[14] **viXra:1404.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-30 03:05:50*

**Authors:** Anurag Pallaprolu

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Quantum computing, NMR Quantum Computers, Ensemble Computing

This document is submitted as a partial requirement for the
course Quantum Information and Computing, BITS Pilani. The
phenomenon of NMR can be used to generate spin states of nuclei
and these can be used as qubits for computational purposes, the
speciality being, an ensemble of molecules must be utilized. This allows for an exponentiation in the processing power of the computer. The document explains about the setup, measurement and initialization of an NMR quantum computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1404.0460 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-24 13:14:49*

**Authors:** Remi Cornwall

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Outline of the method. More updates and analysis in due course.

A technique is presented for improving the ratio of entangled photons to un-entangled photons for any means of generation. The approach takes advantage of the entangled nature of the photons of interest and their concomitant temporal coherence length, to separate that component by a combination of beam convergence, destructive interference, Faraday-Rotators, polarising filters and then beam divergence. The method applies to energy-time entangled photons and matter waves too.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1404.0305 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-10 06:22:34*

**Authors:** K. Sugiyama

**Comments:** 53 Pages.

The Born rule is a rule that a probability we observe a small particle like an electron is proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wave function. In this paper, we try to derive the Born rule from the many-worlds interpretation.

Many researchers have tried to derive the Born rule (also called Born's rule, Born's law, or probability interpretation) from Many-Worlds Interpretation (MWI). However, no one succeeds. Thus, the derivation of Born’s rule had become an important issue for MWI. We try to derive Born’s rule by introducing an elementary event of probability theory to the quantum theory as a new method.

We interpret the wave function as a manifold like a three-dimensional sphere, and interpret the absolute value of the wave function as the surface area of the manifold. We suppose that the manifold exists in the discrete space that has lattice points. We interpret a point on the surface of the manifold as a state that we cannot divide any more, an elementary state. We draw an arrow from any point to any point. We interpret an arrow as an event that we cannot divide any more, an elementary event.

Probability is proportional to the number of elementary events, and the number of elementary events is the square of the number of elementary states. The number of elementary states is proportional to the surface area of the manifold, and the surface area of the manifold is the absolute value of the wave function. Therefore, the probability is proportional to the square of the absolute value of the wave function.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1404.0285 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-09 03:47:02*

**Authors:** K. Sugiyama

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

We derive the two-valuedness and the angular momentum of a spin-1/2 from a rotation of 3-dimensional surface of a sphere existing in extra 4-dimensional space other than normal 3-dimensional space, in this paper.

We will derive the two-valuedness of the spin as follows.
We introduce 3-dimensional surface of a sphere S^{3} existing in extra 4-dimensional space (W, X, Y, Z) other than normal 3-dimensional space (x, y, z). We interpret the angle of rotation of the 3-sphere S^{3} as the phase of a wave function. We interpret the 3-sphere S^{3} as the absolute value of a wave function.

We can express 3-sphere as the manifold with a constant sum of squares of the radius of two circles. When one circle's radius becomes the maximum, the other circle's radius becomes zero. Therefore, we can turn the circle inside out naturally. If we combine the circle turned inside out with the original circle, the manifold becomes a torus with a node. If we rotate the node of the torus by 360 degrees, we can turn the torus inside out. If we rotate the node of the torus 720 degrees, we can return the torus to the original state. This property is consistent with the property of the spin.

We derive the angular momentum of the spin as follows.
We make 3-dimensional solid sphere by removing one point from 3-sphere S^{3}. On the other hand, we can make boundary like a 3-sphere S^{3} by removing one point from normal 3-dimensional space (x, y, z). We combine the boundaries of them. By repeating this, we can construct 3-dimensional helical space.

The angle of rotation of the 3-sphere S^{3} is the angle of rotation of 3-dimensional helical space. On the other hand, we can interpret the angle of the rotation in the helical space as the coordinates (x, y, z) of the normal 3-dimensional space. Therefore, we can interpret the angular momentum of the 3-sphere S^{3} as the angular momentum of normal space.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1404.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-20 15:45:32*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

