[18] **viXra:1409.0241 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-30 09:53:18*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The electromagnetic waves are folds that propagate in a polarized vacuum.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1409.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 03:37:57*

**Authors:** Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Comments Welcome.

Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) is built on the original Dirac equation, an equation that exhibits perfect symmetry in that it is symmetric under charge conjugation (C), space (P) and time (T) reversal and any combination of these discrete symmetries. We demonstrate herein that the proposed Lorentz invariant Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations} (CSTD-Equations), while they obey (CPT) and PT-Symmetries, these equations readily violate C, P, T, CP and CT-Symmetries. Realizing this violation, namely the C-Violation, we take this golden opportunity to suggest that the Curved Spacetime Dirac Equations may help in solving the long standing riddle and mystery of the preponderance of matter over antimatter. We come to the tentative conclusion that if these CSTD-Equations are to explain the preponderance of matter over antimatter, then, photons are to be thought of as described by the flat version of this set of equations, while ordinary matter is to be explained by the positive and negatively curved spacetime versions of this same set of equations.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1409.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-25 08:16:29*

**Authors:** I.I. Guseinov

**Comments:** Pages.

By the use of condition of relativistic covariance, Dirac group theory, Clifford algebra and complete orthonormal sets of -self-frictional exponential type orbitals -SFETOs)
introduced by the author in standard convention, the Hartree-Fock (HF) theory is suggested
for multideterminantal single configuration states with any number of open shells of atoms
and molecules constructed from the Standard Model-Fermi (SM-F) particles with
and e =0 defined in the Standard Model of particle physics. It is shown that the
origin of stability of these systems is the quantum damping or self-frictional forces produced
by the SM-F particle itself. As an application, we have presented the periodic table for the
SM-F atomic elements using Pauli principle of spinless noncharged identical SM-F particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1409.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-24 03:57:01*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Superluminal communication achievable by comparison of expected interferometry patterns and found interferometry patterns

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1409.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-22 22:22:31*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This article surprised the author because there was no intention of addressing the theories of quarks, the nuclear weak force or the Higgs field at first. The article eventually led to pointing a way out of those Nobel Prize winning theories, though (in 1969, 1979 and 2013 respectively). And that way out gives me a deep feeling of satisfaction. The universe is awash with the peculiar subatomic particles called neutrinos. They have no electrical charge, are nearly massless (at least a million times as light as an electron), and trillions of these ghostly particles sail right through stars, planets, you, and me every second. They don't interact with the strong force which binds protons and neutrons together in atomic nuclei, nor do they interact with electromagnetic fields. To give an idea of how unreactive they are - in 2013, physicists in the USA began shooting neutrinos on a 503-mile trip from Fermilab (the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory) west of Chicago to a detector in Minnesota. 150 trillion neutrinos leave Fermilab each second but only about ten interact with the detector in a whole week. Speaking of their near masslessness, physicists already know the Standard Model of particle physics (the theory of how particles and forces interact) is incomplete because it incorrectly predicts neutrinos possess no mass). Problems addressed in this article include 1) each particle is born as one of 3 flavors, or types - electron neutrino, muon neutrino or tau neutrino - but they can change flavor in a few thousandths of a second as they travel, 2) as far as scientists can tell, each neutrino is a combination of those 3 masses but they don't know which of the mixes is heaviest and which is lightest (this is the "mass ordering" problem), 3) the fundamental property of quantum systems called entanglement which means two quantum systems can become correlated in such a way that action on one system has implications for the outcome of a measurement on the other, and 4) single and double beta decay which involves neutron(s) decaying into proton(s) and emitting electron(s) plus antineutrino(s) in which, in double decay, the reaction is neutrinoless in some instances since an antineutrino is absorbed by a neutron as a neutrino (suggesting a neutrino is its own antiparticle).

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1409.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-21 08:10:18*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Superluminal communication using interferometry patterns and collapse of wave fucntions, using no entangled photons as these create 'noise'.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1409.0152 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-22 04:22:46*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four page proposal

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for the wave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference of single photons” (Tank, H. K., http://vixra.org/pdf/1407.0036v2.pdf 2014) leads to an insight into the nature of ‘light’; that: the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ has to be at much slower rate than the frequency of the waves. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get coherently added a ‘particle’ gets formed. Now, in this paper it is further shown that ‘wavelengths’ and ‘frequencies’ of the actual band of waves, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of successive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. And the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ is at much slower rate than the frequency of the wave. This study leads to an interesting new possibility that: it should be possible to emulate photons at microwave frequencies; and make deterministic predictions; by establishing perfect relation between wavelengths of the band of waves, and ‘distance’ between successive formations of ‘particles’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1409.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-19 09:35:56*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Depending on the outcome of the triphoton experiment now underway, it is possible that the new local realistic Markov
Random Field (MRF) models will be the only models now available to correctly predict both that experiment and Bell’s
Theorem experiments. The MRF models represent the experiments as graphs of discrete events over space-time. This
paper extends the MRF approach to continuous time, by defining a new class of realistic model, the stochastic path
model, and showing how it can be applied to ideal polaroid type polarizers in such experiments. The final section
discusses possibilities for future research, ranging from uses in other experiments or novel quantum communication
systems, to extensions involving stochastic paths in the space of functions over continuous space. As part of this, it
derives a new Boltzmann-like density operator over Fock space, which predicts the emergent statistical equilibria of
nonlinear Hamiltonian field theories, based on our previous work extending the Glauber-Sudarshan P mapping from the
case of classical systems described by a complex state variable α to the case of classical continuous fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1409.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 13:32:05*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Most physicists claim no superluminal communication between two seperate points in space is possible in any manner. This claim is based on the no communication theory and on special relativity stating all communication methods are subluminal. This paper discusses theoretical 'holes' in no communication theorem and proposes an experiment that may check the validity of the no-communication theorem under special conditions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1409.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-17 15:02:54*

**Authors:** Omer Dickstein

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Appendix A, appendix to the paper "Non spin based quantum information transmission methods"

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1409.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-27 18:53:48*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The present paper is concerned with the elementary differences between energy and mass. When we consider the famous Einstein's equation: E = mc^2 , these two concepts might look the same with the only difference of a constant of proportionality, c^2 . However when we explore these two concepts more carefully we discover that they differ in several fundamental aspects. The paper also explains the meaning of negative energy
or time-travel energy.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1409.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 09:08:55*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A four page letter

My study of wave-particle-duality of light, as described in a paper: “Proposed explanations for thewave-particle duality of light and double-slit interference of single photons” (Tank, H. K. http://vixra.org/pdf/1407.0036v2.pdf) leads to new light about the true nature of ‘light’; that: (i) either the real wavelengths and frequencies of the ‘waves’ of ‘light’ are not what we have been thinking so far; or (ii) the rate of formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ is at much slower rate than the frequency of the waves. It was found in the above-cited paper that if light is both ‘wave’ as well as ‘particle’, then a photon should contain a wide ‘band’ of waves, rather than a single frequency; and whenever and wherever all the spectral components of the wide band get constructively added a ‘particle’ gets formed. The wavelengths and frequencies of the actual band of waves, and the ‘distances’ and ‘time-rate’ of successive formations of ‘particle’ are two different phenomena. Therefore, (i) if the wavelength of the wave measured by us is ‘distance’ between two successive formations of ‘particles’ then the frequency of the actual wave may be much higher; or (ii) if the wavelength measured by us is wavelength of the actual wave, then the formation of ‘particles’ called ‘photons’ may be at much slower rate than the frequency of the wave.. If we can establish perfect relation between wavelengths of the band of waves, and ‘distance’ between successive formations of ‘particles’, then it may be possible to make deterministic prediction of detection of ‘photons’.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1409.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-08 16:17:24*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper is concerned with my second theory on massive photons. The main difference between these two theories is the way kinetic energy and total energy are defined. Because it is difficult to decide which theory is the correct one without solid experimental evidence to discard the incorrect one, we must take both theories into account for the time being.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1409.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 16:58:46*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This paper is concerned with the theory on the rest mass of the photon. The equations for
the energy of the photon are developed. The theory predicts an equation for the “massive” photoelectric effect similar to the Einstein's original photoelectric effect. This new theory predicts that the value of the black hole's cutoff radius is a function of the frequency of the photons generated inside the black hole. This means that the black hole's event horizon is not a spherical surface but a three-dimensional shell. Because this formulation is not a gravity theory but a theory on massive photons, it cannot predict
exactly the same Schwarzchild radius as general relativity. Despite of not being a gravity theory, this theory predicts that, should the equivalent mass of the photon equal its rest mass, the black hole cutoff radius would be equal to the Schwarzchild radius. I am convinced that the full potential of this formulation will be shown when it is used in conjunction with the Proca equations, the standard model and quantum gravity theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1409.0027 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-08 06:07:09*

**Authors:** Marc Meurens

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

As measured in the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment, the intra-temporal decrease of the gravitation constant G reveals the quantum relativity according to which the time unit represents the local density of quantum energy causing the expansion as well as the gravitation of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1409.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 09:46:47*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted for Bell Labs Prize Competition July 11, 2014

It is well known that electron spin is quantized, and is measured to be either spin up or spin down in a magnetic field, as was first demonstrated in the classic Stern-Gerlach experiment almost 100 years ago. However, it is also believed that a quantum spin may be indeterminate until it is measured, being in a quantum superposition of the two quantum states. On the contrary, I propose (based on a locally realistic spin-quantized picture of quantum waves) that an electron quantum state is always either spin up or spin down, but is never in a superposition of the two. This concept should be directly testable using a two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment, similar to that presented in standard quantum textbooks, but apparently never carried out experimentally. This experiment should be straightforward using modern atomic beam laboratory equipment. If successful, this could lead to a serious review of quantum foundations, as well as a new set of practical applications. In particular, a binary storage or logic element based on quantum spin should continue to work down to the atomic scale. This should enable computer memories with orders of magnitude greater density than those based on conventional magnetic memories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1409.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-02 04:52:37*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

If the duration of the emission, the duration of the passage and the duration of the absorption of photons depend on the progression value, then the consequence of the observation of red-shift for old photons will be that space is compressing rather than expanding.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1409.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-01 08:40:33*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to Applied Superconductivity Conference, Aug. 11, 2014

In recent years, quantum computing has promised a revolution in computing performance, based on massive parallelism enabled by many entangled qubits. Josephson junction integrated circuits have emerged as the key technology to implement such a universal digital quantum computer. Indeed, prior experiments have demonstrated simple Josephson qubit configurations with quantized energy levels and long coherence times, which are a necessary prerequisite for a practical quantum computer. However, these quantized states do not directly prove the presence of entanglement or macroscopic superposition, which are essential for the superior speed of such a digital quantum computer. On the contrary, an alternative realistic foundation for quantum mechanics has recently been proposed, with coherent transitions between quantized states, but without entanglement. A new experiment is proposed that may test whether superconducting quantum circuits can exhibit quantized states without macroscopic entanglement or superposition. Specifically, a flux qubit (a bi-stable SQUID) may be configured with a resonant input line for excitation and a single-flux quantum output line for simultaneous direct measurement of quantized energy and flux states, which are incompatible measurements in standard quantum theory. Such an observation could undermine the assumptions of superposition and entanglement, bringing into question the foundation and the ultimate performance of a universal digital quantum computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics