Quantum Physics

1603 Submissions

[42] viXra:1603.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-31 04:02:07

Experiments with Powerful Neodymium Magnets: Magnetic Repulsion.phenomenological Equivalences: the Reverse Casimir Effect, or Repulsive (Spherical Shell) and the Spherical Shell of the Macroscopic Universe (Obsevable Sphere of the Universe).

Authors: Angel Garcés Doz
Comments: 23 Pages.

The experiments, conducted by the author; demonstrate the physical equivalence between the repulsion between two powerful Neodymium magnets and reverse Casimir effect (nanoscale) and macroscopic scale (The spherical shell of actual observable Universe); and as measuring weight on an electronic balance of this repulsive force, it causes the appearance of a fictitious mass; dependent on the repulsive force between the two magnets. One of these magnets is positioned above the balance; while the other slowly magnet is positioned right in the perpendicular axis that would link the centers of both circular magnets. (Circular disks). There is no difference between this experiment and the physical results of the experiments carried out at the microscopic level and measured experimentally: The reverse Casimir effect of a conducting spherical shell. The actual comportment of the Universe to macroscopic scales; with the manifestation of an accelerated expansion and the emergence of a fictitious mass, which does not exist; the so-called dark matter. The three physical phenomena with identical results are equivalent; so they could have a common physical origin. In the article, we have inserted links to videos uploaded to youtube that let you see the whole experimental process and its results. The last experiment is made with other balance; more shielded against interference magnetism and the magnet placed over the balance. The videos are explained in Spanish. They are welcome English subtitles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[41] viXra:1603.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-30 10:34:09

Linear Optical Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[40] viXra:1603.0404 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-13 09:57:15

General Covariance, a New Paradigm for Relativistic Quantum Theory.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 17 Pages.

We offer a new look on multiparticle theory which was initiated in a recent philosophical paper [1] of the author. To accomplish such feature, we start by a revision and extension of the single particle theory as well relativistically as nonrelativistically. Standard statistics gets an interpre- tation in terms of symmetry properties of the two point function and any reference towards all existing quantization schemes is dropped. As I have repeatedly stated and was also beautifully explained by Weinberg, there is no a priori rationale why quantum field theory should take the form it does in a curved spacetime; there is no reason why the straightforward generalizations of the Klein Gordon and Dirac theory should have some- thing to do with the real world. Perhaps, if we were to look differently at the flat theory, a completely satisfactory class of relativistic quantum theories would emerge. These may not have anything to do with quantum fields at all except in some limit.
Category: Quantum Physics

[39] viXra:1603.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-30 03:31:19

How to Interface Photonics and Spintronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[38] viXra:1603.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-29 15:21:45

To the Hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin. the Problem of the True Rate of Time Course in the Field of Gravity: Time Dilation or Time Acceleration in the Gravitational Field What Effect is Valid?

Authors: Soloshenko M.V., Yanchilin V.L.
Comments: 30 Pages.

The problem of the true rate of time course in the field of gravity: time dilation or time acceleration in the gravitational field - what effect is valid? What physical measurements and arguments we really have, and do they satisfy the strictly scientific point of view? To the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin. According to the general theory of relativity (GTR), time goes slower in the field of gravity. The GTR uses several arguments to prove the postulate about gravitational time dilation. We will look at all these arguments and we will show that all of them can’t be the direct evidence of time dilation in the field of gravity and that they are only indirect proof in the GTR’s paradigm. We insist that till now there is no even one physical fact as the direct experimental or measurement data that can prove gravitational time dilation. Gravitational time dilation is just the hypothetical physical effect of GTR that does not have a valid measurement till the present time. Without an exact physical measurement, gravitational time dilation has the status of the theoretical hypothesis as the opposite effect - gravitational time acceleration (the hypothesis of the Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin: an atomic frequency (atomic oscillation frequency) is increased in a gravitational field - time goes faster in the field of gravity and the value of Planck’s constant decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the gravitational potential). Both hypotheses are based on their theoretical models, each of them has its theoretical and physical arguments. Only a valid measurement of a direct comparison of the clocks readings in conditions of different gravitational potentials will provide a physical fact (direct physical evidence) proving gravitational time dilation or gravitational time acceleration. We will prove that in spite of different physical measurements there is no the direct proof of gravitational time dilation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:1603.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-29 07:52:23

Quantum Effects of Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[36] viXra:1603.0392 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-16 08:20:52

A Computational Proof of Locality in Entanglement.

