[19] **viXra:1403.0962 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-29 03:04:16*

**Authors:** Keith Ferrer

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The quantization of electromagnetic radiation can be interpreted based on the relativistic properties of light waves given its constant velocity relative to bodies that are slower than them.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1403.0960 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-28 11:27:39*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The bonding of the hydrogen atom in the B—H—B sequence of diborane is just a standard overlapping of atomic orbitals. With the MCAS model, hydrogen naturally has the capacity to form linear and non-linear bonds between two atoms, when necessary. There is no need for the nebulous 3-center, two-electron, bond that has been used to honor the unassailable s-orbital of the spdf-QM model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1403.0952 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 10:23:57*

**Authors:** Thomas Alexander Meyer

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I present an analysis of the quantum erasing effect which categorizes the effect into attenuating and non-attenuating phenomena. It is shown that the attenuating quantum eraser is typically explained in a spurious fashion, and insight is given concerning the real phenomenon of interference between distinguishable states that would properly explain the attenuating eraser.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1403.0950 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 12:09:57*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In classical electrodynamics the vacuum is defined as a region where there are no electric or magnetic fields. In such a region, a charged particle (such as an electron) will feel no effect — the Lorentz force is zero. The space external to a perfect (i.e., infinite) solenoid can be considered an electromagnetic vacuum, since E and B vanish there. While a non-zero vector potential A does exist outside the solenoid, it can exert no influence on the particle, and thus cannot be directly detected or quantified classically. However, in 1959 Aharonov and Bohm predicted that a vector field would exert a purely quantum-mechanical effect on the phase of the particle’s wave function, which
in principle should be detectable. The predicted phase shift was not observed experimentally until 1986, when Tonomura brilliantly verified the effect using a microscopic solenoid. This paper provides a simplified explanation of the Aharonov-Bohm effect using a path-integral approach that is suitable for the advanced undergraduate.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1403.0947 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 08:07:08*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven-page-letter

The particle-interference-experiments, with the photons and electrons have clearly shown that they are always detected as localized ‘particles’; and the density of their detections exhibit a pattern similar to the interference of waves. This experimental-observation is now explained here, making the current, ‘probabilistic interpretation’, a past history. The ‘particle’ is first mathematically characterized as an ‘impulse function’ in space; and then Fourier-transformed into the wave-number-domain, as a wide band of constituent-waves as shown in the fig. 1&2. The ‘particle’ is explained as an ‘event’ of constructive-superimposition of a wide band of ‘pre-quantum-waves’. This ‘event’ occurs in space at regular distances; and at regular instances in time. We know that even the purest monochromatic laser source has a ‘line-width’ of a few Giga-Hertz, or at least a few kilo-Hertz. So in the particle-interference-experiments, they are these wide bands of waves which pass through both the slits, even in the case of single photon states, and interfere physically. This physical interference of the wide bands of pre-quantum-waves determines the position and time of emergence of the ‘particle’. Thus, form the theoretical view-point, there are only the waves, and waves alone; and the ‘particle’ is a specific situation of constructive-superimposition of all the spectral-components of pre-quantum-waves; so there is no wave-particle-duality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1403.0929 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-25 02:08:02*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Five-page-letter

While the experiments have shown similar wave-nature of matter-particles and photons, there are two different formulae for finding Relativistic-increase of energy of massive-particles and photons. This paper presents a unification of the two different formulae, in terms of Doppler-shifts of waves; leading to an insight that the ‘particles-of-matter’ seem to be the ‘standing-waves’; and de-Broglie’s ‘matter-waves’, and ‘quantum-mechanical-waves’ are ‘envelop-variations’ of the actual, more-fundamental waves.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1403.0924 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 08:59:31*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 4 pages

We discuss whether the
Stern-Gerlach experiment accepts hidden-variables theories.
We discuss that the existence of
two spin-1/2 pure states
$|\uparrow\rangle$ and $|\downarrow\rangle$ rules out
the existence of probability space of
specific quantum measurement.
If we detect $|\uparrow\rangle$, then measurement outcome is $+1$.
If we detect $|\downarrow\rangle$, then measurement outcome is $-1$.
This hidden-variables theory does not accept
the transition probability
$|\langle\uparrow|\downarrow\rangle|^2=0$.
Therefore we have to give up the hidden-variables theory.
This implies the Stern-Gerlach experiment cannot accept the specific
hidden-variables theory.
And we study whether quantum phase factor
accepts hidden-variables theories.
We use the transition probability for
two spin-1/2 pure states $(|\uparrow\rangle+|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$
and
$(|\uparrow\rangle+e^{i \theta}|\downarrow\rangle)/\sqrt{2}$.
It is $\cos^2(\theta/2)$.
We discuss that the phase factor does not accept another specific
hidden-variables theory.
We explore the phase factor is indeed a quantum effect, not classical.
Our research gives a new insight to the quantum information processing
which relies on quantum phase factor, such as Deutsch's algorithm.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1403.0741 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-21 10:58:36*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics, Volume 3, No.7 (2015), Page 874--897.

We discuss the fact that there is a crucial contradiction within
Von Neumann's theory.
We derive a proposition concerning
a quantum expected value under an assumption of the existence
of the orientation of reference frames in
$N$ spin-1/2 systems ($1 \leq N < +\infty$). This assumption
intuitively depictures our physical world.
However, the quantum predictions within the formalism
of Von Neumann's projective measurement
violate the proposition with a magnitude that grows
exponentially with the number of particles.
We have to give up either the existence
of the directions or the formalism of Von Neumann's
projective measurement.
Therefore, Von Neumann's theory cannot depicture our
physical world with a violation factor that
grows exponentially with the number of particles.
The theoretical formalism of the implementation of
the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm relies on Von Neumann's theory.
We investigate whether Von Neumann's theory meets the Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm.
We discuss the fact that the crucial contradiction
makes the quantum-theoretical formulation of Deutsch-Jozsa algorithm
questionable.
Further, we discuss the fact that projective measurement theory does
not meet an easy detector model for a single Pauli observable.
Especially, we systematically
describe our assertion
based on more mathematical analysis using raw data.
We propose a solution of the problem.
Our solution is equivalent to changing Planck's constant ($\hbar$) to a
new constant ($\hbar/\sqrt{2}$).
It may be said that a new type of the quantum theory early
approaches Newton's theory in the macroscopic scale
than the old quantum theory does.
We discuss how our solution is used in an implementation of
Deutsch's algorithm.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1403.0585 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-21 22:39:07*

**Authors:** Klinkerman R.V.

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the given work attempt to understand the nature of gravitation on the basis
of quantum concepts is done. It supposed, that in a basis of gravitation lay zero
fluctuations of quantum fields which are identified with the chaos "surrounding"
the Universe. The gravitational field is result of transformation by a physical body
of distant chaos in near chaos.
Key words: gravitation, particles, zero fluctuations, « phantoms of particles
», chaos, transformation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1403.0500 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-21 12:00:09*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** 40 Pages

Dr. Diederik Aerts joins us this issue with a serious challenge to Quantum Physics as understood by the mainstream, as we call them. Also Jim Marsen, MSME, with his TRON theory as developed with his dad.
The Institute has formally accepted a proposed alliance with the NPA, the Natural Philosophy Alliance. NPA, in turn is working toward an alliance with The Electric Universe organization. The ramifications of this would be huge. See www.k1man.com/Springer130319A.pdf

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1403.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-18 09:18:23*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Diamonds and silicon wafers are prized materials that share a common crystal structure. Tetrahedral atom interactions are the basis for their properties: hardness, thermal conductivity, electrical non-conductivity, etc. sp3-Hybrid orbitals provide the current explanation for the interatomic “bond” connections. These covalent bonds, however, do not provide an adequate mechanism for these materials acting as semiconductors. Ionic bonding between atoms with the crystal lattice fully connected via overlapped, but “unoccupied”, orbitals does provide a logical structure to explain how semiconductor doping works, however.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1403.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-15 13:36:18*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Computer program didn't typeset correctly; third attempt

The problem of angular momentum addition requires the calculation of Clebsch-Gordan coefficients. While systems involving small values of momenta and spin present no special problem, larger systems require extensive computational effort. This paper describes a straightforward method for computing the coefficients for any two-particle problem exactly by means of a simplified form of the recursion formula in a notation that is particularly accessible to the third- or fourth-year student. The method is summarized in a brief BASIC program.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1403.0089 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-24 06:33:00*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

