Quantum Physics

1511 Submissions

[31] viXra:1511.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-30 03:56:09

The Paradoxes of Quantum Superposition in the Macrocosm.
Парадоксы квантовой суперпозиции в макромире.

Authors: Putenikhin P.V.
Comments: 18 Pages. rus

Quantum superposition from a formal point of view, is not a complicated concept. But from a logical point of view and from the standpoint of common sense it cannot find an explanation without the use of the concepts of "miracle" and "magic". Quantum mechanics says its mathematical apparatus is universal and can be extended to the phenomena of the macrocosm. Although the phenomenon of superposition in everyday reality can be explained to quite acceptable and logical way, without the paradoxical results, however, such an explanation of the phenomenon and their application on the macrocosm has another side: casts doubt on the notion of superposition.
Квантовая суперпозиция с формальной точки зрения не является сложным понятием. Но с логической точки зрения и с позиций здравого смысла она не может найти объяснения без использования понятий «чудо» и «магия». Квантовая механика утверждает, что ее аппарат является универсальным и может быть распространен на явления макромира. Хотя явления обыденной реальности и могут быть объяснены вполне приемлемым и логичным образом, без получения парадоксальных результатов, вместе с тем такое объяснение и распространение явления на макромир имеет и другую сторону: ставит под сомнение само понятие суперпозиции.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30] viXra:1511.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-29 06:38:39

Macro-Interference a Wonderful Experiment by Demin
Макро-интерференция удивительный эксперимент Дёмина

Authors: Putenikhin P.V.
Comments: 14 Pages. rus

Is described experiment by Demin on the interference of small diameter metal balls. The experimental results can be interpreted with a certain probability as the occurrence of the interference pattern at the fall of the balls through the two slits. This interpretation rejects the interpretation of the superposition of quantum particles as their simultaneous presence in two states or in two points of space at the one and the same time. The superposition principle implies that on the double-slit experiment quantum particle passes through both slits simultaneously. Experiment with the balls within the validity shows that for the appearance of the interference pattern the superposition is not necessary, because impossible to assume that the ball passes through the two slits simultaneously. In addition, it is can be verified.
Рассмотрен эксперимент Дёмина С.В. по наблюдению интерференции металлических шариков небольшого диаметра. Результаты эксперимента можно интерпретировать с определённой вероятностью как возникновение интерференционной картины при падении шариков через две щели. Такая интерпретация отвергает трактовку суперпозиции квантовых частиц как их одновременное нахождение в двух состояниях или в двух точках пространства одновременно. Принцип суперпозиции предполагает, что в двухщелевом эксперименте квантовая частица проходит через обе щели одновременно. Эксперимент с шариками в пределах достоверности показывает, что для появления интерференционной картины в физически реализующейся суперпозиции нет необходимости, поскольку невозможно предположить, что шарик проходит через две щели одновременно. К тому же это можно проверить.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29] viXra:1511.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-29 07:26:34

A Window to the Past

Authors: Michael C. Berg
Comments: 4 Pages. Posting this here for safekeeping, Thank You

The unique frequency of the vibration between quarks is explored as possibly storing large amounts of information, with possible applications in future quantum computers.
Category: Quantum Physics

[28] viXra:1511.0266 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-01 07:56:51

The Reverse Bra-Ket Method

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 7 Pages. The docx version of this paper http://www.e-physics.eu/TheReverseBra_ketMethod.docx contains free accessible formulas.

Hilbert spaces can store discrete quaternions and quaternionic continuums in the eigenspaces of operators that reside in these Hilbert spaces. The reverse bra-ket method can create natural parameter spaces from quaternionic number systems and can relate pairs of functions and their parameter spaces with eigenspaces and eigenvectors of corresponding operators that reside in non-separable Hilbert spaces. This also works for separable Hilbert spaces and the defining functions relate the separable Hilbert space with its non-separable companion. The method links Hilbert space technology with function technology, differential technology and integral technology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1511.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-27 04:37:32

Quantum Corrections to Classical Kinetics: the Weight of Rotation

Authors: Clifford E Chafin
Comments: 14 Pages.