Authors: Han Geurdes
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper the design and coding of a local hidden variables model is presented that violates the Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt, $|$CHSH$|$ $\leq 2$ inequality. Numerically we find with our local computer program, CHSH $\approx 1 + \sqrt{2}$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[35] viXra:1603.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-27 09:42:55

An Additional Constraint on Local Realism with Mixture of Ten-Particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger State Implied by Rotational Invariance

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: International Journal of Emerging Engineering Research and Technology, Volume 4, Issue 1 (2016), Page 66--73.

Rotational invariance of physical laws is an accepted principle in Newton's theory. We show that it leads to an additional constraint on local realistic theories with mixture of ten-particle Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger state. This new constraint rules out such theories even in some situations in which standard Bell inequalities allow for explicit construction of such theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[34] viXra:1603.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-25 17:29:38

Energy - Mass - Gravity Theory

Authors: Amrit Sorli, Magi Mageshwaran, Davide Fiscaletti
Comments: 15 Pages.

The electromagnetic quantum vacuum of QED empowered with the Planck energy density is a model which comprehensively describes the origin of energy, mass, gravity and antigravity. A photon is a wave of quantum vacuum and has energy and so according to the mass-energy equivalence principle, a corresponding mass. A massive particle is a structure of quantum vacuum whose rest mass diminishes the energy density of the quantum vacuum, which generates mass and gravity. The kinetic energy of a relativistic particle originates from the quantum vacuum.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33] viXra:1603.0360 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-01 09:11:49

Quantum Computing, Quantum Key Distribution, and Quantum Communication

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 10 pages

We present quantum key distribution based on Deutsch's algorithm using an entangled state. The security of the protocol is based on it of Ekert 91 protocol. That is, the existence of eavesdroppers must destroy entanglement. Next, we study quantum communication based on two quantum algorithms, such as the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm and Simon's algorithm. We discuss the fact that quantum communication overcomes classical communication by a factor of $N$ in the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm case. Also we discuss the fact that quantum communication overcomes classical communication by a factor of $O(\sqrt{2^N}/N)$ in Simon's algorithm case.
Category: Quantum Physics

[32] viXra:1603.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-25 04:59:07

Two Quantum Properties Teleported

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

The values of two inherent properties of one photon – its spin and its orbital angular momentum – have been transferred via quantum teleportation onto another photon for the first time by physicists in China. Previous experiments have managed to teleport a single property, but scaling that up to two properties proved to be a difficult task, which has only now been achieved. The team's work is a crucial step forward in improving our understanding of the fundamentals of quantum mechanics and the result could also play an important role in the development of quantum communications and quantum computers. [10] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. For the first time, researchers have demonstrated the precise requirements for secure quantum teleportation – and it involves a phenomenon known 'quantum steering', first proposed by Albert Einstein and Erwin Schrödinger. [9] In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31] viXra:1603.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-25 03:17:00

Quantum Fingerprints

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Quantum superposition has been used to compare data from two different sources more efficiently than is possible, even in principle, on a conventional computer. The scheme is called "quantum fingerprinting" and has been demonstrated by physicists in China. It could ultimately lead to better large-scale integrated circuits and more energy-efficient communication. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30] viXra:1603.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-24 11:08:40

Twisted Light of Quantum Optics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29] viXra:1603.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-24 04:40:02

Heisenberg's Potentia in Quantum Mechanics and Discrete Subgroups of Lie Groups

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 5 Pages.

The concept of "potentia" as proposed by Heisenberg to understand the structure of quantum mechanics, has just remained a fanciful speculation as of now. In this paper we provide a physically consistent and a mathematically justified ontology of this model based on a fundamental role played by the discrete subgroups of the relevant Lie groups. We show that as such, the space of "potentia" arises as a coexisting dual space to the real three dimensional space, while these two sit piggyback on each other, such that the collapse of wave function can be understood in a natural manner. Quantum nonlocality and quantum jumps arise as a natural consequence of this model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[28] viXra:1603.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-24 04:41:19

Measuring Many-Particle Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Physicists have developed a new protocol to detect entanglement of many-particle quantum states using a much easier approach. The new protocol is particularly interesting for characterizing entanglement in systems involving many particles. These systems could help us not only to improve our understanding of matter but to develop measurement techniques beyond current existing technologies. [10] Using some of the largest supercomputers available, physics researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have produced one of the largest simulations ever to help explain one of physics most daunting problems. [9] Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1603.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-23 12:27:41

Scaling the Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Physicists have unveiled a programmable five-qubit processing module that can be connected together to form a powerful quantum computer. The big challenge now is scale—combining these techniques in a way that can handle large numbers of qubits and perform powerful quantum calculations. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[26] viXra:1603.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-23 05:20:18

Superconducting Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[25] viXra:1603.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-22 12:45:42

The Elementary Particle Has Size Intermittently.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 10 Pages.

Hypothesis of the elementary particle pulsation principle By the wave trip that electromagnetic willpower acts on, the elementary particle "is the point" that does not have size. By a particle trip and the minus number particle trip, the elementary particle has size. The elementary particle of the particle trip has size, but the electric charge does not last. An electric charge is not distributed over the inside such as an electron or the proton with size. The power that acted in the end of the elementary particle because the elementary particle of the particle trip with size is not a rigid body does not act more than velocity of light in the end of the other side. The elementary particle is not rigid, but it is not disintegrated by outside action such as the enlargement. Around an electron or a proton with an electric charge, a cloud of the photon group is distributed as a pulsatile ripple, but, as for the wave (material wave) of the dark energy, as for the energy grand total, it is with zero by offset (supersymmetry) of the energy with a mountain and the valley of the wave every pulsation 1 cycle, and it is not with infinite energy, the infinite mass. The gravitation is similar and a virtual gravity baby and the outbreak with the gravitational field continue like a chain reaction and do not become infinite energy, the infinite mass. The energy grand total of a pulsating place is zero. It is equivalent to what it adds only the original energy of the material wave to it adopts only modulus squared of the equation of the material wave (dark energy), and to calculate, and it is a proper result that an energy grand total becomes infinite.
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:1603.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-21 11:12:30

Monogamy of Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Two of the most important ideas that distinguish the quantum world from the classical one are nonlocality and contextuality. Previously, physicists have theoretically shown that both of these phenomena cannot simultaneously exist in a quantum system, as they are both just different manifestations of a more fundamental concept, the assumption of realism. Now in a new paper, physicists have for the first time experimentally confirmed that these two defining features of quantum mechanics never appear together. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:1603.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-20 08:27:57

Illustration of the Spin Angular Momentum by the Elementary Particle Pulsation Hypothesis.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 9 Pages.

The elementary particle is a wave of the dark energy to pulsate in fo ur-dimensional space. It is energy aggregate appearing as a lump of the light to rotate in the three-dimensional space. In this report, I show that it is the energy aggregate that three dimensions of spins of the elementary particle appear in the space as a lump of the light to rotate.
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1603.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-20 10:43:20

The Gravitational Force Quanta. an Alternative Definition of the Kilogram.

Authors: Mihai Grumazescu
Comments: 6 Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.1.3346.6005

The model of gravity based on the nuclear kinetic dipole states that each atomic nucleus constantly generates a pushing force which imparts a linear momentum to the atom. The direction of that force can be changed through gravitational polarization, a macroscopic body being pushed from within in the direction of surrounding bodies by the cumulative force of its nuclei. The pushing force of a single nucleon is thought to be the gravitational force quanta, its value being derived from the Avogadro program for a new definition of the kilogram. The gravitational force quanta is found to be ≈ 2 x 10-19 a.u. (atomic unit of force) which could be confirmed through a proposed experiment. An alternative definition of the kilogram is also proposed, along with multiple possibilities to build kilogram etalons. Particularly, subdivisions of the kilogram (e.g. gram, milligram, microgram) can be accurately reproduced onsite through nano-3D printing for the purpose of calibrating high-precision scales and balances.
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1603.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-17 11:21:18

Protected Majorana States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Quantum technology has the potential to revolutionize computation, cryptography, and simulation of quantum systems. However, quantum states are fragile, and so must be controlled without being measured. Researchers have now demonstrated a key property of Majorana zero modes that protects them from decoherence. The result lends positive support to the existence of Majorana modes, and goes further by showing that they are protected, as predicted theoretically. [11] In what may provide a potential path to processing information in a quantum computer, researchers have switched an intrinsic property of electrons from an excited state to a relaxed state on demand using a device that served as a microwave "tuning fork." [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[20] viXra:1603.0244 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-16 21:27:43

A Phenomenological Magnetic Description for the Origin of Mass for Leptons and for the Complete Baryon Octet

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the late 1970s A.O.Barut put forth an alternative theory for the inner constitution of baryons and mesons, in which the basic pieces would be the stable particles, namely the proton, the electron, and the neutrino, rather than quarks with fractionary charges. At the same time Barut proposed also that the short range strong interactions between such internal constituents would be magnetic in nature. Quite recently, in vixra 1511.0005, we developed a phenomenological model based upon the concept that the magnetodynamic energy of zitterbewegung intrinsic motion is the source for the rest energies, and therefore, the source of mass in particles. In the present paper we show that our recently proposed model can be applied to leptons and to the full baryon octet with almost perfect accuracy, in a way consistent with Barut´s proposal. It is shown that mass for all these particles depends on two quantities, namely, the number of magnetic flux quanta trapped in an intrinsic vibrational motion, and the magnetic moment of the particle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[19] viXra:1603.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-16 09:20:11

On the Foundations of Physics.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 78 Pages.

The road on the foundations of science in general consists in (a) making precise what the assumptions are one makes resulting from our measurements (b) holding a “good” balance between theoretical assumptions and genericity of predictions (c) saying as precisely as possible what you mean. Unfortunately, recent work where these three criteria are met is scarce and I often encounter situations where physicists talk about different things in the same words or the other way around, identify distinct concepts (even without being aware of it), or introduce unnecessary hypothesis based upon a too stringent mathematical interpretation of some observation. In this work, I will be as critical as possible and give away those objections against modern theories of physics which have become clear in my mind and therefore transcend mere intuition. All these objections result from the use of unclear language or too stringent assumptions on the nature of reality. Next, we weaken the assumptions and discuss what I call process physics; it will turn out that Bell’s concerns do find a natural solution within this framework.
Category: Quantum Physics

[18] viXra:1603.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-16 06:51:53

Spin Liquids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Technology Graduate University (OIST) are on a quest to find out as much as they can about unusual states of matter called spin liquids and if these spin liquids could generate advances in the field of physics. The results could lead to the development of quantum computing, which require an exploration of new materials to become a reality. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[17] viXra:1603.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-15 15:21:20

Quantum Many-Particle Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Using some of the largest supercomputers available, physics researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have produced one of the largest simulations ever to help explain one of physics most daunting problems. [9] Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[16] viXra:1603.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-14 21:10:41

Thompson's Approach and Quantum Mechanics: The Harmonic Oscillator

Authors: P.R. Silva
Comments: 05 pages, 04 references, short note

Thompson’s Method is applied to a variational principle in order to treat the harmonic oscillator in one dimension. It is also used to link the de Broglie frequency to a harmonic oscillator model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[15] viXra:1603.0207 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-21 15:05:21

The Gravitational Constant and the Planck's Units: A Simplification of the Quantum Realm

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, I suggest a new way to write the gravitational constant that makes all of the Planck units: Planck length, Planck time, Planck mass, and Planck energy much more intuitive and simpler to understand. Most importantly, this potentially opens up the way for several new interpretations in physics. By writing the gravitational constant in a Planck functional form, we can rewrite all of the Planck units (without changing their values) in a form that is much simpler and more intuitive. The structural form given by the rewritten Planck constants is somewhat surprisingly also the same structural form as what recently has been derived by Haug 2014 from scratch from atomism. In atomism, the most fundamental particles have spatial dimension. This is in strong contrast to the view of modern physics that assumes the existence of point particles. It is not so long ago that the indivisible particles with spatial dimensions (used by Newton, for example) were abandoned by modern physics in favor of point particles. We will not conclude in this paper if the most fundamental subatomic particles are point-like or have spatial dimension, but we will mainly focus on how we can simplify the Planck units within the framework of mainstream modern physics. Hopefully this can help us get one step further in the interpretation of the quantum world.
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1603.0187 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-10 00:02:18

Question of Quantum and Physical RealityⅠ

Authors: Zhang ChengGang
Comments: 8 Pages.

shortcomings and difficulties which in Bohr’s theory and quantum mechanics imply a deeper theory after the quantum, a new way to touch the deeper theory is by analysis their premise thought foundation, analysis indicated that the force of microcosmic particle should different from classical mechanics, and microcosmic potential function(microscopic interaction) is a new discovery; the shortcomings and difficulties of Bohr’s theory and quantum mechanics can be understood or eliminated by microcosmic potential function, Bohr’s theory is the result of combining quantum phenomena of microscopic interaction and classical physics, quantum mechanics is established by directly using microscopic interaction’s "wave" apparent phenomenon, the microscopic interaction is more essential theory between the two particles, classical mechanics is only approximation results of microscopic interaction in macroscopic.
Category: Quantum Physics

[13] viXra:1603.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-11 12:48:25

Optical Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

An optical chip developed at INRS by Prof. Roberto Morandotti's team overcomes a number of obstacles in the development of quantum computers, which are expected to revolutionize information processing. An international research team has demonstrated that on-chip quantum frequency combs can be used to simultaneously generate multiphoton entangled quantum bit (qubit) states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:1603.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-08 21:08:21

Fidelity Between Two Hamiltonians

Authors: J. M. Zhang
Comments: 2 Pages.

A distance between the eigenbasis of two different Hamiltonians is proposed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1603.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-09 02:24:23

The Leibniz Theorem in the Bohr Model and the Parity Oscillation

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 5 Pages.

We unify the Bohr energy formula with the Leibniz continuity theorem in order to get the aufbau of photon. During the electron transition in this model the photon is created by the continual way. The oscillation of parity of K-meson is discussed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1603.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-08 07:54:05

Quantum Entanglement in DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[9] viXra:1603.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-26 17:56:12

The Hidden Structure of Photons

Authors: Brian B.K. Min
Comments: 26 Pages.

We deduce that the speed of light is constant in all inertial frames of reference because both time and space are discretized. To provide a theoretical basis for this discreteness, we postulate our space to be an ocean of the “Gamma elements” having extremely small size and energy (or mass) density. The relativistic relationship between time and space with respect to the constant speed of light is then determined by the process of light propagation in this medium. The theory finds light energy propagating as “elemental waves” with the phase velocity, c. Here a photon is no longer a particle traveling with the velocity, c, but a Gamma element transforming into a Planck element, an energized state carrying an angular momentum, h, with a frequency, v, substantially behaving like a particle with the energy, Eph = hν, traveling with the velocity, c. The lifetime of each Planck element is on the order of the elemental time, tp. A possible mechanism for this transformation is proposed by the use of the quantum field process involving a vector boson transforming between a massive state (Planck element) and a massless, charged state (Gamma element.) We note that the vacuum state in the quantum field theory is approximately equivalent to the Gamma element state. A visualized space-time and photon models are presented and the Compton experiment and the double slit experiment are re-validated by the theory. Owing to the relativistic effect, in particular, the Compton scattering variables, the wavelength change of the incident Gamma rays and the velocity acquired by the electron by the scaterring, are shown to be the same whether the scattering is by the single photon particle or by the series of Planck elements. The difference is the rate at which the energy of the incident Gamma ray is assumed to be delivered, which will then manifest the difference in the acceleration of the electron. This difference may be explored to verify the theory by experiments.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:1603.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 17:14:22

Quantum Mechanics Without the Measurement Axiom.

Authors: Jiri Soucek
Comments: 8 Pages.

We present the axiomatization of quantum mechanics which does not contain axioms concerning the measurement. Instead of the concept of measurement this axiomatization uses the concept of the observation of the individual state of the measuring system after the run of the experiment. It is proved that the resulting theory is empirically equivalent to the standard quantum mechanics but it is also shown that these two theories are (theoretically) different.
Category: Quantum Physics

[7] viXra:1603.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 18:23:32

The Quantum Chromodynamics Theory Of Tetraquarks And Mesomesonic Particles

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 15 Pages.

Based on a generalized particle diagram of baryons and anti-baryons which, in turn, is based on symmetry principles, this theory predicts the existence of all the tetraquarks and dimeson molecules (mesomesonic particles) there exist in nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[6] viXra:1603.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-05 05:08:01

Layered Quantum Cryptography

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[5] viXra:1603.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 07:56:59

Quantum Hypergraph States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Many quantum technologies rely on quantum states that violate local realism, which means that they either violate locality (such as when entangled particles influence each other from far away) or realism (the assumption that quantum states have well-defined properties, independent of measurement), or possibly both. Violation of local realism is one of the many counterintuitive, yet experimentally supported, characteristics of the quantum world. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[4] viXra:1603.0021 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-11 08:09:16

The Hilbert Book Test Model

Authors: Hans van Leunen
Comments: 158 Pages.

The Hilbert book test model is a purely mathematical test model that starts from a solid foundation from which the whole model can be derived by using trustworthy mathematical methods. What is known about physical reality is used as a guidance, but the model is not claimed to be a proper reflection of physical reality. The mathematical toolkit still contains holes. These holes will be encountered during the development of the model and suggestions are made how those gaps can be filled. Some new insights are obtained and some new mathematical methods are introduced. The selected foundation is interpreted as part of a recipe for modular construction and that recipe is applied throughout the development of the model. This development is an ongoing project. The main law of physics appears to be a commandment: “Thou shalt construct in a modular way”. The paper reveals the possible origin of several physical concepts. This paper shows that it is possible to discover a mathematical structure that is suitable as an extensible foundation. However, without adding extra mechanisms that ensure dynamic coherence, the structure does not provide the full functionality of reality. These extra mechanisms apply stochastic processes, which generate the locations of the elementary modules that populate the model. All discrete items in universe are configured from dynamic geometric locations. These items are stored in a repository that covers a history part, the current static status quo, and a future part. The elementary modules float over the static framework of the repository. Dedicated mechanisms ensure the coherent behavior of these elementary modules. Fields exist that describe these elementary modules. An encapsulating repository supports these fields. Both repositories are formed by quaternionic Hilbert spaces. The model offers two interesting views. The first view is the creator’s view and offers free access to all dynamic geometric data that are stored in the eigenspaces of operators. The second view is the observer’s view. The observers are modules that travel with the vane, which represents the static status quo. The observers only perceive information that comes from the past and that is carried by the field that embeds them. This view sees the model as a spacetime based structure that stores its dynamic geometric data with a Minkowski signature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1603.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-02 06:20:53

In 5-Dimensional Space-Time Quantum Mechanics Derive Out Special Relativity Theory

Authors: XiaoLin Li
Comments: 10 Pages. Old version paper,http://vixra.org/abs/1401.0014

Special Relativity Theory can be derived out from quantum mechanics. Special Relativity Theory is not a independent theory. Special Relativity Theory is included in the quantum mechanics.There exist a new physics view. Real physical world is 5-dimensional space-time.Human world is 4-dimensional space-time,it’s only the projection of real physics world.Quantum mechanical particle-wave is present in 5-dimensional space-time.So we can derive out Mass-energy equation.So we can derive out Special Relativity Theory.In 5-dimensional space-time,all the particles speed is the light speed c.That is reason that the light speed c is very special.Discuss some questions in the new physics view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1603.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-16 02:01:59

Nature of Quantum Potential

Authors: Anton A. Lipovka
Comments: 8 Pages. submitted to journal

In this paper we suggest a natural interpretation of the de Broglie-Bohm quantum potential, as the energy due to the oscillating electromagnetic field (virtual photon) coupled with moving charged particle. Generalization of the Schr\"{o}dinger equation is obtained. The wave function is shown to be the eigenfunction of the Sturm - Liouville problem in which we expand virtual photon to include it implicitly into consideration. It is shown the non - locality of quantum mechanics is related only with virtual photon. As an example, the zero - energy of harmonic oscillator is obtained from classical equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[1] viXra:1603.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-01 10:26:24

Double Slit by Two Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Now, the scientists went one step further. They trapped a pair of atoms with well-defined relative positions in such a resonator and scattered light from this "double slit". They observed interference phenomena that contradict well-established intuition. These results were enabled by the development of a technique that allows for position control of the atoms with an accuracy well below the wavelength of the scattered light. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics