**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(8) - 0703(11) - 0705(1) - 0708(1) - 0711(1)

2008 - 0802(1) - 0804(6) - 0807(1) - 0812(1)

2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(10) - 0908(9) - 0909(4) - 0910(6) - 0911(4) - 0912(4)

2010 - 1001(5) - 1002(3) - 1003(29) - 1004(9) - 1005(7) - 1006(5) - 1007(5) - 1008(4) - 1009(3) - 1011(1) - 1012(1)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(6) - 1104(7) - 1105(3) - 1106(8) - 1107(9) - 1108(7) - 1109(11) - 1110(10) - 1111(11) - 1112(9)

2012 - 1201(1) - 1202(3) - 1203(11) - 1204(5) - 1205(8) - 1206(6) - 1207(4) - 1208(9) - 1209(8) - 1210(10) - 1211(12) - 1212(7)

2013 - 1301(16) - 1302(10) - 1303(6) - 1304(8) - 1305(16) - 1306(19) - 1307(16) - 1308(10) - 1309(14) - 1310(2) - 1311(11) - 1312(25)

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2015 - 1501(8) - 1502(19) - 1503(18) - 1504(14) - 1505(27) - 1506(26) - 1507(27) - 1508(31) - 1509(26) - 1510(28) - 1511(31) - 1512(33)

2016 - 1601(23) - 1602(23) - 1603(42) - 1604(54) - 1605(37) - 1606(40) - 1607(51) - 1608(28) - 1609(47) - 1610(53) - 1611(79) - 1612(45)

2017 - 1701(35) - 1702(41) - 1703(50) - 1704(63) - 1705(68) - 1706(57) - 1707(72) - 1708(60) - 1709(59) - 1710(33) - 1711(20) - 1712(14)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2023] **viXra:1712.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 06:41:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

In contrast to the approach taken by mainstream physics, the Hilbert Book Model applies stochastic control of dynamic coherence and binding of module components. Each module owns its private stochastic process. All stochastic processes own a characteristic function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2022] **viXra:1712.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 06:45:22*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Physical reality archives its dynamic geometric data in a read-only repository. This repository emerges from its foundation which is an orthomodular lattice. The repository is a combination of a series of separable Hilbert spaces that share the same infinite dimensional vector space. For the definition of the inner product of pairs of vectors the separable Hilbert spaces apply a private version of the quaternionic number system. A non-separable Hilbert space embeds the separable Hilbert spaces. The version of the quaternionic number system acts as a parameter space. These parameter spaces float over a background parameter space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2021] **viXra:1712.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 06:49:19*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Two kinds of super-tiny shock fronts represent nature’s basic dark quanta. All other discrete objects in nature are configured by these dark quanta.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2020] **viXra:1712.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 14:05:38*

**Authors:** M. W. Roberts

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

An optical communication system is described. The system provides a unique operational capability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2019] **viXra:1712.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 09:05:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Achieving strong light-matter interaction at the quantum level has always been a central task in quantum physics since the emergence of quantum information and quantum control. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2018] **viXra:1712.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 14:22:18*

**Authors:** Martin Dudziak

**Comments:** 250 Pages.

PhD thesis, 1993

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2017] **viXra:1712.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 03:30:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2016] **viXra:1712.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 10:56:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2015] **viXra:1712.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-03 12:36:27*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This note briefly outlines how numbers that appear to be totally and independently random switch to become deterministic at the Planck scale. In other words, God does not play dice.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2014] **viXra:1712.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 01:02:42*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this work, we show that a massless physical field that accompanies a massive particle can be derived from Dirac equation, such as an electron is accompanied by the Coulomb electrostatic field, and we show that Dirac equation can also be generalised to form a field equation to describe internal dynamics of massless physical fields by considering the components of the momentum operators as matrix operators rather than scalar operators as in the original Dirac equation. One of many remarkable results that can be obtained from the generalised Dirac field equation is a linear potential that may be used to describe the quark confinement at large distances in the quark model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2013] **viXra:1712.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-03 05:42:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A group of scientists at the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI), University of Copenhagen, has figured out how to make spin qubits perform controlled backward rotations. [29] Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2012] **viXra:1712.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 18:37:11*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Bringing an elementary knowledge of sums and averages to Bell (1964), we refute Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2011] **viXra:1712.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-02 00:42:06*

**Authors:** Shubhayan Sarkar

**Comments:** under reveiw in PRA, 3 pages

Is quantum state real or just knowledge of some underlying reality? This question has been
asked time and time again but the answer still remains unclear. In the following paper, using the
property of the entangled state the author shows that the underlying hidden-variable model for a
particle in an entangled state has to be psi-epistemic. This implies that the wavefunction can't correspond to reality of such a system where the quantum state is entangled. However the result
doesn0t contradict the PBR result which says that quantum state is real as those results do not
include entangled systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2010] **viXra:1712.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 08:25:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University have shown that copper-based superconductors, or cuprates – the first class of materials found to carry electricity with no loss at relatively high temperatures – contain fluctuating stripes of electron charge and spin that meander like rivulets over rough ground. [29]
Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28]
Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like
Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2009] **viXra:1711.0479 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 10:42:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Researchers from Google and the University of California Santa Barbara have taken an important step towards the goal of building a large-scale quantum computer. [28]
Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like
Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2008] **viXra:1711.0471 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 02:12:34*

**Authors:** Daehyeon KANG

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Recently, in the measurement of the current of the quantum interference device made of metal in the normal state, the current value oscillates according to the intensity of the magnetic field, and there is a period, and the numerical value is (hc/2e).
In this paper, we show theoretically why the period is (hc/2e) without charge pair.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2007] **viXra:1711.0450 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 16:42:40*

**Authors:** Alexandre

**Comments:** 59 Pages. This version is work under way.

A fifth force, the Cohesion Force, becomes necessary when building a toy universe based on a fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. The four forces of nature plus the new one are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode first version implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2006] **viXra:1711.0434 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 16:05:46*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM. Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964)—en route to refuting Bell's inequality and his theorem—we aim to help STEM students study one of the strangest double-errors in the history of science. To that end we question Marcus du Sautoy's claim that Bell's theorem is as mathematically robust as they come.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2005] **viXra:1711.0421 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 23:52:35*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This is a portion of the model I wrote to model the Electron/Positron and their associated fields; such as Electric, Magnetic, Vector Potential fields. It is written in the Delphi language and is the function that calculates the fields from the mathematical wave function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2004] **viXra:1711.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 06:12:38*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Having shown in our previous works that the real-valued Schrödinger wave equation can be used to find mathematical functions to construct spacetime structures of quantum particles, in this work, we will discuss the possibility to formulate a real-valued Dirac equation in which all physical objects and all differential operators that are used to describe the dynamics of a particle are real quantities and, furthermore, since solutions to the Dirac equation are wavefunctions that have four components, it is possible to suggest that solutions to the real-valued Dirac equation should be interpreted as a parameterisation of 3-dimensional differentiable manifolds which are embedded submanifolds of the Euclidean space R^4.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2003] **viXra:1711.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-18 03:59:09*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Otto Stern and Walter Gerlach demonstrated in 1922 experimentally the “existence of space quantization in a magnetic field”, using their own words. The result of this experiment is later on used to introduce the so-called intrinsic spin angular moment of elementary and other particles. This article describes what went wrong in the applied argumentation. In 1896 Zeeman and Lorentz showed experimentally and theoretically that atoms emit ‘shifted’ frequencies when exposed to an external magnetic field. This phenomenon has been used to demonstrate the existence of spinning electrons. However, it is shown that this demonstration is not convincing at all.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2002] **viXra:1711.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-14 11:11:27*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Nós ampliamos a apresentação da teoria proposta no artigo precedente [1], a fim de que nossa concepção alcançasse um público mais amplo.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2001] **viXra:1711.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 21:33:15*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Recent experimental results have shown a violation of Bell’s inequalities, which are a mathematical formulation of Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox. The violation leads to the conclusion that there are no local hidden variable theories that underlie quantum mechanics. However, the Bell’s inequalities do not rule out the possibility to construct non-local hidden variable theories that comply with quantum mechanics, in particular, a theory of special and general relativity that permits an instantaneous transmission of interaction. In this work we show that a special relativity with a Euclidean metric that allows not only local interactions but also interactions that can be transmitted instantaneously can be constructed and, furthermore, such special relativity can also be generalised to formulate a general theory of relativity that leads to the same experimental results as Einstein theory of general relativity. We also show that it is possible to formulate Dirac-like relativistic wave equations in this Euclidean relativity with either real mass or imaginary mass, which suggests that the proper mass of a quantum particle may be defined in terms of a differential operator that is associated with a spacetime substructure of the particle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2000] **viXra:1711.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-10 08:37:13*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This document is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

This explanation of gravitation supports the idea that basic discrete objects are excitations of a field. The massive basic discrete objects are spherical shock fronts that carry a standard bit of mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1999] **viXra:1711.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 19:20:26*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** Pages.

Abstract: Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964), we eliminate 13 false or unnecessary expressions and negate Bell's famous inequality. We hope this interesting result will move STEM students to study one of the most famous—and strangest—works in the history of physics: for who else but famous Bell uses the flawed approximation of an unnecessary experiment to invalidate their flawed use of a mathematical fact? And then rejects the fact?

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1998] **viXra:1711.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 13:51:59*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Also available as video: http://webspace.qmul.ac.uk/rocornwall/QSE_video.htm

This slide/show animation (also available as video: http://webspace.qmul.ac.uk/rocornwall/QSE_video.htm) is meant to explain some of the concepts people find confusing about the entangled communications device and various interpretations of quantum mechanics. We find the wavefunction and its collapse to be very real phenomenon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1997] **viXra:1711.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 15:39:38*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple explanation is given for the continuation of the singlet state over large distances in an EPRBA experiment. The paper answers this question with clocks ticking in synchronized frequencies that can be carried by the particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1996] **viXra:1711.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 15:12:41*

**Authors:** Masataka Ohta

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Unlimited quantum parallelism is the key to make, in theory, quantum computers more
powerful than classical ones. However, in practice, noisy quantum devices have limited quantum
parallelism, which is directly derived from limited channel capacity of noisy quantum channels. As a
result, in practice, quantum computers are only as powerful as classical ones.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1995] **viXra:1711.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 22:14:49*

**Authors:** Irene Galtung

**Comments:** 53 pages

Science is mathematics. What is mathematics? Science seeks to uncover truths. “Science” is based on factually incorrect “mathematics”. “Science” is false. “Science” is factually incorrect. “Mathematics” is factually incorrect. Science is factually correct. Mathematics is factually correct. Let's look at: quantum mechanics -- the Standard Model of particle physics -- special theory of relativity and general theory of relativity -- Newton’s “science” -- Archimedes’ “science” -- etc.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1994] **viXra:1711.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 22:27:17*

**Authors:** Daehyeon KANG

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

At present, By the requirement that the phase factor of the wave function has unity, Quantum values of magnetic flux are calculated, which seems to lack quantum logic.
Thus, in this paper, we apply the quantum mechanics logic strictly to this problem,The unit value is derived and the result is (hc/2e).
It is exactly the same as that obtained by Faraday's law of electromagnetic induction and classical quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1993] **viXra:1711.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 05:47:27*

**Authors:** Vladimir Aksayskiy

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper presents estimations of parameters of phonon, photon and graviton – which all represent boson family, derived with assumption that each of them has its own set of constants in Planck’s formula for boson gas in thermal equilibrium.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1992] **viXra:1711.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 04:52:42*

**Authors:** Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The paper deals with simulated interpretation of quantum mechanics. This interpretation is based on possibilities of computer simulation of our Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1991] **viXra:1711.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 11:21:56*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 6 pages.

Nós derivamos a densidade Lagrangeana para uma generalização da equação de Schroedinger para o átomo com um életron e um núcleo; e concluímos, por meio da equação generalizada, que este átomo seria o berço de píon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1990] **viXra:1711.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 12:39:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Dmitry Karlovets, senior researcher at the TSU Faculty of Physics, and Valery Serbo from the Institute of Mathematics of the SB RAS have shown that it is possible to observe the wave properties of massive particles at room temperature in practically any modern physics laboratory—it is only necessary to precisely focus the beam of particles. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1989] **viXra:1710.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 15:11:56*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** Pages.

Quantum Mechanics is all about wavefunctions and their interactions. If one seeks to understand QM, then a deep intuitive understanding of wavefunctions and wavefunction collapse would seem essential, indispensable. That’s where it all starts, the causal origin of the quantum as manifested in the physical world. We introduce a wavefunction comprised of the geometric elements of the Pauli algebra of space - point, line, plane, and volume elements - endowed with quantized electromagnetic fields. Wavefunction interactions are described by the geometric product of geometric Clifford algebra, generating the Dirac algebra of flat Minkowski spacetime, the particle physicist’s S-matrix.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1988] **viXra:1710.0316 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-27 17:16:55*

**Authors:** Peter Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A theory (physics) needs to describe something that can exist in nature/reality, it needs to be realistic. But a lot of theories in modern theoretical physics are unnatural/unrealistic, theoretical physicists don't realize that they are lost in science fiction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1987] **viXra:1710.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 03:27:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1986] **viXra:1710.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-25 02:59:18*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The original ideas

We egeneralize the relativistic energy relation for the photoelectric effect in case
of the simultaneous emission of electrons and phonons in the metal medium.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1985] **viXra:1710.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 03:35:47*

**Authors:** Dhananjay P. Mehendale

**Comments:** 10 pages

We develop a simple yet impossible looking quantum protocol for achieving instantaneous
teleportation of any arbitrary quantum state from Alice to Bob even when Bob is several light
years away. We construct this quantum protocol by approriately combining two celebrated
results: the existing quantum teleportation protocol [1] and the quantum algorithm for searching
an unknown target [2]. The existing quantum teleportation protocol [1] requires certain classical
communication between the participents, Alice and Bob. Alice has to send certain classical
information in terms of classical bits generated during her Bell basis measurement over a classical
channel to Bob using which Bob determines the exact recovery operation to be performed on
the qubit(s) in his possession for the creation of the same unknown quantum state at his place
and thus to complete the protocol. This classical information in Alice's possession in terms of
certain classical bits cannot be sent to Bob with the speed faster than that of light which is the
well known experimentally varied universal upper limit on the speed for the transmission of
signals over a classical channel. We show that by appropritely using Grover's algorithm [2] at the
appropriate place in the teleportation protocol [1] and its extension for teleporting multiqubit
state [6] we can eliminate the requirement of the transmission of the classical bits by Alice over
a classical channel to Bob for the creation of the unknown quantum state at his place and thus
provide an eloquent way out to free ourselves from the universal upper limit on speed that is
preventing us from the superluminal information transfer. Thus our new modied teleportation
protocol clearly demonstrates the enormous advantage of remaining in the quantum regime and
avoiding the requirement of any classical communication.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1984] **viXra:1710.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 04:33:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

"In a quantum spin liquid, spins continually fluctuate due to quantum effects and never enter a static ordered arrangement, in contrast to conventional magnets," Kelley said. "These states can host exotic quasiparticles that can be detected by inelastic neutron scattering." [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1983] **viXra:1710.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 05:12:19*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is a very short non-technical note pointing out a key finding from modern mathematical atomism, namely that the world is Binary, and that the Planck mass, the Planck length, and the Planck second are invariant entities.
With Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks, the speed of light (in a vacuum) is the same in every direction, it is isotropic and it is often represented with the character c. The speed of light is, per definition, exactly 299 792 458 m/s, a tremendous speed. We do not contest that this is the speed of light as measured with Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks, but still we ask: ``Is this truly always the case?".

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1982] **viXra:1710.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-26 06:34:58*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

An explicitly time independent Lagrangian functional of a three-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator has been proposed. I derive results for the motion of the three-dimensional damped harmonic oscillator with a pure imaginary three dimensional vector and oscillator’s position-dependent friction coefficient.
The Hamiltonians corresponding to the Lagrangian is also explicitly time independent. The choice of functional form of the friction coefficient on the
oscillator position determines and plays a vital role in the form of the equation of motion classically and quantum mechanically. One choice of the form of the friction coefficient I made lead to breaking the symmetry of the isotropy of
oscillations in the three dimensional space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1981] **viXra:1710.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 06:57:37*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Submitted to Prespacetime Journal

In the reading Nyambuya (2015), we proposed a hypothetical state of the Hydrogen atom whose name we coined 'Neutronium'. That is to say, in the typical Hydrogen atom, the Electron is assumed to orbit the Proton, while in the Neutronium, the converse is assumed, i.e., the Proton orbits the Electron. In the present reading, we present some seductive argument which lead us to think that this Neutronium may actually be the usual Neutron that we are used to know. That is to say, we show that under certain assumed conditions, a free Neutronium may be unstable while a non-free Neutronium is stable in its confinement. Given that a free Neutron is stable in it confinement of the nucleus and unstable where free with a lifetime of ∼ 15 min, one wonders whether or not this Neutronium might be the Neutron if we are to match the lifetime of a free Neutronium to that of a free Neutron.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1980] **viXra:1710.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 23:23:19*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 1 Page.

A LITTLE LATE TO THE PARTY

At this point in time they are debating whether or not space is empty? But the magnetic compass has been around for thousands of years.

With a simple compass you can easily verify:

● There is something filling supposed empty space.

● Whatever is filling space is also lining-up

● Whatever is lining-up also has a direction.

Can General or Special Relativity explain something in space is lining-up and having a direction? Of course not.

String theory with tiny vibration strings can also absolutely NOT explain it.

The supposed Higgs Field does NOT explain it.

There is nothing in the Standard Model that can explain it.

Loop Quantum Gravity? Quantum Mechanics? Nope, nothing explains it.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1979] **viXra:1710.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 08:33:55*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 33 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

Quantum mechanics differential equations are based on the de Broglie
postulate. This paper presents the repercussions on quantum mechanics
differential equations when the de Broglie wavelength is replaced by a relation
between the radius and the energy of a particle. This relation results
from a theoretical work about the interaction of charged particles,
where the particles are modelled as focal points of rays of fundamental particles
with longitudinal and transversal angular momenta. Interaction of
subatomic particles is described as the interaction of the angular momenta
of their fundamental particles. All four known forces are the result of electromagnetic interactions so that only QED is required to describe them. The potential well of an atomic nucleus is shown
with the regions that are responsible for the four types of interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1978] **viXra:1710.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 13:25:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have found ways to test aspects of the Tomonaga–Luttinger theory that describes interacting quantum particles in 1-D ensembles in a Tomonaga–Luttinger liquid (TLL). [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1977] **viXra:1710.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-18 23:30:00*

**Authors:** Felix M Lev

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

In our previous publications we argue that finite mathematics is fundamental, classical mathematics (involving such notions as infinitely small/large, continuity etc.) is a degenerate special case of finite one, and ultimate quantum theory will be based on finite mathematics. We consider a finite quantum theory (FQT) based on a finite field or ring with a large characteristic $p$ and show that standard continuous quantum theory is a special case of FQT in the formal limit $p\to\infty$. Space and time are purely classical notions and are not present in FQT at all. In the present paper we discuss how classical equations of motions arise as a consequence of the fact that $p$ changes, i.e. $p$ is the evolution parameter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1976] **viXra:1710.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 09:09:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

A quantum simulator is the preliminary stage of a quantum computer. [25] By finding materials that act in ways similar to the mechanisms that biology uses to retain and process information, scientists hope to find clues to help us build smarter computers. [25] Scientists have made a crucial step towards unlocking the "holy grail" of computing-microchips that mimic the way the human brain works to store and process information. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1975] **viXra:1710.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 13:36:27*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The original ideas

We calculate the photoelectric effect initiated by dressed photon. The photon
propagator is composed from the electron positron pair.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1974] **viXra:1710.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 01:31:22*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 87 Pages. I still plan to add a few more sections detailing the quantum behavior of the magnetic moment Hamiltionian, as has been done for the Schroedinger Hamiltionian. But the paper is sufficiently developed that sharing is warranted at this time.

Dirac’s seminal 1928 paper “The Quantum Theory of the Electron” is the foundation of how we presently understand the behavior of fermions in electromagnetic fields, including their magnetic moments. In sum, it is, as titled, a quantum theory of individual electrons, but in classical electromagnetic fields comprising large numbers of photons. Based on the electrodynamic time dilations which the author has previously presented and which arise by geometrizing the Lorentz Force motion, there arises an even-richer variant of the Dirac equation which merges into the ordinary Dirac equation in the linear limits. This advanced Dirac theory naturally enables the magnetic moment anomaly to be entirely explained without resort to renormalization and other ad hoc add-ons, and it also permits a detailed, granular understanding of how individual fermions interact with individual photons strictly on the quantum level. In sum, it advances Dirac theory to a quantum theory of the electron and the photon and their one-on-one interactions. Seven distinct experimental tests are proposed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1973] **viXra:1710.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 13:01:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1972] **viXra:1710.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 07:23:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A new method that precisely measures the mysterious behavior and magnetic properties of electrons flowing across the surface of quantum materials could open a path to next-generation electronics. [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1971] **viXra:1710.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 10:17:33*

**Authors:** Alexandre Furtado Neto

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Abstract A fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton is presented axiomatically using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. In this toy universe, the four forces of nature are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix. This is the first, raw, version of this document. I expect to make corrections in future releases.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1970] **viXra:1710.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 10:30:41*

**Authors:** Nikitin A P

**Comments:** 10 Pages. (RUS)

In this article it is stated that there is a fundamental connection between the basic constant of the quantum theory - the Planck constant h and the basic constant of astrophysics - the Hubble constant H, which states the material-energy unity of our world in theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1969] **viXra:1710.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 13:27:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

JILA physicists have for the first time used their spinning molecules technique to measure the "roundness" of the electron, confirming the leading results from another group and suggesting that more precise assessments are possible. [18] The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1968] **viXra:1710.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 17:03:35*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The widely held expectation that quantum physics breaks down below the Planck length ($10^{-33}$ cm) is brought into question. A possible experiment is suggested that might test its validity at a
sub-Planckian length scale.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1967] **viXra:1710.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 15:05:43*

**Authors:** shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended this to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results is that a electron for example travel in the empty space from point A to the point B there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return wave corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these wave. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flow corresponding the above two flow. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the space is a complicated process and not only with one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further widen to to Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1966] **viXra:1710.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 08:00:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The same thing happens in quantum systems, but this state can be changed, and the flow of energy and particles can be reversed if a quantum observer is inserted into the system. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1965] **viXra:1710.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 12:15:15*

**Authors:** Shiro Ishikawa

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Bell's inequality is usually considered to belong to mathematics and not quantum mechanics. We think that this makes it difficult to understand Bell's theory. Thus in this paper, contrary to Bell's spirit (which inherits Einstein's spirit), we try to discuss Bell's inequality in the framework of quantum theory with the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation. And we clarify that whether or not Bell's inequality holds does not depend on whether classical systems or quantum systems, but depend on whether a kind of simultaneous measurements exist or not. And further we assert that our argument ( based on the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation) should be regarded as a scientific representation of Bell's philosophical argument (based on Einstein's spirit).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1964] **viXra:1710.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 05:32:30*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Submitted to Physics and Astronomy International Journal

Exact solutions to the stationary spherically symmetric Newton-Schroedinger equation are proposed
in terms of integrals involving $generalized$ Gaussians. The energy eigenvalues are also obtained in terms of these integrals which agree with the numerical results in the literature. A discussion of infinite-derivative-gravity follows which allows to generalize the Newton-Schroedinger equation by $replacing$
the ordinary Poisson equation with a $modified$ non-local Poisson equation associated with infinite-derivative gravity. Finally, we argue how to replace the nonlinear Newton-Schroedinger equation for a non-linear quantum-like
Bohm-Poisson equation involving Bohm's quantum potential, and where the fundamental quantity is $no$ longer the wave-function $ \Psi$ but the real-valued probability density $ \rho$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1963] **viXra:1710.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-04 09:43:29*

**Authors:** W.Berckmans

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Efforts based on the results of sophysicated experiments and meant to fit EPR effects in the accepted paradigms of Physics, remain unsatisfactory. A valid Physical Reality model (see Ref1: vixra.org/abs/1604.0230) may help to solve the puzzle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1962] **viXra:1710.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-04 10:06:22*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

As No.5 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the comparative studies of five fundamental interactions (gravitational interaction, electromagnetic interaction, weak interaction, strong interaction and quantum interaction), and focusing on the comparative studies of quantum interaction and other four fundamental interactions. The law of conservation of energy is put forward to deal with all kinds of fundamental interactions (including five fundamental interactions, and the sixth fundamental interaction that may appear in the future) with unified manner; in this process, there will be the unified theories of any two fundamental interactions, the unified theories of any three fundamental interactions, the unified theories of any four fundamental interactions, and so on. When law of conservation of energy can be used to deal with five fundamental interactions with unified manner, this unified theory of five fundamental interactions can be printed on a T-shirt.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1961] **viXra:1710.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 13:52:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1960] **viXra:1710.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 12:41:10*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Abstract:

I Follow up on the 2008 experiments of Tomasz Paterek et al, which link quantum randomness with logical independence. Analysis reveals, that the Paterek formalism (unwittingly) relaxes a Quantum Postulate. That relaxation denies the axiomatic imposition of unitary, Hermitian and Hilbert space mathematics, while allowing these to arise freely, as logically independent structures. Surprisingly, the Paterek formalism demands a non-unitary environment — where unitary structures may freely switch on or off. The unitary environment is necessary in the formation of superposition states, but not eigenstates. This unitary condition is sustained by self-referential logical circularity around cyclic sequences of transformations. Amongst all possible self-referential systems, these generate stable, persistent structures we recognise as quantum mechanical vectors and operators. Circularity explains indeterminacy's non-causedness. Non-definiteness, stems from geometric ambiguity — typically, left|right handedness in the Bloch sphere. Collapse is caused when the unitary symmetry is deformed by some agency, such as a magnetic field or polariser.

Keywords:

foundations of quantum theory, axiomatised quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, linear algebra, elementary algebra, imaginary unit, prepared state, measured state, eigenstate, superposition state, Hilbert space, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1959] **viXra:1710.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 07:11:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10]
Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1958] **viXra:1710.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 07:38:54*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The origin of gravitation and mass is explained by the fact that spherical shock fronts locally and temporarily extend the volume of the carrier of this vibration.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1957] **viXra:1710.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 14:09:49*

**Authors:** Nikolay Dementev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Justifications of Everett’s alternative interpretation of Quantum Mechanics are suggested

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1956] **viXra:1709.0444 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-30 15:30:34*

**Authors:** Shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 29 Pages. We hope some one can make experiment that can explicitly test the time-reversal process and self-energy principle.

Abstract The photon energy transfer is from point to point. But the wave according to the Maxwell equation spreads from the source point to the entire empty space. In order to explain this phenomenon the concept of wave function collapse is created. This concept is very rough, if there are many partition boards with small holes between the emitter charge and the absorber charge. The light is clear can go through all these small holes from emitter to the absorber. But according to the concept of the wave function collapse the wave must collapse N times if there are N holes on the partition boards. Collapse one is strange enough, if the wave collapse N times, that is unbelievable! In another article we have proved that the photon energy is actually transferred by the “mutual energy flow” which is point to point instead of spread to the entire space. Since energy can be transferred by the mutual energy flow, the concept of the wave function collapse is not necessary. In order to build the mutual energy flow it is required to build the self-energy flow also. The self-energy flow is spread to the entire empty space. What will do for the self-energy flow, it is possible the self-flow also collapse to the absorber. However if self-energy flow collapse we have also meet the same problem as the whole wave collapse that means if there are partition sheets with N holes, the self-energy flow has to collapse N times. In the article about mutual energy principle we have propose another possibility in which the self-energy flow instead collapse, we believe it is returned. It is returned with a time reversal process, hence the self-energy dose not contributed to the energy transfer of the photon. The return process can be seen as also a collapse process, however it is collapse to the source of the wave instead of the target of the wave. In this article we will discuss the self-energy flow and the time reversal process in details.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1955] **viXra:1709.0420 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-29 01:07:22*

**Authors:** Philip Maulion

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Maybe the lack of results for several years... is an experimental result.
ICHEP: (International Conference of High Energy Physics), 21-22 September 2017 has
produced no publication, no information. The previous ICHEP in August 2016 was almost too
silent. Never in the present world, physicists of high energy physics, of elementary particles,
have had instruments and detectors as powerful and as sensitive to their provisions. Never,
they were able to accumulate as much data per week, with such high amounts. But here, they
cannot extract any new significant physics information, these physicists have nothing to tell
us, for the moment they are dumb.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1954] **viXra:1709.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-28 10:39:42*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Opaque strips in coherent light shows diffraction effects. The Hodge Experiment of the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model is the Fraunhofer pattern from a first mask with a slit impinges on a second mask. The Hodge Experiment is extended to model a second mask of an opaque strip. The STOE photon model suggests the wires in the Afshar Experiment cause small interference that redirects a small percentage of the photons away from the detectors. This could help interpret Afshar's ``$V^*$'' (non-perturbative measurement parameter) (Afshar et al.(2007) http://www.arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0702188). The STOE is consistent with actual light screen patterns from opaque strips.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1953] **viXra:1709.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-26 10:59:51*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle, Drs, MAEc, BAEc, BPhil

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

While the real and imaginary part of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction are, obviously, not to be looked as field vectors, the similarity between the geometry of the quantum-mechanical wavefunction and that of a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave remains intriguing: from a mathematical point of view, only the relative phase differs. Also, if the physical dimension of the electromagnetic field is expressed in newton per coulomb (force per unit charge), then one might explore the implications of associating the components of the wavefunction with a similar physical dimension: force per unit mass (newton per kg). This leads to a remarkably elegant interpretation of the physical significance of the wavefunction and the wave equation:
1.The calculated energy densities are proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wavefunction and, hence, to the probabilities.
2.Schrödinger’s wave equation itself may then, effectively, be interpreted as a diffusion equation for energy itself.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1952] **viXra:1709.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 09:32:11*

**Authors:** M. W. Roberts

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A delayed choice experiment is proposed. A signal and idler pair of photons are sent to optical circulators. The fate experienced by the idler photon is described by two different cases. In case I, the idler photon has zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter and therefore always enters its optical circulator. In case II, the idler photon has a non-zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter without entering its optical circulator. Which case the idler photon actually experiences is selected by the method that is used to detect the signal photon of the pair. This is true, even if the detection of the signal photon occurs long after the detection of the idler photon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1951] **viXra:1709.0360 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-24 09:59:50*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Submitted to Journal "Quanta" Aug. 28, 2017, but rejected without review.

The nature of electron spin has presented an enigma right from the beginning of quantum mechanics. We suggest that a simple realistic
picture of a real coherently rotating vector field can account for both the Schrödinger equation and electron spin in a consistent manner. Such a rotating field carries distributed angular momentum and energy in the same way as a circularly polarized electromagnetic wave. We derive the Schrödinger equation from the relativistic Klein-Gordon Equation, where the complex wave function maps onto a fixed-axis real rotating vector. Such a realistic picture can also explain the Stern-Gerlach experiment which first identified electron spin. Remarkably, the predictions of a two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment within this realistic picture differ from those of the orthodox quantum superposition approach. This two-stage experiment has not actually been done, and could provide insights into the limits of realistic models. This realistic picture also avoids quantum paradoxes and enables realistic explanations for a variety of quantum phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1950] **viXra:1709.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-24 00:23:20*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This is the 2nd part of《Universal and Unified Field Theory》. The 1st part is available at http://viXra.org/abs/1709.0308

Extend to the Universal Topology [1], this manuscript presents that the principles of World Equations, World Events and Motion Operations institute a set of Universal Equations and inaugurate the holistic foundations general to all dynamic fields. Defined as the First Universal Field Equations, its application to Quantum Mechanics demonstrates and derives, but are not limited to, Conservation of Energy-Momentum, Schrödinger Equation, Dirac Equation, Spinor Fields, and Weyl Spinor.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1949] **viXra:1709.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-22 09:55:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Even more than 100 years after Einstein's explanation of photoemission the process of electron emission from a solid material upon illumination with light still poses challenging surprises. [25]
Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]
Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1948] **viXra:1709.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-22 10:17:08*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilization's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics...

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1947] **viXra:1709.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-22 06:35:05*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 33 Pages. 5 Figures

In nature, nothing is said to occur without reason/purpose. For example, our hearts beat persistently without having a source of infinite energy, which does not happen without reason. The reason is due to their special structure that provides all the properties our hearts possess. In the same way, as electrons, nucleons, and all other particles, or quanta (since quantum mechanics is applied to all particles, these should be known as quanta) possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy, there should be some purpose. And the purpose should be due to their special structure that provides all the properties they display. Therefore, the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion, their special structures, and properties have been determined. The effect of the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion (i.e. quantum spin theory) enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to them. At present, taking into account the effect of the purpose, it has been tried to give very clear and complete explanations of the phenomena of interference and diffraction of electrons and photons. (As the photons are emitted from the orbiting electrons, which posses persistent spin motion, the photons also possess spin motion that they derive from the orbiting electrons.)

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1946] **viXra:1709.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-21 05:15:15*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The first order quaternionic partial differential equation can be considered as the mother of all field equations. Second order partial differential equations describe the interaction between point-like artifacts and fields. A direct relation exists with integral balance equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1945] **viXra:1709.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-21 08:59:42*

**Authors:** Lukas Saual, Difei Zhang

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Thank you

(The narrative around the various mathematical and physical techniques broadly known as quantum mechanics has suffered due to the influence of social pressures. The incredible strengths of the theories and their predictive powers have become subject to a number of sensationalized story lines, which we refer to here as “quantum mysticism”. In this paper we demonstrate a three-pronged counterattack which combats these forces. A precise use of terms coupled with an accurate and intuitive way to describe the behavior of discrete and microscopic phenomenon effectively demystifies quantum mechanics. We don't go into the mathematical details here to keep our discussion accessible to the layperson. After our demystification the discipline withholds its incredible predictive power without scaring away a rational thinker. In fact quantum mechanics is an entirely rational, intuitive, and accessible discipline. The world is full of mystery; however, a discipline devoted to quantifying and rationalizing behaviors of certain specific systems is hardly the place to go searching for mystery.)
由于社会压力的影响，围绕着各种数学和物理技术的叙述而被熟知的量子力学遇到了挫折。这些理论及其预测能力的不可思议的力量已经变成了一些耸人听闻的故事情节，我们称之为“量子神秘主义”。本文对这些力量进行了三方面的反击。精确的使用准确的术语，用直观的方法描述离散和微观现象的行为，这有效地揭开了量子力学的神秘面纱。我们不会在这里讨论数学细节，以使我们的讨论能够被普通人所理解。在我们揭开了这个学科的神秘性之后，它拥有了不可思议的预测能力，同时又不会吓跑一个理性的思考者。事实上，量子力学是一个完全理性的、直观的、易于理解的学科。这个世界充满了神秘；然而，这门学科致力于对某些特定系统的行为进行量化和合理化，并不是去寻找神秘事物的地方

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1944] **viXra:1709.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-21 12:43:43*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present interpretation of photon is as: A photon = a quantum of radiation energy + energy hn , where the quantum of radiation energy constitutes the photon and provides the particle like physical existence to it, similarly, as the quantum of charge (-e) constitutes the electron and provides the particle like physical existence to it. And the energy hn enables the photon to travel with velocity c, spin with frequency n (which the photon obtains from the orbiting electron, from which the photon is emitted), scatter electron in the Compton scattering, and eject electron penetrating into metals in the photoelectric effect. The present interpretation of photon enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to photons, including the phenomena of interference and diffraction

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1943] **viXra:1709.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-21 14:29:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1942] **viXra:1709.0309 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-20 15:19:35*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 2 pages, written in french

We take a time in a spinorial manifold so that we can define a Dirac-Schrödinger equation when we remplace the derivative with respect to the time by the Dirac operator.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1941] **viXra:1709.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 11:33:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Canadian and US researchers have taken an important step towards enabling quantum networks to be cost-effective and truly secure from attack. [16] You can't sign up for the quantum internet just yet, but researchers have reported a major experimental milestone towards building a global quantum network-and it's happening in space. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1940] **viXra:1709.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 08:37:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Light travels fast – sometimes a little too fast when it comes to data processing. [25]
Researchers at the University of Sydney have dramatically slowed digital information carried as light waves by transferring the data into sound waves in an integrated circuit, or microchip. [24]
A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23]
Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22]
Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21]
Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20]
A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1939] **viXra:1709.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 09:13:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24]
Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20]
A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1938] **viXra:1709.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 16:19:25*

**Authors:** Benjamin Allen Sullivan

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Cette publication comprend deux équations dérivées et extrapolées à partir d’un livre que j’ai créé en 2015/2016: Probabilité, Mécaniques quantiques, et Probabilité-Quanta. Le dernier est composé de plusieurs pensées expérimentales et de postulats. J’y ai inclus des numérisations de la publication originale afin d’illustrer mon travail et dans l’espoir de réaliser ces expériences.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1937] **viXra:1709.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 23:55:22*

**Authors:** Nikitin A P

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Abstract
This paper presents an energy interpretation of quantum theory. It is proposed to deal with all the changes and interactions (including gravity) is not as power bodies interaction of charges of particles, fields, and displays the curvature of space-time, as well as the manifestations and consequences of energy processes in a unified cosmos. Measure these processes is the energy of the cosmos, including the "dark matter" and "dark energy", with absolute power equal to Planck's constant. The motion of matter in the universe is seen as the dynamics of the vector field of energy, material and energy "cell" structure which is a proton. Energy is proposed interpretation of the hydrogen atom, in which the motion of matter occurs and thus describes a "drain" and the radiation energy flux vector material-energy field. Planck values are shown in the dimensions of the LT. It is argued that a cosmic "relic" radiation is generated in the atoms existing baryonic matter and has no relation to the mythical "Big Bang". Shows the energy interpretation of the fine structure constant.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1936] **viXra:1709.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 02:48:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Today, electrical bistable devices are the foundation of digital electronics, serving as building blocks of switches, logic gates and memories in computer systems. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1935] **viXra:1709.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 07:46:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The rise of big data and advances in information technology has serious implications for our ability to deliver sufficient bandwidth to meet the growing demand. [24]
Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20]
A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1934] **viXra:1709.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 13:03:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated a new mode of electromagnetic wave called a "line wave," which travels along an infinitely thin line along the interface between two adjacent surfaces with different electromagnetic properties. [25]
The rise of big data and advances in information technology has serious implications for our ability to deliver sufficient bandwidth to meet the growing demand. [24]
Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20]
A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1933] **viXra:1709.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 05:06:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Sydney have dramatically slowed digital information carried as light waves by transferring the data into sound waves in an integrated circuit, or microchip. [24] A breakthrough has been made in the world of quantum computing this month as engineers at Caltech develop a computer chip equipped with nanoscale optical quantum memory. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1932] **viXra:1709.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 12:55:28*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Einstein once expressed dissatisfaction with quantum mechanics, saying that it didn't take us any closer to the secret of the "old one", and that he didn't believe that the supreme being threw dice. Here we argue that traditional interpretations of quantum mechanics invoke a false picture of reality (a picture that takes us further away rather than closer to the G-d), and that, just as the abstract brush strokes of a representational painting serve the purpose of creating an orderly image, any apparent randomness there is to the behaviour of objects in the quantum domain serves the purpose of creating overall order.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1931] **viXra:1709.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 13:21:02*

