viXra:1809.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 13:48:03

### Photoelectrode Harvest Visible Light

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists have developed a photoelectrode that can harvest 85 percent of visible light in a 30 nanometers-thin semiconductor layer between gold layers, converting light energy 11 times more efficiently than previous methods. [15] The tool allows engineers to design new classes of radio frequency-based components that are able to transport large amounts of data more rapidly, and with less noise interference. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2688] viXra:1809.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 14:12:22

### Seven Photons Like Billions

Authors: George Rajna

A system made of just a handful of particles acts just like larger systems, allowing scientists to study quantum behaviour more easily. [16] Scientists have developed a photoelectrode that can harvest 85 percent of visible light in a 30 nanometers-thin semiconductor layer between gold layers, converting light energy 11 times more efficiently than previous methods. [15] The tool allows engineers to design new classes of radio frequency-based components that are able to transport large amounts of data more rapidly, and with less noise interference. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2687] viXra:1809.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 22:13:12

### Refutation of Bell's Original Inequality from 1964

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com.

Bell's original inequality from 1964 is not tautologous and hence refuted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2686] viXra:1809.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-07 08:09:08

### Entanglement of Six Light Waves

Authors: George Rajna

Experiments performed at the University of São Paulo's Physics Institute (IF-USP) in Brazil have succeeded in entangling six light waves generated by a simple laser light source known as an optical parametric oscillator. [40] Now scientists at MIT and Harvard University have for the first time studied this unique, theoretical lens from a quantum mechanical perspective, to see how individual atoms and photons may behave within the lens. [39] Unlike previous methods of quantum entanglement involving incoherent and thermal clouds of particles, in this experiment, the researchers used a cloud of atoms in the Bose-Einstein condensate state. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2685] viXra:1809.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-07 17:08:55

### Finding the Planck Length From Electron and Proton Fundamentals

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

We suggest a way to find the Planck length by finding the Compton wavelength of the electron from Compton scattering, and then measuring the proton-electron ratio using cyclotron frequency. This gives us the Planck length using a Cavendish apparatus with no knowledge of Newton's gravitational constant. The Planck length is indeed important for gravity, but Newton's gravitational constant is likely a composite constant.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2684] viXra:1809.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 09:29:18

### Quantum Entangled Pairs of Atoms

Authors: George Rajna

Now scientists at MIT and Harvard University have for the first time studied this unique, theoretical lens from a quantum mechanical perspective, to see how individual atoms and photons may behave within the lens. [39] Unlike previous methods of quantum entanglement involving incoherent and thermal clouds of particles, in this experiment, the researchers used a cloud of atoms in the Bose-Einstein condensate state. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2683] viXra:1809.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 12:45:12

### Experiment for Reducing Entropy

Authors: George Rajna

Reduced entropy in a three-dimensional lattice of super-cooled, laser-trapped atoms could help speed progress toward creating quantum computers. [20] Under certain conditions, an atom can cause other atoms to emit a flash of light. At TU Wien (Vienna), this quantum effect has now been measured. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2682] viXra:1809.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 13:22:20

### Atomic Arrays for Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna

Paris-Saclay in France have used a laser-based technique to rearrange cold atoms one-by-one into fully ordered 3D patterns. [21] Reduced entropy in a three-dimensional lattice of super-cooled, laser-trapped atoms could help speed progress toward creating quantum computers. [20] Under certain conditions, an atom can cause other atoms to emit a flash of light. At TU Wien (Vienna), this quantum effect has now been measured. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2681] viXra:1809.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 02:37:31

### Teleport a Quantum Gate

Authors: George Rajna

Yale University researchers have demonstrated one of the key steps in building the architecture for modular quantum computers: the "teleportation" of a quantum gate between two qubits, on demand. [39] Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2680] viXra:1809.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 06:13:59

### Terahertz Single-Molecule Regime

Authors: George Rajna

This could open up the wider use of THz spectroscopy, an underdeveloped method that is complementary to visible-light and X-ray spectroscopy, and highly relevant to nanoelectronics and quantum computing. [40] A team of physicists from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Stanford University and Europe has captured the clearest glimpse yet of a photochemical reaction—the type of light-fueled molecular transformations responsible for photosynthesis, vision and the ozone layer. [39] Researchers at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have recorded the most detailed atomic movie of gold melting after being blasted by laser light. [38] A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33] Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for light detectors offers significant improvements with respect to materials being used nowadays. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2679] viXra:1809.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 12:38:30

### Quantum Computing Gate

Authors: George Rajna

Research in the quantum optics lab of Prof. Barak Dayan in the Weizmann Institute of Science may be bringing the development of such computers one step closer by providing the "quantum gates" that are required for communication within and between such quantum computers. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2678] viXra:1809.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 13:34:07

### Planck's Law at Very Small Scale

Authors: George Rajna

A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2677] viXra:1809.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 20:40:23

### The Bell-CHSH Inequality Refuted as Bogus Bellian Logic (BBL)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to the author by email at: info@ersatz-systems dot com. (We instruct troll Mikko Levanto of Finland at Disqus to read this entire article three times before she types.)

The Bell-CHSH inequality is often touted as S=E(a,b)+E(a',b)+E(a,b')-E(a',b'), ~(2<|S|)=(|S|≦2), and E=(N++.+N−−.−N+−.−N−+)/(N++.+N−−.+N+−.+N−+). We confirm this is not tautologous and refute the Bell-CHSH inequality as Bogus Bellian logic (BBL).
Category: Quantum Physics

[2676] viXra:1809.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 03:01:53

### Superradiance Quantum Effect

Authors: George Rajna

Under certain conditions, an atom can cause other atoms to emit a flash of light. At TU Wien (Vienna), this quantum effect has now been measured. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2675] viXra:1809.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 03:56:38

### One-Dimensional Electronics

Authors: George Rajna

Rice University atomic physicists have verified a key prediction from a 55-year-old theory about one-dimensional electronics that is increasingly relevant thanks to Silicon Valley's inexorable quest for miniaturization. [15] Konstanz physicist Professor Peter Baum and his team have succeeded in spatially and temporally directing and controlling ultrashort electron pulses directly by using the light cycles of laser light instead of microwaves. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2674] viXra:1809.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-03 11:37:23

### Brighter Nanodiamonds

Authors: George Rajna

Brighter Nanodiamonds Nitrogen-vacancy (NV) impurities in nanodiamonds could be used as single-photon sources in quantum technologies, such as quantum computers and quantum sensors, thanks to their unique optical and electronic properties. [28] The reliable storage and coherent manipulation of quantum states with matter-systems enable the construction of large-scale quantum networks based on a quantum repeater. [27] A UNSW study published this week resolves key challenges in creation of hole-based artificial atoms, with excellent potential for more-stable, faster, more scalable quantum computing. [26] Scientists at Tsinghua University and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, have demonstrated the ability to control the states of matter, thus controlling internal resistance, within multilayered, magnetically doped semiconductors using the quantum anomalous Hall effect. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2673] viXra:1809.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-03 06:23:10

### Quantum Chicken or Egg Paradox

Authors: George Rajna

Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2672] viXra:1809.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 09:25:37

### Security Scanners Detecting Explosives

Authors: George Rajna

Using a single pixel camera and Terahertz electromagnetic waves, a team of Physicists at the University of Sussex have devised a blueprint which could lead to the development of airport scanners capable of detecting explosives. [18] The detectors created by ATI researchers are able to achieve high sensitivity levels that strongly compete with current technologies, while still operating at low voltages, as well as over the whole X-ray energy range spectrum. [17] There's nothing quite like an ice cream on a hot day, and eating it before it melts too much is part of the fun. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2671] viXra:1809.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 02:00:38

### Material Conductor and Insulator

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum materials are a type of odd substance that could be many times more efficient at conducting electricity through our iPhones than the commonly used conductor silicon—if only physicists can crack how the stuff works. [41] Femtosecond X-ray experiments in combination with a new theoretical approach establish a direct connection between electric properties in the macroscopic world and electron motions on the time and length scale of atoms. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2670] viXra:1808.0690 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-31 07:14:35

### Efficiency for Internet

Authors: George Rajna

An EU initiative has developed a novel architecture that combines energy and spectrum efficiency for Internet of Things (IoT) wireless communication. [29] Researchers at the University of Washington, working with researchers from the ETH-Zurich, Purdue University and Virginia Commonwealth University, have achieved an optical communications breakthrough that could revolutionize information technology. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2669] viXra:1808.0689 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-31 07:24:04

### Digital Tsunami

Authors: George Rajna

How do we prepare for and manage what's known as the Fourth Industrial Revolution? [30] An EU initiative has developed a novel architecture that combines energy and spectrum efficiency for Internet of Things (IoT) wireless communication. [29] Researchers at the University of Washington, working with researchers from the ETH-Zurich, Purdue University and Virginia Commonwealth University, have achieved an optical communications breakthrough that could revolutionize information technology. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2668] viXra:1808.0685 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-31 08:46:21

### X-ray Photoemission

Authors: George Rajna

In a new study published Aug. 17 in Nature Communications, Nemsak, Fadley, Schneider and colleagues demonstrate the use of new techniques in X-ray spectroscopy to illuminate the internal structure of manganese-doped gallium arsenide. [35] With the publication of the first experimental measurements performed at the facility, the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) has passed another critical milestone since its launch in September 2017. [34]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2667] viXra:1808.0672 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-30 07:40:19

### Het Universum Vanuit Het Niets Vervaardigen

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. Dit is onderdeel van het Hilbert Book Model Project

De schepper schiep het universum vanuit het niets. En na dat moment, liet de schepper zijn schepselen aan hun lot over. De waarnemers onder deze schepsels kunnen alleen gegevens verkrijgen uit het historische deel van het alleen-lezen opslagmedium waarin de maker het universum archiveerde.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2666] viXra:1808.0660 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-31 02:24:25

### Superelastic Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna

A collaboration between scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory and the Institute for Theoretical Physics at Goethe University Frankfurt am Main has computationally predicted a number of unique properties in a group of iron-based superconductors, including room-temperature super-elasticity. [36]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2665] viXra:1808.0649 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 08:26:45

### Electrons Moving at Atomic Scales

Authors: George Rajna

Femtosecond X-ray experiments in combination with a new theoretical approach establish a direct connection between electric properties in the macroscopic world and electron motions on the time and length scale of atoms. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2664] viXra:1808.0644 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 09:05:22

### Tracing the Structure of Physical Reality by Starting from Its Fundamentals

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 24 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality owns a main foundation. This paper exploits the possibility to trace the structure of physical reality from this foundation to higher levels that human observers can at least partly observe. To show the power of this approach the paper explains the origin of gravity and the fine structure of photons and elementary particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2663] viXra:1808.0636 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 23:03:42

### Quantum Mechanical Origin of Metals Color and it Finite Conductivity

Authors: Gokaran Shukla

Human minds are always curious about the different of colors that exist in nature. A number of efforts has been made to describes the origin of colors in different materials. Till now the explanations are mostly based on using reflectivity and emissivity of the materials using classical phenomenological models. In this paper, we will discuss about the origin of color using the Brillouin zones and Bragg’s diffraction conditions and will show that the origin of color is purely arises due to quantum mechanical effect. We will also show that the origin of finite conductivity in any material at an arbitrary electrochemical potential is also arises due to quantum mechanical effect. We will also show that the origin of anisotropy in conductivity and in effective mass of electron in any metal are arises due to the quantum mechanical effects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2662] viXra:1808.0629 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-28 06:41:22

### Semiconductor Quantum Wells

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum wells of the highest quality are typically fabricated by molecular beam epitaxy (sequential growth of crystalline layers), which is a well-established technique. [38] Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2661] viXra:1808.0613 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-29 03:00:21

### X-ray Free-Electron Laser

Authors: George Rajna

With the publication of the first experimental measurements performed at the facility, the European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (EuXFEL) has passed another critical milestone since its launch in September 2017. [34] Purdue University researchers are developing a novel biomedical imaging system that combines optical and ultrasound technology to improve diagnosis of life-threatening diseases. [33] Heart scans for patients with chest pains could save thousands of lives in the UK, research suggests. [32] Unnecessary heart procedures can be avoided with a non-invasive test, according to late breaking research presented today at ESC Congress 2018 and published in Journal of the American College of Cardiology. [31] Now, Columbia University researchers report a new way to zoom in at the tiniest scales to track changes within individual cells. [30] One of the main challenges in tissue engineering today is to create a complete network of blood vessels and capillaries throughout an artificial tissue. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2660] viXra:1808.0609 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 09:39:31

### Demystify Einstein's Spooky Science

Authors: George Rajna

According to Andrew Friedman, a research scientist at the University of California San Diego Center for Astrophysics and Space Sciences (CASS), "the race is on" around the globe to identify and experimentally close potential loopholes that could still allow alternative theories, distinct from quantum theory, to explain perplexing phenomena like quantum entanglement. [38] The researchers used distant quasars, one of which emitted its light 7.8 billion years ago and the other 12.2 billion years ago, to determine the measurements to be made on pairs of entangled photons. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2659] viXra:1808.0603 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 13:59:13

### Quantum Random Number Generator Encryption

Authors: George Rajna

Qrypt, Inc., has exclusively licensed a novel cyber security technology from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, promising a stronger defense against cyberattacks including those posed by quantum computing. [36] Researchers have shown that a chip-based device measuring a millimeter square could be used to generate quantum-based random numbers at gigabit per second speeds. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2658] viXra:1808.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-26 13:40:33

### Fractal Penrose Decagon Dodecahedron

Authors: David E. Fuller

Ideal Fluid Decagon Dodecahedron Fractal Penrose Tiling Planck Pressure & Volume & Viscosity Fluid Theory
Category: Quantum Physics

[2657] viXra:1808.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-26 13:46:39

### Fractal Penrose Decagon Dodecahedron V2.0

Authors: David E. Fuller

Ideal Fluid Decagon Dodecahedron Fractal Penrose Tiling Planck Pressure & Volume & Viscosity Fluid Theory
Category: Quantum Physics

[2656] viXra:1808.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-24 07:49:05

### Remote Synchronization

Authors: George Rajna

In some physical systems, even elements quite distant from one another are able to synchronize their actions. [30] Innovations in microscale electronics, medicine, combustion and scores of other technologies depend on understanding and predicting the behavior of electricity on the smallest of length scales. [29] New research from UBC's Okanagan campus, recently published in Nature Communications, may have uncovered the key to one of the darkest secrets of light. [28] But an international group led by Prof. Beena Kalisky and Prof. Aviad Frydman, from the Department of Physics and the Institute for Nanotechnology at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, has succeeded in imaging quantum fluctuations for the first time. [27] To tame chaos in powerful semiconductor lasers, which causes instabilities, scientists have introduced another kind of chaos. [26] An international team of scientists developed the world's first anti-laser for a nonlinear Bose-Einstein condensate of ultracold atoms. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2655] viXra:1808.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 02:34:32

### Solid-State Quantum Memory

Authors: George Rajna

The reliable storage and coherent manipulation of quantum states with matter-systems enable the construction of large-scale quantum networks based on a quantum repeater. [27] A UNSW study published this week resolves key challenges in creation of hole-based artificial atoms, with excellent potential for more-stable, faster, more scalable quantum computing. [26] Scientists at Tsinghua University and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, have demonstrated the ability to control the states of matter, thus controlling internal resistance, within multilayered, magnetically doped semiconductors using the quantum anomalous Hall effect. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2654] viXra:1808.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 04:09:18

### Conducts Light Powerfully

Authors: George Rajna

Running computers on virtually invisible beams of light rather than microelectronics would make them faster, lighter and more energy efficient. [28] The reliable storage and coherent manipulation of quantum states with matter-systems enable the construction of large-scale quantum networks based on a quantum repeater. [27] A UNSW study published this week resolves key challenges in creation of hole-based artificial atoms, with excellent potential for more-stable, faster, more scalable quantum computing. [26] Scientists at Tsinghua University and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, have demonstrated the ability to control the states of matter, thus controlling internal resistance, within multilayered, magnetically doped semiconductors using the quantum anomalous Hall effect. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2653] viXra:1808.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 04:29:47

### Novel X-Ray Optics

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a new approach to 3-D x-ray imaging that can visualize bulky materials in great detail—an impossible task with conventional imaging methods. [39] In a recent study featured on the March 2018 cover of Nature Photonics, researchers developed a new holographic method called in-flight holography. With this method, they were able to demonstrate the first X-ray holograms of nano-sized viruses that were not attached to any surface. [38] A paper published in the journal Physical Review X presents evidence of a radiation reaction occurring when a high-intensity laser pulse collides with a high-energy electron beam. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2652] viXra:1808.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-25 04:55:53

### Decades-Old Math Problem

Authors: George Rajna

"It took a long time, six years in fact, for the paper to get published, and even longer to be understood and gain the influence and impact that it deserved," said Joseph Avron, professor of physics at Technion-Israel Institute of Technology, writing in the April 2018 newsletter of the International Association of Mathematical Physics. [28] The reliable storage and coherent manipulation of quantum states with matter-systems enable the construction of large-scale quantum networks based on a quantum repeater. [27] A UNSW study published this week resolves key challenges in creation of hole-based artificial atoms, with excellent potential for more-stable, faster, more scalable quantum computing. [26] Scientists at Tsinghua University and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, have demonstrated the ability to control the states of matter, thus controlling internal resistance, within multilayered, magnetically doped semiconductors using the quantum anomalous Hall effect. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2651] viXra:1808.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-22 09:21:50

### The Wondrous Design and Non-random Character for “Chance” Events

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann

In this article, it is shown specifically that physical-system chance events as represented by theory predicted (a priori) probabilistic statements used in such realms as modern particle physics, among others, are only random relative to the restricted language of the theory that predicts such behavior. It is shown that all such “chance” physical events are related one to another by a remarkably designed, systematic and wondrous collection of equations that model how the physical laws and processes specifically yield such physical events. A second result shows theoretically that all such “chance” behavior is caused by the application of well-defined ultralogics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2650] viXra:1808.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-22 13:44:10

