Quantum Physics

1510 Submissions

[28] viXra:1510.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-30 08:41:18

Quantum Zeno Effect Verified

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

One of the oddest predictions of quantum theory – that a system can't change while you're watching it – has been confirmed in an experiment by Cornell physicists. Their work opens the door to a fundamentally new method to control and manipulate the quantum states of atoms and could lead to new kinds of sensors. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1510.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-29 19:43:19

Exact Solutions of General States of Harmonic Oscillator in 1 and 2 Dimensions: Student's Supplement

Authors: Roman Sverdlov
Comments: 55 Pages. I am using THE RESULTS of this paper, without derivation, in arXiv:1309.3287. At the time of posting this other paper I tried to submit the oscillator paper to arXiv as well. It was put on hold and its still on hold, after 2 years. So I submit it to viXra

The purpose of this paper is two-fold. First, we would like to write down algebraic expression for the wave function of general excited state of harmonic oscillator which doesn't include derivative signs (this is to be contrasted with typical physics textbook which only gets rid of derivative signs for first few excited states, while leaving derivatives in when it comes to Hermite polynomial for general n). Secondly, we would like to write similar expression for two dimensional case as well. In the process of tackling two dimensions, we will highlight the interplay between Cartesian and polar coordinates in 2D in the context of an oscillator. All of the above mentioned results have probably been derived by others but unfortunately they are not easily available. The purpose of this paper is to make it easier for both students and general public to look up said results and their derivations, should the need arise. We also attempt to illustrate different angles from which one could look at the problem and this way encourage students to think more deeply about the material.
Category: Quantum Physics

[26] viXra:1510.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-29 11:55:19

About the False Basis of the Many-Worlds Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics = О ложном основании оксфордской интерпретации квантовой механики – многомировой интерпретации Эверетта

Authors: Putenikhin P.V.
Comments: 5 Pages. rus (русский)

It is shown that the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics of Everett has in their justification the false logical construction.
Многомировая интепретации квантовой механики Эверетта – эвереттика или оксфордская интерпретация – имеет в своём обосновании ложное логическое построение. Объяснение противоречия опыту «расщепления наблюдателя» обосновывается на ошибочном сходстве с невозможностью почувствовать движение Земли, которое, тем не менее, доказывается теорией Коперника.
В самом деле, проведённая Эвереттом параллель состоит в сравнении двух принципиально различных ситуаций. В случае с ощущением движения Земли доказательством ложности ощущений и истинности движения Земли является реальное физическое наблюдение. Первоначально в большинстве случаев наблюдение было косвенным, но при этом подтверждалось строгими доказательными логическими рассуждениями. В дальнейшем такое движение наблюдалось самым непосредственным образом. То есть, отсутствие субъективных ощущений движения Земли получило строгое экспериментальное объяснение.
Совершенно иная ситуация складывается с «расщеплением наблюдателей». Никто из них, бесспорно, ни в одном эксперименте субъективно не ощущает своего расщепления на разные ветви альтерверса. Но в данном случае, в отличие от экспериментального наблюдения вращения Земли, не существует и принципиально не может существовать эксперимента, способного показать такое расщепление! Здесь неуместна даже формулировка «во всяком случае, в настоящий момент таких экспериментов не проводилось». Такие эксперименты неосуществимы в принципе.
Category: Quantum Physics

[25] viXra:1510.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 20:33:58

Quantum Teleportation using Pseudorandom Number based Quantum Tricks

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

The present work purports to a radically new perspective towards exploiting the advantages of quantum computation using classical systems. Termed ‘Quantum Tricks’, the technique relies on replacing the inherent probabilistic nature of the qubit with a pseudorandom generator. Using this, extremely simple mathematical operations are developed to implement basic Pauli X, Y and Z gates, using FPGA. Following this, entanglement is implemented and a real life application of quantum computing, namely Quantum Teleportation is implemented using the ‘QTrick Bits’. It is seen that the QTrick Bits are able to implement the teleportation with a remarkable degree of accuracy. Nonlinear characterization of the entangled states reveal the presence of chaos, thus providing subtle hints towards understanding the QTrick signal behavior. The extreme simplicity of the proposed design coupled with its efficacy in implementing quantum teleportation accurately form the highlights of the present work.
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:1510.0475 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-27 01:08:58

The Laplacian of The Integral Of The Logarithmic Derivative of the Riemann-Siegel-Hardy Z-function

Authors: Stephen Crowley
Comments: 11 Pages.

The integral R(t)=π^(-1) (lnζ(1/2+i t)+iϑ(t)) of the logarithmic derivative of the Hardy Z function Z(t)=e^(i ϑ(t)) ζ(1/2+i t), where ϑ(t) is the Riemann-Siegel vartheta function, and ζ(t) is the Riemann zeta function, is used as a basis for the construction of a pair of transcendental entire functions ν(t)=-ν(1-t)=-(ΔR(i/2-i t))^(-1)=- G(i/2-i t) where G=-(ΔR(t))^(-1) is the derivative of the additive inverse of the reciprocal of the Laplacian of R(t) and χ(t)=-χ(1-t)=ν˙(t)=-i H(i/2-i t) where H(t)=G˙(t) has roots at the local minima and maxima of G(t). When H(t) and H˙(t)=G¨(t)=ΔG(t)>0, the point t marks a minimum of G(t) where it coincides with a Riemann zero, i.e., ζ(1/2+i t)=0, otherwise when H(t)^=0 and H˙(t)=ΔG(t)<0, the point t marks a local maximum G(t), marking midway points between consecutive minima. Considered as a sequence of distributions or wave functions, ν_n(t)=ν(1+2n+2t) converges to ν_∞(t)=lim_(n→∞)ν_n(t)=sin^2(π t) and χ_n(t)=χ(1+2n+2t) to χ_∞(t)=lim_(n→∞)χ_n(t)=-8 cos(π t)sin(π t)
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:1510.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:20:30

Quantum Computation using Chaotic Circuits

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 12 Pages.

One of the most successful theories of modern physics, quantum mechanics has undergone rigorous testing and validation, one of the primary motives being fanciful and informative applications of quantum information theory such as teleportation and superdense coding. Over the years, many explanations have been given for the mechanism and interpretation of the various quirks and mysteries of quantum mechanics, the latest entrant being a suggestion of nonlinearity and chaos underlying quantum mechanics. The present work purports to a formulation of quantum bit as a SU(2) Lie Group using a Chua’s chaos generator circuit as the basis. PSPICE simulations of the same are performed. Various basic quantum gates such as the Pauli X, Y, Z, Hadamard and CNOT gates are implemented using this formulation. Finally, the chaos-qubit formulation is validated using a real time application – quantum teleportation. The ability to successfully demonstrate the teleportation of a single qubit numerically suggests that the chaotic interpretation of quantum mechanics has some validity. Furthermore, it ushers in the era of low cost, high capacity, high security information systems using nonlinear electrical circuits.
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1510.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:33:52

Overview of Silicon Photonic Signal Processing

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 7 Pages.

As we move steadily into the world of compact and ultrafast devices, there is a steady increase in demand for high speed devices and gadgets. Here, photonics comes handy and even more with the advent of Silicon Photonics, which enables photonics and electronics to be integrated into the same chip. In this paper, two all optical systems, one an all optical processor/multiplier based on second harmonic generation and another, a Radio Over Fibre communication system are presented. . These techniques would be potential contenders in revolutionizing the world of Telecommunication and signal processing, effectively replacing electronics with photonics, which would result in extremely fast devices and reduced thermal effects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1510.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:14:32

Interpreting Quantum Mechanics using Chaos Theory

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 11 Pages.

The strange and often counter-intuitive aspects of quantum mechanics such as collapse and entanglement have led to a series of interpretations of the reality expressed by the discipline. The present work purports to the formulation and postulation of a new interpretation of quantum mechanics, one that stems from the principles of chaos theory. Specifically, the superposed state in a quantum system is viewed as an equivalent of a chaotic signal, whose collapse is decided procedurally by the initial conditions and timing-wise by the process of measurement. The basic postulates of quantum mechanics and a glimpse of entanglement is viewed in this perspective. Following this, the proposed chaotic interpretation is compared with other standard interpretations in light of various properties such as determinism, locality, realism, counterfactual definiteness, and hidden variables. The novel perspective of quantum mechanics fundamentals through chaos theory, where the latter has undergone significant progress in terms of studying the system ehaviour using standard tools and evolutionary patterns, offers a plethora of interesting and exciting options to study the hidden realities of nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:1510.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:17:33

Quantum Computation using Chaos based S-Bits

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 15 Pages.

The present work purports to the proposal and elucidation of a novel kind of logic, where the apparent ‘practical uncertainty’ of chaos is effectively harnessed in the form of S-Bits, or Simultaneous Bits, to achieve quantum computation like effects. Specifically, it is seen that a single NMOSFET possessed the sufficient nonlinearity to generate a signal driven chaos, which is then proposed as similar to the superposed state of a qubit, and hence termed “S-Bits”. The measurement/collapse operations are performed using hysteresis, achieved using back-to-back MOS Varactors. Using these formulations, various quantum and reversible logic gates such as the three Pauli Rotation Gates, Hadamard Gate, CNOT and TOFFOLI gates are implemented in hardware level using extremely simple circuitry. Following this, the phenomenon of entanglement using S-bits is discussed, followed by implementations of quantum teleportation and superdense coding. The results reveal the effective reproduction of quantum computation applications using simple circuitry involving the S-Bit analogue, thus ushering in the golden era of affordable quantum computing.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1510.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:20:16

Quantum Trick Cellular Automata

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 6 Pages.

The present work explores a radically new perspective exploiting the advantages of quantum computation using classical systems. Termed ‘Quantum Tricks’, the essence of the technique is replacing the inherent probabilistic nature of a qubit with a pseudorandom generator, resulting in the implementation of basic Quantum Gates such as the Pauli X, Y, Z, Hadamard and CNOT gates using extremely simple mathematical operations followed by an implementation of entanglement. Following this, a brief overview of the concept of cellular automata and associated rules is presented. Finally, the ‘Quantum Trick Cellular Automata’ (QTCA) concept is formulated, differing from the classical cellular automata in two aspects - presence of superposed states other than 1 and 0, and implementation of above mentioned quantum gates. It is seen that QCTA comprising of CNOT and Entanglement operations give rise to rich, complex and ornamental patterns, characteristic of the underlying chaos. The extreme simplicity of the proposed design coupled with its efficacy in implementing rich patterns using cellular automata concepts form the highlights of the present work.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1510.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-26 23:22:18

Explaining the Spectra of Helium and Lithium Using the Rydberg Formula

Authors: Franklin Hu
Comments: 5 Pages.

The spectral lines given off by Hydrogen are well known and is simply described by the Rydberg formula. However, this only works on the hydrogen atom. If we try to describe the spectra with the Rydberg formula for helium and lithium, it fails – or does it? This a paper explores the idea that the spectra of heavier elements like helium and lithium can actually be described by just providing scaling factors to the Rydberg formula to explain the spectra given off by multi-electron atoms. This shows that the spectra is not a complex multi-body problem and that there is a very simple stair case pattern that the spectra follows.
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1510.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-26 12:22:29

Wave Function Collapse and Superluminal Communication, Resolved in TPB

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 6 Pages.

Time Perspective Bias (TPB) postulates that time is actually observed and measured with a perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Quantum scale time intervals, as measured, appear magnified and diverging. Resulting pluralism in time and space is proposed to be simply an illusion (of skewed perspective). TPB predicts that altering the scales , between the observer and the particle detectors will result in a variation of the "wave function collapse", proportionately. Note: TPB does not contradict time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPB, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true length. Subsequently, all classical and relative physics (t') are then calculated. TPB also provides a simple alternative explanation for: accelerated expansion, the "galaxy outer rim rotation problem", millisecond pulsars and the "double slit experiment".
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1510.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-21 11:22:53

Diffraction Experiment and Its Stoe Photon Simulation Program Rejects Wave Models of Light

Authors: John C. Hodge
Comments: 11 Pages.