**Authors:** Lukas Saual, Difei Zhang

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Chinese Translation of Existing Paper

The narrative around the various mathematical and physical techniques broadly known as quantum mechanics has suffered under the influence of various social pressures. The incredible strengths of the theories and their predictive powers have thus become subject to a number of sensationalized storylines, which we refer to here as quantum mysticism. In this paper we demonstrate a three pronged counterattack which combats these forces. A precise use of terms coupled with an accurate and intuitive way to describe the behavior of discrete and microscopic phenomenon effectively demystifies quantum mechanics. We don't go into mathematical details, to keep our discussion accessible to the layperson. After our demystificaion the discipline witholds its incredible predictive power without scaring away a rational thinker. In fact quantum mechnics is entirely a rational, intuitive, and learnable discipline, no more subject to mysticism than any other aspect of the world around us. If you think you don't understand quantum mechanics, it's probably because you don't understand quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1930] **viXra:1709.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-16 02:37:18*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Kohn-Sham density functional theory is one of the most successful theories in chemistry. [19]
Researchers have now succeeded in formulating a mathematical result that provides an exact answer to the question of how chaos actually behaves. The researchers have analysed chaotic states at the atomic level. [18]
Given enough time, a forgotten cup of coffee will lose its appeal and cool to room temperature. [17]
New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16]
Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14]
For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13]
Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1929] **viXra:1709.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 13:16:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The era of full-fledged quantum computers threatens to destroy internet security as we know it. [17]
Researchers at the Australian National University (ANU) have taken a major leap forward to provide practical building blocks for a global quantum internet. [16]
For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15]
Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14]
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13]
The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12]
For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1928] **viXra:1709.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 08:19:27*

**Authors:** Philip Maulion

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The ultimate, elementary, internal clock, of the living world seems to have been discovered. If we refer to the discoveries of the neuroscientists and biologists, the human being has an endogenous clock that made him a transmitter of the beat of time. This essential beat is estimated at 10-25 second and is that what we are able to measure it? If so, no need to search a source in Nature. The time would be unreal. But the 'Presence' of the ‘Thinking Being’ is a first reality. If not, there is none knowledge's statement possible in physical science as in any other science.
Ref. viXra:1211.0149 ; viXra:1301.0157 ; viXra:1307.0018.
philip.maulion@paris7.jussieu.fr

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1927] **viXra:1709.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 08:37:32*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the rigid FORM and topological structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles.
The resulting model is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model.
As a consequence, the standard model could be extended with changes for an alternative Photonic Molecule based Higgs particle of different masses ( recent LHC measurements) based on different geometrical structures.
At the same time there seems to open a new field of physics around quantum gravity, the planetary mass related local lightspeed drag, and a topological superconductive vacuum.
In this paper I present possible 3D particle solutions based on only one complex 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface.
The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into a different shape, with a different function and interlocking abilities with other particles to form Quarks quantum knots and all other particles.
Thus in this Quantum Function Follows Form theory, the Axion-Higgs vacuum particle is interpreted as a massless singular transformer but rigid string particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merging with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots like quarks, W Z and Higgs particles of different masses and even ball lightning and other black hole nuclei.
If we assume that different massive Higgs particle knots are the origin of different evaporation times, then there is reason to assume that the trajectory lengths measured from the source, before evaporation are covariant, without any radiation curvature.
Reason to suggest that the idea to use such a process for “lightsaber” projects with restricted length has some logic.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1926] **viXra:1709.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 08:38:46*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

De fysieke realiteit moet eenvoudig zijn. Deze redenering is het algemene idee achter Occam's razor. Het is echter ook een algemeen natuurkundig beginsel.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1925] **viXra:1709.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 09:49:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Simulating molecules on quantum computers just got much easier with IBM's superconducting quantum hardware. [17]
Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16]
Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14]
Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13]
With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1924] **viXra:1709.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 05:07:45*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physics must be simple. This reasoning is the general idea behind Occam’s razor. However, it is also a general physical principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1923] **viXra:1709.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 13:40:05*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Some observations of light are inconsistent with a wave--like model. Other observations of light are inconsistent with a traditional particle--like model. A single model of light has remained a mystery. Newton's speculations, Democritus's speculations, the Bohm interpretation of quantum mechanics, and the fractal philosophy are combined. The resulting model of photon structure and dynamics is tested by toy computer experiments. The simulations include photons from a distance, in Young's experiment, and from a laser. The patterns on the screens show diffraction patterns fit by the Fresnel equation. The model is consistent with the Afshar experiment.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1922] **viXra:1709.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 12:40:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have successfully imaged spiral magnetic ordering in a multiferroic material. These materials are considered highly promising candidates for future data storage media. [21] Magnetic data storage has long been considered too slow for use in the working memories of computers. Researchers at ETH have now investigated a technique by which magnetic data writing can be done considerably faster and using less energy. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1921] **viXra:1709.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 07:37:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

How do we make an object invisible? Researchers from TU Wien (Vienna), together with colleagues from Greece and the USA, have now developed a new idea for a cloaking technology. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1920] **viXra:1709.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 07:05:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

NIST scientists have achieved a world record in detecting the intensity of an ultra-faint source of light, equaling the capabilities of the deep-space instruments on the Hubble Space Telescope but operating 100 times faster and with equivalent accuracy. [26] Graphene Flagship researches from CNR-Istituto Nanoscienze, Italy and the University of Cambridge, UK have shown that it is possible to create a terahertz saturable absorber using graphene produced by liquid phase exfoliation and deposited by transfer coating and ink jet printing. [25] By finely tuning the distance between nanoparticles in a single layer, researchers have made a filter that can change between a mirror and a window. [24] Scientists from the University of Basel's Department of Physics and the Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1919] **viXra:1709.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 08:16:02*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two and a half centuries ago, scientist discovered solutions of the wave equation that represent dark quanta. These quanta configure all other objects that exist in the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1918] **viXra:1709.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 08:17:58*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Twee en een halve eeuw geleden, ontdekte wetenschappers oplossingen van de golfvergelijking die donkere kwanta vertegenwoordigen. Deze kwanta configureren alle andere objecten die in het universum bestaan.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1917] **viXra:1709.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 04:01:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Extreme environments are created in the labs at TU Wien. In an ion trap, large amounts of energy are used to rip a great number of electrons out of their atoms, leaving highly charged ions behind. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1916] **viXra:1709.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 09:30:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Swiss Nanoscience Institute have succeeded in dramatically improving the quality of individual photons generated by a quantum system. [23] Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1915] **viXra:1709.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 09:48:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Researchers at UCM and CSS have encountered a partial violation of the second law of thermodynamics in a quantum system known as Hofstadter lattice. [13] Any understanding of the irreversibility of the arrow of time should account the quantum nature of the world that surrounds us. [12] Entropy, the measure of disorder in a physical system, is something that physicists understand well when systems are at equilibrium, meaning there's no external force throwing things out of kilter. But new research by Brown University physicists takes the idea of entropy out of its equilibrium comfort zone. [11] Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1914] **viXra:1709.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 11:29:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Researchers at the Australian National University (ANU) have taken a major leap forward to provide practical building blocks for a global quantum internet. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1913] **viXra:1709.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 16:18:52*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Large scale retrocausality is impossible. Simple logic on space-time diagrams shows it.

Following an earlier paper, an argument is presented that sets up a causality paradox with signals that claim to be retrocausal. This is not to be dismissive of claims of retrocausality over small scales by the mechanism of advanced and retarded waves, just that it is not possible over timescales greater than the energy-time uncertainty relationship.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1912] **viXra:1709.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-08 08:48:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Physicists from the University of Basel have developed a memory that can store photons. [22] Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1911] **viXra:1709.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-07 14:48:12*

**Authors:** Michael A. Sherbon

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: A Physics and Space Science, 15, 4, 23-26 (2015). CC 4.0

An introduction is given to the geometry and harmonics of the Golden Apex in the Great Pyramid, with the metaphysical and mathematical determination of the fine-structure constant of electromagnetic interactions. Newton's gravitational constant is also presented in harmonic form and other fundamental physical constants are then found related to the quintessential geometry of the Golden Apex in the Great Pyramid.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1910] **viXra:1709.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-07 12:08:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Sydney are entering a new phase of development to scale up the next generation of quantum-engineered devices. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1909] **viXra:1709.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-07 10:13:54*

**Authors:** Martin Thomas Pollner

**Comments:** 3 pages in English, 2 Pages in German

English Summary: As a supplement to my publication on "The Quantization of the Physical Real Space and the Expansion of Space" in vixra.org 1203.088 of 29th March 2012 it will be described here how a flow of quantified space (flow of Dark Photons) especially within rotating spiral galaxies constitutes the so called Dark Matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1908] **viXra:1709.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 13:26:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1907] **viXra:1709.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 13:53:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1906] **viXra:1709.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 14:17:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper - and easier - than thought possible. [20]
A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices—small enough to install on a chip. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1905] **viXra:1709.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 04:39:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1904] **viXra:1709.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-04 12:46:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1903] **viXra:1709.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-04 12:55:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

So-called Fresnel zone plate spectrometers offer new and more efficient ways of conducting experiments using soft X-rays. [30] The world's largest X-ray laser opens Friday in Germany, promising to shed new light onto very small things by letting scientists penetrate the inner workings of atoms, viruses and chemical reactions. [29] A sleek, subterranean X-ray laser to be unveiled Friday in Germany, by far the most powerful in the world, has scientists in a dozen fields jostling to train its mighty beam on their projects. [28] Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1902] **viXra:1709.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-04 09:14:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Researchers have now succeeded in formulating a mathematical result that provides an exact answer to the question of how chaos actually behaves. The researchers have analysed chaotic states at the atomic level. [18] Given enough time, a forgotten cup of coffee will lose its appeal and cool to room temperature. [17] New research at the U of A is helping physicists better understand optomechanical cooling, a process that is expected to find applications in quantum technology. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1901] **viXra:1709.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 14:19:28*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Han Geurdes, Josep Batle, Soliman Abdalla, Ahmed Farouk, Do Ngoc Diep

**Comments:** 6 Pages

We present
a method of fast determining a homogeneous linear function
$f(x):= s.x=s_1x_1+ s_2x_2+\dots+s_Nx_N$ from
$\{0,1,\dots,d-1\}^N$ with coefficients
$s=(s_1,\dots,s_N)$.
Here $x=(x_1,\dots,x_N)$ and $x_j\in{\bf R}$.
Given the interpolation values $(f(1), f(2),...,f(N))=\vec{y}$,
we shall determine the unknown coefficients
$s = (s_1(\vec{y}),\dots, s_N(\vec{y}))$
of the linear function, simultaneously.
The speed of determining the values is shown
to outperform
the classical case by a factor of $N$.
Our method is based on the generalized Bernstein-Vazirani
algorithm \cite{BVG} to qudit systems \cite{BVD}.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1900] **viXra:1709.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 08:25:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1899] **viXra:1709.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 09:27:20*

**Authors:** Bowen Liu

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Contradiction between theory and experiment is a threat to the theory. People have paid their attention to regular contradiction (between theory and single experiment) and have found no serious threat. We first propose holistic contradiction, in which one major law of nature (called the bad law) conflicts with each and every quantum experiment. (A) We prove the existence of holistic contradiction (extrinsic-intrinsic contradiction). We show that all known experiments overturn traditional classification of matter and grand unified intrinsic reference space. Namely, the holistic contradiction means that every experiment ever performed by human confirms that (a) the classification of matter depends upon the operability, but not upon the description of larger matter in terms of smaller matter; (b) quantum form we observe is extrinsic but not intrinsic expression of micro-matter; (c) intrinsic and primitive reference system is human’s operable classical one but not reference system in micro-scale. The method of proof is traditional, i.e., verification one-by-one experimentally. (B) The holistic contradiction is the biggest threat to quantum physics, because overturning old classification of matter and the uniqueness of intrinsic system means breaking the supporting structure of quantum physics. We present effects of the breaking on quantum theories in three ways. (1) It is commonly accepted that the Copenhagen interpretation (i.e., CI) is philosophical, and to verify it seems to be impossible, since verifying “reality is restricted to observation” seems to be beyond human capabilities. However, we complete the crucial step of verifying CI. The key to our proof is the disproof of the bad law. (2) Overthrowing old classification of matter makes position of the Standard Model in physics to be greatly reduced, since mapping relation between intrinsic and extrinsic form of micro-matter becomes top thesis in quantum theory. This requires reorganizing the Standard Model such that group SU expresses only extrinsic but not the ultimate blocks. Overthrowing the uniqueness of intrinsic system gives evidence against the string theory, since the extrinsic features of quantum form is incompatible to geometry of string theory. (3) We give a simulation model and show that the relevance between intrinsic and extrinsic system is the key ingredient for producing the abstract state space and probability contribution.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1898] **viXra:1709.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 09:44:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1897] **viXra:1708.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-31 17:40:12*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There is an interpretation of Quantum Mechanics gaining ground that had its roots in Feynman-Wheeler absorber theory, which has lead to the Watanabe Two-state vector /Cramer Transactional-Interpretation/ /Sutherland viewpoint of Retrocausality. It seems that fantastical notions of superluminal effects are to be abhorred for equally fantastical notions of retrocausality. Noting that physics is the science of natural philosophy, we add to the argument with an outline of an experiment to settle the matter, by a blocking protocol where future actions would be limited by actions in the past (and hence the future) or not at all if the hypothesis is false.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1896] **viXra:1708.0475 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-30 13:27:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A sleek, subterranean X-ray laser to be unveiled Friday in Germany, by far the most powerful in the world, has scientists in a dozen fields jostling to train its mighty beam on their projects. [28] Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1895] **viXra:1708.0466 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-30 08:48:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

In the Moore's Law race to keep improving computer performance, the IT industry has turned upward, stacking chips like nano-sized 3-D skyscrapers. [20]
Researchers at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have created a nanophotonic chip system using lasers and bacteria to observe fluorescence emitted from a single bacterial cell. [19]
The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14]
Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13]
That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]
For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11]
New method of superstrong magnetic fields’ generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10]
By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors - including carbon-60 buckyballs - University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9]
Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1894] **viXra:1708.0460 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-30 05:51:37*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As No.4 of comparative physics series papers, this paper mainly discusses the comparative studies of various theories (or formulae) of force, and on this basis, presents the concepts of generalized theory of force and generalized theories clusters of force. The essence of generalized theory of force is the extension and generalization of Newton's second law. In Newton's second law, force is the product of mass and acceleration of the object; while in generalized theory of force, force is the product of generalized mass and generalized acceleration of the object, in which: the generalized mass (including quantity of electricity, and the like) and the generalized acceleration are both the functions of coordinates and time, as well as other appropriate variables. Various generalized theories of force form generalized theories clusters of force. In the unified framework of generalized theories clusters of force, the related problems of Newton's second law, law of gravity, law of Coulomb, special relativity, general relativity, strong interaction, weak interaction, and the like, are discussed. Finally, by comparison, concept of the fifth force in nature, namely quantum interaction (including quantum discontinuous interaction, quantum uncertain interaction, quantum stochastic interaction, quantum entanglement interaction, and the like), is proposed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1893] **viXra:1708.0453 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-29 07:21:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

A series of grid-based computational technologies for in silico virtual screening and molecular design of new drugs is proposed. [19] A team of researchers at Caltech has developed a way to capture on film the superfast propulsive motion of Brownian objects, particularly those at the nanoscale. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1892] **viXra:1708.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-29 07:50:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Now, a collaboration among Japanese researchers from national particle accelerator facilities across Japan has developed a new multiple-wavelength neutron holography technique that can give insight into previously unknown structures. [20] A series of grid-based computational technologies for in silico virtual screening and molecular design of new drugs is proposed. [19] A team of researchers at Caltech has developed a way to capture on film the superfast propulsive motion of Brownian objects, particularly those at the nanoscale. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15] Just like in normal road traffic, crossings are indispensable in optical signal processing. In order to avoid collisions, a clear traffic rule is required. A new method has now been developed at TU Wien to provide such a rule for light signals. [14] Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1891] **viXra:1708.0446 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-29 04:19:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. [15] A team of researchers from several institutions in Germany and Austria has developed a means for directly observing dynamical quantum phase transitions in an interacting many-body system. [14] In an article published today (Thursday, Aug. 24) in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters, researchers reported observing unexpected instantaneous phase shifts during atomic scattering. [13] Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. [12] Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1890] **viXra:1708.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-27 11:00:45*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Young's interference and Hodge's diffraction of light experiments show characteristics of light that have defied modeling except for the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model. The Hodge Experiment is the Fraunhofer pattern from a first mask with a slit impinges on a second mask with a slit(s). The Hodge Experiment is extended to model a diffraction pattern on a transparent second mask with a slit. The screen pattern is an interference pattern such as produced with two slits in Young's Experiment. A nail is placed between the first and second mask to block the light of the center maxima. The interference fringes remained in the secondary peaks. This observation rejects wave models of light that requires light through the second slit. The STOE model successfully modeled the observed pattern.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1889] **viXra:1708.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-26 02:36:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1888] **viXra:1708.0343 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-25 07:44:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

In an article published today (Thursday, Aug. 24) in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters, researchers reported observing unexpected instantaneous phase shifts during atomic scattering. [13] Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. [12] Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1887] **viXra:1708.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-25 08:57:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A team of researchers from several institutions in Germany and Austria has developed a means for directly observing dynamical quantum phase transitions in an interacting many-body system. [14] In an article published today (Thursday, Aug. 24) in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters, researchers reported observing unexpected instantaneous phase shifts during atomic scattering. [13] Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. [12] Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1886] **viXra:1708.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-25 00:22:05*

**Authors:** Erman ZENG

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The mathematical characterization of “the Productive Forces” of a macro economic system is based upon the analogy between political economy and Newtonian mechanics, which is expressed as the product of the growth rate of the profit rate (p) and the surplus value (M), showing several quantum qualities like a photon quanta. The one-dimensional linear harmonic oscillator model can correlate the angular frequency with the change rate of the rate of profit thus with the economic growth rate, resulting the quantum-like interpretation of various business cycles. The matrix operator analysis of the Leontief’s input-output table, similar to the matrix mechanics of quantum physics, gives the Schrodinger function like value-price transformation eigen function, with the reduced organic composite of capital as the eigenvalue of the price wave function, namely the relations of production, leading to the "two Cambridge controversy" resolved. The statistic physical entropy increase theory combined with the Marx labor value function leads to the quantitative formulation of the relations of production.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1885] **viXra:1708.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-24 10:03:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have sent a quantum-secured message containing more than one bit of information per photon through the air above a city. [18]
In early July, Google announced that it will expand its commercially available cloud computing services to include quantum computing. A similar service has been available from IBM since May. [17]
Quantum computing is described as "just around the corner", simply awaiting the engineering prowess and entrepreneurial spirit of the tech sector to realise its full potential. [16]
For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15]
Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14]
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13]
The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12]
For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1884] **viXra:1708.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-24 07:10:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

In early July, Google announced that it will expand its commercially available cloud computing services to include quantum computing. A similar service has been available from IBM since May. [17]
Quantum computing is described as "just around the corner", simply awaiting the engineering prowess and entrepreneurial spirit of the tech sector to realise its full potential. [16]
For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15]
Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14]
Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13]
The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12]
For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1883] **viXra:1708.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-23 14:41:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Barbara presents an advanced quantum chip that will be able to provide definitive proof of the mysterious Majorana particles. [9[ On a more fundamental level, the GeTe compound used in this study shows that the electric and magnetic polarization are exactly antiparallel, unlike the few other known multiferroic materials. Exactly this property forms the basis for the formation of Majorana particles to be used in quantum computers. [8] Researchers in the University of Tokyo have demonstrated that it is possible to exchange a quantum bit, the minimum unit of information used by quantum computers, between a superconducting quantum-bit circuit and a quantum in a magnet called a magnon. This result is expected to contribute to the development of quantum interfaces and quantum repeaters. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1882] **viXra:1708.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-24 03:05:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

Now scientists at the University of Manchester have proved that storing data with a class of molecules known as single-molecule magnets is more feasible than previously thought. [22] The new work shows that collections of ultracold molecules can retain the information stored in them, for hundreds of times longer than researchers have previously achieved in these materials. [21] Quantum entanglement can improve the sensitivity of a measurement, as has been demonstrated previously for atomic clocks and magnetic-field sensors. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1881] **viXra:1708.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-23 09:00:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1880] **viXra:1708.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-23 09:24:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Quantum computing is described as "just around the corner", simply awaiting the engineering prowess and entrepreneurial spirit of the tech sector to realise its full potential. [16] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that hyperentangled photons can be transmitted in free space, which they showed by sending many thousands of these photons between the rooftops of two buildings in Vienna. [15] Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1879] **viXra:1708.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-22 13:40:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Quantum dots (QDs) have found so many applications in recent years, they can now be purchased with a variety of composite structures and configurations. [16] Chemists have largely ignored quantum mechanics. But it now turns out that this strange physics has a huge effect on biochemical reactions. [15] Recent developments in atomic-force microscopy have enabled researchers to apply mechanical forces to individual molecules to induce chemical reactions. [14] A newly discovered collective rattling effect in a type of crystalline semiconductor blocks most heat transfer while preserving high electrical conductivity-a rare pairing that scientists say could reduce heat buildup in electronic devices and turbine engines, among other possible applications. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1878] **viXra:1708.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-22 08:57:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The system is called a "PT-symmetric quantum walk," since it consists of single photons that occupy a superposition of states, called quantum walks, that obey parity-time (PT) symmetry—the property in which a system's coordinates in space and time can have their signs reversed without inherently changing the system. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1877] **viXra:1708.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-22 09:08:06*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S Keen

**Comments:** Pages 5, Figures 1, Tables 2

The objective of this paper is to copy quantum entanglement into the everyday macro world. Entanglement is usually associated with, say, 2 electrons emitted from the same atom remaining in contact with each other when separated by vast distances. This paper shows how it is possible for 2 large physical bodies to communicate information to each other over considerable distances, without any apparent intermediate medium. One sheet of A4 paper, torn in half, is all that is required to generate 2-body entanglement, provided that the 2 sheets of paper are sufficiently far apart so they create a psi-line with nodes, that mediates the entanglement. Quantitative experiments involving auras are detailed and demonstrate that the mind is intrinsically connected to psi-lines and quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1876] **viXra:1708.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-22 09:39:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Quantum physics teaches us that unobserved particles may propagate through space like waves. [12] Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1875] **viXra:1708.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-21 08:20:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

An international team led by Prof. Nathan Goldman, Faculty of Science, Université libre de Bruxelles, predicts a novel form of quantization law, which involves a distinct type of physical observable: the heating rate of a quantum system upon external shaking. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1874] **viXra:1708.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-19 11:04:46*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Heerbaan 6
6

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1873] **viXra:1708.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-18 14:49:37*

**Authors:** M. Karthick Selvan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Triple-Λ system is investigated using polariton theory. The role of dark and bright-state polaritons in the dynamics of the system is explained in detail. Time evolution of entanglement of single and three-photon EIT modes within the system is studied.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1872] **viXra:1708.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-18 05:43:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team around Kilian Heeg from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg has now found a way to make the spectrum of the x-ray pulses emitted by these sources even narrower. [28] Physicists from Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1871] **viXra:1708.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 10:30:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Now in a new study, physicists have cloned quantum states and demonstrated that, because the clones are entangled, it's possible to precisely and simultaneously measure the complementary properties of the clones. [14] Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1870] **viXra:1708.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-15 07:17:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Physicists from the ATLAS experiment at CERN have found the first direct evidence of high energy light-by-light scattering, a very rare process in which two photons – particles of light – interact and change direction. [16]
In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15]
An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do.
In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13]
Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1869] **viXra:1708.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-15 05:14:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Lensless computational microscopy makes it possible to visualize transparent objects or measure their shape in three dimensions. [18]
University of Illinois researchers have developed a way to produce 3-D images of live embryos in cattle that could help determine embryo viability before in vitro fertilization in humans. [17]
For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16]
Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15]
An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do.
In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13]
Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1868] **viXra:1708.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-15 05:41:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Nürnberg (FAU) and Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY, Hamburg) have developed a method to improve the quality of X-ray images over conventional methods. [27] A team of researchers with members from several countries in Europe has used a type of X-ray diffraction to reveal defects in the way a superconductor develops. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes the technique they used to study one type of superconductor and what they saw. Erica Carlson with Perdue University offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team in the same journal issue. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1867] **viXra:1708.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-15 03:04:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

"Demonstrating that trophic coherence is a property found in a wide range and scale of ecosystems and networks was actually easier than we had expected," Johnson tells Phys.org. [16] A network may have many layers—corresponding to different types of relationships in a social network, for example—but traditional approaches to analysis are limited. [15] Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1866] **viXra:1708.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-14 07:45:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The device is a type of spectrometer—an optical instrument that takes light and breaks it down into components to reveal a catalogue of information about an object. [24] When we look at a painting, how do we know it's a genuine piece of art? [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20] Researchers at Sandia National Laboratories have developed new mathematical techniques to advance the study of molecules at the quantum level. [19] Correlation functions are often employed to quantify the relationships among interdependent variables or sets of data. A few years ago, two researchers proposed a property-testing problem involving Forrelation for studying the query complexity of quantum devices. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1865] **viXra:1708.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-14 11:23:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Light particles (photons) occur as tiny, indivisible portions. Many thousands of these light portions can be merged to form a single super-photon if they are sufficiently concentrated and cooled. [13] The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1864] **viXra:1708.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-13 22:08:33*

**Authors:** Jeff Yee, Yingbo Zhu, Guofu Zhou

**Comments:** 75 pages

The electron’s orbital distance, ionization energy and shape can be modeled based on classical mechanics when the recently-discovered pentaquark structure is used as the model of the proton. This paper accurately models atomic orbital distances based on this five-quark structure of the proton, in which the orbiting electron is both attracted by an anti-quark and repelled by quarks in the proton. The orbital distance is classically defined as the point where the sum of the forces is zero, removing the need for a separate set of laws in physics, known as quantum mechanics, to describe the electron’s position in an atom.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1863] **viXra:1708.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-12 04:05:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Researchers at the universities of Vienna and Tel Aviv have addressed this question for the first time explicitly using the wave interference of large molecules behind various combinations of single, double, and triple slits. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1862] **viXra:1708.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-12 03:10:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

They overcame the bandwidth barrier by using very cold superconducting microwave circuitry and superconducting quantum interference device amplifiers, known as SQUIDs, capable of boosting the intensity of small signals. [41] Strange electrons break the crystal symmetry of high-temperature superconductors. [40] Researchers at North Carolina State University have significantly increased the temperature at which carbon-based materials act as superconductors, using a novel, boron-doped Q-carbon material. [39] Magnetic quantum objects in superconductors, so-called "fluxons," are particularly suitable for the storage and processing of data bits. [38] Researchers have made the first direct visual observation and measurement of ultra-fast vortex dynamics in superconductors. [37] By gently prodding a swirling cloud of supercooled lithium atoms with a pair of lasers, and observing the atoms' response, researchers at Swinburne have developed a new way to probe the properties of quantum materials. [36] The nickel-bismuth (Ni-Bi) sample studied here is the first example of a 2-D material where this type of superconductivity is intrinsic, meaning that it happens without the help of external agents, such as a nearby superconductor. [35] collaborated to design, build and test two devices that utilize different superconducting materials and could make X-ray lasers more powerful, versatile, compact and durable. [34] A team of researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory has identified a nickel oxide compound as an unconventional but promising candidate material for high-temperature superconductivity. [33] An international team led by scientists from the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory and Stanford University has detected new features in the electronic behavior of a copper oxide material that may help explain why it becomes a perfect electrical conductor – a superconductor – at relatively high temperatures. [32]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1861] **viXra:1708.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-11 08:58:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that clients who possess only classical computers—and no quantum devices—can outsource computing tasks to quantum servers that perform blind quantum computing. [15] Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1860] **viXra:1708.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-11 09:57:16*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** Pages.

“What the Hell is Going On?” is Peter Woit’s ‘Not Even Wrong’ blog post of July 22nd 2017, a commentary on Nima Arkani-Hamed’s view of the present barren state of LHC physics, the long-dreaded Desert. This paper addresses the roots of the quandary which are fundamental, branching deep into the measurement problem and the enigmatic unobservable character of the wavefunction, and the confusion generating an ongoing proliferation of quantum interpretations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1859] **viXra:1708.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-11 09:58:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A network may have many layers—corresponding to different types of relationships in a social network, for example—but traditional approaches to analysis are limited. [15] Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1858] **viXra:1708.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-11 10:37:34*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory have developed a less expensive and more efficient way of controlling x-ray beams used to study the intricate details of batteries, solar cells, proteins and all manner of materials. [18] The ESRF Council, representing the 22 partner nations of the ESRF, gave the green light for the construction and commissioning of four new beamlines from 2018-2022. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1857] **viXra:1708.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-10 08:43:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Experiments at Space Scale project, which involves making use of the Micius satellite—the first sent aloft to conduct quantum networking experiments. [14] Just two weeks ago, China demonstrated its prowess in the field of quantum technology by becoming the first to teleport information from Earth to a satellite in space using the simple mechanics of quantum entanglement. [13] The researchers showed that the combination of these two properties can be used to transfer an encoded digital signal without information loss, which has potential applications for realizing highly efficient optical communication systems. [12] Physicists from the University of Würzburg have designed a light source that emits photon pairs, which are particularly well suited for tap-proof data encryption. The experiment's key ingredients: a semiconductor crystal and some sticky tape. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1856] **viXra:1708.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-10 05:11:47*

**Authors:** Yuan Kai

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Based on the basic version of the Double-slit experiment, a coherent light source, such as a laser beam, illuminates a plate pierced by two parallel slits, and the light passing through the slits is observed on a screen behind the plate.The wave nature of light causes the light waves passing through the two slits to interfere, producing bright and dark bands on the screen — a result that would not be expected if light consisted of classical particles. Our new variant is as below: We shut one of the two parallel slits once the light passed the slits. Or we keep the two slits shutting and opening randomly in high speed. We believe this variant experiment could lead to a farther fundamental understanding of the Quantum Mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1855] **viXra:1708.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-10 06:38:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Multiplexing, the ability to send multiple signals through a single channel, is a fundamental feature of any voice or data communication system. [16]
Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15]
An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do.
In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13]
Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1854] **viXra:1708.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-08 14:25:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Terahertz radiation—the band of the electromagnetic spectrum between microwaves and visible light—has promising applications in medical and industrial imaging and chemical detection, among other uses. [16]
In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15]
An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do.
In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13]
Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1853] **viXra:1708.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-08 05:20:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1852] **viXra:1708.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-08 05:42:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

For the first time, the university physicists used extreme ultraviolet radiation (XUV) for this process, which was generated in their own laboratory, and they were thus able to perform the first XUV coherence tomography at laboratory scale. [16]
Energy loss due to scattering from material defects is known to set limits on the performance of nearly all technologies that we employ for communications, timing, and navigation. [15]
An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do.
In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13]
Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1851] **viXra:1708.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-08 07:16:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Quantum sensors are highly sensitive and among their many promising applications they are ushering in a new era of MRI (Magnetic Resonance Imaging) that is making visible the tiny details inside cells and proteins. [20] Thanks to a new fabrication technique, quantum sensing abilities are now approaching this scale of precision. [19] For decades scientists have known that a quantum computer—a device that stores and manipulates information in quantum objects such as atoms or photons—could theoretically perform certain calculations far faster than today's computing schemes. [18] Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17] Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16] The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15] An international team of researchers, working at the fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14] The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13] In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1850] **viXra:1708.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-07 09:13:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15] An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1849] **viXra:1708.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-07 09:50:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The color of the light emitted by an LED can be tuned by altering the size of their semiconductor crystals. [16]
In materials research, chemistry, biology, and medicine, chemical bonds, and especially their dynamic behavior, determine the properties of a system. These can be examined very closely using terahertz radiation and short pulses. [15]
An international collaborative of scientists has devised a method to control the number of optical solitons in microresonators, which underlie modern photonics. [14] Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do.
In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13]
Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1848] **viXra:1708.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 14:29:23*

**Authors:** Omar Yepez

**Comments:** 9 pages, 6 figures.

An experimental non-model determination of the number of electron participating in a chemical bond has been achieved. This determination corroborates the valence theory of Lewis and coincides with current state of the art. The relationship between a normalized bond area and its bond energy is used to precisely characterize selected organic molecules. The mass fusion of bonding electrons with its mass loss or gain, is the probable origin of the chemical energy. A probable geometric meaning of thermodynamic functions is provided.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1847] **viXra:1708.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 04:14:26*

**Authors:** Shubhayan Sarkar

**Comments:** 4 Pages. open to comments

Quantum information-theoretic approach has been identied as a way to understand the
foundations of quantum mechanics as early as 1950 due to Shannon. However there hasn't been
enough advancement or rigorous development of the subject. In the following paper we try to find
relationship between a general quantum mechanical observable and von Neumann entropy. We find
that the expectation values and the uncertainties of the observables have bounds which depend
on the entropy. The results also show that von Neumann entropy is not just the uncertainty of
the state but also encompasses the information about expectation values and uncertainties of any
observable which depends on the observers choice for a particular measurement. Also a reverese
uncertainty relation is derived for n quantum mechanical observables.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1846] **viXra:1708.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-04 08:29:21*

**Authors:** Philip Maulion

**Comments:** 4 Pages. philip.maulion@paris7.jussieu.fr

Abstract: The purpose of the proposed experiment is to evaluate the validity of
the fundamental assumption that space-time is a human being’s own (characteristic of human
being). The recent highlight, of cognitive properties of humans under situation of specific
interactions with the outside world, allows to think that with this experiment we will be able
to identify the reasons for some specific quantum mechanics oddities. 7 quotations

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1845] **viXra:1708.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-04 03:19:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Thanks to IBM scientists, replacing copper wires with light to transfer data at improved speeds and with optimal energy efficiency is within reach. [19]
A team of researchers from several institutions in Germany and Australia has developed an optical high-bitrate nanoantenna that they used with an optical waveguide. [18]
Magnets and magnetic phenomena underpin the vast majority of modern data storage, and the measurement scales for research focused on magnetic behaviors continue to shrink with the rest of digital technology. [17]
Scientists have recently created a new spintronics material called bismuthene, which has similar properties to that of graphene. [16]
The expanding field of spintronics promises a new generation of devices by taking advantage of the spin degree of freedom of the electron in addition to its charge to create new functionalities not possible with conventional electronics. [15]
An international team of researchers, working at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley, fabricated an atomically thin material and measured its exotic and durable properties that make it a promising candidate for a budding branch of electronics known as "spintronics." [14]
The emerging field of spintronics aims to exploit the spin of the electron. [13]
In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12]
In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[888] **viXra:1712.0243 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-10 06:59:03*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

In contrast to the approach taken by mainstream physics, the Hilbert Book Model applies stochastic control of dynamic coherence and binding of module components. Each module owns its private stochastic process. All stochastic processes own a characteristic function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[887] **viXra:1712.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-09 03:30:52*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

Physical reality archives its dynamic geometric data in a read-only repository. This repository emerges from its foundation which is an orthomodular lattice. The repository is a combination of a series of separable Hilbert spaces that share the same infinite dimensional vector space. For the definition of the inner product of pairs of vectors the separable Hilbert spaces apply a private version of the quaternionic number system. A non-separable Hilbert space embeds the separable Hilbert spaces. The version of the quaternionic number system acts as a parameter space. These parameter spaces float over a background parameter space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[886] **viXra:1712.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-09 03:33:59*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Two kinds of super-tiny shock fronts represent nature’s basic dark quanta. All other discrete objects in nature are configured by these dark quanta.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[885] **viXra:1712.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-06 06:13:16*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This note briefly outlines how numbers that appear to be totally and independently random switch to become deterministic at the Planck scale. In other words, God does not play dice.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[884] **viXra:1712.0079 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-05 09:44:30*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This note briefly outlines how numbers that appear to be totally and independently random switch to become deterministic at the Planck scale. In other words, God does not play dice.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[883] **viXra:1712.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-06 04:06:06*

**Authors:** Gordon watson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Bringing an elementary knowledge of sums and averages to Bell (1964), we refute Bell’s theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[882] **viXra:1711.0434 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-30 02:19:06*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM. Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964)—en route to refuting Bell's inequality and his theorem—we aim to help STEM students study one of the strangest double-errors in the history of science. To that end we question Marcus du Sautoy's claim that Bell's theorem is as mathematically robust as they come.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[881] **viXra:1711.0421 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-28 22:07:18*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This is a portion of the model I wrote to model the Electron/Positron and their associated fields; such as Electric, Magnetic, Vector Potential fields. It is written in the Delphi language and is the function that calculates the fields from the mathematical wave function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[880] **viXra:1711.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-26 12:30:18*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Version 1 presents the wrong expression ‘angular moment’ in stead of ‘angular momentum’, now used in version 2.

Otto Stern and Walter Gerlach demonstrated in 1922 experimentally the “existence of space quantization in a magnetic field”, using their own words. The result of this experiment is later on used to introduce the so-called intrinsic spin angular momentum of elementary and other particles. This article describes what went wrong in the applied argumentation. In 1896 Zeeman and Lorentz showed experimentally and theoretically that atoms emit ‘shifted’ frequencies when exposed to an external magnetic field. This phenomenon has been used to demonstrate the existence of spinning electrons. However, it is shown that this demonstration is not convincing at all.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[879] **viXra:1711.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-23 22:39:18*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** Pages.

Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM. Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964)—en route to refuting Bell’s inequality and his theorem—we aim to help STEM students study one of the strangest double-errors in the history of science. To that end we question du Sautoy’s (2016) claim that Bell’s theorem is as mathematically robust as they come.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[878] **viXra:1711.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-16 18:38:56*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** Pages.

Bringing an elementary knowledge of vectors to Bell (1964), we amend Bell's inequality, reveal his mistake, refute his theorem: all in the hope of helping STEM students study one of the most famous—and strangest—works in the history of physics. For who else but Bell uses flawed approximations of unnecessary experiments to invalidate the flawed use of a fact: and then rejects that fact? Here begins a precautionary tale from a creative life in STEM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[877] **viXra:1710.0325 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-01 07:47:38*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** Pages.

Quantum Mechanics is all about wavefunctions and their interactions. If one seeks to understand Quantum Mechanics, then a deep intuitive understanding of wavefunctions and wavefunction collapse would seem essential, indispensable. That’s where it all starts, the causal origin of the quantum as manifested in the physical world. We introduce a wavefunction comprised of the geometric elements of the Pauli algebra of space - point, line, plane, and volume elements - endowed with quantized electromagnetic fields. Wavefunction interactions are described by the geometric product of geometric Clifford algebra, generating the Dirac algebra of flat Minkowski spacetime, the particle physicist’s S-matrix. Electromagnetic synthesis of four fundamental forces becomes apparent via this Geometric Wavefunction Interpretation (GWI).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[876] **viXra:1710.0316 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-04 16:21:39*

**Authors:** Peter Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A theory (physics) needs to describe something that can exist in nature/reality, it needs to be realistic. But a lot of theories in modern theoretical physics are unnatural/unrealistic, physicists don't realize that they are lost in science fiction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[875] **viXra:1710.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-17 17:26:10*

**Authors:** Alexandre Furtado Neto

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

Abstract A fully deterministic, Euclidean, 4-torus cellular automaton is presented axiomatically using a constructive approach. Each cell contains one integer number forming bubble-like patterns propagating at speeds at least equal to that of light, interacting and being reemitted constantly. The collective behavior of these integers looks like patterns of classical and quantum physics. In this toy universe, the four forces of nature are unified. In particular, the graviton fits nicely in this framework. Although essentially nonlocal, it preserves the no-signalling principle. This flexible model predicts three results: i) if an electron is left completely alone (if even possible), still continues to emit low frequency fundamental photons; ii) neutrinos are Majorana fermions; and, last but not least, iii) gravity is not quantized. Pseudocode implementing these ideas is contained in the appendix. This is the first, raw, version of this document. I expect to make corrections in future releases.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[874] **viXra:1710.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 11:12:46*

**Authors:** shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

For photon we have obtained the results that the waves of photon obey the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation are introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A to infinite big sphere. The advanced wave started from point B to infinite big sphere. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding to the above two return waves. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found that the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge intensity flow or electric current of the the electron. Hence the electron travel in the empty space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result can also extend to to Dirac equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[873] **viXra:1710.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-14 14:51:41*

**Authors:** Shuang-Ren Zhao

**Comments:** 15 Pages. some math error is corrected. 3 picture is added.

For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding to the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found that the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge intencity flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the empty space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[872] **viXra:1710.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-14 10:06:35*

**Authors:** shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 15 Pages. some math error is corrected. 3 picture is added.

Abstract For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[871] **viXra:1710.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-11 12:50:04*

**Authors:** Shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Abstract For photon we have obtained the results that the wave of photon obeys the mutual energy principle and self-energy principle. In this article we will extended the results for photon to other quantum. The mutual energy principle and self energy principle corresponding to the Schrödinger equation is introduced. The results are that a electron, for example, travel in the empty space from point A to point B, there are 4 different waves. The retarded wave started from point A. The advanced wave started from point B. The return waves corresponding to the above both waves. There are 5 different flow corresponding to these waves. The self-energy flow corresponding to the retarded wave, the self-energy flow corresponding to the advanced wave. The return flows corresponding the above two flows. The mutual energy flow of the retarded wave and the advanced wave. It is found the the mutual energy flow is the energy flow or the charge flow or electric current of the the electron. The electron travel in the space is a complicated process and do not only obey one Schrödinger equation. This result should be possible to further extend to to Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[870] **viXra:1710.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-09 05:41:01*

**Authors:** Shiro Ishikawa

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Bell's inequality is usually considered to belong to mathematics and not quantum mechanics. We think that this makes it difficult to understand Bell's theory. Thus in this paper, contrary to Bell's spirit (which inherits Einstein's spirit), we try to discuss Bell's inequality in the framework of quantum theory with the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation. And we clarify that whether or not Bell's inequality holds does not depend on whether classical systems or quantum systems, but depend on whether a kind of simultaneous measurements exist or not. And further we assert that our argument ( based on the linguistic Copenhagen interpretation) should be regarded as a scientific representation of Bell's philosophical argument (based on Einstein's spirit).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[869] **viXra:1710.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-07 01:36:36*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. submitted to Physics and Astronomy International Journal

Exact solutions to the stationary spherically symmetric Newton-Schroedinger equation are proposed
in terms of integrals involving $generalized$ Gaussians. The energy eigenvalues are also obtained in terms of these integrals which agree with the numerical results in the literature. A discussion of infinite-derivative-gravity follows which allows to generalize the Newton-Schroedinger equation by $replacing$
the ordinary Poisson equation with a $modified$ non-local Poisson equation associated with infinite-derivative gravity. We proceed to replace the nonlinear Newton-Schroedinger equation for a non-linear quantum-like Bohm-Poisson equation involving Bohm's quantum potential, and where the fundamental quantity is $no$ longer the wave-function $ \Psi$ but the real-valued probability density $ \rho$. Finally, we discuss how the latter equations reflect a $nonlinear$ $feeding$ loop mechanism between matter and geometry which allows us to envisage a ``Schwarzschild atom" as a spherically symmetric probability cloud of matter which curves the geometry, and in turn, the geometry back-reacts on this matter cloud perturbing its initial distribution over the space, which in turn will affect the geometry, and so forth until static equilibrium is reached.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[868] **viXra:1710.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-02 06:00:32*

**Authors:** Steve faulkner

**Comments:** Pages.

Abstract:

In 2008 Tomasz Paterek et al published experiments demonstrating that quantum randomness results from logical independence. That independence is seen evident in a Boolean formalism. The job of this paper is to derive implications for Matrix Mechanics. Surprisingly (and apparently unwittingly), Paterek's Boolean formalism asserts and demands a non-unitary environment for eigenstates, which is freely restricted to logically independent unitary structure, wherever the creation of superposition states demands unitarity. Consequently, the Paterek experiments contradict the Quantum Postulate which imposes unitary, Hermitian and Hilbert space structures, axiomatically as blanket ontology, across the whole theory. Examination of the ‘non-unitary to unitary transition’ reveals the machinery of quantum indeterminacy. That machinery involves self-referential circularity, inaccessible history, and the geometrical ambiguity of perfect symmetry. The findings here provide answers for researchers studying Foundations of Quantum Mechanics; they make intuitive good sense of indeterminacy; they provide reason and significance for observable operators and eigenvectors; and they should be helpful for those interested in the Measurement Problem, the EPR paradox and possibly those looking for a method to quantize Gravity.

Keywords:

foundations of quantum theory, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[867] **viXra:1710.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-10 07:37:11*

**Authors:** Steve faulkner

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Abstract:

I Follow up on the 2008 experiments of Tomasz Paterek et al, which link quantum randomness with logical independence. Analysis reveals, that the Paterek formalism (unwittingly) relaxes a Quantum Postulate. That relaxation denies the axiomatic imposition of unitary, Hermitian and Hilbert space mathematics, while allowing these to arise freely, as logically independent structures. Surprisingly, the Paterek formalism demands a non-unitary environment — where unitary structures may freely switch on or off. The unitary environment is necessary in the formation of superposition states, but not eigenstates. This unitary condition is sustained by self-referential logical circularity around cyclic sequences of transformations. Amongst all possible self-referential systems, these generate stable, persistent structures we recognise as quantum mechanical vectors and operators. Circularity explains indeterminacy's non-causedness. Non-definiteness, stems from geometric amb
iguity — typically, left|right handedness in the Bloch sphere. Collapse is caused when the unitary symmetry is deformed by some agency, such as a magnetic field or polariser.

Keywords:

foundations of quantum theory, axiomatised quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum randomness, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, linear algebra, elementary algebra, imaginary unit, prepared state, measured state, eigenstate, superposition state, Hilbert space, unitary, redundant unitarity, orthogonal, scalar product, inner product, mathematical logic, logical independence, self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical undecidability.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[866] **viXra:1710.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-03 16:16:10*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The origin of gravitation and mass is explained by the fact that spherical shock fronts locally and temporarily extend the volume of the carrier of this vibration. A surprising conclusion is that spherical shock fronts own an amount of mass.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[865] **viXra:1709.0444 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-22 15:46:20*

**Authors:** Shuang-ren Zhao

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The photon energy transfer is from point to point. But the wave according to the Maxwell equation spreads from the source point to the entire empty space. In order to explain this phenomenon the concept of wave function collapse is created. This concept is very rough, if there are many partition boards with small holes between the emitter charge and the absorber charge. The light is clear can go through all these small holes from emitter to the absorber. But according to the concept of the wave function collapse the wave must collapse N times if there are N holes on the partition boards. Collapse one is strange enough, if the wave collapse N times, that is unbelievable! In another article we have proved that the photon energy is actually transferred by the “mutual energy flow” which is point to point instead of spread to the entire space. Since energy can be transferred by the mutual energy flow, the concept of the wave function collapse is not necessary. In order to build the mutual energy flow it is required to build the self-energy flow also. The self-energy flow is spread to the entire empty space. What will do for the self-energy flow, it is possible the self-flow also collapse to the absorber. However if self-energy flow collapse we have also meet the same problem as the whole wave collapse that means if there are partition sheets with N holes, the self-energy flow has to collapse N times. In the article about mutual energy principle we have propose another possibility in which the self-energy flow instead collapse, we believe it is returned. It is returned with a time reversal process, hence the self-energy dose not contributed to the energy transfer of the photon. The return process can be seen as also a collapse process, however it is collapse to the source of the wave instead of the target of the wave. In this article we will discuss the self-energy flow and the time reversal process in details.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[864] **viXra:1709.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-22 20:53:03*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle MAEc BAEc BPhil

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The geometry of the elementary quantum-mechanical wavefunction and a linearly polarized electromagnetic wave consist of two plane waves that are perpendicular to the direction of propagation: their components only differ in magnitude and – more importantly – in their relative phase (0 and 90° respectively). The physical dimension of the electric field vector is force per unit charge (N/C). It is, therefore, tempting to associate the real and imaginary component of the wavefunction with a similar physical dimension: force per unit mass (N/kg).
This is, of course, the dimension of the gravitational field, which reduces to the dimension of acceleration (1 N/kg = 1 m/s2). The results and implications are remarkably elegant and intuitive:
- Schrödinger’s wave equation, for example, can now be interpreted as an energy diffusion equation, and the wavefunction itself can be interpreted as a propagating gravitational wave.
- The energy conservation principle then gives us a physical normalization condition, as probabilities (P = |ψ|2) are then, effectively, proportional to energy densities (u).
- We also get a more intuitive explanation of spin angular momentum, the boson-fermion dichotomy, and the Compton scattering radius for a particle.
- Finally, this physical interpretation of the wavefunction may also give us some clues in regard to the mechanism of relativistic length contraction.
The interpretation does not challenge the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics: interpreting probability amplitudes as traveling field disturbances does not explain why a particle hits a detector as a particle (not as a wave). As such, this interpretation respects the complementarity principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[863] **viXra:1709.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-15 18:54:20*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle MAEC BAEc BPhil

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

This paper explores the implications of associating the components of the wavefunction with a physical dimension: force per unit mass – which is, of course, the dimension of acceleration (m/s2) and gravitational fields.
The classical electromagnetic field equations for energy densities, the Poynting vector and spin angular momentum are then re-derived by substituting the electromagnetic N/C unit of field strength (mass per unit charge) by the new N/kg = m/s2 dimension.
The results are elegant and insightful. For example, the energy densities are proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wavefunction and, hence, to the probabilities, which establishes a physical normalization condition. Also, Schrödinger’s wave equation may then, effectively, be interpreted as a diffusion equation for energy, and the wavefunction itself can be interpreted as a propagating gravitational wave.
As an added bonus, concepts such as the Compton scattering radius for a particle, spin angular momentum, and the boson-fermion dichotomy, can also be explained more intuitively. Finally, we show the interpretation may lead to a natural explanation of relativistic length contraction.
While the approach offers a physical interpretation of the wavefunction, the author argues that the core of the Copenhagen interpretation revolves around the complementarity principle, which remains unchallenged because the interpretation of amplitude waves as traveling fields does not explain the particle nature of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[862] **viXra:1709.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-02 13:39:09*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle MAEc BAEc BPhil

