[37] **viXra:1605.0307 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-07 13:49:14*

**Authors:** Kronberger Reinhard

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Extension of the standardmodel for quantenphysic by the symmetry of the coxeterelement of the affine E9 group.
This extension leads us to a second symmetrybreak which show us the shape of gravitation,dark energy and dark matter.
The extensions also leads us to an extension of the general relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[36] **viXra:1605.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-31 02:14:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Quantum photonic researchers start new company, Sparrow Quantum. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[35] **viXra:1605.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 04:38:24*

**Authors:** Youbang Zhan

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The discrimination of quantum measurements is an important subject of quantum information processes. In this paper we present a novel protocol for local quantum measurement discrimination (LQMD) with multi-qubit entanglement systems. It is shown that, for two spacelike separated parties, the local discrimination of two different kinds of measurement can be completed via numerous eight-qubit GHZ entangled states and selective projective measurements without help of classical information. This means that no-signaling constraint can be violated by the LQMD.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[34] **viXra:1605.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-28 05:56:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

One of the most striking discoveries of quantum information theory is the existence of problems that can be solved in a more efficient way with quantum resources than with any known classical algorithm. [15] Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[33] **viXra:1605.0268 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-29 16:09:19*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper is telling essentials of the story of the Hilbert Book Test Model without applying the mathematical formulas. The paper cannot avoid the usage of mathematical terms, but these terms will be elucidated such that mathematical novices can still understand most of the story. The Hilbert Book Test Model is a way to investigate the part of the foundation of physical reality that cannot be observed. This foundation is necessarily simple and it can easily be comprehended by skilled scientists. However, this paper is targeted to readers that are not skilled in math.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[32] **viXra:1605.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-25 06:19:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Precise atom implants in silicon provide a first step toward practical quantum computers. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[31] **viXra:1605.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-25 07:12:14*

**Authors:** Iliyan Peruhov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The spin projection expectation value of electrons in magnetic field in direction perpendicular to the magnetic induction B depends on the magnitude of B and the time t, spent by the electron in the field. Consequently choosing the value of the product B.t one can have spin statistics biased to +1/2 or -1/2. The spin statistics of electrons from a quantity of EPR pairs is manipulated this way. The spin statistics of the partner electrons will show the opposite statistics, thus realizing teleportation of information without the use of a classical channel in contrast to the Bennett teleportation protocol [1].

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[30] **viXra:1605.0257 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-13 05:06:09*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

