[4] **viXra:0911.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 18 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 12 pages, 1 figure, 5 tables, Submitted to the Apeiron Journal

This reading is a continuation of the earlier reading Nyambuya (2008); where three new Curved
Spacetime Dirac Equations have been derived mainly to try and account in a natural way for the observed
anomalous gyromagnetic ratio of fermions and the suggestions is that particles including the Electron, which
is thought to be a point particle, do have a finite spatial size and this is one of the reasons for the observed
anomalous gyromagnetic ratio. Combining the idea in Nyambuya (2008) which lead to the derivation of the
three new Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations, and the proposed Unified Field Theory (Nyambuya 2007), a
total of 12 equations each with 16 sub-components are generated thus leading to a total of 192 equations for
the Curved Spacetime Dirac Equation. Some symmetries of these equations are investigated, i.e., the Lorentz
symmetry, charge conjugation symmetry (C), time reversal symmetry (T), Space reversal (P) and a combination
of the C, P&T-symmetries. It is shown that these equations are Lorentz invariant, obey C-symmetry and that
some violate T and P-symmetry while others do not and that they all obey PT-symmetry. These symmetries
show (or modestly said - seem to suggest) that anti-particles have positive mass and energy but a negative
rest-mass and the opposite sign in electronic charge. Through the inspection of these symmetries, a suggestion
is (here) made to the effect that the rest-mass of a particle must be related to the electronic charge of that
particle thus leading us to a possible resolution of whether or not Neutrinos do have a none-zero rest-mass.
Additionally, we demonstrate that these equations have the potency to explain naturally the observed lepton
generation phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:0911.0043 [pdf]**
*replaced on 3 Feb 2009*

**Authors:** Giuliano Bettini

**Comments:** 19 pages

As I showed in my previous writings [16], a field similar to the gauge boson W
provides a helical motion that transforms a TEM in a TE (or TM) in a waveguide.
This helical motion in the Hestenes interpretation of electron is the zitterbewegung.
In [16] I just talk about electromagnetic fields, TEM and TE, TM.
I noticed that "a TEM is wrapped in a waveguide and becomes a TE or TM with
mass" and "the Higgs particle do not appear".
Similarities inevitable appear, already appeared in [15], all questionable, with
neutrinos and electrons / positrons.
However Hestenes in "Spacetime calculus", speaking of the helical motion ie
zitterbewegung makes more explicitly the hypothesis that, given the above
similarities, it seems interesting:
"This opens up possibilities for integrating the zitterbewegung idea with electroweak
theory. Evidently that would obviate the need for including Higgs bosons in the
theory, since the zitterbewegung provides an alternative mechanism to account for
the electron mass."
In face of a possible elimination of the Higgs particle from the electroweak theory it
appears useful to repeat my ideas in a popular way.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:0911.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** V.A.Induchoodan Menon

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The author extends his approach which treats the elementary
particle as a standing luminal half wave to the 3-dimensional situation
incorporating spin. It is shown that the function representing the
circularly polarized standing electromagnetic half wave is a solution
to the Dirac equation and the two positive energy solutions turn out to
be formed by the forward and the reverse luminal half waves
belonging to two different spin states of the standing wave. In the
process, the author presents the physical picture behind the spinor
representation of the particle. The standing wave structure formed by
the circularly polarized luminal wave offers a simple explanation for
the "zitterbewegung" undergone by the electron. Besides, this
structure of the half spin particle offers a simple but elegant
explanation for the Pauli's exclusion principle.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:0911.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 8 pages, Published in Foundation of Physics, Vol. 38, pp.665-667, July 2008 Issue, pp. 665-677;
Also archived at http://arxiv.org/abs/0709.0936

I propose three new curved spacetime versions of the Dirac Equation. These
equations have been developed mainly to try and account in a natural way for the observed
anomalous gyromagnetic ratio of Fermions. The derived equations suggest that particles
including the Electron which is thought to be a point particle do have a finite spatial size
which is the reason for the observed anomalous gyromagnetic ratio. A serendipitous result
of the theory, is that, to of the equation exhibits an asymmetry in their positive and negative
energy solutions the first suggestion of which is clear that a solution to the problem as to
why the Electron and Moun - despite their acute similarities - exhibit an asymmetry in
their mass is possible. The Moun is often thought as an Electron in a higher energy state.
Another of the consequences of three equations emanating from the asymmetric serendipity
of the energy solutions of two of these equations, is that, an explanation as to why Leptons
exhibit a three stage mass hierarchy is possible.

**Category:** Quantum Physics