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

This paper explores the implications of associating the components of the wavefunction with a physical dimension: force per unit mass – which is, of course, the dimension of acceleration (m/s2) and gravitational fields.
The classical electromagnetic field equations for energy densities, the Poynting vector and spin angular momentum are then re-derived by substituting the electromagnetic N/C unit of field strength (mass per unit charge) by the new N/kg = m/s2 dimension.
The results are elegant and insightful. For example, the energy densities are proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wavefunction and, hence, to the probabilities, which establishes a physical normalization condition. Also, Schrödinger’s wave equation may then, effectively, be interpreted as a diffusion equation for energy, and the wavefunction itself can be interpreted as a propagating gravitational wave. As an added bonus, concepts such as the Compton scattering radius for a particle, spin angular momentum, and the boson-fermion dichotomy, can also be explained more intuitively. Finally, we show the formulas for the energy densities may lead to an explanation for the geometric shape of matter-particles.
While the approach offers a physical interpretation of the wavefunction, the author argues that the core of the Copenhagen interpretation revolves around the complementarity principle, which remains unchallenged because the interpretation of amplitude waves as traveling fields does not explain the particle nature of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[861] **viXra:1709.0390 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-30 12:32:34*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle MAEC BAEc BPhil

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

This paper explores the implications of associating the components of the wavefunction with a physical dimension: force per unit mass – which is, of course, the dimension of acceleration (m/s2) and gravitational fields. The classical electromagnetic field equations for energy densities, the Poynting vector and spin angular momentum are then re-derived by substituting the electromagnetic N/C unit of field strength (mass per unit charge) by the new N/kg = m/s2 dimension.
The results are elegant and insightful. For example, the energy densities are proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wavefunction and, hence, to the probabilities, which establishes a physical normalization condition. Also, Schrödinger’s wave equation may then, effectively, be interpreted as a diffusion equation for energy, and the wavefunction itself can be interpreted as a propagating gravitational wave. Finally, as an added bonus, concepts such as the Compton scattering radius for a particle, spin angular momentum, and the boson-fermion dichotomy, can also be explained more intuitively.
While the approach offers a physical interpretation of the wavefunction, the author argues that the core of the Copenhagen interpretations revolves around the complementarity principle, which remains unchallenged because the interpretation of amplitude waves as traveling fields does not explain the particle nature of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[860] **viXra:1709.0383 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-06 08:52:46*

**Authors:** M. W. Roberts

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A delayed choice experiment is proposed. Signal and idler photon pairs are sent to optical circulators. The fate experienced by an idler photon is described by two different cases. In case I, the idler photon has zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter and therefore always enters its optical circulator. In case II, the idler photon has a non-zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter without entering its optical circulator. Which case the idler photon actually experiences is selected by the method that is used to detect the signal photon of the pair. This is true, even if the detection of the signal photon occurs long after the detection of the idler photon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[859] **viXra:1709.0383 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 15:00:47*

**Authors:** M. W. Roberts

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A delayed choice experiment is proposed. A signal and idler pair of photons are sent to optical circulators. The fate experienced by the idler photon is described by two different cases. In case I, the idler photon has zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter and therefore always enters its optical circulator. In case II, the idler photon has a non-zero probability to reflect from the entrance beam splitter without entering its optical circulator. Which case the idler photon actually experiences is selected by the method that is used to detect the signal photon of the pair. This is true, even if the detection of the signal photon occurs long after the detection of the idler photon.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[858] **viXra:1709.0358 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-01 15:22:36*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Harnessed with the *Universal Topology*, actions on the world planes carry out ** Law of Event Evolutions** that gives rise to

Exceptionally, the natural duality is applied to reformulate ** Einstein** mass-energy and refine classical

The inceptive application to contemporary physics demonstrates remarkably and derives concisely, but are not limited to, *Quantum Mechanics *and *Quantum Electrodynamics* aligning with the empirical artifacts of *Conservation of Energy-Momentum, Schrödinger Equation, Dirac Equation, Pauli Weyl Spinor *Fields*, QED Lagrangian*, and *Yang-Mille* theory.

[857] **viXra:1709.0358 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-16 18:18:16*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** Pages.

Harnessed with the *Universal Topology*, actions on the world planes carry out ** Law of Event Evolutions** that gives rise to

The inceptive application to contemporary physics demonstrates and derives, but are not limited to, *Quantum Mechanics* with the empirical artifacts of *Conservation of Energy-Momentum, Schrödinger Equation, Dirac Equation, Spinor Fields, and Weyl Spinor*.

[856] **viXra:1709.0326 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-23 02:56:19*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilization's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics...

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[855] **viXra:1709.0326 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-22 12:36:13*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The prospect of an up-coming quantum computer revolution is big news these days, with some technologists predicting that a scalable quantum computer is a mere 4 - 5 years away. It has even been claimed -by D-Wave co-founder Eric Ladizinsky- that this prospective revolution will be civilisation's next big revolution. The truth is that quantum computers that are anything more than toys are, not merely difficult to engineer, but mathematically impossible, and based on a fundamental misunderstanding of the relationship between classical and quantum physics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[854] **viXra:1709.0325 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 06:24:56*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 34 Pages. 5 Figures

In nature, nothing is said to occur without reason/purpose. For example, our hearts beat persistently without having a source of infinite energy, which does not happen without reason. The reason is due to their special structure that provides all the properties our hearts possess. In the same way, as electrons, nucleons, and all other particles, or quanta (since quantum mechanics is applied to all particles, these should be known as quanta) possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy, there should be some purpose. And the purpose should be due to their special structure that provides all the properties they display. Therefore, the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion, their special structures, and properties have been determined. The account of the effect of the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion (i.e. quantum spin theory) enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to them. At present, taking into account the effect of the purpose as why electrons and photons possess persistent spin motion (as the photons are emitted from the orbiting electrons, which posses persistent spin motion, the photons also possess spin motion that they derive from the orbiting electrons), it has been tried to give very clear and complete explanations of their phenomena of interference and diffraction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[853] **viXra:1709.0324 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-01 08:45:18*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model project

The first order quaternionic partial differential equation can play as the mother of all field equations. Second order partial differential equations describe the interaction between point-like artifacts and fields. A direct relationship exists between the first order quaternionic partial differential equation and integral balance equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[852] **viXra:1709.0324 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 03:42:08*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The first order quaternionic partial differential equation can be considered as the mother of all field equations. Second order partial differential equations describe the interaction between point-like artifacts and fields. A direct relation exists with integral balance equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[851] **viXra:1709.0315 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 06:17:35*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The present interpretation of photon is as: A photon = a quantum of radiation energy + energy hn, where the quantum of radiation energy constitutes the photon and provides the particle like physical existence to it, similarly, as the quantum of charge (-e) constitutes the electron and provides the particle like physical existence to it. And the energy hn enables the photon to travel with velocity c, spin with frequency n (which the photon obtains from the orbiting electron, from which the photon is emitted), scatter electron in Compton scattering, and eject electron penetrating into metals in photoelectric effect. The present interpretation of photon enables us to give very clear and complete explanations of all the phenomena related to photons, including the phenomena of interference and diffraction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[850] **viXra:1709.0259 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-19 07:26:35*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Einstein once expressed dissatisfaction with quantum mechanics, saying that it didn't take us any closer to the secret of the "old one", and that he didn't believe that the supreme being threw dice. Here we argue that traditional interpretations of quantum mechanics invoke a false picture of reality (a picture that takes us further away rather than closer to G-d), and that, just as the abstract brush strokes of a representational painting serve the purpose of creating an orderly image, any apparent randomness there is to the behaviour of objects in the quantum domain serves the purpose of creating overall order.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[849] **viXra:1709.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-18 07:17:15*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

De fysieke realiteit moet eenvoudig zijn. Deze redenering is het algemene idee achter Occam's razor. Het is echter ook een algemeen natuurkundig beginsel.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[848] **viXra:1709.0215 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-18 07:05:59*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

De fysieke realiteit moet eenvoudig zijn. Deze redenering is het algemene idee achter Occam's razor. Het is echter ook een algemeen natuurkundig beginsel.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[847] **viXra:1709.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-18 15:27:20*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physics must be simple. This reasoning is the general idea behind Occam’s razor. However, it is also a general physical principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[846] **viXra:1709.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 03:44:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two and a half centuries ago, scientist discovered solutions of the wave equation that represent dark quanta. These quanta configure all other objects that exist in the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[845] **viXra:1709.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-16 16:09:20*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two and a half centuries ago, scientist discovered solutions of the wave equation that represent dark quanta. These quanta configure all other objects that exist in the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[844] **viXra:1709.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-12 14:41:36*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[843] **viXra:1709.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-18 06:51:13*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Twee en een halve eeuw geleden, ontdekte wetenschappers oplossingen van de golfvergelijking die donkere kwanta vertegenwoordigen. Deze kwanta configureren alle andere objecten die in het universum bestaan.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[842] **viXra:1709.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-12 15:08:00*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Twee en een halve eeuw geleden, ontdekte wetenschappers oplossingen van de golfvergelijking die donkere kwanta vertegenwoordigen. Deze kwanta configureren alle andere objecten die in het universum bestaan.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[841] **viXra:1709.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-13 06:23:37*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrected a few typos and made a diagram clearer

Following an earlier paper, an argument is presented that sets up a causality paradox with signals that are claimed to be retrocausal. This is not to be dismissive of claims of retrocausality over small scales by the mechanism of advanced and retarded waves, just that it is not possible over timescales greater than the energy-time uncertainty relationship.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[840] **viXra:1708.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-29 10:15:34*

**Authors:** Hans van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the eighteenth century, scientists discovered the ingredients of basic quantum field theory. In those times quantum physics played no role. In the twentieth century, these ingredients were forgotten and stayed ignored.
This paper introduces two categories of super-tiny dark objects that represent the most basic field quanta. Warps represent a tiny bit of energy. Clamps represent a tiny bit of mass. Observers cannot perceive these objects as individual items. The objects are the tiny dark objects that science is still missing. The LHC and its successors will never be able to detect them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[839] **viXra:1708.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-21 12:41:17*

**Authors:** Hans van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the eighteenth century, scientists discovered the ingredients of basic quantum field theory. In those times quantum physics played no role. In the twentieth century, these ingredients were forgotten and stayed ignored.
This paper introduces two categories of super-tiny dark objects that represent the most basic field quanta. Warps represent a tiny bit of energy. Clamps represent a tiny bit of mass. Observers cannot perceive these objects as individual items. The objects are the tiny dark objects that science is still missing. The LHC and its successors will never be able to detect them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[838] **viXra:1708.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-20 15:34:56*

**Authors:** Hans van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The ingredients of basic quantum field theory were discovered in the eighteenth century. In those times quantum physics played no role. In the twentieth century, these ingredients were forgotten and stayed ignored.
This paper introduces two categories of super-tiny dark objects that represent the most basic field quanta. Warps represent a tiny bit of energy. Clamps represent a tiny bit of mass. In separation, these objects cannot be perceived. They are the tiny dark objects that science is still missing.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[837] **viXra:1708.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-24 14:04:12*

**Authors:** M. Karthick Selvan

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Properties of polaritons in triple-Λ EIT system are investigated using Sawada-Brout-Chong method. The role of dark and bright-state polaritons in the dynamics of the system is studied in detail by including the decay of excited atomic levels. Time evolution of entanglement of single and three-photon EIT modes within the system is shown to support this study.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[836] **viXra:1708.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-11 07:19:33*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: this article shows a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; and, based on the atomic structure, put forwards a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[835] **viXra:1708.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-22 04:29:49*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: this article shows a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; and, based on the atomic structure, put forwards a new causes and mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[834] **viXra:1708.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-29 08:30:00*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: this article shows a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[833] **viXra:1708.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-19 08:07:22*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: this article show a new atomic structure which has been proved by related and independent experiments; based on this atomic structure, put forwards a new mechanism of the atomic energy levels quantization.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[832] **viXra:1708.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-26 18:29:49*

**Authors:** Omar Yepez

**Comments:** 9 pages, 6 figures

An experimental non-model determination of the number of electrons participating in a chemical bond has been achieved. This determination corroborates the valence theory of Lewis and coincides with the current state of the art. The relationship between a normalized bond area and its bond energy is used to precisely characterize selected organic molecules. The mass fusion of bonding electrons with its mass loss or gain, is the probable origin of the chemical energy. As a consequence, a probable geometric meaning of thermodynamic functions is provided.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[831] **viXra:1708.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-12 22:41:46*

**Authors:** Omar Yepez

**Comments:** 9 pages, 6 figures

An experimental non-model determination of the number of electron participating in a chemical bond has been achieved. This determination corroborates the valence theory of Lewis and coincides with current state of the art. The relationship between a normalized bond area and its bond energy is used to precisely characterize selected organic molecules. The mass fusion of bonding electrons with its mass loss or gain, is the probable origin of the chemical energy. A probable geometric meaning of thermodynamic functions is provided.

**Category:** Quantum Physics