A so called EmDrive defy classical physics expectations because it shows repellent less or reaction less thruster qualities.
According to Quantum FFF Theory (Function Follows Form at the quantum level) the magnetic quantum field has always TWO different shaped monopole vector components: a North- and a South vector field component. This is comparable with the electric Quantum field, equipped with Plus and Minus vector components but it is in contrast with all other quantum fields like the neutrino- gravity-or x-gamma ray field.
After interference of the magnetic wave with a real spinning propeller shaped Fermion particle, TWO real monopole magnetic photon particle based waves from opposite direction will collapse and come to life as two real rigid shaped photons, as the result of two individual mutated oscillating Axion-Higgs field particles from the vacuum. These photons should do the magnetic job by interlocking temporarily with the Fermion, and give the Fermion a push to the left respectively a push to the right fully in line and according to the Lorentz force law. However, based on observation of iron filing-powder patterns close to direct currents in a wire, it is assumed that these monopole ( N+S) particle/ wave dualities travel only locally parallel to each other without a magnetic field effect inside the Higgs field.
This in contrast with the natural opposing curvature of the so called B field. .As a result, the magnetic field strength- created by the wire itself-locally drops down to zero, with a up to zero reduced Lorentz force on the iron filing atoms.
As a consequence, this is in contradiction with Maxwell’s magnetic field law around an electric direct current wire and I call it the “tubular local magnetic dropping zone” ( dead zone) around the electric wire, which can be used for reaction less drive propulsion and Levitation in combination with different forms of strong tubular or spiral magnets.
Magnet optimalisation is suggested to form spiral configurations of high performance magnet plating with spiraling electric coils in between.
The Lorentz force created on the wire by the static magnetic field of the tubular or spiral magnet (s) is supposed to be the only force in the system, by the absence of a reaction force on the magnet due to the local magnetic dropping zone.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[29] **viXra:1605.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-24 13:30:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Spintronics In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[28] **viXra:1605.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-07 08:51:54*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: statement of light is just one kind of waves.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[27] **viXra:1605.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-21 07:41:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[26] **viXra:1605.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 11:09:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[25] **viXra:1605.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-20 04:27:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11]
With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[24] **viXra:1605.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 08:47:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10]
A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9]
Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[23] **viXra:1605.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-18 09:38:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Computers are often described with "ones and zeros," referring to their binary nature: each memory element stores data in two states. But there is no fundamental reason why there should be just two. In a new study, researchers have designed a magnetic element that has six stable magnetic states, which paves the way toward realizing a six-state magnetic memory element. [13]
Quantum technology has the potential to revolutionize computation, cryptography, and simulation of quantum systems. However, quantum states are fragile, and so must be controlled without being measured. Researchers have now demonstrated a key property of Majorana zero modes that protects them from decoherence. The result lends positive support to the existence of Majorana modes, and goes further by showing that they are protected, as predicted theoretically. [11]
In what may provide a potential path to processing information in a quantum computer, researchers have switched an intrinsic property of electrons from an excited state to a relaxed state on demand using a device that served as a microwave "tuning fork." [10]
Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information.
In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1605.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-17 09:18:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[21] **viXra:1605.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-16 13:17:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Theoretical chemists at Princeton University have pioneered a strategy for modeling quantum friction, or how a particle's environment drags on it, a vexing problem in quantum mechanics since the birth of the field. The study was published in the Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters. [11] Protons can tunnel in solutions and at temperatures above the boiling point of water, found scientists from the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw. [10] An international team of scientists studying ultrafast physics have solved a mystery of quantum mechanics, and found that quantum tunneling is an instantaneous process. The new theory could lead to faster and smaller electronic components, for which quantum tunneling is a significant factor. It will also lead to a better understanding of diverse areas such as electron microscopy, nuclear fusion and DNA mutations. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[20] **viXra:1605.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-16 05:20:03*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The Casimir effect is interpreted generally through the consideration of indeterministic quantum events that are justified by the indeterminacy principle and by the concept of quantum vacuum. That explanation is based on the hypothesis of existence of statistical fluctuations of energy around the point of zero energy that generate virtual pairs of particle-antiparticle. With this research let us intend to prove the Casimir effect can be explained by the interaction mass-mass of the symmetry MLM without the necessity to make use of virtual and probabilistic paradigms.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[19] **viXra:1605.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-15 13:50:08*

**Authors:** John C. Hodge

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The STOE originally was a model to describe mysterious cosmological observations. The STOE has explained Young's Experiment and light as photons. It also predicted the result of The Hodge Experiment that differentiates between particles (photons) and waves going through the slits. The assumptions used in the STOE explanation and the computer simulation are many over several papers. This paper lists the assumptions used to form the equations. The advantages of the STOE are that it is one model of the big, the Newtonian scale, and the small of light and that it is more intuitive.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[18] **viXra:1605.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-16 14:59:10*

**Authors:** Reinhard Kronberger

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The symmetrie of the coxeterelement of the affine liegroup E9 shows an extension of the quantum standardmodel. By doing a second symmetriebreaking it shows the graviton particle and a new field like the higgsfield.I call it oktoquintenfield. The extended standardmodel also allows to understand dark energie by the cosmological constant and dark matter. Like the weak force with light the extension shows a superweak force with gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1605.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-14 05:46:43*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Polarimeters Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[16] **viXra:1605.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-13 02:17:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[15] **viXra:1605.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 13:12:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Quantum technology has the potential to revolutionize computation, cryptography, and simulation of quantum systems. However, quantum states are fragile, and so must be controlled without being measured. Researchers have now demonstrated a key property of Majorana zero modes that protects them from decoherence. The result lends positive support to the existence of Majorana modes, and goes further by showing that they are protected, as predicted theoretically. [11] In what may provide a potential path to processing information in a quantum computer, researchers have switched an intrinsic property of electrons from an excited state to a relaxed state on demand using a device that served as a microwave "tuning fork." [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[14] **viXra:1605.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 13:54:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Scientists have devised a way to build a "quantum metamaterial"—an engineered material with exotic properties not found in nature—using ultracold atoms trapped in an artificial crystal composed of light. The theoretical work represents a step toward manipulating atoms to transmit information, perform complex simulations or function as powerful sensors. [11] An optical chip developed at INRS by Prof. Roberto Morandotti's team overcomes a number of obstacles in the development of quantum computers, which are expected to revolutionize information processing. An international research team has demonstrated that on-chip quantum frequency combs can be used to simultaneously generate multiphoton entangled quantum bit (qubit) states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[13] **viXra:1605.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 10:22:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from France, Russia and Finland has improved on the current design of an electronic turnstile, by replacing the conventional metallic "island" with a quantum dot. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes how the design works, why it is better than the conventional approach and how much the error rate was reduced. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[12] **viXra:1605.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 09:31:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Electrons represent an ideal quantum bit, with a "spin" that when pointing up can represent a 0 and down can represent a 1. Such bits are small (even smaller than an atom), and because they do not interact strongly they can remain quantum for long periods. However, exploiting electrons as qubits also poses a challenge in that they must be trapped and manipulated. Which is exactly what David Schuster, a University of Chicago assistant professor of physics and his collaborators at UChicago, Argonne National Laboratory, and Yale University have done. [10] Physicists have unveiled a programmable five-qubit processing module that can be connected together to form a powerful quantum computer. The big challenge now is scale—combining these techniques in a way that can handle large numbers of qubits and perform powerful quantum calculations. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[11] **viXra:1605.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 06:12:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

IBM on Wednesday opened its quantum computer processor to anyone who wants to try what is expected to be a new kind of computing with enormously improved power and speed. [11]
Scientists and engineers from the Universities of Bristol and Western Australia have developed how to efficiently simulate a "quantum walk" on a new design for a primitive quantum computer. [10]
Physicists have unveiled a programmable five-qubit processing module that can be connected together to form a powerful quantum computer. The big challenge now is scale—combining these techniques in a way that can handle large numbers of qubits and perform powerful quantum calculations. [9]
By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8]
The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1605.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-11 02:04:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Scientists and engineers from the Universities of Bristol and Western Australia have developed how to efficiently simulate a "quantum walk" on a new design for a primitive quantum computer. [10] Physicists have unveiled a programmable five-qubit processing module that can be connected together to form a powerful quantum computer. The big challenge now is scale—combining these techniques in a way that can handle large numbers of qubits and perform powerful quantum calculations. [9] By leveraging the good ideas of the natural world and the semiconductor community, researchers may be able to greatly simplify the operation of quantum devices built from superconductors. They call this a "semiconductor-inspired" approach and suggest that it can provide a useful guide to improving superconducting quantum circuits. [8] The one thing everyone knows about quantum mechanics is its legendary weirdness, in which the basic tenets of the world it describes seem alien to the world we live in. Superposition, where things can be in two states simultaneously, a switch both on and off, a cat both dead and alive. Or entanglement, what Einstein called "spooky action-at-distance" in which objects are invisibly linked, even when separated by huge distances. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[9] **viXra:1605.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 07:12:51*

**Authors:** Masamichi Sato

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We consider the quantum annealing for Ising anyonic systems. After giving a description of quantum annealing for Ising anyonic systems, we discuss its use for solving the practical problems, such as phylogenetics, linguistics and decision making. Our scope is not to show the details of calculation, but to invoke the interests on quantum annealing of anyonic systems to solve practical problems in various elds. In near future, this method might be widely spread as a technological foundation of machinery devices to solve the problems on many sights.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[8] **viXra:1605.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-10 01:14:33*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 6 Pages. the original article

The electromagnetic shift of energy levels of H-atom electrons is determined by
calculating the mean square amplitude of oscillation of an electron coupled to the
relic photon
fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Energy shift of electrons in
H-atom is determined in the framework of non-relativistic quantum mechanics.
The

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[7] **viXra:1605.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-08 08:59:02*

**Authors:** Victor Vaguine

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A systematic analysis of the simplest quantum optics experiment of linearly polarized photons with a beam-splitter leads to several quantum enigmas, which cannot be explained on the basis of quantum positivism or quantum optics. The fact that photons demonstrate under the "No-Click" conditions non-physical interactions at detector shows that quantum mechanics paradigm is deficient. The study raises philosophical, foundational, and paradigmatic issues with respect to limitations of quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[6] **viXra:1605.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 09:24:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Researchers from the Department of Applied Mathematics and the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo have developed a versatile new way of controlling quantum systems that can affect the reliability of experiments. [14] A team around Dr. Stephan Dürr from the Quantum Dynamics Division of Prof. Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now demonstrated in an experiment how an important gate operation – the exchange of the binary bit values 0 and 1 – can be realized with single photons. [13] A curious type of nonlocal phenomenon known as one-way quantum steering has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time by two independent groups of physicists. This phenomenon is similar to quantum entanglement but applies when one of the two parties sharing a quantum state does not trust the source of quantum particles. The researchers say their work could help to broaden applications of quantum cryptography. [12] Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[5] **viXra:1605.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-07 01:32:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A team around Dr. Stephan Dürr from the Quantum Dynamics Division of Prof. Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now demonstrated in an experiment how an important gate operation – the exchange of the binary bit values 0 and 1 – can be realized with single photons. [13] A curious type of nonlocal phenomenon known as one-way quantum steering has been demonstrated experimentally for the first time by two independent groups of physicists. This phenomenon is similar to quantum entanglement but applies when one of the two parties sharing a quantum state does not trust the source of quantum particles. The researchers say their work could help to broaden applications of quantum cryptography. [12] Researchers at the Institute of Quantum Optics and Quantum Information, the University of Vienna, and the Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona have achieved a new milestone in quantum physics: they were able to entangle three particles of light in a high-dimensional quantum property related to the 'twist' of their wavefront structure. The results from their experiment appear in the journal Nature Photonics. [11] Quantum cryptography involves two parties sharing a secret key that is created using the states of quantum particles such as photons. The communicating parties can then exchange messages by conventional means, in principle with complete security, by encrypting them using the secret key. Any eavesdropper trying to intercept the key automatically reveals their presence by destroying the quantum states. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[4] **viXra:1605.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 21:57:26*

**Authors:** Jiang-Min Zhang

**Comments:** 8 Pages. pedagogical lecture note for my quantum-mechanics course

Fermi's golden rule is of great importance in quantum dynamics. However, in many textbooks on quantum mechanics, its contents and limitations are obscured by the approximations and arguments in the derivation, which are inevitable because of the generic setting considered. Here we propose to introduce it by an ideal model, in which the quasi-continuum band consists of equaldistant levels extending from $-\infty $ to $+\infty $, and each of them couples to the discrete level with the same strength. For this model, the transition probability in the first order perturbation approximation can be calculated analytically by invoking the Poisson summation formula. It turns out to be a \emph{piecewise linear} function of time, demonstrating on one hand the key features of Fermi's golden rule, and on the other hand that the rule breaks down beyond the Heisenberg time, even when the first order perturbation approximation itself is still valid.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[3] **viXra:1605.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-03 03:54:15*

**Authors:** James Russell Farmer

**Comments:** 115 Pages. A precursor to this work, of the same title, was published in the Toth-Maatian Review, Lubbock, Texas, Editor Harold Willis Milnes, in three installments, 1990-93. Quantisation via use of Fourier transform common to both papers.

Einstein explained Planck’s law by hypothesizing that a radiation field consists of photons, whose energy is in proportion to the frequency of the radiation and whose quantity is in proportion to the electromagnetic intensity. In this paper, classical electrodynamics has been quantized in this fashion by starting with the Fourier transform frequency spectrum and using the non-relativistic Doppler shift formulae.
Because this paper presents a quantum theory, it has been necessary to introduce the electromagnetic duality. It has been considered that insofar as an electron is a quantum of electric charge, the positron is a quantum of magnetic charge. Then the anti-matter solution of Dirac’s and Feynman’s QED becomes a magnetic monopole. Instead of just four equations of electromagnetism, we are forced to consider eight equations, and explain the consequences of this.
We then conclude that photons consist of fermions, (electrons, positrons) travelling on pilot electromagnetic waves. Although photons are therefore electrically or magnetically charged, they do not interact with electromagnetic fields, as the Lorentz force is negated insofar as the electric and magnetic amplitudes are orthogonal to each other and to the propagation vector.
Insofar as there are two kinds of Doppler shift, relativistic and non-relativistic, we show how the relativistic formulae relate to our frequency spectrum.
Chemical and biological consequences of the theory are examined, specifically in regard to the Diels-Alder [4+ 2] cyclo-addition reaction, (Chemistry), and the cowpea phosphatase functionality, (Biology).
4-vectors are discussed, and two new 4-vectors introduced, and it is shown that an electromagnetic flux tube, as observed in solar flares and in terrestrial electromagnetic circuits, is a consequence of the existence of the space-time 4-vector.
Finally, the weak and strong nuclear forces are introduced as thermodynamic consequences of the electromagnetic duality presented in this paper, the transfer of enthalpy and entropy. In this respect, we have the unification of particle physics and thermodynamics.
A final point of note is that insofar as photons consist of electric and magnetic quanta propagating on “pilot” electromagnetic waves, the speed of propagation can be ascertained from two of the Maxwell and Maxwell-dual equations, the electric divergence equation and the magnetic divergence equation. This is because, obviously, if we know the radius of an electron or positron, and we know the spin of these fermions from quantum mechanics, then we know the propagation velocity, c = 1 / (ε0μ0)½, where 1/ε0 is the proportionality constant for the electric divergence and μ0 is the proportionality constant for the magnetic divergence. In the non-dual classical electromagnetism of Maxwell, all four of the non-dual equations are required to ascertain the speed of the electromagnetic propagation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[2] **viXra:1605.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-02 17:43:15*

**Authors:** Donald Bowen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

When analyzing an Electron’s orbit’s and movements, a “classical” bare g-factor of “1” must be used, but when analyzing just the Electron itself, A bare g-factor and gyromagnetic ratio of twice the “classical” value is needed to fit reality. Nobody has yet explained this. By examining the electromagnetic nature of the electron it is possible to show a simple reason why it’s bare g-factor must be 2, without resorting to superluminal velocities or dismissing it as mystically intrinsic.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[1] **viXra:1605.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-05-01 03:20:17*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura

**Comments:** 6 pages

We study the relation between the Kochen-Specker theorem (the KS theorem) and
quantum computing.
The KS theorem rules out a realistic theory of the KS type.
We consider the realistic theory of the KS type
that the results of
measurements are either $+1$ or $-1$.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between the realistic theory of the KS type
and the controllability of quantum computing.
We have to give up the controllability
if we accept the realistic theory of the KS type.
We discuss
an
inconsistency
between the realistic theory of the KS type
and the observability of quantum computing.
We discuss
the
inconsistency by using the double-slit experiment
as the most basic experiment in quantum mechanics.
This experiment can be an easy detector to a Pauli observable.
We cannot accept
the realistic theory of the KS type to simulate the double-slit experiment
in a significant specific case.
The realistic theory of the KS type can not depicture quantum detector.
In short, we have to give up both the observability and the controllability
if we accept the realistic theory of the KS type.
Therefore the KS theorem is a precondition for quantum computing, i.e.,
the realistic theory of the KS type should be ruled out.

**Category:** Quantum Physics