[13] **viXra:1405.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 10:57:06*

**Authors:** philip. Maulion

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

David Mermin, sans le dire met en évidence une faille importante chez Einstein à propos du 'maintenant'. Depuis 2006, je propose d'attribuer une essence, une épaisseur au 'maintenant' quantifiable de l'ordre de 10-25s ou moins encore. Pour le reste D. Mermin se trompe avec les QBists...

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1405.0342 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 08:39:27*

**Authors:** philip. Maulion

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Les QBist proposent de prendre en compte,la subjectivité, la 'présence', du sujet pensant pour expliquer les bizarreries de la mécanique quantique. C'est intéressant parce qu'ils lèvent un tabou. Mais leur hypothèse est superficielle parce qu'il faut prendre en compte la 'Présence' avec un p majuscule.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1405.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-20 12:41:37*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 260 Pages.

The Hilbert Book Model is based on a selected set of first principles and this foundation is extended by using trustworthy mathematical methods. The target of this project is a model that shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality.
With other words the model is completely deduced. In advance the model is not called a model of physics. After a set of extension steps the model reaches some interesting results. At that instance a discussion might be started whether the model can be used as a model of physics. However, it is impossible to prove that this model gives a correct view of physical reality. In fact the models of contemporary physics face the same restriction.
For this reason the project is formatted as a game. The participants of the game start with formulating well selected first principles and extend this foundation with trustworthy methods such that the target model shows many features and phenomena that we know by observing physical reality. In this way the Hilbert Book Model is just an instance of this game.
The reader is invited to join the game or investigate and criticize the HBM.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1405.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 07:15:31*

**Authors:** Torsten Hertig, Jens Philip Höhmann, Ralf Otte

**Comments:** German Version of viXra:1405.0281. 21 pages without titlepage, 14 without titlepage and appendix

Quantum theory (QT) which is one@@ of the basic theories of physics, namely in terms of Schrödinger's 1926 wave functions in general requires the field **C** of the complex numbers to be formulated. However, even the complex-valued description soon turned out to be insufficient. Incorporating Einstein's theory of Special Relativity (Schrödinger, Klein, Gordon, 1926, Dirac 1928) leads to an equation which requires some coefficients which are hypercomplex. Conventionally the Dirac equation is written using pairwise anti-commuting matrices. However, a unitary ring of square matrices *is* an - associative - hypercomplex algebra by definition. However, only the algebraic properties of the elements and their relations to one another are important. We hence replace the matrix formulation by a more symbolic one. In the case of the Dirac equation, these elements are called biquaternions.
As an algebra over **R**, the biquaternions are eight-dimensional; as subalgebras, this algebra contains the division ring **H** of the quaternions at one hand and the algebra **C**⊗**C** of the bicomplex numbers at the other, the latter being commutative. As it will later turn out, **C**⊗**C** contains *pure non-real* subalgebras isomorphic to **C**. Within this paper, we first consider shortly the basics of the non-relativistic and the relativistic quantum theory. Then we introduce general hypercomplex algebras and also show how a relativistic quantum equation like Dirac's one can be formulated using hypercomplex coefficients.
Subsequently, some algebraic preconditions for operations within hypercomplex algebras and their subalgebras will be examined. For our purpose equations akin the Schrödinger's one should be able to be set up and solved. Functions of complementary variables like **x** and **p** should be Fourier transforms of each other. This should hold within a purely non-real subspace which must hence be a subalgebra. Furthermore, it is an ideal denoted by *J*. It must be isomorphic to **C**, hence containing an internal identity element. The bicomplex numbers will turn out to fulfil these preconditions, and therefore, the formalism of QT can be developed within its subalgebras.
We also show that bicomplex numbers encourage the definition of several different kinds of conjugates. One of these treats the elements of *J* precisely as the usual conjugate treats complex numbers. This defines a quantity what we call a modulus which, in contrast to the complex absolute square, remains non-real (but may be called `pseudo-real'). However, we do not conduct an explicit physical interpretation here but we leave this to future examinations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1405.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-22 20:23:31*

**Authors:** Luis Gregorio Navarro Rodriguez, Juan Carlos Morales Rojas, Gabriela Peralta Diaz, Adrian Gonzalez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Spanish language

En la presente práctica se muestra la distribución espacial y de momentos de un haz cuántico, de una fuente BBO (Beta-Borato de Bario) que produce un par de haces mediante conversión paramétrica descendente espontánea a partir de la excitación de un láser de 405 nm. Los haces se definen como cuánticos pues está presente una estadística de detección y coincidencias, que nos permite distinguir fotones individuales.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1405.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-21 20:21:49*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper points out that the negative energy solutions of the Dirac
equation are inconsistent with the observed characteristics of the
positron. It also notes that the Dirac equation is not a quantum
representation of the relativistic expression for the kinetic plus rest
energy of a moving charge.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1405.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-04 14:03:37*

**Authors:** Torsten Hertig, Jens Philip Höhmann, Ralf Otte

**Comments:** Contains 7 pages appendix

Quantum theory (QT) which is one of the basic theories of physics, namely in terms of Schrödinger's 1926 wave functions in general requires the field **C** of the complex numbers to be formulated. However, even the complex-valued description soon turned out to be insufficient. Incorporating Einstein's theory of Special Relativity (Schrödinger, Klein, Gordon, 1926, Dirac 1928) leads to an equation which requires some coefficients which are hypercomplex. Conventionally the Dirac equation is written using pairwise anti-commuting matrices. However, a unitary ring of square matrices *is* an - associative - hypercomplex algebra by definition. However, only the algebraic properties of the elements and their relations to one another are important. We hence replace the matrix formulation by a more symbolic one. In the case of the Dirac equation, these elements are called biquaternions.
As an algebra over **R**, the biquaternions are eight-dimensional; as subalgebras, this algebra contains the division ring **H** of the quaternions at one hand and the algebra **C**⊗**C** of the bicomplex numbers at the other, the latter being commutative. As it will later turn out, **C**⊗**C** contains *pure non-real* subalgebras isomorphic to **C**. Within this paper, we first consider briefly the basics of the non-relativistic and the relativistic quantum theory. Then we introduce general hypercomplex algebras and also show how a relativistic quantum equation like Dirac's one can be formulated using hypercomplex coefficients.
Subsequently, some algebraic preconditions for operations within hypercomplex algebras and their subalgebras will be examined. For our purpose equations akin the Schrödinger's one should be able to be set up and solved. Functions of complementary variables like **x** and **p** should be Fourier transforms of each other. This should hold within a purely non-real subspace which must hence be a subalgebra. Furthermore, it is an ideal denoted by *J*. It must be isomorphic to **C**, hence containing an internal identity element. The bicomplex numbers will turn out to fulfil these preconditions, and therefore, the formalism of QT can be developed within its subalgebras.
We also show that bicomplex numbers encourage the definition of several different kinds of conjugates. One of these treats the elements of *J* precisely as the usual conjugate treats complex numbers. This defines a quantity what we call a modulus which, in contrast to the complex absolute square, remains non-real (but may be called `pseudo-real'). However, we do not conduct an explicit physical interpretation here but we leave this to future examinations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1405.0270 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-28 11:54:57*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This article introduces a new physical law that I shall call The Scale Law, The Scaling Law,
or The Scale Principle. This law, which is a Model Meta-law, is a model all the laws of
physics must obey. The paper shows that the Scale Law can produce true descriptions of
nature (exact laws) through two examples: (a) the Heisenberg uncertainty principle and (b)
the black hole entropy. Further research I carried out showed that all normal laws of physics are special cases of this formulation. The Scale Law may be used (a) to find exact laws of physics. This is only possible if we know all the necessary information about the
phenomenon we are trying to describe. I have illustrated this point in another paper where I
derived the Lorentz transformations from the Scale Law [18]; and (b) to find numeric laws
of physics. This case applies when we do not know all the information about the phenomenon
we try to describe and therefore we may only find a numeric equation for the phenomenon.
In order to illustrate the Scale Law more thoroughly, I introduced two numeric formulas for the proton radius. The first formula, which is likely to be numeric, suggests that generation 1, which makes up all the normal matter in the universe, exists because of the existence of the other two generations and the structure of the universe at the Planck scale. The second formula, which is likely to be more accurate and perhaps exact, matches the proton radius obtained by Lamb shift measurements in muonic hydrogen. Finally, based on a table of scale factors, the formulation predicts the size of the electron within a small range of possible values. This result is backed up by a separate prediction I made of the size of the electron based on an electron model with an infinite potential well [12]. Thus, the Scale Law opens a new window into the understanding of all levels of Nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1405.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-14 10:37:47*

**Authors:** Andrei P. Kirilyuk

**Comments:** 90 pages, 64 eqs, 44 refs; published Russian translation of arXiv:physics/0601140; Journal-ref: Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies 11(3) (2013) 437-517

The universal symmetry, or conservation, of complexity underlies any law or principle of system dynamics and describes the unceasing transformation of dynamic information into dynamic entropy as the unique way to conserve their sum, the total dynamic complexity. Here we describe the real world structure emergence and dynamics as manifestation of the universal symmetry of complexity of initially homogeneous interaction between two protofields. It provides the unified complex-dynamic, causally complete origin of physically real, 3D space, time, elementary particles, their properties (mass, charge, spin, etc.), quantum, relativistic, and classical behaviour, as well as fundamental interaction forces, including naturally quantized gravitation. The old and new cosmological problems (including "dark" mass and energy) are basically solved for this explicitly emerging, self-tuning world structure characterised by strictly positive (and large) energy-complexity. A general relation is obtained between the numbers of world dimensions and fundamental forces, excluding plausible existence of hidden dimensions. The unified, causally explained quantum, classical, and relativistic properties (and types of behaviour) are generalised to all higher levels of complex world dynamics. The real world structure, dynamics, and evolution are exactly reproduced by the probabilistic dynamical fractal, which is obtained as the truly complete general solution of a problem and the unique structure of the new mathematics of complexity. We outline particular, problem-solving applications of always exact, but irregularly structured symmetry of unreduced dynamic complexity to microworld dynamics, including particle physics, genuine quantum chaos, real nanobiotechnology, and reliable genomics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1405.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-11 15:17:45*

**Authors:** Joel M Williams

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The current spdf-QM electron orbital model is a forced one based on the precepts of a spherical starting point that requires that macro-physical laws no longer apply. For atoms to actually bond to one another, atomic orbitals have to be “hybridized”. π-bonds formed by overlapped, unhybridized, p-orbitals may make sense mathematically, assuming spin-reversal electron pairing actually occurs, but the nebulous clouds hardly make sense from a 3D, real world, perspective with mobile, interacting electrons. This paper looks at the sp-QM orbital hybridization from a 3D perspective, carries that hybridization a step further with split p's, and offers an alternative.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1405.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-04 22:55:30*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

FQXi 2014 asks, ‘How should humanity steer the future?' Recalling false obstacles to medical progress in humanity's recent past — eg, impeding Semmelweis (b.1818), McClintock (1902), Marshall (1951) — we reply, ‘Steer by Logic.' Then — with Logic in view and other scientific disciplines in mind — we amplify our answer via an online coaching-clinic/challenge based on Einstein's work. With the future mostly physical, this physics-based challenge shows how we best steer clear of false obstacles — unnecessary barriers that slow humanity's progress. Hoping to motivate others to participate, here's our position: we locate current peer-reviewed claims of ‘impossible' — like those from days of old — and we challenge them via refutations and experimental verifications. The case-study identifies an academic tradition replete with ‘impossibility-proofs' — with this bonus: many such ‘proofs' are challengeable via undergraduate maths and logic. So — at the core of this clinic/challenge; taking maths to be the best logic — we model each situation in agreed mathematical terms, then refute each obstacle in like terms. Of course, upon finding ‘impossibilities' that are contradicted by experiments, our next stride is easy: at least one step in such analyses must be false. So — applying old-fashioned commonsense; ie, experimentally verifiable Logic — we find that false step and correct it. With reputable experiments agreeing with our corrections, we thus negate the false obstacles. Graduates of the clinic can therefore more confidently engage in steering our common future: secure in the knowledge that old-fashioned commonsense — genuine Logic — steers well.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1405.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-03 07:57:28*

**Authors:** John P. Wallace, Michael J. Wallace

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In a study of magnetic losses in iron and steel a relativistic longitudinal spin wave was found. The exceedingly small mass and large scale of the spin wave requires an accurate relativistic description for a boson. Because of these characteristics it forms a state that is decoupled from property variations of the substrate and is only weakly dissipated. In the effort to explain the behavior of this spin wave an elementary quantum representation of a relativistic particle was found to be provided by a differential equation which produces two solutions: one for boson family and one for fermions. This local statistical quantum state equation derived from the massless dispersion relation provides a general mechanism for obtaining a statistical and symmetry description required for the definition of a quantum particle. The analysis allowed confirmation of the mass of the longitudinal spin wave from the original experimental measurements. The analysis required introducing a new frame of reference where the particles properties are generated and this allowed the integration of relativity into the quantum mechanical description as a consequence.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1405.0006 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-25 00:42:57*

**Authors:** Masahito Morimoto

**Comments:** 7 pages. Typos are fixed.

We present a new explanation for a quantum eraser. The erasure and reappearance of an interference pattern have been explained that a revolvable linear polarizer erases or marks the information of "which-path markers", which indicate the photon path. Mathematical description of the traditional explanation requires quantum-superposition states. However, the phenomenon can be explained without quantum-superposition states by introducing unobservable potentials which can be identified as an indefinite metric vector. In addition, a delayed choice experiment can also be explained without entangled states under the assumption that an definite orientation of the unobservable potentials configured by a setup of the experiment determines the polarization of the photon pairs in advance.
}

**Category:** Quantum Physics