The interpretation of Young's double slit experiment of diffraction and interference remains controversial. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of single photon diffraction is a model with photons being directed by plenum forces as Newton speculated. The STOE simulation of the light diffraction experiments produces the Fraunhofer diffraction pattern on the screen. An experiment used an image resulting from a single slit projected onto a second mask. If the second mask slit is placed at the center of the image, a Fraunhofer diffraction pattern is projected onto the screen. One side of a slit in the minima examined the result of varying the intensity of the illumination across the slit. One slit of two in the minima examined the result of only one of the double slits being illuminated. The resultant patterns on a screen were photographed and are on the opposite side of center from the illuminated side of the second mask. The STOE simulation reproduced the images. The STOE explains several quantum peculiarities with classical processes. These observations do not reject the Newtonian model of diffraction and does reject wave models.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1510.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-19 02:52:06

Bell’s Theorem is Silly, False, Misleading

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 6 Pages.

1 October 2015: A reply to the challenge, “What’s your problem with Bell’s theorem?”
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1510.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-18 13:36:06

Geometric Phase in the G3+ Quantum State Evolution

Authors: Alexander SOIGUINE
Comments: 10 Pages.

When quantum mechanical qubits as elements of two dimensional complex Hilbert space are generalized to elements of even subalgebra of geometric algebra over three dimensional Euclidian space, geometrically formal complex plane becomes explicitly defined as an arbitrary, variable plane in 3D. The result is that the quantum state definition and evolution receive more detailed description, including clear calculations of geometric phase, with important consequences for topological quantum computing.
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:1510.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 13:47:01

Light Diffraction Experiments (Continued)

Authors: J.C. Hodge
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of single photon diffraction is a model with photons being directed by plenum forces along their trajectory. Previous papers explored the screen projections of a diffraction pattern from a first mask through second mask slits. The images on a screen by an edge of the second mask also demonstrate correlation of observed pattern and simulation pattern. The STOE is consistent and all other models of diffraction are inconsistent with these observations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:1510.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-12 10:05:20

Evolutionary Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Sergey Vasiliev
Comments: 7 Pages. In English & In Russian

The purpose of this theory is to explain the physical meaning of such quantum mechanical phenomenon as stochastic behavior of elementary particles and other quantum objects. With this aim the given theory introduces the concept of "natural quantum selection", which includes phenomena described by quantum mechanics, quantum field theory and quantum cosmology. This theory partially unites the fields of study of the above mentioned theories. This theory explains why there is such a magnitude of particle masses and coupling constants of a standard model of a standard model obtained experimentally but not predicted by a model. Предлагается теория естественного квантового отбора, целью которой является объяснение физического смысла такого квантовомеханического явления, как вероятностное поведение элементарных частиц и других квантовых объектов; и одновременно описание динамического механизма тонкой настройки Вселенной, показывающего необязательность для установления и поддержания равновесия между силами взаимодействия и веществом Вселенной конкретных значений произвольных констант стандартной модели физики элементарных частиц, которые получены экспериментально, но не предсказываются моделью.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1510.0084 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-30 11:01:18

E8: A Gauge Group for the Electron?

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 6 Pages.

The eight geometric objects of the electron impedance model, as fortuitous happenstance would have it, are those of the 3D Pauli subalgebra of the geometric interpretation of Clifford algebra. Given that impedance is a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy, and that quantum phase is the gauge parameter in quantum mechanics, one might consider an approach in which elements of an electron gauge group would be the phase shifters, the impedances of interactions between these geometric objects. The resulting 4D Dirac algebra is briefly examined in relation to the E8 exceptional Lie group.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1510.0080 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-09 22:05:15

Erratum: Local Discrimination of Quantum Measurement Without Assistance of Classical Information [ J. Quantum Inf. Sci. 2015, 5, 71]

Authors: Youbang Zhan
Comments: 2 Pages.

There are mistakes in Sections 3 and 4 of the paper [ J. Quantum Inf. Sci. 2015, 5, 71], some calculated values have been corrected in this note.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:1510.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-02 12:44:16

Electromagnetic Theory of Everything

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:1510.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-08 03:58:34

Entropy During Lifetime

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Could scientists use the Second Law of Thermodynamics on your chewing muscles to work out when you are going to die? According to research published in the International Journal of Exergy, the level of entropy, or thermodynamic disorder, in the chewing muscles in your jaw increases with each mouthful. This entropy begins to accumulate from the moment you're "on solids" until your last meal, but measuring it at any given point in your life could be used to estimate life expectancy. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1510.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-07 07:30:27

Modified Path Integral Interpretation (Mopi) and Suggested Experiments Challenging Special Relativity

Authors: Israel Shapira, Micky Maltz, Meir Amiram
Comments: 6 Pages.

Concerning the constancy of the speed of light, we indicate that Feynman's "sum-over-paths" theory of quantum mechanics implicitly relates also to velocities of a photon from C to infinity through the paths, and not only to paths alone taken by the photon. We suggest a modification of Feynman's approach according to which every single photon not only travels from source to destination in all possible paths, but also in all the velocities from zero to infinity, through each of the paths. Matter, however (as already suggested by Israel Shapira several years ago), is tuned to interact with photons only at the special relative velocity C. It follows that the behavior of light as stated by the second postulate of special relativity can result from this suggested physics. We propose experimental setups that challenge special relativity in this regard.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1510.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-05 07:54:38

A New Interpretation of Non-Relativistic Quantum Mechanics.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 4 Pages.

We propose a new interpretation of quantum mechanics without the observer and thereby solve the micro-macro problem. Our proposal goes beyond Bohm-de Broglie theory but is as far as it stands mathematically isomorphic to it.
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1510.0034 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-11 06:01:48

Quantum System Symmetry is not the Source of Unitary Information in Wave Mechanics Context Quantum Randomness

Authors: Steve Faulkner
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract
The homogeneity symmetry is re-examined and shown to be non-unitary, with no requirement for the imaginary unit. This removes symmetry, as reason, for imposing unitarity (or self-adjointness) -- by Postulate. The work here is part of a project researching logical independence in quantum mathematics, for the purpose of advancing a full and complete theory of quantum randomness.

Keywords
foundations of quantum theory, quantum physics, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation, symmetry, homogeneity of space, unitary, non-unitary, unitarity, mathematical logic, formal system, elementary algebra, information, axioms, mathematical propositions, logical independence, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4] viXra:1510.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-03 04:38:24

Vacuum Fluctuations Measured

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A team of researchers working at the University of Konstanz, in Germany is claiming to have directly sampled electric-field vacuum fluctuations, which would be the first ever made. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes an experiment they carried out and a part of it which they claim indicates that they have measured vacuum fluctuations directly for the first time. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1510.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-02 07:12:31

Quantum Tunneling Diffusion of Hydrogen

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Now in a new study, scientists from Hokkaido University in Japan have reported the first evidence of quantum tunneling as a mechanism for the surface diffusion of hydrogen atoms on the surface of ice, although quantum tunneling has previously been observed for hydrogen atoms on the surface of some metals. In quantum tunneling, the hydrogen atoms can move through barriers that they otherwise could not pass through using only classical mechanisms, such as thermal hopping. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1510.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-01 09:40:46

Cognitive Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Is a cognitive computer the future of computing? While the computer has come a long way in the last few years, researchers at IBM say it hasn’t come far enough. Research in cognitive computing could lead to smart computers that compose, create, and digest via cognitive learning, a process that might seem a bit intimidating and complex at first, but is now being called the future of computers, and expected to be introduced into the market in as little as five to ten years. [11] Combining the vast processing power of quantum computers with cognitive computing systems like IBM's Watson will lead to huge advances in artificial intelligence, according to a C-level executive at the US software giant. [10] Around the world, small bands of such engineers have been working on this approach for decades. Using two particular quantum phenomena, called superposition and entanglement, they have created qubits and linked them together to make prototype machines that exist in many states simultaneously. Such quantum computers do not require an increase in speed for their power to increase. In principle, this could allow them to become far more powerful than any classical machine—and it now looks as if principle will soon be turned into practice. Big firms, such as Google, Hewlett-Packard, IBM and Microsoft, are looking at how quantum computers might be commercialized. The world of quantum computation is almost here. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:1510.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-01 04:07:51

Quantum Relative Entropy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics