[17] **viXra:1408.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 21:49:20*

**Authors:** Hardev Singh Virk

**Comments:** 10 Pages. This paper is published in www.researchgate.net. Comments are welcome.

The origin of quantum mechanics goes back to the mid-1920s.It was formulated first as matrix mechanics by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and Pascual Jordan; then as wave mechanics by Louis de Broglie and Erwin Schrödinger; and later on asquantum statistics of subatomic particles by Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein. Combining relativistic mechanics with quantum mechanics, Dirac formulated his relativistic quantum mechanics during 1930s. Uncertainty Principle is thecornerstone of Quantum Physics. The role of randomness in microscopic physical processes shatters the myth that the universe is deterministic. Quantum world is unpredictable in the classical sense and demolishes the idea of an objective universe. The Copenhagen interpretation remains the quantum mechanical formalism that is currently most widely accepted amongst physicists.Quantum theories support cosmic spirit pervading the cosmos and inter – relationship of individuals in the world society. Quantum philosophy is holistic and is going to revolutionize our world-view.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1408.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-31 08:29:23*

**Authors:** Keith D. Foote

**Comments:** 269 Pages.

This is a field theory model. It is a functional holistic model designed for hands-on inventors and alternative thinkers. It provides streamlined thinkers with a common sense view of quantum physics and cosmology that can be visualized without the necessity of mathematics. As a new model, the Ultra-Space Field Theory has removed historical flaws traditionally ignored by the supporters of the Standard Model.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1408.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-11 12:57:50*

**Authors:** Oliver Consa

**Comments:** 11 Pages. latex version

A semiclassical model of the electron is presented based on the Principle of Helical Motion (“A free electron always moves at the speed of light following a helical motion, with a constant radius, and with the direction of movement perpendicular to the rotation plane”). This model interprets the Zitterbewegung as a real motion that causes rotation of the electron spin and its magnetic moment. Based on this model, the quantum magnetic flux and quantum Hall resistance are obtained as parameters of the electron and special relativity theory is derived from the helical motion of the electron. Finally, a fix is proposed for the De Broglie’s wavelength that questions the very validity of the Dirac equation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1408.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-29 04:09:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1408.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-25 01:51:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1408.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 09:55:42*

**Authors:** Gil Raviv

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In contrast to the non-relativistic Schrodinger equation, there is no true two-body formulation using the relativistic Dirac equation for the case of a hydrogenlike atom. Instead, the relativistic Dirac equation treats the atom as a single particle in a Coulomb field asserted by a static nucleus of infinite mass located at its core, which fails to take into account the nuclear mass and recoil. A new simple and elegant approach is presented that allows for the formulation of a true two-body relativistic equation, as well as for the reduction of the formula into an equivalent one-body equation with a readily known solution.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1408.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-23 02:56:46*

**Authors:** Zhi Cheng

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a new space-time structure that is the three-dimensional time structure by comparison to the three-dimensional space. These two space-time structures are completely symmetrical. We improve the Maxwell equations in the new space-time structure by adding a new set of equations. The new set of equations has the space-time symmetrical structure by comparison to the old one. We can also obtain another type of wave equation by solving the hyper-symmetric Maxwell equations. The new wave equation contains both time and space coordinates. The general solution of this new wave equation can be divided into two parts. One part corresponds to the free particles, which means the localized electromagnetic wave or virtual photon. The amplitude of the localized electromagnetic wave will decrease exponentially when the distance from the mass center increasing. Another part of the general solution corresponds to the bound state of the particles. The equation of the localized electromagnetic wave in bound state is consistent with the Schrödinger’s equation. So we can draw the conclusion that the Schrödinger’s equation is just a special case of the localized electromagnetic wave equation. We can get the new interpretation of the wave function in quantum mechanics based on these analyses. The new interpretation shows that the essence of the wave function in quantum theory is the localized electromagnetic wave or virtual photon. So we can solve the problem of the collapse of the wave function based on the new interpretation. In order to proof the correctness of the localized electromagnetic wave or virtual photon, we apply it to solve the problem of Helium atom’s ground state energy. The theoretic calculation results are very satisfactory. Our calculation shows that the theoretic value of Helium atom’s ground state energy is -2.9033864868188(69)a.u., which is very close to the experiment results.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1408.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-20 05:06:15*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Speaking the language of QM or QCHD "elementary particles and their decay modes " are in fact losing speed real stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α)

Speaking the language of QM or QCHD "elementary particles and their decay modes "
are in fact losing speed real stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α)
Stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α) moving with speeds ( 0,3 c – 0,99 c ) creates baryons and mesons.
Stable electrons moving with speeds ( 0,99 c – c ) creates leptons (μ−, τ−), neutrinos (νe, νμ, ντ) and bosons W +, W-, Z.
Speeds of electrons and protons in atoms are smaller. For example: An electron moving at a speed ve= 0,003c creates spectral line Hα.
Weak interactions are caused with stable electrons, which creates leptons, neutrinos and bosons W +, W-, Z.
The strong interactions are caused with stable particles (p +, n0, D, He-3, α ), which creates baryons and mesons. Therefore creation and annihilation operators in physics are irrelevant.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1408.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-15 07:15:07*

**Authors:** I.I.Guseinov

**Comments:** 26 pages, 6 tables

Using condition of relativistic covariance, group theory and Clifford algebra the -component Lorentz invariance generalized relativistic wave equation for a particle with arbitrary mass and spin is suggested, where and It is shown that the charged scalar ( ) and noncharged scalar ( ) particles with are described by two-component relativistic equations. Accordingly, the noncharged scalar fermi particles ( ) can be used as an elementary particle of the Standard Model of particle physics. In the case of arbitrary integral spin , the relativistic equation for leads to the equation of massless boson particles. For the solution of presented in this work generalized relativistic equation in the linear combination of atomic orbitals approximation, the 2(2s+1)-component orthogonal basis sets of spinor functions for the arbitrary mass and spin are suggested in position, momentum and four-dimensional spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1408.0090 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-23 17:11:20*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the discovery of a new theoretical formula for the mass of the proton. The latest and most accurate value of G obtained so far comes from atomic interferometry. This new and revolutionary experimental method was devised by an Italian team of scientists and the results were published in Nature in 2014. Due to the previous lack of accuracy and large discrepancies in the measurement of G, this experimental result is a scientific breakthrough that allow us and shall allow us to confirm, among other things, the validity of equations for the mass of particles, the latest fundamental particle formulations and cosmological theories. Since the equation presented here depends, among other things, on the gravitational constant G, I found that if we use the value of G given by NIST (2010), the formula reproduces the value of the proton mass accurate to three decimal places. If, on the other hand, we use the value of G given by the arithmetic mean published by Rosi et al, the formula reproduces the value of the proton mass accurate to four decimal places. Finally I found that, if we use the theoretical value of G of 6.671 614 932 ×10−11 m^3 Kg^−1 S^−2 (calibration value), the formula reproduces the value of the proton mass accurate to nine decimal places. This calibration value falls within the limits imposed by the experimental errors.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1408.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-12 12:21:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1408.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-25 11:52:38*

**Authors:** Justin Lee

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Justifying a local hidden variable theory requires an explanation of Bell's inequality violation. Ever since Bell derived the inequality to test the classical prediction on the correlation of two spin-1/2 particles, many experiments have observed the violation, and thus concluded against the local realism, while validating the non-locality of quantum entanglement. Still, many scientists remain unconvinced of quantum entanglement because the experiments have loopholes that could potentially allow a local realistic explanation. Upholding the local realism, this paper introduces how a precession of the spin would produce a cosine-like correlation function, and furthermore how it would also contribute to a fair sampling loophole. Simulating the precession in Monte Carlo method reveals that it can explain the observed Bell's violation using only classical mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1408.0054 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-29 12:23:38*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, A.A.Potapov, S.A.Podosenov

**Comments:** 44 Pages.

In his famous thought experiment,Schrôdinger(1935) imagined a cat that measures the value of an quantum mechanical observable with its life. Since Schrödinger’s time, no any interpretations or modifications of quantum mechanics have been proposed which gives clear unambiguous answers to the questions posed by Schrödinger’s cat of how long superpositions last and when (or whether)they collapse? In this paper appropriate modification of quantum mechanics are proposed. We claim that canonical interpretation of the wave function ψ=c₁ψ₁+ c₂ψ_2 is correct only when the supports the wave functions ψ₁ and ψ_2 essentially overlap. When the wave functions ψ₁ and ψ_2 have separated supports (as in the case of the experiment that we are considering in this paper) we claim that canonical interpretation of the wave function ψ=c₁ψ₁+c₂ψ_2 is no longer valid for a such cat state. Possible solution of the Schrödinger’s cat paradox are considered.We pointed out that the collapsed state of the cat always shows definite and predictable outcomes even if cat also consists of a superposition: |cat>=c1|a live cat> + c2|death cat> .

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1408.0037 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-26 09:39:17*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper is concerned with a generalization of the Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle
which I developed in 2012 and that I called the universal uncertainty principle. This
principle takes into account the quantized nature of space-time (granularity) and the
quantum fluctuations of the empty space. I have successfully applied the special version of these relations to calculate the thermodynamic properties of black holes, the approximate size of the electron and to derive the Einstein's formula of equivalence of mass and energy. This formulation can change the standard model of particle physics by introducing gravity into the model through the Planck length and the Planck time.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1408.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-06 13:35:55*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the numeric formulas for the Higgs boson mass. The formulas presented here are in agreement with the with the ATLAS detector's results obtained in 2014.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1408.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-08-05 11:51:53*

**Authors:** Mark Timothy Sheldrick

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is possible to use two particles (A and B) with entangled properties to transmit information at faster than light speeds. This can be done, not by trying to modulate the results of how particle A is measured, but by modulating whether particle A is measured or not measured. The effect of this modulating method is to place particle B in either a single value (but arbitrary) state or leave it in a superposition of states.
It is then possible for the reciever of particle B to distinguish between these two states by the use of an appropriately designed interferometer. Such a device can be designed to produce an interference pattern only when particle B is in a superposition of values and a straight simple image when particle B has a single (arbitrary) defined value.
Under the Copenhagen interpretation and existing experimental results, this method will produce a way of signalling fater than light. It will require the use of multiple entangled pairs of particles to effectively transmit a single bit of information.
Under the Multi-Worlds Interpretation, it will not be so easy to communicate faster than light by this mechanism, as detector B will be detecting photon B as a superposition of values in both cases.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1408.0005 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-06 16:04:19*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 134 Pages.

Almost a century ago Stern-Gerlach laid important foundations for quantum mechanics. Based on these, Bell formulated a model of local hidden variables, which is supposed to describe "all possible ways" in which classical systems can generate results, but Bell did not consider one possibility in which classical behavior leads to quantum results. Bell buried the key fact needed to challenge his logic: the ø-dependence of two energy modes: rotation and deflection. An *Energy-Exchange theorem* is presented and proved: if dø/dt is not equal to zero, the implied time-evolution will affect expectation values and the essentially classical mechanism yields quantum correlations *-a·b*. Analysis of the spin-component measurement brings Bell's counterfactual logic into question. I show that Watson’s formal linking of time-evolution operator to measurement operation addresses Bell's stated concerns about *measurement* in quantum mechanics and produces the *-a·b* correlation. Our results, restricted to particle spin, have wider implications, including relevance to the ontic versus epistemic issues currently debated in the literature. The suggested formalism extends beyond Stern-Gerlach to other quantum mechanical processes characterized by a 'jump' or 'collapse of the wave function'.

**Category:** Quantum Physics