Abstract Hydrodynamics of gases in the classical domain are examined from the perspective that the gas has a well-defined wavefunction description at all times. Specifically, the internal energy and volume exclusion of decorrelated vortex structures are included so that quantum corrections and modifications to Navier-Stokes behavior can be derived. This leads to a small deviation in rigid body rotation for a cylindrically bound gas and the internal energy changes associated with vorticity give deviations in the Reynolds’ transport theorem. Some macroscopic observable features arising from this include variations in the specific heat, an anisotropic correction to thermal conductivity and a variation in optical scattering as a function of the declination from the axis of local vorticity. The improvements in magneto-optical traps suggests some interesting experiments to be done in higher temperature regimes where they are not usually employed. It is argued that the finite lifetime of observed vortices in ultracold bosonic gases is only apparent and these volume excluding structures persist in generating angular momentum and pressure in the cloud in a non-imageable form.
Category: Quantum Physics

[26] viXra:1511.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-25 09:53:03

Future Quantum Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Researchers from Stanford have advanced a long-standing problem in quantum physics – how to send "entangled" particles over long distances. [9] Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important step in establishing scalable and secure high rate quantum networks. [8] As do all advancing technologies, they will also create new nightmares. The most worrisome development will be in cryptography. Developing new standards for protecting data won’t be easy. The RSA standards that are in common use each took five years to develop. Ralph Merkle, a pioneer of public-key cryptography, points out that the technology of public-key systems, because it is less well-known, will take longer to update than these — optimistically, ten years. And then there is a matter of implementation so that computer systems worldwide are protected. Without a particular sense of urgency or shortcuts, Merkle says, it could easily be 20 years before we’ve replaced all of the Internet’s present security-critical infrastructure. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[25] viXra:1511.0216 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-19 00:57:17

Fundamental Quantal Paradox and Its Resolution

Authors: Felix M Lev
Comments: 16 Pages. A revised version published in Physics of Particles and Nuclei Letters, 14, 444-452 (2017)

The postulate that coordinate and momentum representations are related to each other by the Fourier transform has been accepted from the beginning of quantum theory. As a consequence, coordinate wave functions of photons emitted by stars have cosmic sizes. This results in a paradox because predictions of the theory contradict observations. The reason of the paradox and its resolution are discussed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:1511.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-20 10:30:43

Description of Elementary Particles by Stable Wave Packets - A New Attempt

Authors: Manfred Buth
Comments: 3 Pages.

The attempt of Schrödinger to describe elementary particles by wave packets is repeated by means nowadays available, that is to say, by applying the results of quantum field theory and especially by the explicit consideration of interaction.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:1511.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-19 23:23:59

New Tests of Multipartite Entanglement in Bell-Type Experiments

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 3 pages

In trial, we especially consider inequalities for confirming multipartite entanglement from experimental data obtained in Bell-type experiments. We present new entanglement witness inequalities. Some physical situation is that we measure $\sigma_x$, $\sigma_y$, and $\sigma_z$ per side. Our analysis discovers a new multipartite entangled state and it is experimentally feasible. If the reduction factor $V$ of the interferometric contrast observed in a $N$-particle correlation experiment is $V>0.4$, then a measured state is full $N$-partite entanglement in a significant specific case. It is not revealed by previous Bell-type experimentally feasible methods presented in \cite{NKI}, which states if $V>0.5$ then the significant specific type state is full $N$-partite entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1511.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-19 23:28:52

Measurement Theory in Deutsch's Algorithm Based on the Truth Values

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 4 pages

We propose a new measurement theory, in qubits handling, based on the truth values, i.e., the truth T (1) for true and the falsity F (0) for false. The results of measurement are either 0 or 1. To implement Deutsch's algorithm, we need both observability and controllability of a quantum state. The new measurement theory can satisfy these two. Especially, we systematically describe our assertion based on more mathematical analysis using raw data in a thoughtful experiment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1511.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-22 22:14:58

On a Proposal for Quantum Signalling

Authors: Padmanabhan Murali
Comments: 6 Pages, 6 Figures

Present understanding of non-possibility of Quantum communication rests on analysis of possibility of signalling within a Quantum system. Is it possible to achieve signalling by a setup where the system is changed from one to another where the act of change serves as the signal and the change in the measurement probabilities would be detected and deciphered at the receiver end? A proposal is made where a variant of Delayed Choice Quantum Eraser experiment setup of Kim et al is used to achieve the same. The setup is also designed such that the speed of communication can be faster than light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:1511.0168 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-27 08:07:56

The Constant Cavity Pressure Casimir Inaptly Discarded

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 4 Pages.

Casimir's celebrated result that the conducting plates of an unpowered rectangular cavity attract each other with a pressure inversely proportional to the fourth power of their separation entails an unphysical unbounded pressure as the plate separation goes to zero. An unphysical result isn't surprising in light of Casimir's unphysical assumption of perfectly conducting plates that zero out electric fields regardless of their frequency, which he sought to counteract via a physically foundationless discarding of the pressure between the cavity plates when they are sufficiently widely separated. Casimir himself, however, emphasized that real metal plates are transparent to sufficiently high electromagnetic frequencies, which makes removal of the frequency cutoff that he inserted unjustifiable at any stage of his calculation. Therefore his physically groundless discarding of the large-separation pressure isn't even needed, and when it is left out a constant attractive pressure between cavity plates exists when their separation is substantially larger than the cutoff wavelength. The intact cutoff furthermore implies zero pressure between cavity plates when their separation is zero, and also that Casimir's pressure is merely the subsidiary lowest-order correction term to the constant attractive pressure between cavity plates that is dominant when their separation substantially exceeds the cutoff wavelength.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1511.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-18 12:48:28

Mach's Principle of Inertia is Supported by Recent Astronomical Evidence

Authors: M. B. Bell
Comments: 6 pages with 4 figs. This paper has been published in the International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, vol 5, pp166-172. author email addresses are: morley.bell@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca and morleybell@rogers.com

Recently evidence has been reported for a low-level velocity oscillation with a period of 39 +/- 1 Mpc (127 +/- 3 Myr) superimposed on the Hubble flow. Like the Hubble flow, this oscillation is assumed to be an expansion and contraction of space itself. If space is oscillating as it expands and the Hubble flow contains a superimposed velocity ripple, matter on Earth will experience alternating accelerations and decelerations relative to the rest of the matter in the Universe. The acceleration curve can be obtained from the velocity oscillation curve simply by taking the magnitude of the derivative of the velocity curve and the acceleration curve is found here to have a period of 63.5+/-1.5 Myr. Evidence has also been claimed recently for an ubiquitous ~62 +/-3 Myr periodic fluctuation superimposed on general trends in the fossil biodiversity on Earth. The periods of the acceleration curve oscillation and fossil biodiversity fluctuations are thus identical within the errors. A second, weaker fluctuation is also detected in both the Hubble flow and fossil biodiversity trends. They too have identical periods of ~140 Myr. From this excellent agreement it is argued here that it is the oscillation in the Hubble flow, through an inertia-like phenomenon involving all the matter in the Universe that has produced the fluctuations in the fossil biodiversity on Earth. This may represent the first instance where observational evidence supporting Mach's Principle of Inertia has been found.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1511.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-18 02:49:01

Equations for Generalized N-Point Information with Extreme and not Extreme Approximations in the Free Fock Space

Authors: Jerzy Hanckowiak
Comments: 24 Pages.

The general n-point information (n-pi) are introduced and equations for them are considered. The role of right and left invertible interaction operators occurring in these equations together with their interpretation is discussed. Some comments on approximations to the proposed equations are given. The importance of positivity conditions and a possible interpretation of n-pi in the case of their non-compliance, for essentially nonlinear interactions (ENI), are proposed. A language of creation, annihilation and projection operators which can be applied in classical as well as in quantum case is used. The role of the complex numbers and functions in physics is also a little elucidated.
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1511.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-17 10:23:42

Superconductivity Through Quantum Dot

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Scientists from the Swiss Nanoscience Institute and the Department of Physics at the University of Basel have demonstrated for the first time how electrons are transported from a superconductor through a quantum dot into a metal with normal conductivity. This transport process through a quantum dot had already been calculated theoretically in the nineties, but scientists at the University of Basel have now succeeded in proving the theory with measurements. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1511.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-14 13:30:39

Arrow of Time under a Quantum Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1511.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-16 17:51:11

Not All Local-Realistic Theories Are Forbidden by Bell's Theorem

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 4 Pages.

Bell's theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's theorem presupposes that particles that are distanced from each other become spatially disconnected. Yet studies have never experimentally confirmed the possibility of spatial locality between distanced particles. Here, I show that Bell’s theorem cannot forbid an infinite set of local-deterministic relativity theories that violate Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies. This result in itself cannot guarantee a theory from this set of theories to successfully reproduce the predictions of quantum theory, but until the spatial locality loophole is satisfactorily closed, experiments should be decided the fate of such theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1511.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-13 18:42:16

Wave Function Collapse in Linguistic Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Shiro Ishikawa
Comments: 5 Pages.

Recently I proposed the linguistic interpretation of quantum mechanics, which is characterized as the linguistic turn of the Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics. This turn from physics to language does not only extend quantum theory to classical theory but also yield the quantum mechanical world view. Although the wave function collapse is prohibited in the linguistic interpretation, in this paper I show that the phenomenon like wave function collapse can be realized. Hence, I propose the justification of the projection postulate in the linguistic interpretation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:1511.0096 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-20 22:44:14

The Many Meanings of the Planck Mass (On The Existence Of The Pre-universe)

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 32 Pages.

In this article I explain the concepts behind the multifaceted Planck mass through each of its facets, highlighting the relation of the Planck mass with the origins of the universe, with the physics of white dwarfs and black holes, with the Heisenberg uncertainty principle, and, finally, with the microscopic world of elementary particles. The paper also suggests a new definition for this “multicoloured” mass. In certain way the Planck mass is a unit that unifies all of physics. Finally, three main conclusions are drawn: (a) the cause of quantum entanglement, (b) the existence of the Pre-universe, and (c) the possible existence of parallel universes.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:1511.0082 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-12 05:45:57

Bell's Theorem Cannot Close the Loophole of Spatial Locality

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 11 Pages.

Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However, Bell's proof presupposes that particles which are distanced from each other in space become spatially disconnected. However, the theoretical possibility for the existence of spatial locality between separated particles had never been refuted empirically. Here I show that Doppler-like local-realistic relativity theories, which predict that the relativistic length of a body distancing from an observer's rest-frame will stretch rather than contract, could maintain spatial locality between particles, even when the particles are distanced enough to ensure that information about the outcomes of one particle is passed to the other particle faster than light. This implies that local and realistic theories which belong to the aforementioned Doppler-like theories could not be disqualified a priori by Bell's Theorem.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1511.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-10 07:07:37

Genuine Quantum Secure Communication

Authors: You-Bang Zhan
Comments: 13 Pages.

A novel protocol of quantum cryptography, called genuine quantum secure communication (GQSC), is proposed by using a new method for local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD). After secure quantum channel being established, the transmission of secret messages in the GQSC protocol does not require classical channel. Compared with the previous protocols of quantum secure direct communication, the advantage of the present protocol is not only more security, but also higher covert.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1511.0074 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-19 13:14:14

Foundation of a Mathematical Model of Physical Reality

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 116 Pages.

This paper starts from the idea that physical reality implements a network of a small number of mathematical structures. Only in that way can be explained that observations of physical reality fit so well with mathematical methods. The mathematical structures do not contain mechanisms that ensure coherence. Thus apart from the network of mathematical structures a model of physical reality must contain mechanisms that manage coherence such that dynamical chaos is prevented. Reducing complexity appears to be the general strategy. The structures appear in chains that start with a foundation. The strategy asks that especially in the lower levels, the subsequent members of the chain emerge with inescapable self-evidence from the previous member. The chains are interrelated and in this way they enforce mutual restrictions. As a consequence the lowest levels of a corresponding mathematical model of physical reality are rather simple and can easily be comprehended by skilled mathematicians. In order to explain the claimed setup of physical reality, this paper investigates the foundation of the major chain. That foundation is a skeleton relational structure and it was already discovered and introduced in 1936. The paper does not touch more than the first development levels. The base model that is reached in this way puts already very strong restrictions to more extensive models. The paper uses a special version of the generalized Stokes theorem in order to establish a dynamic model of the whole universe. As part of the investigation the paper compares two sets of differential equations that both give a description of the behavior of physical fields. These sets represent two different space-progression models. Both sets of equations and both models appear to be equally valid. Some of the features of the base model are investigated and compared with results of contemporary physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:1511.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-09 03:16:49

Quantum Superposition of Ordered Events

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

In a quantum superposition, a quantum object can be in two incompatible states at the same time, which is famously illustrated by Schrödinger's dead-and-alive cat. Recent research has shown that it's possible to have a superposition not only of incompatible states, but also of incompatible orders of events. We often think of events occurring in a definite chronological order, with event A happening (and causing) event B, or vice versa. But in certain quantum processes, events don't happen in a single definite order, but instead both orders (A before B, and B before A) occur at the same time. This counterintuitive superposition-like phenomenon is called "causal nonseparability." [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:1511.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-06 09:44:20

Observing the Spin of Free Electrons in Action(stern-Gerlach Experiment by Free Electrons)

Authors: Hosein Majlesi
Comments: 10 Page,10 figure, Patent:139350140003006698, Tuesday, September 16, 2014

Stern-Gerlach experiment by free electron is very important experiment because it answered some questions that remain unanswered for almost a century. Bohr and Pauli considered its objective observation as impossible while some other scientists considered such observation as possible. The experiment on free electrons has not been conducted so far because the high magnetic field gradient predicted there was thought as impossible to generate. This paper proves that it is not only possible but also observable using a high vacuum lamp which is deionized well. To obtain a high magnetic field gradient, it is not necessary to have a very strong magnetic field and it is possible to observe the phenomenon using a very sharp pointed magnet and adjusting the voltage in a certain distance from free electron beams. that objective observation requires your consideration of some technical points simultaneously.In this experiment, no electric field and no magnetic field does not change with time.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1511.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-27 06:34:05

Packaged Entanglement States and Particle Teleportation

Authors: Rongchao Ma
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures

Entanglement states are important for both basic research and applied research. However, these entanglement states usually relate to one or several of the particles' physical quantities. Here we theoretically show that a particle-antiparticle pair can form packaged entanglement states which encapsulate all the necessary physical quantities for completely identifying the particles. The particles in the packaged entanglement states are hermaphroditic and indeterminate. Thereafter, we gave a possible experimental scheme for testing the packaged entanglement states. Finally, we proposed a protocol for teleporting a particle to an arbitrarily large distance using the packaged entanglement states. These packaged entanglement states could be important for particle physics and useful in matter teleportation, medicine, remote control, and energy transfer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1511.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-04 11:47:29

Stability of Hamiltonians.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 27 Pages.

Hamiltonians in particle interactions are subject to a number of constraints originating from locality, the cluster decomposition principle and Lorentz covariance of the scattering matrix. Moreover, it is always assumed that the Hamiltonian must be defined on a Hilbert space and be bounded from below, the latter would be a requirement following from stability of the system. In this paper we examine if these criteria are really mandatory, as it is well known that all of them taken together lead to the usual infinities of quantum field theory. In particular, we study a class of Hamiltonians unbounded from below and examine its stability. This leads us into the construction of novel statistics in three space dimensions; it is shown that for rigid strings the possibilities for statistics exceed those for standard anyons in two space dimensions
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1511.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-03 16:29:11

Bell’s Theorem is Silly, False, Misleading, Interesting

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 8 Pages.

1 October 2015: A reply to the challenge, “What’s your problem with Bell’s theorem?” (For me, a problem is a deviation from an expectation.)
Category: Quantum Physics

[4] viXra:1511.0021 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-24 08:19:10

The Origin of Wave-Particle Duality of Matter Revealed

Authors: Swapnil Patil
Comments: Total 19 pages incl. suppl. info. This replacement updates the supp. info. section D which clarifies the origin of 'surprising' quantum behavior exhibited by a single electron as resulting from the exchange mechanism.

The wave-particle duality is one of the most remarkable concepts in physics ever discovered. It is a central pillar upon which the entire theory of quantum mechanics is based. However the origin of the wave-particle duality is unrevealed yet and is generally taken as a postulate representing a fundamental fact of nature. Here we disclose the origin of this remarkable fact of nature. We show that the introduction of (fermionic or bosonic) exchange symmetry for the state describing a group of particles of matter would naturally lead those particles to demonstrate wave-like character from particle-like character. Thus the existence of (fermionic or bosonic) exchange symmetry among the particles of matter is absolutely necessary for their wave character to manifest thus shedding light on the microscopic origin of the peculiar quantum behavior of matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1511.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-02 03:59:22

The World is not so Weird If...

Authors: Philip Maulion
Comments: 2 Pages.

I propose to explain the results of three recent publications in the light of my iconoclast TpS hypothesis and so analyse the results as a possible confirmation of it. The first publication is about 'Tunnel effect', the second one is about 'Quantum entanglement', the third one concern 'Zeno effect'. 'A world in Presence': viXra : 1211.0149 and the others introduce this TpS hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1511.0007 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-26 15:08:32

On the Origins of Physical Fields

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 54 Pages.

By starting from an infinite dimensional quaternionic separable Hilbert space and its companion Gelfand triple as a base model, the paper uses the capabilities and the restrictions of this model in order to investigate the origins of some basic fields. A special method is introduced that generates normal operators and parameter spaces from existing quaternionic number systems. The same method is used to relate functions that use these parameter spaces with corresponding normal operators. Continuum eigenspaces of operators that reside in the Gelfand triple will represent the investigated basic fields. The paper exploits all known aspects of the quaternionic number system and it uses quaternionic differential calculus as well as Maxwell based differential calculus. This is done in order to investigate the properties and behavior of the investigated basic fields. The two toolkits offer different views on the basic fields. The views do not affect the behavior of the investigated field. Maxwell based differential calculus is commonly used to investigate the electromagnetic field, but the application of this set of equations is certainly not restricted to the EM field. The EM field is compared with another basic field that acts as a background embedding continuum. Both basic fields can be investigated by the Maxwell based equations and by the quaternion differential calculus. It will be shown that the fundamental difference between the basic fields is located in the artifacts that vibrate and deform these basic fields. The paper produces an algorithm that calculates the electric charge and color charge of elementary objects from the symmetry properties of their local parameter spaces. The electric charges generate the electric field. Also the spin of elementary objects is considered. Via the analysis of the Dirac equation the paper indicates that the wave equation is the result of the coupling between two first order differential equations that hold for different parameter spaces. The paper reveals that dedicated mechanism control the coherence of the dynamics of the fields. The behavior of photons and dynamic electromagnetic fields is used in order to investigate the long range behavior of these fields. The paper shows that the usual interpretation of a photon as an electric wave is not correct. In addition the relation between gravitation and inertia is explained.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:1511.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-27 11:59:52

The Relation Between the ( Hypothetical) Intrinsic Vibrational Motion of Particles and Some of Their Fundamental Properties.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 14 Pages.

The concept of an intrinsic vibrational-rotational motion of the electron( zitterbewegung) has been introduced by Schroedinger, and later developed by Kerson Huang and more recently by A. Barut, among others. These authors listed a series of features that should accompany such motion, although its very existence is usually regarded as merely speculative. In the present paper we investigate the consequences of the existence of this motion as far as measured properties of particles are concerned. A phenomenological model based upon the quantization of a classical vibrating system, in the lines of the old Correspondence Principle of Bohr, is applied to particles to mimic the effect of the zitterbewegung upon measurable dynamic properties like the magnetic energy, and the magnetic moment. Gauge invariance is inevitably imposed in the form of a quatization criterion needed for the passage from the classical to the quantum treatment, which results in the prediction of magnetic flux quantization within the area covered by the vibrations. The calculations are carried out for the electron, and also for the proton and the neutron by considering the electric charges of their constituent quarks. The conclusion is that if the zitterbewegung motion is real, the mass, the magnetic moment, the Compton wavelengths (or the measured sizes for the nucleons) for each of these particles, are gathered together in a single expression which is a function of the number of flux quanta trapped inside their ”orbits”. The theory proposed seems to be the first to produce a relation between the rest mass of particles and the inverse of the constant alpha, which might be associated to the extensive analysis of data for all particles carried out years ago by M. MacGregor. We finish the paper making some remarks on the compatibility of these results with those obtained from first principles by QCD.
Category: Quantum Physics