### D-Wave Quantum Simulation

Authors: George Rajna

D-Wave Systems today published a milestone study demonstrating a topological phase transition using its 2048-qubit annealing quantum computer. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2649] viXra:1808.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-21 11:58:01

### Quantum Simulation Mobility Edge

Authors: George Rajna

Now scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign using an innovative quantum simulation technique have made one of the first observations of a mobility edge in a low-dimensional system. [15] New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2648] viXra:1808.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-22 02:56:27

### Light Momentum Understanding

Authors: George Rajna

New research from UBC's Okanagan campus, recently published in Nature Communications, may have uncovered the key to one of the darkest secrets of light. [28] But an international group led by Prof. Beena Kalisky and Prof. Aviad Frydman, from the Department of Physics and the Institute for Nanotechnology at Bar-Ilan University in Israel, has succeeded in imaging quantum fluctuations for the first time. [27] To tame chaos in powerful semiconductor lasers, which causes instabilities, scientists have introduced another kind of chaos. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2647] viXra:1808.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-20 07:41:00

### Simulating Quantum Particles

Authors: George Rajna

New quantum theory research, led by academics at the University of St Andrews' School of Physics, could transform the way scientists predict how quantum particles behave. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2646] viXra:1808.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-20 10:32:01

### Imaging Quantum Events

Authors: George Rajna

Israel, has succeeded in imaging quantum fluctuations for the first time. [27] To tame chaos in powerful semiconductor lasers, which causes instabilities, scientists have introduced another kind of chaos. [26] An international team of scientists developed the world's first anti-laser for a nonlinear Bose-Einstein condensate of ultracold atoms. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2645] viXra:1808.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-20 11:00:57

### Characterize Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna

A Rice University computer scientist and his colleagues have proposed a method to accelerate and simplify the imposing task of diagnosing quantum computers. [37] Researchers have demonstrated holonomic quantum gates under zero-magnetic field at room temperature, which could enable the realization of fast and fault-tolerant universal quantum computers. [36] In the meantime, researchers are busy dreaming up uses for small quantum computers and mapping out the landscape of problems they'll be suited to solving. [35] New research gives insight into a recent experiment that was able to manipulate an unprecedented number of atoms through a quantum simulator. This new theory could provide another step on the path to creating the elusive quantum computers. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2644] viXra:1808.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-19 09:44:30

### Nash Embedding and Equilibrium in Pure Quantums States

Authors: Faisal Shah Khan, Travis S. Humble

With respect to probabilistic mixtures of the strategies in non-cooperative games, quantum game theory provides guarantee of fixed-point stability, the so-called Nash equilibrium. This permits players to choose mixed quantum strategies that prepare mixed quantum states optimally under constraints. We show here that fixed-point stability of Nash equilibrium can also be guaranteed for pure quantum strategies via an application of the Nash embedding theorem, permitting players to prepare pure quantum states optimally under constraints.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2643] viXra:1808.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-19 10:44:27

### Compiling Adiabatic Quantum Programs

Authors: Faisal Shah Khan, Nada Elsokkary, Travis S. Humble

We develop a non-cooperative game-theoretic model for the problem of graph minor-embedding to show that optimal compiling of adiabatic quantum programs in the sense of Nash equilibrium is possible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2642] viXra:1808.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-19 18:13:25

### Update the Path Integral in Quantum Mechanics by Using the Energy Pipe Streamline

Authors: Shuang-ren Zhao

The path integral in quantum mechanics is a very important mathematical tools. It is widely applied in quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory. But its basic concepts confuse all of us. The first thing is the propagation of the probability. The second is the path can be any paths you can draw. How this can work? In this article, a new definition of energy pipe streamline integral is introduced in which the mutual energy theorem and the mutual energy flow theorem, mutual energy principle, self-energy principle, Huygens principle, and surface integral inner product of the electromagnetic fields are applied to offer a meaningful and upgraded path integral. The mutual energy flow is the energy flow from the emitter to the absorber. This energy flow is built by the retarded wave radiates from the emitter and the advanced wave radiates from the absorber. The mutual energy flow theorem guarantees that the energy go through any surface between the emitter and the absorber are all equal. This allow us to build many slender flow pipes to describe the energy flow. The path integral can be defined on these pipes. This is a updated path integral is referred as the energy pip streamline integral. The Huygens principle allow us to insert virtual current sources on any place of the pipes. Self-energy principle tell us that any particles are consist of 4 waves: the retarded wave, the advanced wave and another two time-reversal waves. All these waves are canceled and hence the waves do not carry or transfer any energy. Energy is only carried and transferred by the mutual energy flow. Hence the mutual energy flow theorem is actually the energy flow theorem. Wave looks like probability wave, but mutual energy flow are real energy flow is not a probability flow. In this article the streamline integral is applied to electromagnetic field or photon or other particle for example electrons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2641] viXra:1808.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-18 17:04:27

### Einstein’s Reply to Bell and Others? a Simple Constructive Classical Foundation for Quantum Theory

Authors: Gordon Watson

Having elsewhere refuted Bell’s theorem irrefutably with elementary mathematics, we here advance Einstein’s ideas similarly with a classical Lorentz-invariant theory, observationally-indistinguishable from quantum mechanics. Given that our elementary theory is straight-forward and non-mysterious, we provide an Einsteinian—a specifically local and truly realistic—advance toward understanding the classical nature of physical reality at the quantum level. We thus resolve Bell’s dilemma in Einstein’s favor: as Bell half-expected, he and his supporters were being rather silly.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2640] viXra:1808.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-18 23:16:18

### A Mechanism of Wavefunction Collapse and Modified Double Slit Experiment

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 9 Pages. Thanks very much for consideration of my paper

We restudy the particle double slit experiment and wave-particle duality of matter. We argue that: (1) a particle moving with acceleration has no wave-like behavior; thus (2) it is the acceleration of particle caused by the photons during an optical observation that collapses a matter wave; (3) This mechanism does not affect the history of the particle’s movement prior to the observation takes place. Modified double slit apparatus with various configurations covering different ways of accelerating particle is propose to investigate the wave-particle duality of accelerating matter and test the mechanism. Also we propose: (1) a free falling double slit experiment in a gravitational field. (2) An experiment in which, relative to an observer in Lab, the slit wall and detection screen are accelerated and the particle keeps constant speed. We raise a question that if, after the acceleration, the particle continuously flies with a constant speed before reaching the detection screen, would it regain wave-like behavior automatically? We also design an experiment to test this possibility.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2639] viXra:1808.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-18 12:57:18

### Bismuth Crystals Valleytronics

Authors: George Rajna

A Princeton-led study has revealed an emergent electronic behavior on the surface of bismuth crystals that could lead to insights on the growing area of technology known as "valleytronics." [16] Instead of using an electric current composed of charged particles, a computer using a stream of particles with a spin other than zero could manipulate the material of its components in the same way to perform calculations. [15] A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2638] viXra:1808.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-18 15:53:56

### Refutation of the Coin Toss Proof for Conjectures of the Bell-CHSH Inequalities

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com. (We instruct troll Mikko at Disqus, as sanctioned on vixra..org, to read the entire article twice before she starts typing.)

Based on coin tossing, Bell's inequality and the CHSH inequality are presented respectively, for any four numbers A, A′, B, B′ each equal to ±1, as AB+AB′+A′B−A′B′=±2 and ⟨AB⟩+⟨AB′⟩+⟨A′B⟩−⟨A′B′⟩≤2. Both are not tautologous, and hence refuted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2637] viXra:1808.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-17 08:51:48

### Quantum Energy Transportation

Authors: George Rajna

Ant-Man knows the quantum realm holds shocking revelations and irrational solutions. [29] A new uncertainty relation, linking the precision with which temperature can be measured and quantum mechanics, has been discovered at the University of Exeter. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2636] viXra:1808.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-17 22:32:41

### Not Generating the Universe from Scratch

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com. (We instruct troll Mikko at Disqus, as sanctioned on vixra..org, to read the entire article twice before she starts typing.)

A recent abstract under quantum physics at vixra..org, stated: The creator created the universe from scratch, and after that instant, the creator left his creatures alone. The observers under these creatures can read the historic part of the read-only repository in which the creator archived the universe. We flagged this as an example of making outlandish assumptions about the universe. 1. The universe is created (the "from scratch" is repetitious because creation implies ex nihilo, something from nothing) in an instant, implying a time scale was present. 2. The creator left the creatures alone, that is, became subsequently absent, implying the creator was an indifferent machine. 3. Additionally, the creator was not a personal spirit with a proper name which implies a mechanism indifferent to what was surely vicariously created.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2635] viXra:1808.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-16 05:55:44

### Generating the Universe from Scratch

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The creator created the universe from scratch, and after that instant, the creator left his creatures alone. The observers under these creatures can read the historic part of the read-only repository in which the creator archived the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2634] viXra:1808.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-16 08:29:31

### Refutation of the Conjecture for Heisenberg's Principle

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com. (We instruct troll Mikko at Disqus, as sanctioned on vixra..org, to read the entire article twice before she starts typing.)

The conjecture for Heisenberg's principle is that for a particle/wave at an exact time, the location, and momentum is impossible to know, that is: the variables as together cannot be true. We show this is not tautologous and hence refute it in the shortest demonstration of its kind.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2633] viXra:1808.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-16 12:09:51

### Anti-Laser of Ultracold Atoms

Authors: George Rajna

An international team of scientists developed the world's first anti-laser for a nonlinear Bose-Einstein condensate of ultracold atoms. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2632] viXra:1808.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-17 01:41:35

### Quantum and Laser Chaos

Authors: George Rajna

To tame chaos in powerful semiconductor lasers, which causes instabilities, scientists have introduced another kind of chaos. [26] An international team of scientists developed the world's first anti-laser for a nonlinear Bose-Einstein condensate of ultracold atoms. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2631] viXra:1808.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 10:21:38

### Hole-Based Artificial Qubit

Authors: George Rajna

A UNSW study published this week resolves key challenges in creation of hole-based artificial atoms, with excellent potential for more-stable, faster, more scalable quantum computing. [26] Scientists at Tsinghua University and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences in Beijing, have demonstrated the ability to control the states of matter, thus controlling internal resistance, within multilayered, magnetically doped semiconductors using the quantum anomalous Hall effect. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2630] viXra:1808.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 13:47:57

### Refutation of Conjectures for Bell's Original Inequality and CHSH Inequality

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com. (We instruct troll Mikko at Disqus, as sanctioned on vixra..org, to read the entire article twice before she starts typing.)

Bell's original conjecture of inequality (Ch(a,c)−Ch(b,a)−Ch(b,c)≤1) and the subsequent CHSH conjecture of inequality (Ch(a,b)+Ch(a,b′)+Ch(a′,b)−Ch(a′,b′)≤2), collectively known as the "Bell inequality" and "Bell-CHSH inequality", are respectively proved not tautologous and both not equivalent.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2629] viXra:1808.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-14 10:27:43

### Holonomic Quantum Gates

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers have demonstrated holonomic quantum gates under zero-magnetic field at room temperature, which could enable the realization of fast and fault-tolerant universal quantum computers. [36] In the meantime, researchers are busy dreaming up uses for small quantum computers and mapping out the landscape of problems they'll be suited to solving. [35] New research gives insight into a recent experiment that was able to manipulate an unprecedented number of atoms through a quantum simulator. This new theory could provide another step on the path to creating the elusive quantum computers. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2628] viXra:1808.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-14 11:05:41

### Hot Schrodinger Coffee

Authors: George Rajna

A new uncertainty relation, linking the precision with which temperature can be measured and quantum mechanics, has been discovered at the University of Exeter. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2627] viXra:1808.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-14 12:08:53

### Accurate Quantum Energy Difference

Authors: George Rajna

A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2626] viXra:1808.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-14 12:28:26

### Artificial Quantum Material for Computers

Authors: George Rajna

Beijing, have demonstrated the ability to control the states of matter, thus controlling internal resistance, within multilayered, magnetically doped semiconductors using the quantum anomalous Hall effect. [25] A kiwi physicist has discovered the energy difference between two quantum states in the helium atom with unprecedented accuracy, a groundbreaking discovery that contributes to our understanding of the universe and space-time and rivals the work of the world's most expensive physics project, the Large Hadron Collider. [24] Physicists and material scientists have succeeded in constructing a motor and an energy storage device from one single component. [23] Heat pipes are devices to keep critical equipment from overheating. They transfer heat from one point to another through an evaporation-condensation process and are used in everything from cell phones and laptops to air conditioners and spacecraft. [22] Now, researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have developed an algorithm that can discover and optimize these materials in a matter of months, relying on solving quantum mechanical equations, without any experimental input. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2625] viXra:1808.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-13 09:40:20

### Modified General Relativity and the Klein-Gordon Equation in Curved Spacetime

Authors: Gary Nash

The Klein-Gordon equation in curved spacetime can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric rank 2 tensors for bosons with spins 0,1,2 and spinor-tensors for fermions with spins $1/2,3/2$. The tensors in a modified equation of general relativity which add to zero are shown to belong to the symmetric part of the Klein-Gordon equation. Modified general relativity is intrinsically hidden in the Klein-Gordon equation and the formalism of quantum field theory. The metric as a field variable describing gravitons vanishes from the massless spin-2 Klein-Gordon equation in the long-range to particle regimes of a spacetime described by a 4-dimensional time oriented Lorentzian manifold with a torsionless and metric compatible connection. Massless gravitons do not exist as force mediators of gravity in these regimes of spacetime.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2624] viXra:1808.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-13 16:47:03

### Negative Sonic Mass & The Big Bang & Gravity Waves

Authors: David E. Fuller

All Mass is Inverted Reciprocal Mass created as Ballast to Balance Unbound Space Time with the energy/mass density of Quantum Mechanics
Category: Quantum Physics

[2623] viXra:1808.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-13 04:27:06

### Pure Energy

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Energy appears in many forms, but this document focusses on the energy that can be transferred between particles. Particles have no limbs, thus the field that embeds them must transfer the energy via suitable field excitations
Category: Quantum Physics

[2622] viXra:1808.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-09 10:24:01

### Refutation of Bell's Inequality by Positive Reasons

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com. (We instruct troll Mikko at Disqus to read the entire article twice before she starts typing.)

Bell's inequality as defined by P(A&~B)+P(B&~C)-P(A&~C)=P(A&~B&C)+P(B&~C&~A)≥0 is refuted as TTTF TTTF TTTT TTTT.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2621] viXra:1808.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-09 10:26:15

### Superposition Refutes Schrödinger's Cat Experiment

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com. (We instruct troll Mikko at Disqus to read the entire article twice before she starts typing.)

Quantum logic (QL) maps Schrödinger's cat experiment in words the same as does bivalent logic, with the expression as not tautologous (FFFF FTFF FFFT FFFF), and nearly contradictory. QL assumes its variables are natural numbers. To support the aim of justification of superposition, QL also injects a probability of equal to or greater than one, under the guise of the inequality of equal to or greater than zero. What follows is that any "principle of uncertainty" is irrelevant because certainty or uncertainty is bivalently mappable as the status of known or unknown, as in the cat experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2620] viXra:1808.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-10 06:05:22

### Quantum Chains in Graphene

Authors: George Rajna

If the width of a narrow graphene nanoribbon changes, in this case from seven to nine atoms, a special zone is created at the transition. [20] Researchers working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) coupled graphene, a monolayer form of carbon, with thin layers of magnetic materials like cobalt and nickel to produce exotic behavior in electrons that could be useful for next-generation computing applications. [19] Particles can exchange their spin, and in this way spin currents can be formed in a material. [18] Researchers have shown that certain superconductors—materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures—can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2619] viXra:1808.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-10 08:04:11

### Detect One Molecule in a Million

Authors: George Rajna

All those interested can learn about the properties of SERSitive substrates, which are available free of charge for tests. [34] A team of scientists from across the U.S. has found a new way to create molecular interconnections that can give a certain class of materials exciting new properties, including improving their ability to catalyze chemical reactions or harvest energy from light. [33] A team of scientists including Carnegie's Tim Strobel and Venkata Bhadram now report unexpected quantum behavior of hydrogen molecules, H2, trapped within tiny cages made of organic molecules, demonstrating that the structure of the cage influences the behavior of the molecule imprisoned inside it. [32] A potential revolution in device engineering could be underway, thanks to the discovery of functional electronic interfaces in quantum materials that can self-assemble spontaneously. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2618] viXra:1808.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-09 05:31:39

### Three-Level Quantum System

Authors: George Rajna

For the first time, researchers were able to study quantum interference in a three-level quantum system and thereby control the behavior of individual electron spins. [33] Scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed an algorithm that could provide meaningful answers to condensed matter physicists in their searches for novel and emergent properties in materials. [32] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen have, for the first time, succeeded in producing, controlling and understanding complex quantum states based on two electron spins connected to a superconductor. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2617] viXra:1808.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-09 07:37:07

### Intense Lasers Hit Clusters of Atoms

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists found that relatively slow electrons are produced when intense lasers interact with small clusters of atoms, upturning current theories. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2616] viXra:1808.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-08 04:31:17

### Distortions in High-Temperature Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna

There's a literal disturbance in the force that alters what physicists have long thought of as a characteristic of superconductivity, according to Rice University scientists. [35] Now, researchers led by Arkady Shekhter of the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory in the US have shown that the same strange behaviour applies to the way their resistance varies with magnetic field. [34] Scientists at the Florida State University-headquartered National High Magnetic Field Laboratory have discovered a behavior in materials called cuprates that suggests they carry current in a way entirely different from conventional metals such as copper. [33] Now, Delft University of Technology have created a microchip on which two wires were placed in close proximity in order to measure the Casimir forces that act upon them when they become superconducting. [32] For a long time, physicists have tried to understand the relationship between a periodic pattern of conduction electrons called a charge density wave (CDW), and another quantum order, superconductivity, or zero electrical resistance, in the same material. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2615] viXra:1808.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-06 10:24:46

### Coherence

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Quite often, reality arranges coherence in a standard way. This way produces recognizable phenomena that occur in all places where reality controls coherence in that way. The document shows the relation between the hopping path cycle of elementary particles and the Lagrangian that describes their kinematic behavior. Further, the paper describes how stochastic processes control the binding of stochastically controlled objects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2614] viXra:1808.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-07 02:49:44

### Against Quantum Idealism

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian

In connection with the appearance of references to works that establish a "Bridge between matter and spirit"[1], as well as discovered something in common between "Quantum mechanics, consciousness and free will" [2], it is difficult to expect a serious outcry in the scientific world from such research, however, there is an obvious reason to draw attention to the differentiation of universal existence on the material and the ideal, and especially in physics - "the birthplace of spontaneous materialists".
Category: Quantum Physics

[2613] viXra:1808.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-05 07:16:20

### The Origin of Wave Particle Duality

Authors: Wei Fan

what is the origin of wave-particle duality in quantum mechanics? This is an unsolved mystery in modern physics. In the latest research, I propose a possible explanation for the origin of wave particle duality. At the same time, I also proposed a feasible way to explain the origin of quantum and quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2612] viXra:1808.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-05 15:41:00

### Refutation of Another Conjecture to Coerce Bell's Inequality to be True

Authors: Colin James III

P(A∧¬B)+P(B∧¬C)≥P(A∧¬C): TTTF TTTF TTTT TTTT. P(A⊕B)+P(B⊕C)≥P(A⊕C): TTTT TFTT TTTF TTTT. (Two more nothing-boogers.)
Category: Quantum Physics

[2611] viXra:1808.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-06 04:31:56

### Structure of Nucleus

Authors: Gokaran Shukla

Atom have stationary orbits. Our present understanding regarding the structure of atom is mostly dependent upon the Rutherford's gold foil alpha particle scattering experiment. presently, we know that nucleus made of proton and neutron and it occupies only very small fraction of volume of atom, while electron revolves around it in their stationary orbit. Also, scientific community believe (quantum field theory and standard model derivation are purely based on this premises only) that proton and neutrons are bind together and stay like lump ball in very small volume at the center of the atom. In this paper we will show that our understanding about nucleus are incomplete. We will show that nucleons are not only revolves anti-clockwise around the \textit{singular}-point in their well define stationary orbit but also rotates anti-clockwise (proton) and clockwise (neutron) about their axis. Also, nucleons make transition as electron does after absorbing energy from external agency. We will also show that distribution of nucleons in nuclear stationary orbit follow the $\textit{Aufbau}$ principle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2610] viXra:1808.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-04 05:49:42

### Refutation of Bell's Inequality by the Zermelo-Fraenkel (ZF) Axiom of the Empty Set

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com .

Bell's inequality is in the form of P(A not B) + P(B not C) ≥ P(A not C. By applying the ZF axiom of the empty set, Bell’s inequality takes the form of P(A not B) + P(B not C) ≠ P(A not C). Neither equation is tautologous, with the latter relatively weaker as the negated truth table result of the former. Hence, Bell's inequality and the ZF axiom of the empty set are summarily refuted in tandem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2609] viXra:1808.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-02 16:00:17

### (Ezeh Version 1.0 10 Pages 2.08.2018) an Extended Zero-Energy Hypothesis: on Some Possible Quantum Implications of a Zero-Energy Universe, Including the Existence of Negative-Energy Spin-1 Gravitons (As the Main Spacetime “creators”) and a (Macrocos

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi

This paper proposes an extended (e) zero-energy hypothesis (eZEH) starting from the “classical” speculative zero-energy universe hypothesis (ZEUH) firstly proposed by the mathematical physicist Pascual Jordan who argued that, in principle, since the positive energy of a star's mass and its (negative energy) gravitational field (GF) together may have zero total energy, the energy conservation principle (ECP) wouldn’t prevent a star being created by starting from a quantum transition/fluctuation of the (quantum) vacuum state. ZEUH mainly states that the total amount of energy in our universe is exactly zero: its amount of positive energy (in the form of matter and radiation) is exactly canceled out by its negative energy (in the form of gravity). eZEH “pushes” ZEUH “to its limits” and emphasizes some new possible quantum implications: (1) the existence of negative-energy spin-1 gravitons and their appearance in (evanescent) photon-graviton pairs defined as the main “creators” of the 4D spacetime; (2) a (macrocosmic) black-hole (bh) associated Casimir effect (bhCE) which may inhibit Hawking radiation (explaining why it wasn’t observed yet) and may explain the accelerated expansion of our universe; (3) a quantum strong gravitational constant (strong quantum big G) defined as a function of a Planck-like gravitational constant which measures the quantum angular momentum of the (negative energy) graviton (which is predicted to nullify the positive energy of a photon at Planck scales, solving the vacuum energy density apparent paradox); Keywords: the zero-energy universe hypothesis (ZEUH); vacuum; quantum fluctuation; gravitational field (GF); the energy conservation principle (ECP); the extended (e) zero-energy hypothesis (eZEH); negative-energy spin-1 graviton; (evanescent) photon-graviton pairs; 4D spacetime; black-hole (bh); the black-hole (bh) associated Casimir effect (bhCE), Hawking radiation inhibition; accelerated expansion of our universe; quantum strong gravitational constant (strong quantum big G); vacuum energy density;
Category: Quantum Physics

[2608] viXra:1808.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-03 01:30:44

### Digital Quantum Simulation of Laser-Pulse Induced Tunneling Mechanism in Chemical Isomerization Reaction

Authors: Kuntal Halder, Narendra N. Hegade, Bikash K. Behera, Prasanta K. Panigrahi
Comments: 6 pages, 7 figures

Using quantum computers to simulate polyatomic reaction dynamics has an exponential advantage in the amount of resources needed over classical computers. Here we demonstrate an exact simulation of the dynamics of the laser-driven isomerization reaction of assymetric malondialdehydes. We discretize space and time, decompose the Hamiltonian operator according to the number of qubits and use Walsh-series approximation to implement the quantum circuit for diagonal operators. We observe that the reaction evolves by means of a tunneling mechanism through a potential barrier and the final state is in close agreement with theoretical predictions. All quantum circuits are implemented through IBM's QISKit platform in an ideal quantum simulator.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2607] viXra:1808.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-03 02:41:58

### Unique Behavior to Carry Current

Authors: George Rajna

Laboratory have discovered a behavior in materials called cuprates that suggests they carry current in a way entirely different from conventional metals such as copper. [33] Now, Delft University of Technology have created a microchip on which two wires were placed in close proximity in order to measure the Casimir forces that act upon them when they become superconducting. [32] For a long time, physicists have tried to understand the relationship between a periodic pattern of conduction electrons called a charge density wave (CDW), and another quantum order, superconductivity, or zero electrical resistance, in the same material. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2606] viXra:1808.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-03 08:31:16

### Small Quantum Computers Complexity

Authors: George Rajna

In the meantime, researchers are busy dreaming up uses for small quantum computers and mapping out the landscape of problems they'll be suited to solving. [35] New research gives insight into a recent experiment that was able to manipulate an unprecedented number of atoms through a quantum simulator. This new theory could provide another step on the path to creating the elusive quantum computers. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2605] viXra:1808.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-03 10:40:26

### Quantum Dot Floating Gates

Authors: George Rajna

Photoresponsive flash memories made from organic field-effect transistors (OFETs) that can be quickly erased using just light might find use in a host of applications, including flexible imaging circuits, infra-red sensing memories and multibit-storage memory cells. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2604] viXra:1808.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-01 11:20:26

### Material for the Quantum Age

Authors: George Rajna

A UCF physicist has discovered a new material that has the potential to become a building block in the new era of quantum materials, those that are composed of microscopically condensed matter and expected to change our development of technology. [25] Researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, in partnership with CNRS, France, have discovered a new material in which an element, ytterbium, can store and protect the fragile quantum information even while operating at high frequencies. [24] Scientists at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada have created the most dense, solid-state memory in history that could soon exceed the capabilities of current hard drives by 1,000 times. [23] The team showed that the single-atom magnets can endure relatively high temperatures and strong external magnetic fields. The work could lead to the development of extremely high-density data storage devices. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2603] viXra:1808.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-01 12:19:21

### Holes in Light

Authors: George Rajna

Discovered by Professor John Nye in Bristol over 35 years ago, polarisation singularities occur at points where the polarisation ellipse is circular, with other polarisations wrapping around them. In 3 dimensions, these singularities occur along lines, in this case creating knots. [18] The detectors created by ATI researchers are able to achieve high sensitivity levels that strongly compete with current technologies, while still operating at low voltages, as well as over the whole X-ray energy range spectrum. [17] There's nothing quite like an ice cream on a hot day, and eating it before it melts too much is part of the fun. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2602] viXra:1807.0528 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 10:24:28

### Molecular Excitation by Photons

Authors: George Rajna

Specifically, the authors model the impact of an incoming photon on electrons and nuclei as the electrons approach an excited state. [40] A team of physicists from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Stanford University and Europe has captured the clearest glimpse yet of a photochemical reaction—the type of light-fueled molecular transformations responsible for photosynthesis, vision and the ozone layer. [39] Researchers at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have recorded the most detailed atomic movie of gold melting after being blasted by laser light. [38] A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33] Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for light detectors offers significant improvements with respect to materials being used nowadays. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2601] viXra:1807.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 01:48:43

### Dahl_Pascals_electron_proton_V3.0

Authors: David E. Fuller, Dahl Winters

Pressure & Volume Based Derivation of Quantum Mechanics
Category: Quantum Physics

[2600] viXra:1807.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 08:39:51

### The Quantum Relativity and Dynamical Spacetime

Authors: Peter Leifer

Quantum field theory (QFT) based on the principles of special relativity (SR) and it is in fact the \emph{kinematic theory of fields}. The root assumption is that there is relativistic description" of \emph{any} isolated quantum system in the so-called class of inertial systems even if the internal interactions or self-interactions lie outside of the formal QFT itself. In such a situation we cannot be sure that the principle of relativity in the present form is universally applicable since this principle arose from the Maxwell electrodynamics. As we know Einstein was insisted to generalize this principle in the attempt to find the relativistic description of gravity. Together with this the Galileo-Newton principle of inertia was modified with essential reservations \cite{Einstein_1921,Le13,Le15,Le16,Le18}. New kind of sub-atomic interactions have definitely more complicated nature and mostly unknown laws. It is clear that the present QFT (kinematic theory of fields) may serve merely as a limit of some \emph{dynamical theory of quantum fields}.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2599] viXra:1807.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 01:12:44

### Bell’s Theorem Refuted Irrefutably on Bell’s Own Terms

Authors: Gordon Watson

Using elementary mathematics to refute Bell’s famous inequality at its source, we refute Bell’s theorem irrefutably on Bell’s own terms.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2598] viXra:1807.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 20:16:09

### Heuristic Methods for the Calculation of Mass for Particles and Their Possible Interpretation in Terms of Diagrammatic Expansions.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling

Heuristic methods for the calculation of mass for leptons, baryons and mesons proposed by Barut and other authors in the 1970s to 1990s are discussed, as well as an extension by the present author. Particles are associated with loops of revolving charge, interpreted by the author either as coherent or incoherent loops of waves. Results are consistent with the kinetic energies obtained for the physically analogous superconducting loop case, treated theoretically by Byers and Yang, which scales as n^2(in which n is a Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum number) and displays periodicity as a function of the amount of trapped magnetic flux inside a loop. From Barut´s model we obtain the mass for the tau-lepton, corresponding to n=4, and for n=3 a “proton” with m ≈ 945 Mev/c^2 mass. The masses for other baryons can be obtained by considering the coherence breaking effect of trapped flux on the modulation of the mass-energy behavior as a function of n. We discuss also the interpretation of these calculations in field-theoretic terms as presented by other authors in terms of diagrammatic expansions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2597] viXra:1807.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 02:02:49

### The Bohr and Einstein Debate-Copenhagen Interpretation Challenged

Authors: Rochelle Forrester

The Bohr Einstein debate on the meaning of quantum physics involved Einstein inventing a series of thought experiments to challenge the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum physics. Einstein disliked many aspects of the Copenhagen Interpretation especially its idea of an observer dependent universe. Bohr was able to answer all Einstein’s objections to the Copenhagen Interpretation and so is usually considered as winning the debate. However the debate has continued into the present time as many scientists have been unable to accept the idea of an observer dependent universe and many alternatives to the Copenhagen Interpretation have been proposed. However none of the alternatives has won general acceptance because all have problems that make them implausible or impossible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2596] viXra:1807.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 03:49:36

### Inverse Quantum Method

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed an algorithm that could provide meaningful answers to condensed matter physicists in their searches for novel and emergent properties in materials. [32] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen have, for the first time, succeeded in producing, controlling and understanding complex quantum states based on two electron spins connected to a superconductor. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2595] viXra:1807.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 06:44:35

### Flexible X-ray Detector

Authors: George Rajna

The detectors created by ATI researchers are able to achieve high sensitivity levels that strongly compete with current technologies, while still operating at low voltages, as well as over the whole X-ray energy range spectrum. [17] There's nothing quite like an ice cream on a hot day, and eating it before it melts too much is part of the fun. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2594] viXra:1807.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 08:22:42

### Comment on “Long-Lasting Field-Free Alignment of Large Molecules Inside Helium Nanodroplets”

Authors: V.A. Kuzmenko

A physical explanation for the effect of suppression of ionization of molecules upon overlapping of a long low-intensity alignment pulse and a strong short probe pulse is proposed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2593] viXra:1807.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 08:44:42

### Strong Coupling Spin Trio

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2592] viXra:1807.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 08:44:18

### Quantum Hologram of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists have theoretically shown that, by applying a magnetic field to a small, irregularly shaped graphene flake, the flake becomes a quantum hologram of a black hole. [28] Now researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have helped to better understand the first minutes of the universe: They collected artificially produced beryllium-7 and made it into a sample that could be investigated. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2591] viXra:1807.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 09:46:47

### Two Particles Coupled with Light

Authors: George Rajna

New research, led by the University of St Andrews and the College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, has led to the ability to trap two minuscule spinning particles, which offers fascinating insights into the world around us and could help create future precise sensors for measurement. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2590] viXra:1807.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 03:36:07

### Purcell Effect for Quantum Technologies

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the University of Sheffield in the UK have built a nanoscale chip that can emit rapid pulses of single, mostly indistinguishable photons. [34] Now a University of Rochester research team has devised a much simpler way to measure beams of light— even powerful, superfast pulsed laser beams that require very complicated devices to characterize their properties. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2589] viXra:1807.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 03:24:27

### Tomorrow Quantum Memory

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, in partnership with CNRS, France, have discovered a new material in which an element, ytterbium, can store and protect the fragile quantum information even while operating at high frequencies. [24] Scientists at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada have created the most dense, solid-state memory in history that could soon exceed the capabilities of current hard drives by 1,000 times. [23] The team showed that the single-atom magnets can endure relatively high temperatures and strong external magnetic fields. The work could lead to the development of extremely high-density data storage devices. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2588] viXra:1807.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 05:20:59

### Quantum Random Number Generators

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers have shown that a chip-based device measuring a millimeter square could be used to generate quantum-based random numbers at gigabit per second speeds. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2587] viXra:1807.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 05:52:10

### Mass

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The target of this document is the explanation of the essentials of gravity and its characteristic, the mass of discrete objects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2586] viXra:1807.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 11:42:45

### Quantum Computing Chemical Bonds

Authors: George Rajna

An international group of researchers has achieved the world's first multi-qubit demonstration of a quantum chemistry calculation performed on a system of trapped ions, one of the leading hardware platforms in the race to develop a universal quantum computer. [36] Researchers have shown that a chip-based device measuring a millimeter square could be used to generate quantum-based random numbers at gigabit per second speeds. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2585] viXra:1807.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 07:21:06

### Success with Complex Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen have, for the first time, succeeded in producing, controlling and understanding complex quantum states based on two electron spins connected to a superconductor. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2584] viXra:1807.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 07:39:44

### Noises of Majorana Fermions

Authors: George Rajna

Majorana fermions are particles that are their own antiparticles. In condensed matter physics, zero-energy Majorana fermions obey non-abelian statistics, and can be used in fault-tolerant topological quantum computation. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2583] viXra:1807.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 08:11:35

### Interplay Between Quantum Effects

Authors: George Rajna

Now, Delft University of Technology have created a microchip on which two wires were placed in close proximity in order to measure the Casimir forces that act upon them when they become superconducting. [32] For a long time, physicists have tried to understand the relationship between a periodic pattern of conduction electrons called a charge density wave (CDW), and another quantum order, superconductivity, or zero electrical resistance, in the same material. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2582] viXra:1807.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 05:18:55

### Atom Cooling Recycling Light

Authors: George Rajna

A new theoretical analysis shows that laser photons used for cooling atoms have a unique thermal distribution that could be used to study many-body physics. [40] Researchers have now shown that all these lasers can be replaced by a single device called a microcomb. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2581] viXra:1807.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 04:22:41

### Unconventional Photon Blockade

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists need individual photons for quantum cryptography and quantum computers. Leiden physicists have now experimentally demonstrated a new production method. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2580] viXra:1807.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 05:13:40

### Quantum Dot and Entangled Photons

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2579] viXra:1807.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 05:44:05

### Electron Microscope Record

Authors: George Rajna

Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2578] viXra:1807.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 07:26:12

### Single-Atom Magnets Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna

The team showed that the single-atom magnets can endure relatively high temperatures and strong external magnetic fields. The work could lead to the development of extremely high-density data storage devices. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2577] viXra:1807.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 16:36:39

### Entanglement Condition for W Type Multimode States

Authors: M. Karthick Selvan

We derive a class of inequality relations for detecting the multimode entanglement of non-Gaussian states of electromagnetic field, using a set of operators satisfying the Lie algebra of Pauli matrices. These relations are obtained using the fact that for separable states, the expectation value of tensor product of operators acting on the space of composite system is equal to the product of expectation values of individual operators acting on the space of subsystems and Schwarz inequality. The operators involved are quadratic in mode creation and annihilation operators and they can be experimentally measured. The derived inequality relation is proved to be a necessary and sufficient condition for W type entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2576] viXra:1807.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 03:10:09

### Physics Treasure in a Wallpaper Pattern

Authors: George Rajna

An international team of scientists has discovered a new, exotic form of insulating material with a metallic surface that could enable more efficient electronics or even quantum computing. [34] For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2575] viXra:1807.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 06:43:49

### Quantum Computing Reversing Cause

Authors: George Rajna

Watch a movie backwards and you'll likely get confused—but a quantum computer wouldn't. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2574] viXra:1807.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 10:34:27

### Unusual Sound Waves in Quantum Liquid

Authors: George Rajna

Now physicists have theoretically shown that in one-dimensional quantum fluids not one, but two types of sound waves can propagate. [15] The basic quanta of light (photon) and sound (phonon) are bosonic particles that largely obey similar rules and are in general very good analogs of one another. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2573] viXra:1807.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 11:11:09

### Spinning Object Help Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers have created the fastest man-made rotor in the world, which they believe will help them study quantum mechanics. [15] The basic quanta of light (photon) and sound (phonon) are bosonic particles that largely obey similar rules and are in general very good analogs of one another. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2572] viXra:1807.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 04:52:28

### Charge Density Waves and Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna

For a long time, physicists have tried to understand the relationship between a periodic pattern of conduction electrons called a charge density wave (CDW), and another quantum order, superconductivity, or zero electrical resistance, in the same material. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2571] viXra:1807.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 04:57:17

### Observe Quantum Spin Effects

Authors: George Rajna

Engineering have demonstrated a new method which could be used to bring quantum computing closer to reality. [15] Take a bounce: A microscopic trampoline could help engineers to overcome a major hurdle for quantum computers, researchers from CU Boulder and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) report in a new study. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2570] viXra:1807.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 12:11:05

### Optical Computing Milestone

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2569] viXra:1807.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 04:25:15

### Quantum Computing Behave

Authors: George Rajna

Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2568] viXra:1807.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 02:44:00

### Quantum Trampoline

Authors: George Rajna

Take a bounce: A microscopic trampoline could help engineers to overcome a major hurdle for quantum computers, researchers from CU Boulder and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) report in a new study. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2567] viXra:1807.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-15 09:12:09

### Single-Atom Manipulation

Authors: George Rajna

Dr. Susi concludes, "Your computer or cellphone will not have atomic memories anytime soon, but graphene impurity atoms do seem to have potential as bits near the limits of what is physically possible." [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2566] viXra:1807.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 08:41:43

### Highly Pure Polarization Components

Authors: George Rajna

The novel on-chip light splitter marks a major breakthrough in improving high-performance data transmission systems, as well as applications in quantum computing. [23] Dr. Susi concludes, "Your computer or cellphone will not have atomic memories anytime soon, but graphene impurity atoms do seem to have potential as bits near the limits of what is physically possible." [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2565] viXra:1807.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 11:06:00

### Faster Photons Total Data Security

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2564] viXra:1807.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 07:59:09

### The Holomorphic Process: Understanding the Holographic Nature of Reality as a Metamorphic Process

Authors: Theodore J. St. John
Comments: 8 Pages. I would appreciate feedback on this from knowledgable physicists. Please send email to stjohntheodore@gmail.com

The holographic principle, derived from black hole mathematics in cosmology, is gaining interest as a theory of reality, but it is missing the part that explains how the information gets from the surface of a black hole to every quantum particle in the universe. In this paper this missing link is shown to be understandable in terms that are much simpler than expected. The key to this approach is to treat space and time as two equivalent yet perceptively different aspects of motion, a form of energy. This allows the use of temporal frequency (the inverse of time), and spatial frequency (the inverse of space) to be superimposed on a space-time-motion diagram, which helps to visualize the relationship between the inverse quantum domain and linear relativistic domain. The result is a composite model that portrays the two aspects of motion as two coherent rays of energy projected out into the linear space-time domain from each point and reflected back to the quantum domain, which is phase-shifted due to motion, forming a perceptible surface at the event reference. This approach does not theorize anything new in terms of unfathomable dimensions, undiscovered particles, extra-particulate forces, or the like. It only requires a different perspective of what we already know, one that does not require knowledge of any specialized mathematical language beyond undergraduate-level physics and engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2563] viXra:1807.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 07:22:29

### Reverse Relative

Authors: Saif Mohammed

This hypothesis describes the state of particles after the speed of light and in quantum tunnels in space in equations. In terms of mass and time. The hypothesis explained the dark energy
Category: Quantum Physics

[2562] viXra:1807.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 07:19:29

### Optic Isolator

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2561] viXra:1807.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 02:17:01

### Frequency Control of Atom Qubits

Authors: George Rajna

Australian scientists have achieved a new milestone in their approach to creating a quantum computer chip in silicon, demonstrating the ability to tune the control frequency of a qubit by engineering its atomic configuration. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2560] viXra:1807.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 20:05:00

### Van Leunen's Symmetry Flavor of Fermions and Weak Modular Lattice Logic not Confirmed Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The symmetry flavor of fermions as borrowed by van Leunen are not tautologous. The theory of weak modular lattice logic is not tautologous. That logic is the core of van Leunen's Hilbert book model, rendering it also as not tautologous.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2559] viXra:1807.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 02:46:26

### Quantum Electro Dynamics: a Fully Fuzzy Fantasy

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk

Quantum Electro Dynamics (QED) is one of the products of physics since Einstein. This article argues why it is what the title shows.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2558] viXra:1807.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 09:09:19

### Artificial Atom Acoustic Resonator

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers from Russia and Britain have demonstrated an artificial quantum system in which a quantum bit interacts with an acoustic resonator in the quantum regime. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2557] viXra:1807.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 11:46:03

### Quantum Secret Sharing

Authors: George Rajna

What is exciting about quantum secrets is that they make it possible to share a secret among a number of participants. [40] Cyberattacks may become impossible with the creation of the first practical quantum random number generator. [39] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2556] viXra:1807.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 05:15:40

### Simpler Interferometer for Light

Authors: George Rajna

Now a University of Rochester research team has devised a much simpler way to measure beams of light— even powerful, superfast pulsed laser beams that require very complicated devices to characterize their properties. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2555] viXra:1807.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 13:20:32

### Superconducting Spintronics

Authors: George Rajna

The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2554] viXra:1807.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 09:25:26

### 18-Qubit Entanglement Record

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2553] viXra:1807.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 14:40:19

### Dahl Winters: Pascals, Proton Electron Ratio & Bjerknes Force 2.0

Authors: David E. Fuller

Dahl Winters: Pascals, proton electron ratio & Bjerknes force 2.0
Category: Quantum Physics

[2552] viXra:1807.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 08:01:59

### Controlling Quantum Heat Engines

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers from Aalto University are designing nano-sized quantum heat engines to explore whether they may be able to outperform classical heat engines in terms of power and efficiency. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2551] viXra:1807.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 08:57:15

### Unique Trap for Light

Authors: George Rajna

The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2550] viXra:1807.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 09:43:58

### Single-Atom Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna

One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2549] viXra:1807.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 12:07:50

### Dahl Winters Pascals, Proton Electron Ratio & Bjerknes Force

Authors: David E. Fuller

Pascals, proton electron ratio & Parameters & Bjerknes force & Quantum Physics
Category: Quantum Physics

[2548] viXra:1807.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 13:27:04

### 64 Shades of Space

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Depending on its dimension, space that can be represented by number systems exists in many shades. The quaternionic number system provides 64 shades of space.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2547] viXra:1807.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-06 09:46:32

### Entanglements in Ultra-Cold Atomic Clouds

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics of Heidelberg University recently succeeded in verifying so-called non-local quantum correlations between ultracold clouds of rubidium atoms. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2546] viXra:1807.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-06 10:08:02

### Ultrafast Lasers and Ultracold Atoms

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists from Universität Hamburg have united the two research fields and succeeded in observing the emergence of ions in ultracold atoms. [26] Researchers at the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics of Heidelberg University recently succeeded in verifying so-called non-local quantum correlations between ultracold clouds of rubidium atoms. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2545] viXra:1807.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 07:26:01

### Fibre-Optic Transmission

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist – a claim currently under hot debate. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2544] viXra:1807.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 13:23:15

### Diamonds for Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna

Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist – a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2543] viXra:1807.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 11:51:09

### Physicist

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Current physics contains many inconsistencies that can be solved.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2542] viXra:1807.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 12:07:43

### An Operational Formulation of Generally Covariant Quantum Theory.

Authors: Johan Noldus

I present an operational equivalent formulation by means of bi-fields of my generally covariant quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2541] viXra:1807.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 14:58:35

### Explaining Duality, the "Only Mystery" of Quantum Mechanics, Without Complementarity or "Which Way" (Welcher-Weg)

Authors: Sarma N. Gullapalli

Wave-particle duality has been extensively debated from the earliest days of quantum mechanics, for example the historic discussions between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr [1], to the present. Richard Feynman [2] called it the “only mystery” in quantum mechanics, long after Neils Bohr had offered his widely accepted explanation based on complementarity involving the observation also. Following John A. Wheeler’s ingenious delayed choice thought experiment [3] to test observer involvement in interference, it was implemented, with and without entanglement by experimenters, eg [4], [5] and [6] who confirmed observation involvement as predicted by Niels Bohr, but they also revealed the phenomenon of retro-causality which begs proper explanation. The criterion of “which way” (welcher-weg) that captures the observation involvement is currently widely used in all single photon interference systems. In this paper a break-through Axiom is presented and justified which (a) Explains duality in interference, with particle always remaining particle and wave always remaining wave throughout, without wave-particle complementarity or “which way” (welcher-weg) observation that is the currently accepted mystifying view (b) Shows the equivalence: Coherence and alignment ≡ Interference ≡ No “which way” observation; No coherence or alignment ≡ No interference ≡ “which way” observation (c) Explains Wheeler’s delayed choice thought experiment (d) Explains results of experimental implementations of Wheeler’s thought experiment which show retro-causality with and without entanglement (e) Explains non-local action at a distance, and (f) Rephrases Albert Einstein’s unanswered question “Is quantum mechanics complete?” at a more fundamental level than just duality and non-locality. The new explanation given does not require that the particle (photon) somehow “know” about the test setup or “which way” observation or change its behavior from particle to wave and vice versa as required by currently accepted explanation based on Niels Bohr’s complementarity principle and observation involvement. No new assumptions are made, only a new complete interpretation of probability which is already a fundamental assumption of quantum mechanics. The proposed Axiom not only explains duality without complementarity or “which way”, it does so with substantial objective clarity that removes unwarranted mysticism that goes beyond physical objectivity. It avoids metaphysical subjectivity that seems to surround certain current perceptions of quantum mechanics. New terms “partial causality” and “total causality” are suggested to properly understand “retro-causality” and “quantum erasure”. Key words: Quantum Mechanics, New Axiom of quantum mechanics, Duality, Interference, Complementarity, Observer, Which-way, Entanglement, Locality, Partial Causality, Total Causality, Retro-Causality, Quantum Erasure.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2540] viXra:1807.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 20:01:32

### Physical Constants as Properties of the van der Waals Torque of the Quantum Field

Authors: Ray Fleming

One of the most important outstanding questions in physics is, what are the physical causes that lead to the magnitudes of each of the physical constants? This paper explores the hypothesis that the magnitude of each physical constant is de-termined by the van der Waals torque of the quantum field of standard model quan-tum field theory. The quantum field is known to produce van der Waals forces as they are necessary to explain the experimentally proven existence of the Casimir effect. There is little research, however, into the effects of the van der Waals torque that necessarily exists in a sea of dipoles that undergo van der Waals force interactions. The van der Waals torque of space resists all linear and rotating charge motion, and as such, it determines the polarizability and magnetizability of space and the related physical constants. Give that most of the physical constants are derivable from other physical constants, it is easy to show that the magnitudes of all the electromagnetic constants are a direct physical result of the van der Waals torque of space. Of particular importance, electric charge and the fine structure constant are derivable from the polarizability of space. Since the fine structure constant and, consequently, mass can be shown to be electromagnetic, there is also a brief discussion about the necessity that gravity is electromagnetic as well, possibly in a manner analogous to a theory by Wilson and Dicke.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2539] viXra:1807.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 00:10:02

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The generalized Hardy's paradox is refuted. In addition, Hardy's inequality and Wigner's argument of joint probabilities are refuted, and as a claimed connection. The basis of the entire claim is "If the events A2<B1, B1<A1, and A1<B2 never happen, then naturally the event A2<B2 must never happen." This is not tautologous, with result values of contingency (falsity). This is a gross example of mathematical logic exposing the mistaken assumptions of quantum field theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2538] viXra:1807.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 07:16:14

### Quantum Sensing Magnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna

An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20] Scientists at Forschungszentrum Jülich have now discovered another class of particle-like magnetic object that could take the development of data storage devices a significant step forward. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2537] viXra:1807.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 12:40:26

### Quantum Heat Engine Shortcuts

Authors: George Rajna

The shortcuts are " a kind of quantum lubricant, " says Serra, of the Federal University of ABC in Santo André, Brazil. Similar to the way that oil can decrease friction in a standard engine, these shortcuts eliminate the friction that is present on quantum scales. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2536] viXra:1807.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 01:00:18

### Rydberg Energy Pascals

Authors: David E. Fuller

Fluid Solution based on Rydberg Energy & Pressure Energy/Volume = Pressure 6.6770876e-11/G = 1.00045064 ((((4pi) / 3) * (8.21756238e+85 pascals)) / ((c^7) / (hbar * (G^2)))) / 2 = 3.71463095e-28 kg/m^3 = Friedmann Density (6.67708761e-11 pascals/(2*3.71463095e-28 kg/m^3))^0.5 = c KronosPrime@outlook.com http://vixra.org/author/david_e_fuller
Category: Quantum Physics

[2535] viXra:1807.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 04:46:50

### Pump Up Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna

University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2534] viXra:1807.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 08:33:38

### Quantum Decipher Electron Spectrometer

Authors: George Rajna

Using photoelectron spectrometers, solid-state physicists and material developers can discover more about such electron-based processes. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33] Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for light detectors offers significant improvements with respect to materials being used nowadays. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2533] viXra:1807.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 08:47:53

### Quantum Mechanics (Principles)

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 136 Pages. in Russian

The aim of this work is to present the basic principles of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the principles that make up its indestructible structure, to place emphasis, of course, of the author, and with intonations relating to the space-time relations in physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2532] viXra:1807.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 10:20:03

### Quantum Revolutionise Cybersecurity

Authors: George Rajna

Cyberattacks may become impossible with the creation of the first practical quantum random number generator. [39] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2531] viXra:1807.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 20:34:31

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

"Totality encompasses the total of all ossibilities. Something impossible is, for example, the square of a real number being negative. The impossible is always unobservable, but the observable/unobservable distinction should differ somehow from the ossible/impossible one, in order to be significant language. Thus, we separate “possible” from “observable”: Some unobservable is possible" The argument above is refuted as not tautologous.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2530] viXra:1807.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 04:55:52

### Quantum Gas Phases

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists at ETH Zurich have developed an experimental platform for studying the complex phases of a quantum gas characterized by two order parameters. [14] Now, a team at JQI led by postdoctoral researcher Seiji Sugawa and JQI Fellow Ian Spielman have succeeded in emulating a Yang monopole with an ultracold gas of rubidium atoms. [13] Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2529] viXra:1807.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 05:33:58

### Quantum Entanglement on Demand

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. Entanglement - once referred to by Einstein as "spooky action" - forms the link that will provide a future quantum internet its power and fundamental security. Via a novel smart entanglement protocol and careful protection of the entanglement, the scientists led by Prof. Ronald Hanson are the first in the world to deliver such a quantum link ‘on demand’. This opens the door to connect multiple quantum nodes and create the very first quantum network in the world. They publish their results on 14 June in Nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2528] viXra:1807.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 08:31:24

### Experimental Test of the Free Will Theorem (Russian Version)

Authors: Bi-Heng Liu, Xiao-Min Hu, Jiang-Shan Chen, Yun-Feng Huang, Yong-Jian Han
Comments: 12 Pages. Russian translation by V.A. Kasimov from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1603.08254v1.pdf

Here we present an experiment which, firstly, demonstrates single-particle contextuality on the particles in one laboratory. Then, since our particles have been previously entangled with other particles in a distant laboratory, we can also reveal the EPR correlations between both laboratories. Interestingly, even though the correlations in the first laboratory can be explained by LHV theories, and the EPR correlations between the two laboratories can be explained by LHV theories, we show that there is no LHV theory explaining both of them. Our experiment is a test of the free will theorem since it implements the conditions under which axiom (i) applies, then checks axioms (ii) and (iii), and finally reveals an extreme violation of the predictions of theories in which elementary particles have no free will.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2527] viXra:1807.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 08:34:57

### The Free Will Theorem (Russian Version)

Authors: John Conway, Simon Kochen
Comments: 21 Pages. Russian translation by V.A. Kasimov from https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0604079v1.pdf

On the basis of three physical axioms, we prove that if the choice of a particular type of spin 1 experiment is not a function of the information accessible to the experimenters, then its outcome is equally not a function of the information accessible to the particles. We show that this result is robust, and deduce that neither hidden variable theories nor mechanisms of the GRW type for wave function collapse can be made relativistic. We also establish the consistency of our axioms and discuss the philosophical implications.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2526] viXra:1806.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-30 08:46:37

### On a Proposal of Superluminal Communication (Russian Version)

Authors: Gian Carlo Ghirardi, Raffaele Romano
Comments: 8 Pages. Russian translation by V.A. Kasimov from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1205.1416v1.pdf

Recently, various new proposals of superluminal transmission of information have appeared in the literature. Since they make systematic resort to recent formal and practical improvements in quantum mechanics, the old theorems proving the impossibility of such a performance must be adapted to the new scenario. In this paper we consider some of the most challenging proposals of this kind and we show why they cannot work.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2525] viXra:1806.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-30 08:50:29

### The EPR Argument in a Relational Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Federico Laudisa
Comments: 13 Pages. Russian translation by V.A. Kasimov from https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0011016v1.pdf

It is shown that in the Rovelli relational interpretation of quantum mechanics, in which the notion of absolute or observer independent state is rejected, the conclusion of the ordinary EPR argument turns out to be frame-dependent, provided the conditions of the original argument are suitably adapted to the new interpretation. The consequences of this result for the ‘peaceful coexistence’ of quantum mechanics and special relativity are briefly discussed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2524] viXra:1806.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 08:29:25

### Quantum Gas Monopole

Authors: George Rajna

Now, a team at JQI led by postdoctoral researcher Seiji Sugawa and JQI Fellow Ian Spielman have succeeded in emulating a Yang monopole with an ultracold gas of rubidium atoms. [13] Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2523] viXra:1806.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 09:47:45

### Photon Controlling Photons

Authors: George Rajna

"The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2522] viXra:1806.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 10:54:19

### Once Again About the Optical Precursor in Cold Atoms

Authors: V.A. Kuzmenko

The physical nature of the optical precursor is further explained as a consequence of the nonequivalence of forward and reversed processes in quantum physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2521] viXra:1806.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-30 03:02:32

### Higgs Boson and Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna

This common oscillation of the Cooper pairs corresponds to the Higgs boson discovered by CERN’s CMS and ATLAS experiments in 2012. [34] A team of scientists has detected a hidden state of electronic order in a layered material containing lanthanum, barium, copper, and oxygen (LBCO). [33] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Excitonmediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2520] viXra:1806.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 12:52:15

### Rovelli's World

Authors: Bas C. van Fraassen
Comments: 26 Pages. Russian translation by V.A. Kasimov from Rovelli's World * Bas C. van Fraassen forthcoming in Foundations of Physics 2009 http://www.princeton.edu/~fraassen/abstract/Rovelli_sWorld-FIN.pdf

Carlo Rovelli’s inspiring “Relational Quantum Mechanics” serves several aims at once: it provides a new vision of what the world of quantum mechanics is like, and it offers a program to derive the theory’s formalism from a set of simple postulates pertaining to information processing. I propose here to concentrate entirely on the former, to explore the world of quantum mechanics as Rovelli depicts it. It is a fascinating world in part because of Rovelli’s reliance on the information-theory approach to the foundations of quantum mechanics, and in part because its presentation involves taking sides on a fundamental divide within philosophy itself.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2519] viXra:1806.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 02:39:38

### An Inquiry into the Possibility of Nonlocal Quantum Communication

Authors: John G. Cramer • Nick Herbert
Comments: 16 Pages. Russian translation by V.A. Kasimov from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1409.5098.pdf

The possibility of nonlocal quantum communication is considered. We investigate three gedankenexperiments that have variable entanglement: (1) a 4-detector polarization-entangled system, (2) a 4-detector path-entangled system, and (3) a 3-detector path-entangled system that uses an innovative optical mixer to combine photon paths. A new quantum paradox is reviewed in which the presence or absence of an interference pattern in a path-entangled two photon system, controlled by measurement choice, is a potential nonlocal signal. We show that for the cases considered, even when interference patterns can be switched off and on, there is always a “signal” interference pattern and an “anti-signal” interference pattern that mask any observable interference when they are added, even when entanglement and coherence are simultaneously present. This behavior can be attributed to what in the literature has been called “the complementarity of one- and two-particle interference”.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2518] viXra:1806.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-29 04:57:15

### The Scientific Method for Physics

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe

The scientific method is used to substantiate or falsify a hypothesis/theory, but physicists don't seem to understand that a physics hypothesis/theory must always be realistic. A physics hypothesis/theory needs to describe something that can exist nature/reality, but physicists also substantiate unrealistic physics hypotheses/theories. Most hypotheses/theories in modern theoretical physics describe science fiction, and that means that most mysteries are man-made.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2517] viXra:1806.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 07:56:03

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

We evaluate the combinations of pairs of variables as untangled and entangled units for completeness when applying their combined probability on the interval ]0,1[. Because the equations as rendered are not tautologous, the approach of entangled and untangled units is suspicious. We conclude that there is no tautological basis for sub-system states of entangled or untangled units in quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2516] viXra:1806.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 09:30:43

### Higgs Particle Superconducting State

Authors: George Rajna

Their experiments allow new insights into the properties of the Higgs particle, but also into fundamental characteristics of superconductors. [34] A team of scientists has detected a hidden state of electronic order in a layered material containing lanthanum, barium, copper, and oxygen (LBCO). [33] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2515] viXra:1806.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 12:10:09

### Non-Local Quantum Correlations

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics of Heidelberg University recently succeeded in verifying so-called non-local quantum correlations between ultracold clouds of rubidium atoms. [39] Unlike previous methods of quantum entanglement involving incoherent and thermal clouds of particles, in this experiment, the researchers used a cloud of atoms in the Bose-Einstein condensate state. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2514] viXra:1806.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 19:46:29

### Refutation of the Exclusivity Rule (As Extended Basis of the Born Rule and Free Will Theorem) Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

As rendered the exclusivity (E) principle is not tautologous, closer to contrariety, and strenghtenable into a contradiction. What follows is that if the exclusivity principle is refuted, then so are refuted the extended chain of subsequent assertions in the order of Born's rule and the free will thereon.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2513] viXra:1806.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 03:45:36

### Persistent Quantum Interference

Authors: George Rajna

When the cyclotron radius becomes much lower than the phase decoherence length the quantum interference is suppressed leading to classical behaviour. [40] Researchers at the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics of Heidelberg University recently succeeded in verifying so-called non-local quantum correlations between ultracold clouds of rubidium atoms. [39] Unlike previous methods of quantum entanglement involving incoherent and thermal clouds of particles, in this experiment, the researchers used a cloud of atoms in the Bose-Einstein condensate state. [38] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2512] viXra:1806.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-25 07:49:24

### Pressure and Temperature of One Atom

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk

The relation between pressure, volume and temperature of an ideal gas is PV=CT. Based on this relation the pressure and temperature of one atom can be calculated, leading to interesting physical considerations at atomic level regarding the conversion of radiation to heat energy.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2511] viXra:1806.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-26 05:16:24

### The Strong Free Will Theorem.

Authors: John H. Conway, Simon Kochen
Comments: 12 Pages. Russian

Russian translation from Notice of the AMS, volume 56, Number 2. February 2009, by V.A. Kasimov The two theories that revolutionized physics in the twentieth century, relativity and quantum mechanics, are full of predictions that defy common sense. Recently, we used three such paradoxical ideas to prove “The Free Will Theorem” (strengthened here), which is the culmination of a series of theorems about quantum mechanics that began in the 1960s. It asserts, roughly, that if indeed we humans have free will, then elementary particles already have their own small share of this valuable commodity. More precisely, if the experimenter can freely choose the directions in which to orient his apparatus in a certain measurement, then the particle’s response (to be pedantic—the universe’s response near the particle) is not determined by the entire previous history of the universe. Две теории, которые произвели революцию в физике ХХ века - теория относительности и квантовая механика, полны выводов, которые не поддаются здравому смыслу. Недавно мы использовали три такие парадоксальные идеи, чтобы доказать FWT-теорему (здесь усиленный вариант- sFWT), являющейся кульминацией серии из теорем о квантовой механике, возникшей в 1960-х годах. Грубо говоря, теорема утверждает, что, если для экспериментаторов имеется возможность свободной подготовки эксперимента независимо от предыстории предыдущих измерений, нечто подобное должно выполняться и для элементарных частиц. Точнее, если экспериментатор может свободно выбирать - в каком направлении ориентировать аппаратуру для измерения, то ответ частицы (чтобы быть педантичным - ответ окружения частицы) определяется не всей предыдущей историей этого окружения.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2510] viXra:1806.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-26 07:06:20

### Quantum State of Optical Phonon

Authors: George Rajna

Ultrashort light-pulse-induced vibrations of atoms in a lattice, called optical coherent phonons, have been controlled in various materials. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2509] viXra:1806.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-24 09:44:59

### Space-Time. Program of Research

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 53 Pages. English/Russian

The current situation of the search for the essence of space-time relations reminds the early history of the search for the essence of "phlogiston", which was resolved by the statistical theory of Gibbs ensembles, the definition of thermodynamic concepts and, in particular, the concept of temperature as the average kinetic energy in the ensemble. Thermodynamics has found its justification in statistical physics but space-time relationships of the macrocosm it is possible that it will find its rationale in the inevitable processes of condensation and localization in the environment of prameter and averaging the probabilistic parameters of the microcosm in the description of these processes.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2508] viXra:1806.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-25 01:02:40

### Shortest Refutation of Independent and Entangled States of the Quantum Hypothesis Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

Equations as rendered for states as independent and entangled and respectively with probability on the interval ]0,1[ are not tautologous. This refutes quantum entanglement. What follows is that the plethora of experiments allegedly supporting entanglement are not based on tautologies of bivalent mathematical logic, but on something else.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2507] viXra:1806.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-23 06:21:41

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

|S|≤2, where S=E(a,b)−E(a,b′)+E(a',b)+E(a',b'). ~((%p<#p)>((p-q)+(r+s)))=(p=p) ; FCCC FFFF FFFF FFFF (not tautologous). This means the CHSH inequality is refuted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2506] viXra:1806.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-23 22:48:20

### Метод описания динамики системы, позволяющий обойти "скрытые параметры"

Authors: Aleksey A. Demidov

The third approach (in addition to Schroedinger and Diraс) is proposed to description of dynamics of quantum system.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2505] viXra:1806.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-24 00:42:32

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

"N(A, not B)+N(B, not C)≥N(A, not C)" is not tautologous.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2504] viXra:1806.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-22 07:16:38

### Stereo Photoelectric Effect

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2503] viXra:1806.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-22 08:29:45

### Michelson Morley Experiment

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe

The conclusion of the Michelson Morley experiment is one of the biggest mistakes in theoretical physics, the absence of an ether wind doesn't prove that ether doesn't exist.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2502] viXra:1806.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-22 12:15:38

### Grand Unified Theory by the Oktoquintenfield

Authors: Kronberger Reinhard

I show an extension of the Standard Model and the General Relativity by the symmetries of the E9 Coxeter Group.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2501] viXra:1806.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-22 13:17:25

### Refutation of the Three Lights Experiment for Qutrits © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

"FIG. 1 Two possible explanations for the measurement process. Suppose a measurement with three possible outcomes represented by red, green, and blue lights. The process that generates the final outcome (represented by the blue light flashing) can be either (a) a sequence of two steps: (1) The red outcome is precluded by a classical mechanism (e.g., the initial position of the measured system). (2) A general two-outcome measurement selects between the two remaining outcomes. Or (b), the measurement is genuinely ternary in the sense that it cannot be explained as in (a)." The above is found not tautologous. This means the experiment to measure outcomes for three lights with blue flashing is ill-formed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2500] viXra:1806.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-23 03:34:58

### A Very Simple Single Electron Lamb Shift Approximation

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

The Lamb shift was discovered by Willis Lamb and measured for the first time in 1947 by Lamb and Rutherford [1, 2, 3] on the hydrogen microwave spectrum. We suggest that the Lamb shift can be approximated by a very simple function that seems accurate enough for most experimenters working with elements where relativistic effects of the electron are minimal, that is up to element 80 or so. Even if our new approximation does not show anything new in physics, we think it can be useful for experimenters and students of quantum physics and chemistry; now everyone can calculate the Lamb shift on the back of an envelope.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2499] viXra:1806.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-23 04:46:59

### Refutation of Quantum Gates: Hadamard; Pauli-X, y, Z; Toffoli; and Fredkin Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The following quantum gates are not tautologous, and hence refuted: Hadamard; Pauli-X, -Y, -Z; Toffoli; and Fredkin.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2498] viXra:1806.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 11:47:31

### The Holomorphic Quantum Theory Part 1

Authors: Theodore J. St. John

Motion is a form of energy that can be described mathematically and graphically as the ratio of a change in space with respect to a change in time. It can also be described as the ratio of temporal frequency (inverse time) to spatial frequency (inverse space). Graphically, these are conformal projections of a single concept (motion) onto two pairs of orthogonal scales. The first pair is linear and the second is the inverse of the first. If the speed of light is the motion being projected, then all four scales are graphically linked by the diagonal line (the “world line” in Minkowski terminology). By graphing both pairs on the same graph, I pair up the linear temporal scale with the inverse spatial frequency scale at the first increment, t = 1 = fs, on the horizontal axis and then pair up the linear spatial scale with the inverse temporal frequency scale at s = 1 = ft on the vertical axis. Then I scaled the inverse domain by Planck’s constant (2 pi) in natural units and identified these as the energy of a quantum unit, E=hft on the horizontal and E=hcfs on the vertical. Each axis therefore represents the Hermitian adjoint of two domains, the linear domain and its inverse. Then I represented each frequency domain as a circle (polar coordinates), which is a conformal projection of its corresponding linear domain, and thus a conformal back-projection of motion. Since I scaled each inverse scale by 2pi they each represent the circle of convergence of the exponential function eR which has a radius of convergence at R=2pi. The pair of circles is superimposed at the origin of the S-T domain so their superposition, the product of these two circles, represents a plane wave as the quantum wave function. This quantum unit is what I identified as a holomorphic unit. The reflections of motion from the linear space-time domain are phase-shifted enough that they converge at a point (1/c2), that is offset from the origin by a scale factor of 1/c, which is the fine-structure constant in natural units. The spatial offset from the zero spatial frequency locus provides the spatial frequency grating necessary to form a holographic image. The shift in the phase also creates a difference between the divergent projection (the projection of motion outward) and the gradient of the inverse domain, which produces the curl-field resulting in a field that has morphed into a particle with a physical boundary.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2497] viXra:1806.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 11:55:05

### The Holomorphic Quantum Theory Part 2

Authors: Theodore J. St. John

This is the second part of a four-part presentation. In part 1 I introduced a relational model that allowed me to demonstrate the equivalence of space and time as S=Tc^2 and showed that S represents energy as the product of scalar space with spatial frequency and T represents energy as the product of time units with temporal frequency. Doing so revealed the equations for quantum energy of a particle to be the inverse domains scaled by Planck’s constant. In this context, they served as two components (base vectors) of a quantum wave function (a composite space-time vector). In this part, I will continue to develop the model and discuss how the projection of a unified concept onto a plane that represents their separation creates a scaling problem that can be dealt with a different ways.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2496] viXra:1806.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 11:57:50

### The Holomorphic Quantum Theory Part 3

Authors: Theodore J. St. John

This is the third part of a four-part presentation. Part 1 introduced a relational model that allowed us to demonstrate the equivalence of space and time as S=Tc^2 and showed that S represents energy as the product of scalar space with spatial frequency and T represents energy as the product of time units with temporal frequency. In this part, I continue to develop the model by replacing a the inverse scale with a polar coordinate system to solve what I call the frequency problem. By analogizing vector spaces (velocity and acceleration domain) and scalar space (space-time domain) with computer windows, I “click” to refocus the visual model on the domain of interest and show how mathematical operations, like quantum operators, transform scales and coordinates in one domain to project, translate, reflect and rotate geometric symbols in other domains and produce more complex relations (including the classical wave equation and the Klein-Gordon equation).
Category: Quantum Physics

[2495] viXra:1806.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 12:10:17

### The Holomorphic Quantum Theory Part 4

Authors: Theodore J. St. John

This is final part of a 4-part presentation. In this part I focus on how the most important equations in quantum mechanics, those that are taken from statistics and encourage the Copenhagen interpretation, are really operations that reintegrate vector components of spacetime (energy in the form of motion) that had been separated and rescaled, to arrive at the desired observable in the new domain. This is presented for the purpose of supporting a better, more meaningful interpretation that leads to a demonstration of the wave structure and holomorphic nature of reality. Unlocking the mysteries of the universe means that there is a mystery, a lock and a key. Energy is the mystery, physical form (differentiated into separate units) is the lock, and recognizing the equivalence of space and time is the key. How to use that key is found in the harmony in nature through the Golden Ratio.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2494] viXra:1806.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-22 00:19:03

### Refutation of Hiding Classical Information by Using Quantum Correlation of a Two-Party State Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

This refutes encoding classical binary information into quantum states. We conclude that quantum information cannot mask classical bivalent information. This further finds moot the possibility of masking quantum information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2493] viXra:1806.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 08:03:52

### Natuurkundige

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen

De huidige natuurkunde bevat nog vele ongerijmdheden die eigenlijk al opgelost kunnen worden.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2492] viXra:1806.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 09:03:02

### Impossible Mask Quantum Information

Authors: George Rajna

In the future, the physicists plan to further investigate the no-masking theorem and its exceptions—the maskable sets and the partial maskers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist – a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2491] viXra:1806.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 10:41:38

### Quantum Non-Locality

Authors: George Rajna

Non-locality, Einstein's ''spooky action at a distance," has been observed between quantum objects separated by more than one kilometer. [29] Physicists at Saarland University in Saarbrücken, Germany, have succeeded in entangling a single atom with a single photon in the telecom wavelength range. [28] A team of physicists from ICTP-Trieste and IQOQI-Innsbruck has come up with a surprisingly simple idea to investigate quantum entanglement of many particles. [27] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20] For years, the people developing artificial intelligence drew inspiration from what was known about the human brain, and it has enjoyed a lot of success as a result. Now, AI is starting to return the favor. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2490] viXra:1806.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 00:59:57

### Local Realism Will Never Die

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

some evidence this is true
Category: Quantum Physics

[2489] viXra:1806.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-20 14:02:01

### The Theory of Disappearance and Appearance

Authors: Mazen Khoder

It is known that quantum mechanics is one of the most successful theories in physics across the entire history of physics, nevertheless, many believe that its foundations are still not really understood like: wave-particle duality, interference, entanglement, quantum tunneling, uncertainty principle, vacuum catastrophe, wave collapse, relation between classical mechanics and quantum mechanics, classical limit, quantum chaos etc., and the continuous failures in the unify between relativity theory and quantum theory may be an indication about a problem in the foundations, this paper aims at discovering the first small step in the path of solving and understanding these quantum puzzles, in fact, the key to solving quantum puzzles is by understanding the reality of the motion and how it occurs. This paper proposes a model of motion with a new action principle like the principle of least action called "alike action principle". Actually, we have been able to deduce the principles of quantum mechanics so that the oddity of the quantum becomes easier to understand and interpret, for example, this paper proposes a solution to vacuum catastrophe and gives us the origin of dark energy, and shows that the basic law of motion must be broader than both quantum mechanics and classical mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2488] viXra:1806.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-20 17:31:39

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The Hadamard gate is refuted as producing an outcome for basis states with a combined probability of ]0,1[.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2487] viXra:1806.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-15 06:32:41

### Quantum Push of a Button

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at ETH have now realized such a quantum transmission between two solid-state qubits at the push of a button. [28] Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory are conducting fundamental physics research that will lead to more control over mercurial quantum systems and materials. [27] Physicists in Italy have designed a " quantum battery " that they say could be built using today's solid-state technology. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2486] viXra:1806.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-18 08:30:33

### Quantum Device Redefine Ampere

Authors: George Rajna

EU-funded scientists have succeeded in redefining the ampere in terms of fundamental constants of physics. [30] Tarucha, the leader of the team, says, "This is a very exciting finding, as it could potentially help to accelerate research into scaling up semiconductor quantum computers, allowing us to solve scientific problems that are very tough on conventional computer systems." [29] Physicists at Saarland University in Saarbrücken, Germany, have succeeded in entangling a single atom with a single photon in the telecom wavelength range. [28] A team of physicists from ICTP-Trieste and IQOQI-Innsbruck has come up with a surprisingly simple idea to investigate quantum entanglement of many particles. [27] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2485] viXra:1806.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-19 02:47:53

### The Shadow of the Smile of the "Cheshire Cat" (English Version)

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 13 Pages. English

Offers a discussion of some topological paradoxes arising in the theory of relativity.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2484] viXra:1806.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-19 08:51:40

### Quantum Dot and Donor Atom

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2483] viXra:1806.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-19 09:46:33

### PiMann Photonic Gravitonic Field

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi

PiMann Photonic Gravitonic Field
Category: Quantum Physics

[2482] viXra:1806.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-20 06:28:24

### The Behavior of Basic Fields

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 17 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

A basic field is defined in the realm of a mathematical modeling platform that is based on a collection of floating platforms and an embedding platform. Each floating platform is represented by a quaternionic separable Hilbert space. The embedding platform is a non-separable Hilbert space. A basic field is a continuum eigenspace of an operator that resides in the non-separable embedding Hilbert space. The continuum can be described by a quaternionic function, and its behavior is described by quaternionic differential calculus. The separable Hilbert spaces contain the point-like artifacts that trigger the basic field.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2481] viXra:1806.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-20 10:55:38

### Braiding Time Crystals in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna

In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist – a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2480] viXra:1806.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-20 11:48:18

### Quantum Protecting Communications

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist – a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2479] viXra:1806.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-14 09:31:23

### Nonclassical Harmonic Oscillators

Authors: George Rajna

The physicists, S. Bose at University College London; D. Home at the Bose Institute in Kolkata, India; and S. Mal at the S.N. Bose National Center for Basic Science in Kolkata, India, have published a paper on the nonclassicality of a harmonic oscillator's most classical-like state in a recent issue of Physical Review Letters. [31] Imagine a metal bar that has been heated at one end. Instead of the heat gradually spreading over its entire length, the bar eventually becomes hot again at the place where it was originally. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2478] viXra:1806.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-14 10:53:49

### Feynman was Right

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

an article about "the moment of truth" in the history of physics, now. an "all or nothing" test is offered.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2477] viXra:1806.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-14 12:53:36

### Energy-Time Entangled Photons

Authors: George Rajna

In an experiment, they succeeded in uncovering part of the mystery surrounding the so-called "entangled photons" and gaining fine control on the measured correlations. [33] A team from the Faculty of Physics, MSU, has developed a method for creating two beams of entangled photons to measure the delay between them. [32] In a new paper, however, physicists Flavio Del Santo at the University of Vienna and Borivoje Dakić at the Austrian Academy of Sciences have shown that, in the quantum world, information can travel in both directions simultaneously—a feature that is forbidden by the laws of classical physics. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2476] viXra:1806.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-14 23:31:48

### A Simple Explanation of the Quantum Doctrine

Authors: Daniel Crespin

Quantum Mechanics is explained in simple terms, with its contradictions highlighted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2475] viXra:1806.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-13 08:01:15

### System Returned to Initial State

Authors: George Rajna

Imagine a metal bar that has been heated at one end. Instead of the heat gradually spreading over its entire length, the bar eventually becomes hot again at the place where it was originally. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2474] viXra:1806.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-13 11:18:39

### Why it is Hard to Understand – And, Therefore, Explain – Quantum Math

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle

If mathematics is the queen of science, then physics might well be the king. It successes are obvious. However, as a science, physics may have failed in one regard, and that is to explain what its basic concepts – such as state vectors, wavefunctions, and transformation matrices – actually represent. When studying quantum mechanics, it is, effectively, hard to keep up the initial enthusiasm, and those who branch out to other fields – which is most of us – quickly end up going through the motions only: we regurgitate models and equations and know how to solve the standard problems, so as to pass the exam, but then forget about them as soon as possible. This paper explores a very intuitive sentiment about the issue: the wavefunction is a rather ‘flat’ mathematical object – it is two-dimensional, basically – so it can’t do the trick, perhaps. In contrast, Maxwell’s equations have real vectors in them, which is why a deeper or more intuitive understanding of electromagnetism comes relatively easily. Indeed, when everything is said and done, we are just human beings living in three-dimensional space, and that is why vector equations (or systems of vector equations), as a mathematical tool, make sense to us. This paper further explores this sentiment. It also offers a way out by, predictably, presenting yet another possible physical interpretation of the wavefunction. More importantly (for the reviewer of this paper, at least), this paper offers a sensible response to the mainstream view that three-dimensional physical interpretations of the wavefunction cannot make any sense because of the weird 720° symmetry of the wavefunction when describing spin-1/2 particles (fermions or – for all practical purposes – electrons). The author does so by analyzing (1) Dirac’s belt trick more in detail – and what it implies in terms of the interaction between the observer and the object – as well as (2) Feynman’s derivation of the transformation matrices for spin-1/2 two-state systems.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2473] viXra:1806.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-13 23:58:53

### Fractal Structure of the Spacetime, the Fundamentally Broken Symmetry

Authors: Victor Paromov

It is expected that the full unification is achievable within a quantum field theory “beyond the SM” (Standard Model). An alternative approach is the Kaluza-Klein (KK) extension of the General Relativity (GR) with extra dimensions. However, there is a third possibility that no unification is achievable due to the specific fractal structure of the spacetime and the unique position of the observer situated inside the ordinary (gravitational) subspace and outside the compact extra dimensions, the geometry of which governs particle interactions. The Fractal spacetime concept (FSC) is proposed in order to support the General principle of interaction (GPI), which postulates that all the nature’s forces with no exceptions are governed by the spacetime geometry. The FSC postulates that the spacetime includes three separate subspaces (in addition to the time dimension): the three-dimensional ordinary subspace, the atomic-sized fifth dimension sufficient to explain the electromagnetism, and the set of three nuclear-sized dimensions sufficient to explain the nuclear forces. The spacetime has a simple fractal structure: each of the three subspaces presumably has a spherical shape with the sizes decreased tremendously from one subspace to another. The size differences are responsible for the separation of the subspaces and gradually increased action powers of the three fundamental fields: gravitational, electroweak and strong fields. The present letter shows that the SM equations actually describe the extradimensional spacetime deformations approximated as the gauge quantum fields. With the geometrical approach, the SM can be simplified, as only four types of elementary spacetime deformations (extradimensional waves) are needed: electron, positron, uuu, and ūūū quark triplets. All other elementary particles including photons and gluons are binding states or/and wave polarization modes of the above-mentioned waves. The neutrinos, the weak bosons, and the Higg’s particle are avoided. All particles’ interactions are governed by the positive or negative extradimensional curvatures and the spin-related torsion induced in the nuclear or electromagnetic subspace by the color or electric charges (respectively). The particles’ gravitational interactions are governed by the charge-induced deformations of the ordinary subspace described by the Higg’s field. With the FSC, the GPI explains the geometry-based unified nature of all known interactions. However, a single unified field theory is not possible in principle due to the observational difference between the large geometry of the ordinary subspace and the compact geometry of the extra dimensions. Thus, in general, the FSC supports both the GR and the SM. In special cases, however, it will require quantum field descriptions of gravitational interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2472] viXra:1806.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 13:00:49

### Quantum LEGO

Authors: George Rajna

The results expand the set of available tools for the 'quantum LEGO' of building ultracold molecules from atoms. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2471] viXra:1806.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 13:24:17

### Quantum Puddles

Authors: George Rajna

A team of physicists at the University of Vermont have discovered a fundamentally new way surfaces can get wet. [28] The results expand the set of available tools for the 'quantum LEGO' of building ultracold molecules from atoms. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2470] viXra:1806.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-11 08:40:43

### Photon Leaks for Quantum Supremacy

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers from China, Germany and the U.S. has found that boson sampling with photons is a viable option for testing for quantum supremacy, despite photons leaking from a given test system. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing—quantum chemistry—would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2469] viXra:1806.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-11 09:39:16

### Quantum Behavior in Nanocrystal

Authors: George Rajna

A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2468] viXra:1806.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 04:57:32

### Multiple Laser a Single Microcomb

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers have now shown that all these lasers can be replaced by a single device called a microcomb. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2467] viXra:1806.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-10 19:57:03

### The Structures of Particles Traveling at the Speed of Light

Authors: Tong Wang
Comments: 5 Pages. Photon structure, massless electric charge, Yinon, Masson

From the implications of special relativity, we know photons are massless. However, we also observe light being bent by the gravity of large bodies. To reconcile these two contradicting facts, here we propose a new model of photons using the idea of negative mass—a concept mentioned in the theory of gravitation—to explain this paradox of light. As a combination of mass and negative mass, a photon can have zero net inertial mass, yet simultaneously, move toward gravitational bodies. Furthermore, we will also introduce here several novel configurations of particles traveling at the speed of light, which have remarkable implications.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2466] viXra:1806.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-09 06:33:45

### Quantum Spin Liquids in Ferromagnets

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers with members from several institutions in the U.S. and Russia has found evidence that suggests spin liquids in ferromagnets may be similar to dipole liquids in ferroelectrics. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2465] viXra:1806.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-09 10:22:47

### The Pauli Objection Addressed in a Logical Way

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

One of the greatest unsolved problems in quantum mechanics is related to time operators. Since the Pauli objection was first raised in 1933, time has only been considered a parameter in quantum mechanics and not as an operator. The Pauli objection basically asserts that a time operator must be Hermitian and self-adjoint, something the Pauli objection points out is actually not possible. Some theorists have gone so far as to claim that time between events does not exist in the quantum world. Others have explored various ideas to establish an acceptable type of time operator, such as a dynamic time operator, or an external clock that stands just outside the framework of the Pauli objection. However, none of these methods seem to be completely sound. We think that a better approach is to develop a deeper understanding of how elementary particles can be seen, themselves, as ticking clocks, and to examine more broadly how they relate to time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2464] viXra:1806.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-09 22:54:56

### 3rd Edition - Theory of the Quantum Physics of Potentisation of Homeopathic Medicine

Authors: Christina Munns, Dip. Hom.

This article is written with the intention of explaining the dynamics of the process of potentisation of a homeopathic medicine at the quantum scale. It is proposed as a theory at present, since it has not yet been scientifically proven to be correct by undergoing experimentation in a quantum scale research laboratory. This paper represents the second revision of this theory, since new information has come to light regarding the true nature of the quantum mechanics of the succussion process and the reason why electrons are able to remain in the excited state. I propose that the key to understanding how homeopathic medicines operate is through the understanding of quantum mechanics. When the understanding of quantum mechanics is applied to the process of homeopathic potentisation (i.e. succussion and dilution), one can apprehend how a homeopathic medicine is able to become increasingly more powerful (and thus potentially more curative) the more times it is succussed and diluted. Of particular importance are the dynamics of electrons within the quantum state, since it is these free-standing fundamental particles that configure themselves in increasingly larger and larger numbers with each increasing orbital number, with each subsequent succussion process. With each increase in orbital size there is a concomitant increase in the energy and informational capacity of the atom, which correlates to an increase in the homeopathic potency.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2463] viXra:1806.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-08 19:12:04

### The Wavefunction as an Energy Propagation Mechanism

Authors: Jean Louis Van Belle
Comments: 10 Pages. None.

Benefitting from valuable feedback, this article corrects some defects in the physical interpretation of the wavefunction that I had offered – and elaborated upon – in two previous pre-publication papers (see: http://vixra.org/abs/1709.0390 and http://vixra.org/abs/1712.0201). Most importantly, this paper incorporates relativistically correct formulas for the proposed interpretation of the energy of an electron as a two-dimensional oscillation of a pointlike charge in space. The relativistic correction does not change any of the conclusions. For example, the interpretation of the wavefunction as an energy diffusion equation still holds. However, this paper defines the weaknesses in the approach (read: the agenda for my personal future research) much better. I have benefited a lot from comments on the previous papers and, therefore, I hope I will get the same enthusiastic reaction to this one.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2462] viXra:1806.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-08 20:47:36

### Why The Planck Charge Is Approximately 11 Times the Electron Charge

Authors: Jonathan Deutsch

WHY THE PLANCK CHARGE IS APPROXIMATELY 11 TIMES THE ELECTRON CHARGE ABSTRACT The Planck charge, qp, and the electron charge, e, can each be quantized based on melectron = 1, on the deBroglie wavelength of the electron (=λelectron = h/ melecttronc) = ─1 and on telectron (=λe;lectron/c) = . When we do this, we see that e2 equals a bit more than 1/1000 pure number. 2πe2 thus equals about 7/1000, which equals approximately 1/137. Therefore, the inverse of 2πe2 = approximately 137, so (1/2πe2)1/2 = approximately 11. Now qp = [(1/2πe2)(hc)]e, but similar quantization of hc yields a product of (─ )( ) = 1. Therefore, qp = [(1/2πe2)1/2(hc)]e = (1/2πe2)1/2e = approximately 11 times the electron charge.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2461] viXra:1806.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-09 03:07:03

### Faster Silicon Qubits

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum bits are now easier to manipulate for devices in quantum computing, thanks to enhanced spin-orbit interaction in silicon. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2460] viXra:1806.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 07:24:18

### Laser Gas Hound

Authors: George Rajna

University of Adelaide researchers have created a laser that can "smell" different gases within a sample. [14] Scientists at Osaka University discovered a novel particle acceleration mechanism they describe as a micro-bubble implosion, in which super-high energy hydrogen ions (relativistic protons) are emitted at the moment when bubbles shrink to atomic size through the irradiation of hydrides with micron-sized spherical bubbles by ultraintense laser pulses [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro-and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2459] viXra:1806.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 12:25:11

### Structure of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 17 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Obviously, physical reality possesses structure, and this structure founds on one or more foundations. These foundations are rather simple and easily comprehensible. The major foundation evolves like a seed into more complicated levels of the structure, such that after a series of steps a structure results that appears like the structure of the physical reality that humans can partly observe. To show the power of this approach the paper explains the origin of gravity and the fine structure of photons and elementary particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2458] viXra:1806.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-08 01:43:51

### Laser Makes Silicon Sing

Authors: George Rajna

Yale scientists have created a new type of silicon laser that uses sounds waves to amplify light. A study about the discovery appears June 8 in the online edition of the journal Science. [15] University of Adelaide researchers have created a laser that can "smell" different gases within a sample. [14] Scientists at Osaka University discovered a novel particle acceleration mechanism they describe as a micro-bubble implosion, in which super-high energy hydrogen ions (relativistic protons) are emitted at the moment when bubbles shrink to atomic size through the irradiation of hydrides with micron-sized spherical bubbles by ultraintense laser pulses [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro-and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2457] viXra:1806.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-08 02:57:53

### Periodic Table Limits

Authors: George Rajna

Michigan State University professor probes the table's limits in a recent Nature Physics Perspective. [30] A team of researchers at Pfizer, the pharmaceutical giant, has developed an automated flow chemistry system that is capable of carrying out 1500 reactions over a 24-hour period. [29] Prof WANG Zhisong and his research team from the Department of Physics, NUS have developed two sets of conceptually new mechanisms that enable artificial nanowalkers to move in a self-guided direction using their internal mechanics. [28] Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2456] viXra:1806.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-06 05:35:35

### Quantum Information Sound

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum physics has led to new types of sensors, secure data transmission methods and researchers are working toward computers. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2455] viXra:1806.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-06 12:56:54

### Quantum Magnets Mimic Light

Authors: George Rajna

What is light? It sounds like a simple question, but it is one that has occupied some of the best scientific minds for centuries. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2454] viXra:1806.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-06 13:34:33

### Matter: How to Count It? and an Introduction to Quantum Different Phases of Matter

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi

Today scientists believe that all “particles” also have a “wave nature” (and vice versa). This phenomenon has been verified not only for elementary particles, but also for the elementary particles that exist in compound particles like molecules and even atoms. You can consider light (the photons of the light beams) as a “wave-like energy”. This energy is a wave–particle, just containing elementary matter and speed. We can use Einstein, Planck equations to determine the amount of the energy which make up a sample photon. But, to date we cannot measure the matter, therefore we make a simple unit that let us to measure the matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2453] viXra:1806.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 08:32:28

### Hidden by Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna

Using the physics equivalent of the strobe photography that captures every twitch of a cheetah in full sprint, researchers have used ultrafast spectroscopy to visualize electrons interacting as a hidden state of matter in a superconductive alloy. [36] Physicists at the University of Zurich are researching a new class of materials: Higher-order topological insulators. [35] One can also imagine making a superconducting transistor out of graphene, which you can switch on and off, from superconducting to insulating. That opens many possibilities for quantum devices." [34] A team of scientists has detected a hidden state of electronic order in a layered material containing lanthanum, barium, copper, and oxygen (LBCO). [33] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2452] viXra:1806.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 09:06:10

### Atomic Clock of Einstein's Elevator

Authors: George Rajna

By comparing different types of remote atomic clocks, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have performed the most accurate test ever of a key principle underlying Albert Einstein's famous theory of general relativity, which describes how gravity relates to space and time. [29] "As crazy as all this looks, there appears to be strong reliability in these behaviors that could even be predictably and practically manipulated," Landman said. [28] A team of physicists from ICTP-Trieste and IQOQI-Innsbruck has come up with a surprisingly simple idea to investigate quantum entanglement of many particles. [27] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20] For years, the people developing artificial intelligence drew inspiration from what was known about the human brain, and it has enjoyed a lot of success as a result. Now, AI is starting to return the favor. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2451] viXra:1806.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 11:30:35

### Quantum Stopwatch Memory

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists have developed a "quantum stopwatch"—a method that stores time (in the form of states of quantum clocks) in a quantum memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2450] viXra:1806.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 12:01:08

### Birth and Death of a Phonon

Authors: George Rajna

Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2449] viXra:1806.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 23:03:22

### Take a Picture of an Electron to Refute the Uncertainty Principle © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III

We evaluate the unoriginal thought experiment of taking a picture of an electron in a vacuum. To take a picture of an electron requires shining light on it. The state of the electron is therefore combined with that of the photon wave to produce a combined state. The combined state may be additive or multiplicative. A theorem is derivable by trial and error for both of these states. Other theorems as co-equal thereto. We derive the electron state back out of the combined states of the theorem(s) by logically removing the light state. The equation is inversive and is tautologous. This means the state of indeterminancy to take a picture of an electron using light is invertible. Therefore, the uncertainty principle is logically contradicted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2448] viXra:1806.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 08:04:14

### Quantum Schizophrenia

Authors: George Rajna

"As crazy as all this looks, there appears to be strong reliability in these behaviors that could even be predictably and practically manipulated," Landman said. [28] A team of physicists from ICTP-Trieste and IQOQI-Innsbruck has come up with a surprisingly simple idea to investigate quantum entanglement of many particles. [27] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20] For years, the people developing artificial intelligence drew inspiration from what was known about the human brain, and it has enjoyed a lot of success as a result. Now, AI is starting to return the favor. [19] Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2447] viXra:1806.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 10:21:18

### New Way Light Interact with Matter

Authors: George Rajna

A new way of enhancing the interactions between light and matter, developed by researchers at MIT and Israel's Technion, could someday lead to more efficient solar cells that collect a wider range of light wavelengths, and new kinds of lasers and light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that could have fully tunable color emissions. [17] A team of researchers at the Center for Relativistic Laser Science, within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have developed a method to measure the shape of laser pulses in ambient air. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14] The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro-and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2446] viXra:1806.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 10:42:41

### 3-D Quantum Memory

Authors: George Rajna

Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2445] viXra:1806.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 00:46:57

### Aether is Heat Capacity Per Linear Meter

Authors: David E. Fuller

Aether is Heat Capacity per linear meter This Heat Capacity Causes an "Extinction Horizon" of 13.88805 Billion Light Years & the Hubble Red-shift seen as an Expanding Universe
Category: Quantum Physics

[2444] viXra:1806.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 10:37:02

### Advances of the New Century: It’s All About the Wavefunction

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

The 2018 Physics Today essay competition invites participants to identify a ‘signiﬁcant advance’ in his or her ﬁeld since the millennium that deserves wider recognition among non-experts, and to write an essay that describes the advance, how it was made, and why it’s important[1]. This essay takes quantum mechanics to be the ﬁeld of interest, introducing ‘non-experts’ to a new synthesis of math and physics, of geometry and ﬁelds, a computationally precise yet intuitive representation of wavefunctions and their interactions at all scales, allowing for a common sense interpretation of quantum phenomena and resolution of most if not all quantum paradoxes. It’s all about the wavefunction, the foundation, fundamental, quantum philosophy, quantum logic. As yet we are all non-experts.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2443] viXra:1806.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 12:22:34

### Once More About Quantum "Entanglement" (English Version)

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 16 Pages. English

During the conceptual design of the experimental results of Aspect one must speak the language of quantum mechanics, not the language Argo of the private insights. One of these insights is the concept of "entanglement" (of particles or states is unclear!) The language of quantum mechanics allows for a clear and unambiguous manner to give concrete content to the questions on this occasion. For the analysis of the proposed elementary model used in [1, 2].
Category: Quantum Physics

[2442] viXra:1806.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-01 06:22:46

### Squeeze for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna

A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing—quantum chemistry—would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2441] viXra:1806.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-01 07:28:24

### Quantum Securing Blockchain

Authors: George Rajna

Although blockchain is traditionally seen as secure, it is vulnerable to attack from quantum computers. [37] A new theoretical model involves squeezing light to just the right amount to accurately transmit information using subatomic particles. [36] The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing—quantum chemistry—would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2440] viXra:1805.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-31 08:54:04

### Quantum Computer Chemistry

Authors: George Rajna

The standard approach to building a quantum computer with majoranas as building blocks is to convert them into qubits. However, a promising application of quantum computing—quantum chemistry—would require these qubits to be converted again into so-called fermions. [35] Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2439] viXra:1805.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 07:00:04

### Macroscopic Quantum Coherence

Authors: George Rajna

Tarucha, the leader of the team, says, "This is a very exciting finding, as it could potentially help to accelerate research into scaling up semiconductor quantum computers, allowing us to solve scientific problems that are very tough on conventional computer systems." [29] Physicists at Saarland University in Saarbrücken, Germany, have succeeded in entangling a single atom with a single photon in the telecom wavelength range. [28] A team of physicists from ICTP-Trieste and IQOQI-Innsbruck has come up with a surprisingly simple idea to investigate quantum entanglement of many particles. [27] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20] For years, the people developing artificial intelligence drew inspiration from what was known about the human brain, and it has enjoyed a lot of success as a result. Now, AI is starting to return the favor. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2438] viXra:1805.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 13:10:48

### Quantum Virtual Movies

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists have shown how an optical chip can simulate the motion of atoms within molecules at the quantum level, which could lead to better ways of creating chemicals for use as pharmaceuticals. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2437] viXra:1805.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-28 07:24:50

### Time Crystals in Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna

An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist – a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2436] viXra:1805.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-28 07:53:39

### Magnetization by Light

Authors: George Rajna

The production of devices to store or transmit information is one of the most frequent technological applications of magnetism. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2435] viXra:1805.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-28 08:27:27

### Double Slit Experiment Explained by the Principle of Complementary and the Doppler Effect

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ

In this paper I propose an explanation of the double slit experiment results, considered in a general form, in terms of the Doppler effect, as a consequence of applying the principle of complementarity. It is shown that, if we accept the fact that both particle and wave are manifestations of the same conceptual whole, in the general form of the particle-wave dualism, then the Doppler effect will be a manifestation for both wave and particle, and the double slit experiment will be a qualitative illustration of this fact.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2434] viXra:1805.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-28 09:45:59

### Some Topological Paradoxes of Relativity (Epr)-II. (English Version)

Authors: V.A. Kasimov
Comments: 6 Pages. in English

To turn again to the article of A. Aspect "BELL's THEOREM: the naive view of the experimenter" we were forced by some publications, for example, [2]. We were convinced once again of the conceptual correctness of the problem of EPR in the Aspect's article. Conceptually, in the "naive presentation of EPR" from A. Aspect no "gluing" of probability measures in different spaces is not required. The presentation of the A. Aspect is logically closed and complete. By simple examples, the existence of a problem related to the violation of bell's inequality is shown. The proposed article has all the logical "moments" , each of which can be said - it is not so! It should be emphasized that none of the points [2] was "glued" to any of our "moments".
Category: Quantum Physics

[2433] viXra:1805.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-29 07:34:07

### Switch Control Spin Current

Authors: George Rajna

Researchers at Tohoku University in Japan have discovered a switch to control the spin current, a mechanism needed for information processing with full spin-based devices. [19] Particles can exchange their spin, and in this way spin currents can be formed in a material. [18] Researchers have shown that certain superconductors—materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures—can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2432] viXra:1805.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-27 08:14:29

### Quantum Computing of Atomic Nucleus

Authors: George Rajna

Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory are the first to successfully simulate an atomic nucleus using a quantum computer. [29] A collaboration of scientists led by Google, and including physicists from Leiden University and TU Delft, have developed a practice tool for chemists called OpenFermion. [28] Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory are conducting fundamental physics research that will lead to more control over mercurial quantum systems and materials. [27] Physicists in Italy have designed a " quantum battery " that they say could be built using today's solid-state technology. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2431] viXra:1805.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-27 05:08:59

### Black Holes and Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna

Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2430] viXra:1805.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-23 05:35:20

### Spin Current

Authors: George Rajna

Particles can exchange their spin, and in this way spin currents can be formed in a material. [18] Researchers have shown that certain superconductors—materials that carry electrical current with zero resistance at very low temperatures—can also carry currents of 'spin'. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2429] viXra:1805.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-23 06:06:19

### Quantum Effects in Photosynthesis

Authors: George Rajna

Molecules that are involved in photosynthesis exhibit the same quantum effects as non-living matter, concludes an international team of scientists including University of Groningen theoretical physicist Thomas la Cour Jansen. [29] Nanoparticles derived from tea leaves inhibit the growth of lung cancer cells, destroying up to 80% of them, new research by a joint Swansea University and Indian team has shown. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2428] viXra:1805.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-23 08:46:21

### Really Quantum Memory

Authors: George Rajna

Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2427] viXra:1805.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-23 09:10:37

### About the EPR Paradox. Resolution Features. (English Version)

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 6 Pages. English

In interpreting the results of experiments A. Aspect faced two concepts of quantum mechanics and relativity theory, which requires a thorough consideration of the causes of contradictions. The analysis of these issues devoted many works of different authors, and the points raised here also have been exhibited for analysis. However, we feel that contact again to the key moments of the contradiction and possibly in compressed form is a must.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2426] viXra:1805.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-23 13:58:46

### Refutation of the Quantum Probability Rule © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III

The equation evaluated is not tautologous and hence is not established to be linear, and continuity (or homogeneity) of f cannot be proved therefrom. Remark: In 1935 von Neumann stopped "believing" in Hilbert space. Rosinger, E.E. (2004). What is wrong with von Neumann's theorem on "no hidden variables". arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0408191, quoting: Birkhoff, G.D. (1961). Proceedings of Symposia in Pure Mathematics. 2:158, American Mathematical Society, with the respective letter dated 13 November 1935.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2425] viXra:1805.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-24 01:08:48

### Refutation of the Quantum Qutrit Ternary Probability © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III

From the arguments, two equations as rendered are not tautologous. To weaken the argument, we test the sum of the propositions of the outcomes to be greater than one as tautologous, because after all that is the state supposedly observed by experiment. Remarks: The cited paper was paid for by the governments of China, Hungry, Spain, Sweden. The footnoted data set link at personal.us.es/adan/binary.htm is a table of 16 columns and 4500 rows. We could not replicate the χ2-values in Table II. Consequently, we applied the N-by-M contingency test (superset of Chi-squared test with expected values derived from observed values) on the first 1000 rows. We found Fisher P <= 01, χ2 = 0.0000001; df = 14,985. In other words, the data set as published is random data. We conclude this impugns the data collection, data set, results, and entire experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2424] viXra:1805.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-24 08:26:21

### Avogadro Constant in Combat with Atomic Mass Unit

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk

In May 2019 a new value for the Avogadro constant will be introduced. However its proposed value is in contradiction with the value of the atomic mass unit, whichever amu is taken: the one based on normal mass values, or the one based on mass values influenced by binding energies in atomic nuclei, via E(nergy) = mc2. This article presents an alternative approach.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2423] viXra:1805.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-24 09:41:39

### Erase a Quantum Bit

Authors: George Rajna

The minimum amount energy needed to erase a quantum bit (qubit) of information has been measured for the first time. [36] It may sound like the stuff of fairy tales, but in the 1950s two numerical models initially developed as a pet project by physicists led to the birth of an entirely new field of physics: computational statistical mechanics. [35] New research gives insight into a recent experiment that was able to manipulate an unprecedented number of atoms through a quantum simulator. This new theory could provide another step on the path to creating the elusive quantum computers. [34] Chinese scientists Xianmin Jin and his colleagues from Shanghai Jiao Tong University have successfully fabricated the largest-scaled quantum chip and demonstrated the first two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons in real spatial space, which may provide a powerful platform to boost analog quantum computing for quantum supremacy. [33] To address this technology gap, a team of engineers from the National University of Singapore (NUS) has developed an innovative microchip, named BATLESS, that can continue to operate even when the battery runs out of energy. [32] Stanford researchers have developed a water-based battery that could provide a cheap way to store wind or solar energy generated when the sun is shining and wind is blowing so it can be fed back into the electric grid and be redistributed when demand is high. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2422] viXra:1805.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-24 12:26:01

### Exploring the Origin of Gravity

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physicists assume that the origin of gravity is still obscure. However, since more than two centuries the essence of the origin of gravity occurs in scientific papers. The interpretation of this root is not straightforward and telling the whole story requires a solid mathematical model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2421] viXra:1805.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-21 09:33:54

### Ternary Quantum Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna

For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20] For years, the people developing artificial intelligence drew inspiration from what was known about the human brain, and it has enjoyed a lot of success as a result. Now, AI is starting to return the favor. [19] Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18] Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2420] viXra:1805.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-21 12:49:30

### Quantum Entanglement Upside Down

Authors: George Rajna

A team of physicists from ICTP-Trieste and IQOQI-Innsbruck has come up with a surprisingly simple idea to investigate quantum entanglement of many particles. [27] For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated ternary—rather than binary—quantum correlations between entangled objects. [26] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [25] Researchers have studied how a 'drumstick' made of light could make a microscopic 'drum' vibrate and stand still at the same time. [24] A University of Oklahoma physicist, Alberto M. Marino, is developing quantum-enhanced sensors that could find their way into applications ranging from biomedical to chemical detection. [23] A team of researchers from Shanghai Jiao Tong University and the University of Science and Technology of China has developed a chip that allows for two-dimensional quantum walks of single photons on a physical device. [22] The physicists, Sally Shrapnel, Fabio Costa, and Gerard Milburn, at The University of Queensland in Australia, have published a paper on the new quantum probability rule in the New Journal of Physics. [21] Probabilistic computing will allow future systems to comprehend and compute with uncertainties inherent in natural data, which will enable us to build computers capable of understanding, predicting and decision-making. [20] For years, the people developing artificial intelligence drew inspiration from what was known about the human brain, and it has enjoyed a lot of success as a result. Now, AI is starting to return the favor. [19] Scientists at the National Center for Supercomputing Applications (NCSA), located at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, have pioneered the use of GPU-accelerated deep learning for rapid detection and characterization of gravitational waves. [18] Researchers from Queen Mary University of London have developed a mathematical model for the emergence of innovations. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2419] viXra:1805.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-22 05:52:35

### High-Speed Optical Communication

Authors: George Rajna

Graphene Flagship researchers have shown for the first time gate tunable third harmonic generation in graphene. [35] One can also imagine making a superconducting transistor out of graphene, which you can switch on and off, from superconducting to insulating. That opens many possibilities for quantum devices." [34] A team of scientists has detected a hidden state of electronic order in a layered material containing lanthanum, barium, copper, and oxygen (LBCO). [33] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[2418] viXra:1805.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-22 06:45:18

### Pendulum Represents Binary Quantum State of Oscillations

Authors: Masataka Ohta

There is a straightforward correspondence between superposition of polarization modes of photons and that of classical radio waves. While classical particles cannot be superpositioned, classical waves can be, which is within classical intuition. Even more intuitively, two dimensional oscillations of a pendulum represent oscillating binary quantum states such as polarization states of photons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2417] viXra:1805.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-22 06:49:21

### Qubit as a Polarization Division Multiplexed Quadrature Amplitude Modulated Symbol of Light

Authors: Masataka Ohta

With optical communication technology today, it is practical to communicate with polarization division multiplexed (PDM) quadrature amplitude modulated (QAM) symbols, which are quantum superposition of horizontally and vertically polarized photons, which are, so called, qubits. As the number of bits encoded by a PDM QAM symbol is limited, according to Shannon-Hartley theorem, by signal to noise ratio, the degree of parallelism of quantum computers is limited. The result is consistent with quantum threshold theorem. Quantum entanglement between qubits only makes the number of bits encoded by the qubits smaller, because entanglement means correlation between the qubits. Thus, quantum computers are not more powerful than classical ones. Finally, it is shown that purely classical computers can be arbitrarily fast and ideal, that is, noiseless, quantum computers are classical.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2416] viXra:1805.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-22 10:31:27

### Refutation of the Born Rule in Eqm as the Probability of the Wave Function Squared © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III

The equation as rendered is not tautologous, and differs from contradictory by two values.
Category: Quantum Physics

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[1056] viXra:1809.0337 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-17 08:57:13

### Experimental Verification of Wave Packet Collapse Using Fourth-Order Interference

Authors: Kazufumi Sakai
Comments: 8 Pages. Journal for Foundations and Applications of Physics, vol. 5, No. 2 (2018) 216-224

The concept of wave packet collapse is the most interesting and difficult to understand assumption of quantum mechanics and it remains an unresolved issue. Therefore, it is necessary to carefully examine its principle and process experimentally. We fabricated a new fourth-order interference apparatus capable of verifying the collapse of a wave packet. Contrary to expectation, a “collapse” was not observed in our experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1055] viXra:1809.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-17 22:31:49

### The Dirac Hamiltonian's Egregious Violations of Special Relativity; the Nonrelativistic Pauli Hamiltonian's Unique Relativistic Extension

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

A single-particle Hamiltonian independent of the particle's coordinate ensures the particle conserves momentum, i.e., is free. Lorentz-covariance of that Hamiltonian's energy-momentum specifies it up to the particle's rest energy; the free particle it describes has speed below c and constant velocity parallel to its conserved momentum. Dirac took his free-particle Hamiltonian to have the same squared value as that relativistic one, but unwittingly blocked Lorentz-covariance of his Hamiltonian's energy-momentum by requiring it to be inhomogeneously linear in momentum. The Dirac "free particle" badly flouts relativity and even physical cogency; its velocity direction is extremely nonconstant, while its speed is fixed to c times the square root of three even when it interacts electromagnetically. Both its rest energy and total energy can be negative, and its velocity components and rest energy are artificially correlated by being mutually anticommuting; its alleged "spin" is an artifact of the anticommutation of its velocity components. Unlike the Dirac Hamiltonian, the nonrelativistic Pauli Hamiltonian is apparently physically sensible for particle speed far below c. Its relativistic extension is worked out via Lorentz-invariant upgrade of its associated action functional at zero particle velocity, and is obtained in closed form if there is no applied magnetic field; a successive approximation scheme must otherwise be used.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1054] viXra:1809.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-11 11:54:46

### Refutation of Bell's Original Inequality from 1964 with Assumptions

Authors: Colin James III

Bell's inequality from 1964 with or without assumptions is not tautologous, and hence refuted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1053] viXra:1808.0679 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-04 02:51:54

### Relativistic Newtonian Gravitation That Gives the Correct Prediction of Mercury Precession and Needs Less Matter for Galaxy Rotation Observations

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

In the past, there was an attempt to modify Newton’s gravitational theory, in a simple way, to consider relativistic effects. The approach was “abandoned” mainly because it predicted only half of Mercury’s precession. Here we will revisit this method and see how a small logical extension can lead to a relativistic Newtonian theory that predicts the perihelion precession of Mercury correctly. In addition, the theory requires much less mass to explain galaxy rotation than standard theories do, and is also interesting for this reason.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1052] viXra:1808.0523 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-26 06:45:55

### The Wondrous Design and Non-random Character for “Chance” Events

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann

In this article, it is shown specifically that physical-system chance events as represented by theory predicted (a priori) probabilistic statements used in such realms as modern particle physics, among others, are only random relative to the restricted language of the theory that predicts such behavior. It is shown that all such “chance” physical events are related one to another by a remarkably designed, systematic and wondrous collection of equations that model how the physical laws and processes specifically yield such physical events. A second result shows theoretically that all such “chance” behavior is caused by the application of well-defined ultralogics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1051] viXra:1808.0287 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-01 10:49:25

### Update the Path Integral in Quantum Mechanics by Using the Energy Pipe Streamline

Authors: Shuang-ren Zhao

The path integral in quantum mechanics is a very important mathematical tools. It is widely applied in quantum electrodynamics and quantum field theory. But its basic concepts confuse all of us. The first thing is the propagation of the probability. The second is the path can be any paths you can draw. How this can work? In this article, a new definition of energy pipe streamline integral is introduced in which the mutual energy theorem and the mutual energy flow theorem, mutual energy principle, self-energy principle, Huygens principle, and surface integral inner product of the electromagnetic fields are applied to offer a meaningful and upgraded path integral. The mutual energy flow is the energy flow from the emitter to the absorber. This energy flow is built by the retarded wave radiates from the emitter and the advanced wave radiates from the absorber. The mutual energy flow theorem guarantees that the energy go through any surface between the emitter and the absorber are all equal. This allow us to build many slender flow pipes to describe the energy flow. The path integral can be defined on these pipes. This is a updated path integral is referred as the energy pip streamline integral. The Huygens principle allow us to insert virtual current sources on any place of the pipes. Self-energy principle tell us that any particles are consist of 4 waves: the retarded wave, the advanced wave and another two time-reversal waves. All these waves are canceled and hence the waves do not carry or transfer any energy. Energy is only carried and transferred by the mutual energy flow. Hence the mutual energy flow theorem is actually the energy flow theorem. Wave looks like probability wave, but mutual energy flow are real energy flow is not a probability flow. In this article the streamline integral is applied to electromagnetic field or photon or other particle for example electrons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1050] viXra:1808.0248 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-19 16:27:47

### Refutation of the Coin Toss Proof for Conjectures of the Bell-CHSH Inequalities

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com. (We instruct troll Mikko at Disqus, as sanctioned on vixra..org, to read the entire article twice before typing.)

Based on coin tossing, Bell's inequality and the CHSH inequality are presented respectively, for any four numbers A, A′, B, B′ each equal to ±1, as AB+AB′+A′B−A′B′=±2 and ⟨AB⟩+⟨AB′⟩+⟨A′B⟩−⟨A′B′⟩≤2. Both are not tautologous, and hence refuted. A defective proof of the former equation as repeated unawares is also refuted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1049] viXra:1808.0240 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-30 08:42:06

### Generating the Universe from Scratch

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The creator created the universe from scratch, and after that instant, the creator left his creatures alone. The observers under these creatures can read the historic part of the read-only repository in which the creator archived the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1048] viXra:1808.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-16 05:50:00

### Pure Energy

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Energy appears in many forms, but this document focusses on the energy that can be transferred between particles. Particles have no limbs, thus the field that embeds them must transfer the energy via suitable field excitations
Category: Quantum Physics

[1047] viXra:1808.0073 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-21 00:55:14

### Against Quantum Idealism

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian

In connection with the appearance of references to works that establish a "Bridge between matter and spirit"[1], as well as discovered something in common between "Quantum mechanics, consciousness and free will" [2], it is difficult to expect a serious outcry in the scientific world from such research, however, there is an obvious reason to draw attention to the differentiation of universal existence on the material and the ideal, and especially in physics - "the birthplace of spontaneous materialists".
Category: Quantum Physics

[1046] viXra:1807.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-09 22:46:24

### Bell's Inequality Refuted on Bell's Terms

Authors: Gordon Watson

We refute Bell’s inequality by showing quite simply that his terms lead to an algebraic inequality that never fails while his famous inequality fails algebraically more often than not.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1045] viXra:1807.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-22 05:22:49

### Bell’s Theorem Refuted Irrefutably on Bell’s Own Terms

Authors: Gordon Watson

Using elementary mathematics, and consistent with claims that we've advanced since 1989, we refute Bell's inequality irrefutably on Bell's own terms. In sum, in Bell 1964: (14b) ≠ (14a).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1044] viXra:1807.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-17 05:58:24

### Bell’s Theorem Refuted Irrefutably on Bell’s Own Terms

Authors: Gordon Watson

Using elementary mathematics, and consistent with claims that we've advanced since 1989, we refute Bell's inequality irrefutably on Bell's own terms. In sum, in Bell 1964: (14b) ≠ (14a).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1043] viXra:1807.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-14 04:47:23

### Bell’s Theorem Refuted Irrefutably on Bell’s Own Terms

Authors: Gordon Watson

Using elementary mathematics, and consistent with claims that we've advanced since 1989, we refute Bell's inequality irrefutably on Bell's own terms. In sum, in Bell 1964: (14b) ≠ (14a).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1042] viXra:1807.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-09 03:21:49

### Bell’s Theorem Refuted Irrefutably on Bell’s Own Terms

Authors: Gordon Watson

Using elementary mathematics, and consistent with claims that we've advanced since 1989, we refute Bell's inequality irrefutably on Bell's own terms. In sum, in Bell 1964: (14b) ≠ (14a).
Category: Quantum Physics

[1041] viXra:1807.0476 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-14 18:50:20

### Heuristic Methods for the Calculation of Mass for Particles and Their Possible Interpretation in Terms of Diagrammatic Expansions.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 10 pages, 1 figure.

Heuristic methods for the calculation of mass for leptons, baryons and mesons proposed by Barut and other authors in the 1970s to 1990s are discussed, as well as an extension by the present author. Particles are associated with loops of revolving charge, interpreted by the author either as coherent or incoherent loops of waves. Results are consistent with the kinetic energies obtained for the physically analogous superconducting loop case, treated theoretically by Byers and Yang, which scales as n^2(in which n is a Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum number) and displays periodicity as a function of the amount of trapped magnetic flux inside a loop. From Barut´s model we obtain the mass for the tau-lepton, corresponding to n=4, and for n=3 a “proton” with m ≈ 945 Mev/c^2 mass. The masses for other baryons can be obtained by considering the coherence breaking effect of trapped flux on the modulation of the mass-energy behavior as a function of n, with a theory quite similar to that for charge density waves in rings. We discuss also the interpretation of these calculations in field-theoretic terms as presented by other authors in terms of diagrammatic expansions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1040] viXra:1807.0476 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-29 08:07:52

### Heuristic Methods for the Calculation of Mass for Particles and Their Possible Interpretation in Terms of Diagrammatic Expansions.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 9 pages, 1 figure

Heuristic methods for the calculation of mass for leptons, baryons and mesons proposed by Barut and other authors in the 1970s to 1990s are discussed, as well as an extension by the present author. Particles are associated with loops of revolving charge, interpreted by the author either as coherent or incoherent loops of waves. Results are consistent with the kinetic energies obtained for the physically analogous superconducting loop case, treated theoretically by Byers and Yang, which scales as n^2(in which n is a Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum number) and displays periodicity as a function of the amount of trapped magnetic flux inside a loop. From Barut´s model we obtain the mass for the tau-lepton, corresponding to n=4, and for n=3 a “proton” with m ≈ 945 Mev/c^2 mass. The masses for other baryons can be obtained by considering the coherence breaking effect of trapped flux on the modulation of the mass-energy behavior as a function of n. We discuss also the interpretation of these calculations in field-theoretic terms as presented by other authors in terms of diagrammatic expansions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1039] viXra:1807.0471 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-06 07:34:05

### Common Sense Defies “Physics”

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 2 Pages. One sentence has been added to the end of the abstract

All my theoretical research on physics, created by and since Einstein, have led me to the belief that the higher the level of intelligence of the physicist, the more that can be a threat to the health of physical sciences. Einstein started the decline of this science with his Special Theory of Relativity!
Category: Quantum Physics

[1038] viXra:1807.0402 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-30 15:24:49

### Mass

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The target of this document is the explanation of the essentials of gravity and its characteristic, the mass of discrete objects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1037] viXra:1807.0340 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-11 04:47:29

### Entanglement Condition for W Type Multimode States and a Scheme for Experimental Realization

Authors: M. Karthick Selvan, Prasanta K. Panigrahi

We derive a class of inequality relations, using both the sum uncertainty relations of su(2) algebra operators and the Schrodinger-Robertson uncertainty relation of partially transposed su(1, 1) algebra operators, to detect the three-mode entanglement of non-Gaussian states of electromagnetic field. These operators are quadratic in mode creation and annihilation operators. The inseparability condition obtained using su(2) algebra operators is shown to guarantee the violation of stronger separability condition provided by Schrodinger-Robertson uncertainty relation of partially transposed su(1, 1) algebra operators. The obtained inseparability condition is also shown to be a necessary condition for W type entangled states and it is used to derive the general form for a family of such inseparability conditions. An experimental scheme is proposed to test the violation of separability condition. The results derived for three-mode systems are generalized to multimode systems.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1036] viXra:1807.0340 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-08 12:22:18

### Entanglement Condition for W Type Multimode States

Authors: M. Karthick Selvan

We derive a class of inequality relations for detecting the three-mode entanglement of non-Gaussian states of electromagnetic field, using a set of operators satisfying the Lie algebra of Pauli matrices. These operators are quadratic in mode creation and annihilation operators. The obtained inseparability condition is shown to be a necessary condition for W type entangled states and it is used to derive the general form for a family of such inseparability conditions. An experimental scheme is proposed to test the violation of separability condition. The results derived for three-mode systems are generalized to multimode systems.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1035] viXra:1807.0262 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-18 07:47:39

### The Holomorphic Process: Understanding the Holographic Nature of Reality as a Metamorphic Process

Authors: Theodore J. St. John
Comments: 44 Pages. This is a condensed version of the 4-part series, "The Holomorphic Quantum Theory". I welcome feedback at stjohntheodore@gmail.com

The holographic principle, derived from black hole mathematics in cosmology, is gaining interest as a theory of reality, but it is missing the part that explains how the information gets from the surface of a black hole to every quantum particle in the universe. The purpose of this paper is to present a current research project that is attempting to answer that question. The approach presented here is to treat space and time as two equivalent yet perceptively different aspects of motion. This is an approach that reframes the problem by changing the fundamental interpretation of space and time, which have historically been treated as two fundamentally different entities, somehow mixed to form spacetime. This new approach allows the use of temporal frequency (the inverse of time), and spatial frequency (the inverse of space) to be superimposed on a space-time-motion diagram, which helps to visualize the relationship between the inverse (frequency or quantum) domain and linear (relativistic) domain. The result is a composite model that eliminates the need for a black-hole concept. Instead, it portrays the two aspects of motion as two coherent “rays” of energy projected outward into the linear space-time domain (future) from every point in the universe and immediately reflected (into the past within a Planck second) back to the quantum domain, which is phase-shifted due to the very same motion, forming a perceptible surface at the event reference. This approach does not theorize anything new in terms of unfathomable dimensions, undiscovered particles, extra-particulate forces, or the like. It only requires a different perspective of what we already know, one that does not require knowledge of any specialized mathematical language beyond undergraduate-level physics and engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1034] viXra:1807.0167 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-20 05:42:17

### 64 Shades of Space

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Depending on its dimension, space that can be represented by number systems exists in many shades. The quaternionic number system provides 64 shades of space. Platforms that apply a private shape of space, float over a background platform. Modular systems of floating and combining platforms populate a universe that looks like the reality in which we live. The model offers an observer’s view and a creator’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1033] viXra:1807.0167 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-15 02:50:18

### 64 Shades of Space

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Depending on its dimension, space that can be represented by number systems exists in many shades. The quaternionic number system provides 64 shades of space. Platforms that apply a private shape of space, float over a background platform. Modular systems of floating and combining platforms populate a universe that looks like the reality in which we live.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1032] viXra:1807.0167 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-10 14:37:52

### 64 Shades of Space

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Depending on its dimension, space that can be represented by number systems exists in many shades. The quaternionic number system provides 64 shades of space. Platforms that apply a private shape of space, float over a background platform. Modular systems of floating and combining platforms populate a universe that looks like the reality in which we live.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1031] viXra:1806.0394 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-27 07:39:46

### Refutation of Clifton's Kochen-Specker Statistical Argument Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The equation as rendered is not tautologous, meaning something other than a theorem is assumed in Clifton's KS argument.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1030] viXra:1806.0342 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-24 14:42:15

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

"N(A, not B)+N(B, not C)≥N(A, not C)" is not tautologous as: ~(((s&(p&~q))+(s&(q&~r)))<(s&(p&~r)))=(p=p) , TTTT TTTT TTFT TFTT; or ~(((s&(p+~q))+(s&(q+~r)))<(s&(p+~r)))=(p=p) , TTTT TTTT TTTT FTFT.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1029] viXra:1806.0333 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-23 07:47:57

### Michelson Morley Experiment

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe

The conclusion of the Michelson Morley experiment is one of the biggest mistakes in theoretical physics, the absence of an ether wind doesn't prove that ether doesn't exist.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1028] viXra:1806.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-10 08:19:45

### The Pauli Objection Addressed in a Logical Way

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug

One of the greatest unsolved problems in quantum mechanics is related to time operators. Since the Pauli objection was first raised in 1933, time has only been considered a parameter in quantum mechanics and not as an operator. The Pauli objection basically asserts that a time operator must be Hermitian and self-adjoint, something the Pauli objection points out is actually not possible. Some theorists have gone so far as to claim that time between events does not exist in the quantum world. Others have explored various ideas to establish an acceptable type of time operator, such as a dynamic time operator, or an external clock that stands just outside the framework of the Pauli objection. However, none of these methods seem to be completely sound. We think that a better approach is to develop a deeper understanding of how elementary particles can be seen, themselves, as ticking clocks, and to examine more broadly how they relate to time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1027] viXra:1806.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-20 05:39:28

### Structure of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 21 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Obviously, physical reality possesses structure, and this structure founds on one or more foundations. These foundations are rather simple and easily comprehensible. The major foundation evolves like a seed into more complicated levels of the structure, such that after a series of steps a structure results that appears like the structure of the physical reality that humans can partly observe. To show the power of this approach the paper explains the origin of gravity and the fine structure of photons and elementary particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1026] viXra:1806.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-04 11:48:31

### Structure of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 17 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Obviously, physical reality possesses structure, and this structure founds on one or more foundations. These foundations are rather simple and easily comprehensible. The major foundation evolves like a seed into more complicated levels of the structure, such that after a series of steps a structure results that appears like the structure of the physical reality that humans can partly observe. To show the power of this approach the paper explains the origin of gravity and the fine structure of photons and elementary particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1025] viXra:1805.0393 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-30 06:14:33

### Pendulum Represents Binary Quantum State of Oscillations

Authors: Masataka Ohta