With Bell (1964) and his EPR-based mathematics contradicted by experiments, at least one step in his supposedly commonsense theorem must be false. Defining commonsense local realism as the fusion of local-causality (no causal influence propagates superluminally) and physical-realism (some physical properties change interactively), we eliminate all such contradictions and make EPR correlations intelligible by completing the quantum mechanical account in a classical way. Thus refuting the famous inequality at the heart of Bell's mathematics, we show that Bell's theorem is limited by Bell's use of naive realism. Validating the classical mantra that correlated tests on correlated things produce correlated results without mystery, we conclude that Bell's theorem and related experiments negate naive realism, not commonsense local realism.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1403.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-09 03:52:37*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two-page letter

In a recent paper, titled “Explanation for the observed wave-particle-duality of Light” (Tank, H.K. http://vixra.org/abs/1402.0153, 2014) it was explained that: “Since at very high frequencies, narrowband filtering and generation of purely monochromatic light of one Hertz bandwidth is not yet technically possible, there has been quite a wide bandwidth of waves involved, in the double slit experiments and photoelectric experiments performed so far. And since this wide ‘band’ of waves coherently add only at discrete points in space and time, we get ‘particles’ at the detectors.” Now, to further confirm the validity of this explanation, a new kind of experiment is proposed here, in which protons and electrons are accelerated at appropriate velocities vp ve , such that their de Broglie wavelengths are equal; i.e. ( h / mp vp )= ( h / me ve ) and let them pass through closely spaced slits so that they can interfere with each other. Similarly, in another experiment, their wave-functions: A exp i ( kp X - ωp t ) = A exp i ( ke X - ωe t ) , and let them pass through closely spaced slits, and see how the two matter-waves interfere.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1403.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-07 05:13:42*

**Authors:** Chetan Waghela

**Comments:** 17 Pages. submitted as poster for QIPA 2013 at HRI.

Hamiltonian Mechanics works for conserved systems. Quantum Mechanics is given in Hamiltonian language. In papers by Dekker and recently by A. Sergi, this problem was circumvented by complexifying the energy and interpreting the dissipative part as Imaginary part. Based on the Dekker model, a following interpretation is presented in Density-Operator language for Pseudo-Hermiticity. Proper forms of Quantum measures are provided, as there is need in this new formalism, namely correcting Pati and Zielinski, Wang.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1403.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-06 12:37:41*

**Authors:** A.M. Ilyanok

**Comments:** Pages 23, Figures 6, Table 1

The present chapter investigates electron. It is shown that electron has an intricate internal structure which determines both static and dynamic properties of the electron itself and important parameters of te condensed matter.
Stationary “cold” electron (≤0.1eV) is modeled by a thin elastic ring called ector having diameter which is 137,036 times larger Bohr’s radius of hydrogen which consists of specific form of magnetic field. On the basis of the ector model the size, mass, charge, electromagnetic mass, spin and magnetic moment of electron are described. The model of “cold” ring electron in a condensed matter explains from new perspective critical parameters of phase transitions “metal-semiconductor” (Winner’s crystallization) and low temperature and high temperature superconductivity.
Ring electron spirals into a void torus as compared to steady moving “hot” electrons (>>0.1эВ). The size of the torus depends on its kinetic energy which makes it possible to describe changes of the cross-section of the interaction with gas – Ramsauer effect. The model of ring electron transforming onto the torus also makes it possible to construct a hydrogen atom and describe energy states of the atom including its spectrum, process of emission/absorption, size of the atom and its stability.
The model of the toroid electron explains correlation of the change of the interacting cross-section of relativistic electron with accelerating electro-magnetic wave up to complete disappearance of the interaction called disruption in the energy spectrum of cosmic electrons.
Very high coincidence degree with the experimental data and simplicity of formulas testify to the adequacy of the employed model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1403.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-04 18:28:28*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This file is not yet submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome.

Quantum non-locality belongs to one puzzling feature of quantum mechanics, which some people think as unexplained using classical theories. But there seems a possibility to explain quantum non-locality using Maxwell equations or complex Minkowski metric. Therefore it seems worth to discuss this issue.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1403.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-05 06:57:09*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

On the basis of concentric spherical layer-type model and multi-quantum
energy level distribution, propose a new mechanism of atomic energy absorption and
emission.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1403.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-02 11:40:33*

**Authors:** Kelly Loum

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A simple thought experiment that can easily be performed in the laboratory that gives results that do not have an explanation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics