[33] **viXra:1512.0499 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:36:12*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Get a good picture of everything that (they say) must be happening inside of an atom and you will realize it absolutely cannot be happening like that, what you are led to believe is actually bonkers.

The basic fundamental stuff cannot do advanced mechanical interactions, everything has to be automatic.

Gluons are a force carrier jumping back and forth (being shot) between Quarks and that is holding them together?

That is NOT an explanation. Everything must be explained or nothing is actually explained.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[32] **viXra:1512.0498 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-11 17:10:18*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Assuming the existence of a fourth spatial dimension, w, the symmetry breaking mechanism is explained in terms of the transition of particles from a fourth dimensional space to a three-dimensional space. This dimensional transition was triggered by a drop in the temperature of the universe below the level corresponding to the symmetric phase.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[31] **viXra:1512.0497 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:50:25*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Universe seems to avoid all paradoxes arising from time travel through two distinct mechanisms. The first mechanism is implemented through the existence of an infinite number of parallel Universes. The second one is known as quantum superposition. Therefore, it seems that nature must be in an undefined stated to allow time travel without paradoxes.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[30] **viXra:1512.0496 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:53:21*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper I present an alternative method of deriving the Schwarzschild radius of a
black hole. The method uses three of the Planck units formulas: the Planck mass, the
Planck momentum and the Planck length. Therefore it is shown that General Relativity
(GR) is not necessary to derive the formula for the radius of a black hole. Thus,
compared to GR, the simplification achieved by this derivation is enormous.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[29] **viXra:1512.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 17:59:33*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Assuming a time independent Schrödinger equation, this paper shows the formulas for the wavelength, momentum and group velocity of a particle as a function of its wavefunction.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[28] **viXra:1512.0494 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-31 19:43:13*

**Authors:** Rongchao Ma

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Packaged entanglement states encapsulate the necessary physical quantities as an entirety for completely identifying the particles. They are important for particle physics and matter teleportation. Here we proposed the new packaged entanglement states (of two particles and more than two particles) in which the charge does not conserve in the process of wave function collapse. We also discussed the particle teleportation and entanglement transfer using the new packaged entanglement states. It is shown that a particle always converts into its conjugating particle during the particle teleportation process.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[27] **viXra:1512.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-29 13:20:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A team of researchers working at Stanford University has extended the record for quantum superposition at the macroscopic level, from 1 to 54 centimeters. [13]
Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12]
A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11]
Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[26] **viXra:1512.0472 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-13 10:12:10*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract

I show that, in general, the Fourier transform is necessarily self-referent and logically circular.

Keywords

self-reference, logical circularity, mathematical logic, Fourier transform, vector space, orthogonality, orthogonal, unitarity, unitary, imaginary unit, foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum information, prepared state, pure state, mixed state, wave packet, scalar product, tensor product.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[25] **viXra:1512.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-28 00:26:31*

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: I write out a proof adapted from the work of W E Baylis et al showing how existence of the square root of minus one is inherent in physical theories demanding orthogonal mathematics.

Keywords: imaginary numbers, complex numbers, foundations of quantum theory, quantum physics, quantum mechanics, wave mechanics, Canonical Commutation Relation unitary, non-unitary, unitarity, elementary algebra, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[24] **viXra:1512.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-25 08:05:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Scientists at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have demonstrated a new way of controlling electrons by confining them in a device made out of atomically thin materials, and applying external electric and magnetic fields. [28]
Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27]
This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[23] **viXra:1512.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-24 08:58:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12]
A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11]
Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1512.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-21 07:09:16*

**Authors:** Paul J. Werbos

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

One of the three laboratories which has previously produced three entangled photons (the asymmetric GHz state) has performed the triphoton equivalent of the Bell’s Theorem experiment. The results so far are inconsistent with the traditional operator projection model of polarizers, which was previously used in mainstream explanations of Bell’s Theorem experiments, but consistent with simple local realistic models previously shown to be consistent with Bell’s Theorem results and developed by implementing the form of time-symmetric physics which we previously developed [1]. This paper gives a more detailed proposal (MQED1) for a Markovian version of Quantum Electrodynamics (MQED), which it defines as the minimal modification of traditional versions of QED needed to fit the new results, to resolve disagreements between the four mainstream variants of QED used to predict experiments today, and to be consistent with the program of stochastic realism, albeit not a local model. The paper also discusses how MQED1 might be derived as the emergent outcome of a more fundamental local model fulfilling earlier direct discussions between this author and Louis De Broglie, using new statistical distribution functions extending the Glauber-Sudarshan P mapping essential to quantum optics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[21] **viXra:1512.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 13:23:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The quantum entanglement of a large ensemble of spins in a semiconductor has been carried out at room temperature for the first time, by researchers in the US. The team entangled more than 10,000 copies of two-qubit entangled states in a commercial silicon-carbide (SiC) wafer at ambient conditions. SiC is widely used in electronics, so this latest achievement could be an important step towards the creation of sophisticated quantum devices that harness entanglement. [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20] **viXra:1512.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 05:19:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The concept of temperature is critical in describing many physical phenomena, such as the transition from one phase of matter to another. Turn the temperature knob and interesting things can happen. But other knobs might be just as important for some studying some phenomena. One such knob is chemical potential, a thermodynamic parameter first introduced in the nineteenth century scientists for keeping track of potential energy absorbed or emitted by a system during chemical reactions. [12]
For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:1512.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-04 08:08:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

When applied to a quaternionic manifold, the generalized Stokes theorem can provide an elucidating space-progression model in which elementary objects float on top of symmetry centers that act as their living domain. The paper indicates that integration depends on the ordering of the involved parameter spaces. In this way, it elucidates the origin of the electric charges and color charges of elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1512.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-16 08:12:51*

**Authors:** Philip Maulion

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Yes space-time has a source, space-time is not a natural fact as L. Smolin claim it, but space-time has not a quantum source. In this paper I refer to my article viXra: 1511.0012 submitted 2015-11-02. As it is proposed by J. Maldacena and L. Susskind two particles connected by entanglement are effectively joined by a wormhole, then causal connection principle is a principle with reference of the human's mind. Could be the same thing for C velocity unsurpassable!

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1512.0331 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 05:56:59*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 17 Pages. 1 Figure

In nature, nothing is said to occur without reason/purpose. For example, our hearts beat persistently without having a source of infinite energy, which does not happen without reason. The reason is due to their unique/special structure that provides all the properties our hearts possess. In the same way, as all electrons, nucleons, and all other particles, or quanta (since quantum mechanics is applied to all particles, these should be known as quanta) possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy; there should be some purpose. And the purpose should be due to their unique structure that provides all the properties they display. At present, research on the topic has determined as to how electrons, nucleons, and other particles, possess persistent spin motion through their unique structures, and the purpose why they possess persistent spin motion. These determinations provide very clear and complete explanations of all the phenomena/events related to them, as well as the structures and/or properties of their systems, for example, nuclei, their beams, and current-carrying specimens.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1512.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 06:02:39*

**Authors:** Kunwar Jagdish Narain

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In nature, nothing is said to occur without reason/purpose. For example, our hearts beat persistently without having a source of infinite energy, which does not happen without reason. The reason is due to their special structure that provides all the properties our hearts possess. In the same way, as electrons, nucleons, and all other particles, or quanta (since quantum mechanics is applied to all particles, these should be known as quanta) possess persistent spin motion without having any source of infinite energy, there should be some purpose. And the purpose should be due to their special structure that provides all the properties they display. Therefore, the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion, their special structures, and properties have been determined. The account of the effect of the purpose as to why quanta possess persistent spin motion, that is, a new quantum theory (or can say quantum spin theory) enables us to give very clear and complete explanation of all the phenomena related to them. At present, applying it, it has been tried to give explanations of: 1. Phenomena of interference and diffraction; 2- Phenomenon of spectroscopy; 3- Phenomenon of transmittance T = finite for particles possessing energy E < V0, where V0 is energy of the potential barrier; 4- Phenomenon of decrease in the rate of increase in velocity of the accelerated electrons after attaining relativistic velocity by them; 5- Phenomena of: i- acquiring elliptical orbits by the orbiting electrons, despite moving in spherically symmetric field; ii- conservation of energy, momentum, and spin angular momentum of the orbiting electrons, during their motion along elliptical orbits.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1512.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 10:21:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
For the first time, researchers have demonstrated the precise requirements for secure quantum teleportation – and it involves a phenomenon known 'quantum steering', first proposed by Albert Einstein and Erwin Schrödinger. [9]
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1512.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-13 06:46:54*

**Authors:** R.V. Klinkerman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In [1] the following assumption has been put forward:
“Taking for a basis neutrino and antineutrino, it is necessary to see: the
electromagnetic interaction is caused by that the 4-potential of an electromagnetic
field is a neutrino current of transition which well interface with the electronpositron
current of transition.” In present article this assumption develops and
specified.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1512.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-12 02:37:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Penrose-Hameroff type Quantum Consciousness is described in terms of E8 Physics ( see viXra 1508.0157 ) and 26D String Theory with Strings seen as World-Lines and Bohm Quantum Potential and Sarfatti Thought Decoherence. Tubulin Dimer information content of Microtubules is seen to correspond to the Cl(16) Clifford Algebra in which the E8 Lie Algebra is naturally contained. Creation-Annihilation Operators and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory and AQFT Quantum Code for Bohm Quantum Theory are also described.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1512.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 05:45:50*

**Authors:** R.V. Klinkerman

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In given article attempt to develop model of elementary particles (except for
resonances) is done on the basis of concept that these particles, as well as
electron, will consist of cooperating neutrino and antineutrino. Errors of the
received models are not greater then 2 %. In article structures of particles, a
background of their electric charges, bases of electromagnetic and strong
interaction, essence of strangeness and replacement of system of lepton charges on
system of neutrinos charges are offered.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1512.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-11 11:58:49*

context: Theory of Indeterminacy and Quantum Randomness

**Authors:** Steve Faulkner

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: As opposed to the classical logic of true and false, when Elementary Algebra is treated as a formal axiomatised system, formulae in that algebra are either provable, disprovable or otherwise, logically independent of axioms. This logical independence is well-known to Mathematical Logic. Here I show that the imaginary unit, and by extension, all complex numbers, exist in that algebra, logically independently of the algebra's axioms. The intention is to cover the subject in a way accessible to physicists. This work is part of a project researching logical independence in quantum mathematics, for the purpose of advancing a complete theory of quantum randomness. Elementary Algebra is a theory that cannot be completed and is therefore subject to Gödel's Incompleteness Theorems.

keywords: mathematical logic, formal system, axioms, mathematical propositions, Soundness Theorem, Completeness Theorem, logical independence, mathematical undecidability, foundations of quantum theory, quantum mechanics, quantum physics, quantum indeterminacy, quantum randomness.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1512.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 22:17:37*

**Authors:** Korolev Daniil Leonidovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The proposed material generates a unidirectional force as a result of the interaction with the vacuum fluctuations. Experience shows the use or lack of fluctuation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1512.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-09 11:58:32*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable the creation of flexible (folded) quantum computers, IPhones and TVs, engineless quantum transmission and propelling devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation (see reference) based on three fundamental laws of physico-chemical kinetics 1) the law of entire equilibrium, (2) the law of the duality of elementary processes (or the equality of direct and reverse transition probabilities), (3) the law of equal a priori probabilities. It is shown that all three follow from the law of the symmetry of time, and furthermore, that the first and third of these laws are both derivable from the second.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1512.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-08 04:01:09*

**Authors:** Solomon Budnik

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2) to enable the creation of flexible (folded) quantum computers, IPhones and TVs, engineless quantum transmission and propelling devices for cars and aircrafts, superfluid propulsion, levitation and teleportation (see reference) based on three fundamental laws of physico-chemical kinetics 1) the law of entire equilibrium, (2) the law of the duality of elementary processes (or the equality of direct and reverse transition probabilities), (3) the law of equal a priori probabilities. It is shown that all three follow from the law of the symmetry of time, and furthermore, that the first and third of these laws are both derivable from the second.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1512.0246 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-23 13:33:02*

**Authors:** Emmanuil Manousos

**Comments:** 163 Pages.

With the term “Law of Selfvariations” we mean an exactly determined increase of the rest mass and electric charge of material particle. In this article we present the basic theoretical investigation of the law of selfvariations. We arrive at the central conclusion that the interaction of material particles, the corpuscular structure of matter, and the quantum phenomena can be justified by the law of Selfvariations. We predict a unified interaction between material particles with a unified mechanism (Unified Selfvariations Interaction, USVI). Every interaction is the result of three clearly distinct terms with clearly distinct consequences in the USVI. We predict a wave equation, whose special cases are the Maxwell equations, the Schrödinger equation, and the related wave equations. We determine a mathematical expression for the total of the conservable physical quantities, and we calculate the current density 4-vector. The corpuscular structure and wave behaviour of matter and their relation emerge clearly, and we give a calculation method for the rest masses of material particles. We prove the «internal symmetry» theorem which justifies the cosmological data. From the study we present, the method for the further investigation of the Selfvariations and their consequences also emerges.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1512.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 07:04:40*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Elementary fermions can be represented by couplings of two quaternionic fields. Each of these fields can be represented by a pair of a quaternionic function and a quaternionic parameter space. The parameter spaces and the functions differ in their symmetry flavor. The reverse bra-ket method can be used to relate these fields, the corresponding functions and their parameter spaces to operators that reside in quaternionic Hilbert spaces. The eigenspaces of these operators act as structured storage places. Obviously the properties of the elementary fermions and their behavior are directly related to the symmetry flavors of the coupled fields.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1512.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-27 10:24:45*

**Authors:** Germano Resconi, Koji Nagata

**Comments:** Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 7, No.1 (2016), Page 65--73.

Feynman pointed out on a logic and mathematical paradox in particle physics. The paradox is that we get for the same entity only local dependence and global dependence at the time. This contradiction is coming from the dual nature of the particle viewed as a wave. In the first capacity it has only local dependence in the second (wave) capacity it has a global dependence. The classical logic has difficulties to resolve this paradox. Changing the classical logic to logic makes the paradox apparent. Particle has the local property or zero dependence with other particles, media has total dependence so is a global unique entity. Now, in set theory, any element is independent from the other so disjoint set has not element in common. With this condition we have that the true false logic can be applied and set theory is the principal foundation. Now with conditional probability and dependence by copula the long distance dependence has effect on any individual entity that now is not isolate but can have different type of dependence or synchronism ( constrain ) which effect is to change the probability of any particle. So particle with different degree of dependence can be represented by a new type of set as fuzzy set in which the boundary are not completely defined or where we cannot separate a set in its parts as in the evidence theory. In conclusion the Feynman paradox and Bell violation can be explained at a new level of complexity by many valued logic and new type of set theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1512.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 13:50:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11]
Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1512.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 12:41:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10]
Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9]
Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8]
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1512.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-05 10:48:18*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Bell's Theorem prescribes that no theory of nature that obeys locality and realism can reproduce all the predictions of quantum theory. However the theorem presupposes that distanced physical systems become spatially disconnected. This presupposition, although in agreement with our intuition, has never been confirmed experimentally. As a result Bell's Theorem prohibits only temporal locality, but not spatial locality between distanced particles. Here, I show that any local-deterministic relativity theory that violates Lorentz's contraction for distancing bodies cannot be forbidden by Bell's inequality. I further show that the predictions of a recently proposed local and deterministic Information Relativity Theory, are consistent with quantum theory and quantum thermodynamics, and reproduce the same results for key quantum phenomena, including matter-wave duality, quantum criticality and phase transition, formation of Bose-Einstein condensate, and quantum entanglement.
The theory assumes that observers who are in inertial motion with respect to each other with relative velocity v, communicate information about physical observables using an information carrier with known velocity (Vc) which satisfies Vc > v. No other presumptions are made. For velocities satisfying v << Vc all the theory transformations reduce to Galileo-Newton laws. The theory is simple and is also beautiful due to its Golden Ratio symmetries. More importantly, the theory is scale independent with respect to the investigated physical systems' dimensions and the velocity of the information carrier, which renders it applicable to the dynamics of moving bodies in all inertial physical systems.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1512.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-01 14:29:28*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of researchers at MIT has succeeded in creating a double film coating that is able to convert infrared light at modest intensities into visible light. In their paper published in the journal Nature Photonics, the team describes their film, how well it works and the possible uses for it. [15]
Before the Hawaii-bound storm Julio strengthened into a hurricane, a NASA satellite spotted a high-energy flash of "dark lightning" coming from the swirling clouds. [14]
Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13]
Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Quantum Physics