[20] **viXra:1406.0187 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-13 05:01:15*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Nearly all tools that quantum physicists use are in some way based on the concept of the wave function. This means that such tools deliver a blurred view of the fine grain structures and fine grain behavior that these tools describe. This appears no handicap for applied physics. The tools fill the complete need of applied quantum physics. However, the blurred view hampers the search for the origins of features and phenomena, because they must be sought in the fine grain structure and the fine grain behavior.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:1406.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-30 07:43:45*

**Authors:** Manfred Buth

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A critical inspection of quantum field theory will reveal that
quantum field theory can be reconstructed only by means of
classical field theory. In detail the following six assertions
are claimed and proved: (1) Perturbation theory can be achieved
by means of classical field theory. (2) Particles that are
independent of one another are not correlated. This is especially
true for the ingoing particles of scattering processes. (3)
Outgoing particles in scattering processes are correlated. But the usual justification of
quantum statistics is faulty. (4) In quantum field theory there
is an amazing multitude of particle concepts. But a concise description of real existing elementary particles is lacking. (5) The path integral representation is not clearly defined in the particle picture of quantum mechanics. In the wave picture it is only another description of the expansion of a quantum state. (6) Functional representation is nothing else than a comprehensive version of perturbation theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1406.0184 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-09 05:50:05*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Commonsense local realism (CLR) is the fusion of local-causality (no causal influence propagates superluminally) and physical-realism (some physical properties change interactively). Advancing our case for a wholly CLR-based quantum mechanics, we use undergraduate maths and logic to factor the quantum entanglements in EPRB and Aspect (2002). Such factors (one factor relating to beables in Alice's domain, the other to beables in Bob's), refute Bell's theorem and eliminate the need for ‘t Hooft's superdeterminism. An obvious unifying algorithm (based on spin-s particles in a single thought-experiment) is foreshadowed and left as an exercise. That is, to emphasise the physical significance of our results, we here factor EPRB and Aspect (2002) separately and in detail.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1406.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-22 04:47:58*

**Authors:** Masahito Morimoto

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Incorrect expressions are fixed, and appendix for correction is added.

Indefinite metric vectors are absolutely required as the physical states in Minkowski space because that is indefinite metric space and the physical space-time. For example, Maxwell equations are wave equations in Minkowski space.
However, traditional Quantum theory ordinarily has been studied only in definite metric space, i.e., Hilbert space. There are no clear expression for indefinite metric vectors.
Here we show a wave function example using Dirac's delta function for indefinite metric vectors in Minkowski space. In addition, we show the vectors can interfere with itself. This example also suggests indefinite metric will be absolutely required.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1406.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-27 13:38:45*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier this year I wrote a paper entitled Scale Factors and the Scale Principle. In that paper I formulated a new law which describes nature at both quantum and cosmic scales. This paper shows that the fine structure constant is a special case of the above mentioned formulation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1406.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-25 16:02:17*

**Authors:** François Barriquand

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The impact of linear superpositions of magnetic potentials on the physical robustness of “patchings” used to build up the “wave section” of an electron orbiting around a magnetic monopole is examined. It is shown that most of these linear superpositions must be discarded if one wishes to preserve the possibility that magnetic monopoles may exist.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1406.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-26 02:15:46*

**Authors:** I.I. Guseinov, B.A.Mamedov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper is devoted to examine a physical nature of quantum self-frictional atomic potentials and nuclear attraction forces. Using analytical formulas for the – generalized Laguerre polynomials ( -GLPs) and - generalized exponential type orbitals ( -GETOs), the self-frictional atomic potentials and nuclear attraction forces are investigated, where and is the integer ( , ) or noninteger ( , ) self-frictional quantum number. We notice that the -GLPs, the origin of which is the quantum self-frictional fields, are the radial parts of the -GETOs. The dependence of the quantum self-frictional potentials and nuclear attraction forces as a function of the distance from nucleus is analyzed. The relationships presented are valid for the arbitrary values of quantum numbers and scaling parameters.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1406.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-31 17:52:13*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

a slideshow/presentation file outlining of the history of generalized quantum impedances and their application to the unstable particle spectrum, gravity, the measurement problem and non-local state reduction, the black hole information paradox, time symmetry in QM, quantum interpretation of the impedance model, the chiral anomaly,.…

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1406.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-19 11:36:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1406.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-18 05:10:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The human body is a constant@@ flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1406.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-25 14:09:47*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The present article introduces a numeric expression for the electron spin g-factor. This formula is accurate, at least, to twelve decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1406.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-13 17:49:37*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The present investigation is concerned with the numerological formulation for the mass of the proton. The formula presented here is accurate to 8 decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1406.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-11 10:50:17*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Submitted to IEEE J. Selected Topics in Quantum Electronics

A single photon is well known to have spin S = hbar, which would correspond to circular polarization, and all quantum transitions with photon absorption or emission correspond to DeltaS = ±hbar. However, it is also widely believed that a single photon may be linearly polarized, which would correspond to a state with S = 0. Indeed, linearly polarized single photons are central to most quantum entanglement experiments. On the contrary, it has recently been suggested (based on a realistic spin-quantized wave picture of quantum states) that a linearly polarized photon state must be a superposition of a pair of circularly polarized photons, each with S = ±hbar. This question cannot be resolved using a conventional photon detector, which generally cannot distinguish one photon from two simultaneous photons. However, it can be addressed using a superconducting microcalorimeter detector with sub-eV energy resolution and high quantum efficiency (QE). A careful experiment demonstrating this photon pairing could place in question some of the paradoxical central foundations of modern quantum theory, including quantum entanglement and nonlocality.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1406.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 09:16:12*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The present investigation is based on a simple quantum mechanical model of elementary particles used to unveil the size the electron. The formulation uses the Special Universal Uncertainty Principle (SUUP) also developed by the author. This principle is a generalization of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle. The result of this research indicates that the diameter of the electron is smaller or equal than 10 times the Planck length, approximately.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1406.0058 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-10 11:35:46*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The challenge of this work is to connect quantum mechanics with the concept of intelligence. By intelligence we understand a capability to move from disorder to order without external resources, i.e. in violation of the second law of thermodynamics. The objective is to find such a mathematical object described by ODE that possesses such a capability. The proposed approach is based upon modification of the Madelung version of the Schrodinger equation by replacing the force following from quantum potential with non-conservative forces that link to the concept of information. A mathematical formalism suggests that a hypothetical intelligent particle, besides the capability to move against the second law of thermodynamics, acquires such properties like self-image, self-awareness, self- supervision, etc. that are typical for Livings. However since this particle being a quantum-classical hybrid acquires non-Newtonian and non-quantum properties, it does not belong to the physics matter as we know it: the modern physics should be complemented with the concept of an information force that represents a bridge to intelligent particle. It has been suggested that quantum mechanics should be complemented by the intelligent particle as an independent entity, and that will be the necessary step to physics of Life. At this stage, the intelligent particle is introduced as an abstract mathematical concept that is satisfied only mathematical rules and assumptions, and its physical representation is still an open problem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1406.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-15 06:23:27*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Generalizing Bell 1964:(15) to realizable experiments, CHSH (1969) coined the term “Bell's theorem”. Despite loopholes, but as expected, the results of such experiments contradict Bell's theorem to our total satisfaction. Thus, for us, at least one step in Bell's supposedly commonsense analysis must be false. Using undergraduate maths and logic, we find a mathematical error in Bell (1964) --- a false equality, uncorrected and thus continuing, undermines all Bell-style EPRB-based analyses, rendering them false. We again therefore predict with certainty that all loophole-free EPRB-style experiments will also give the lie to Bell's theorem.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1406.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-04 08:37:05*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 32 Pages. 32

There is still large uncertainty on the foundation of Black hole theory principles even recently created by new ideas of Stephen Hawking and others,
As a consequence, it seems a good moment to come up with a new Black Hole alternative model already described in my Vixra recorded Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form). It seems to be crucial for the interpretation and solution of a number of unsolved physics problems, from quantum to astronomical scales.
This new black hole model has a major impact on how we could interpret the universe as a real raspberry shaped Charge Parity symmetric multiverse with full entanglement down to each anti-copy mirror quantum at long distant to solve the way God plays dice with dual entangled dice inside distant copy universe.
At the same time I found possibilities to compare these ideas as possible answers on well known physics problems such as described at the Wikipedia site.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1406.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-11 07:39:25*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1406.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-02 05:50:28*

**Authors:** Ugo Fabbri

**Comments:** 77 Pages. freelance researcher, work recognised in the proceedings of the 92nd SIF Congress, Turin 2006, p. 93. See also: FQXi “Genesis: The Origin of Quarks, From the Number Alpha to the Materiality of the Universe”

Galileo was convinced that the book of the Universe was “written in the language of mathematics, [whose] characters are triangles, circles and other geometrical figures, without which it is humanly impossible to understand a single word of it; without these, one is wandering around in a dark labyrinth” [1].
Similarly, Albert Einstein, at a conference at Kyoto University in 1922, stated: “The fundamentals of geometry have a physical significance” [2].
These observations, made by the two noble fathers of modern physics, have the potential to subvert the standard perspective of present-day science. The principal of complementarity has, however, been underestimated and has not produced the effects that it might.
In contrast, the holistic theory of limits (unknown in the literature) – in ideal continuity with Galileo and Einstein – unifies the quantum fundamentals of geometry with the laws of physics and creates the initial conditions for elaborating a theory of the Whole that can describe physical reality in a unitary context and on all scales of magnitude.
In accordance with the premise, the holistic theory of limits enunciates the following theorem:
The interaction of a flow of radial energy with the fundamentals of geometry generates a virtual quantum configuration (of ideally spherical symmetry) known otherwise in the literature as quantum void. This configuration is the geometrical locus within which energy is converted into corresponding mass and where the principal physical-numerical magnitudes that confer materiality to the Universe, from quarks to the universal physical constants, are generated.
The dynamics of events thus triggered generate the number alpha, fine structure constant, dominus of the universe (said by Nobel laureate Feynman to be “one of the most enigmatic riddles”).
Einstein spent the last years of his life in a vain attempt to find a theory capable of unifying the electromagnetic field with the interaction of gravity: the holistic theory provides the trigonometric solution of the phenomenon.
Geoffrey Chew, a pupil of Fermi, asserted that the universe was unitary, everything in it being correlated with the Whole. The holistic theory of limits extends that theory from the infinitely great to the microcosm, and this unification makes it possible to reconstruct the shared origin of matter and of the interaction of gravity.
The results shown have been obtained by applying the multidisciplinary method of inquiry suggested by Descartes.
[1] Galileo Galilei, Il Saggiatore, 1623. chap. VI (published in English under the title The Assayer, translation by Stillman Drake, 1957).
[2] ex multis: A. Einstein Come io vedo il mondo Ed. Newton p.45, 92, University of Bologna progettomatematica.dm.unibo.it/NonEuclidea/File/ellittica6.htm

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1406.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-06-01 02:43:16*

**Authors:** Xue -You Lee

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Geometrical optics has high similarity with classical particle mechanics. After first
quantization program classical particle mechanics can obtain non-relativistic quantum mechanics
that suitable for micro, but quantum mechanics does not describe the photon that its static mass is zero. So whether there is a kind of "quantization" approach for geometrical optics, by which non-relativistic quantum mechanics that can be used to describe the photon can be obtained. It’s quantum mechanics of photon similar to the Schrödinger wave mechanics under the neglection of
the formation and annihilation of photon. In this paper, several methods that can be used to find
the first quantization theory of photon are given.

**Category:** Quantum Physics