One of the most important open questions in physics is the possibility of reconciliation, and perhaps unification, between quantum theory and relativity theory. Here I show that a relativity theory without the Lorentz Invariance Principle, termed Complete Relativity, reconciles with quantum mechanics at significant meeting points: It explains the quantum criticality at the Golden Ratio. More importantly, it confirms with Planck's energy. These results are quite astounding, given the fact that Complete Relativity, like Special Relativity, is a deterministic model of the dynamics of moving bodies. An application of the theory to cosmology, discussed in a recent paper, revealed that it yields definitions of dark matter and dark energy, and predicts the contents of the universe with impressive accuracy. Taken together, these results raise the exciting possibility that physics at the quantum scale, and at the cosmological scale, are the two faces of one coin: The coin of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1404.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 13:48:49*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A new class of dynamical systems with a preset type of interference of probabilities is introduced. It is obtained from the extension of the Madelung equation by replacing the quantum potential with a specially selected feedback from the Liouville equation. It has been proved that these systems are different from both Newtonian and quantum systems, but they can be useful for modeling spontaneous collective novelty phenomena when emerging outputs are qualitatively different from the weighted sum of individual inputs. Formation of language and fast decision-making process as potential applications of the probability interference is discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1404.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-12 04:33:32*

**Authors:** A.V. Antipin

**Comments:** 12 Pages. публикация на русском языке: "ИСПОЛЬЗОВАНИЕ СИЛЫ КАЗИМИРА ДЛЯ УПРАВЛЯЕМОГО ДВИЖЕНИЯ МАКРОТЕЛ", 31-03-2014, http://science.snauka.ru/2014/03/6710

Considered the Casimir effect for construction «angle bar». Theoretically discovered uncompensated force in the direction from the top of the angle bar to its opening angle. Assessment of the magnitude of this force.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1404.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 16:06:56*

**Authors:** Alexander Zaslavsky

**Comments:** 20 Pages

The conditions of arising and some effects of physical phenomenon that may be found in the process of observing high energy particles are considered in this work. This phenomenon is
consequence of time discreteness. When the repetition frequency of a particle discrete state proves to be commensurable with its own frequency (energy), the aliasing effect of its wave function may take place. The wave function aliasing limits the particle energy spectrum giving rise to the uninvestigated abnormal modes of movement. In view of the fact the discreteness of particle states at a time is a prerequisite for aliasing, the effect under consideration, in case of its experimental verification, may serve a proof of this discreteness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1404.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-31 02:27:48*

**Authors:** Stefan G. Freundt

**Comments:** German and English, 21 pages, 2 pictures

The Quantum mechanics works but is not yet well understood. The difficulty in understanding lies not so much in the already very sophisticated mathematical formulations, but are much more rooted in the question of how the objects do that?
Starting with the double-slit experiment, we will first provide the viewpoint of quantum mechanics. This leads us to the wave-particle duality. Photons have both wave and particle properties.
Then we see the exact opposite: photons, electrons... are neither wave nor particle and address the question: Can we find truth from falsity? Can quantum mechanics be wrong in their conditions and yet lead to so excellent results?
We then address the question of how good the mathematical prerequisites in classical physics is and how well they are fulfilled in quantum physics. Finally, we look at some very basic experiments from the point of view of the objects.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1404.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-11 11:10:24*

**Authors:** Jia-Run Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1404.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-18 00:13:34*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Giving a path to establish the volume charge density functional theory (VDFT).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1404.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-09 12:11:47*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Two unsolved problems in quantum mechanics are addressed: a source of randomness and an origin of entanglement. These problems being hidden in the Schrödinger equations became transparent in its Madelung version. Special attention is concentrated on equivalence between the Schrodinger and the Madelung equations.
It has been demonstrated that randomness in quantum mechanics has the same mathematical source as that in turbulence and chaos, and the origin of entanglement is the global constraint imposed by the normalization constraint of the probability density that becomes an additional variable in the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1404.0061 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-10 14:29:44*

**Authors:** Jia-Run Deng

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Based on the improved design of Four-photon entanglement device and the definition of Encoding rules, Decoding rules and Error correction rules, we could be able to achieve the information transmission in the quantum channel directly, and lead to the superluminal communication result.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1404.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-04-07 23:35:18*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is one thing to draw lobes for electrons with the understanding that one does not know what is going on inside those lobes. It is something entirely different to indicate that those lobes are filled with clouds or bits of electron presence! The wave approach to indicate an electron’s path is quite appropriate, however. Electron movement is well defined per the precise spectral data generated. Movement of electrons to and fro within and between atoms will be on well-defined pathways with their electrostatic fields moving with them. The movement of an electrostatic field is illustrated as its associated particle moves along an elliptical path.

**Category:** Quantum Physics