**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

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2014 - 1401(35) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(29)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(28) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(29) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(40) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(33) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(33) - 1605(31) - 1606(44) - 1607(21) - 1608(39) - 1609(47) - 1610(30) - 1611(47) - 1612(33)

2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(48) - 1705(23)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2473] **viXra:1705.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-21 16:06:50*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. microwave speed relativity reference frame

A standing wave consists of two identical waves moving in opposite
direction. A frequency detector moving toward the standing wave will
detect two different frequencies. One is blueshifted, the other is
redshifted. The distance between two adjacent nodes in the standing
wave is equal to half of the wavelength of both waves. Consequently, the wave
detector will detect different speeds from both waves due to the same
wavelength and the different frequencies. The calculation of speed is demonstrated with a typical household microwave oven which emits
microwave of frequency range around 2.45 GHz and wavelength range around 12.2 cm.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2472] **viXra:1705.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-21 00:53:45*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 10 pages in Chinese

The article presents several physical models for thinking experiment to evidence the Absolute of simultaneity and non-simultaneity of events in reference frames. The Time Transformation of Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation) actually underlies the Absolute of simultaneity and non-simultaneity of events in reference frames in constant-speed translational motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2471] **viXra:1705.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-21 03:06:51*

**Authors:** Yin Zhu

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

1.All of the conclusions are directly from or based on the arguments and discussions in the researchgate.net. Sometimes, the arguments are very intense and sharp. Till now, these conclusions seem solidly standing.
2.The problems discussed here are easily understood. Only the simple mathematics is used. From the literatures, it is clearly shown that Einstein did have no original work in the theory of relativity. It just is a faked story that Einstein independently presented all the conclusions of the theory of relativity.
3.The conclusions are radically violent. It is certainly declared that Einstein’s theory of relativity is only pseudoscience and the pseudoscience is produced from the anti-ethics: Einstein did have no original work in the theory of relativity. But, now, all of the results in the theory of relativity are ascribed to Einstein.
4.General readers may not believe the conclusions. But, as you know that the theory of relativity is filled with faked stories, you should know what it means.
5.The arguments in the researchgate.net showed that, at least, no relativist can disprove the conclusions. And, some of the rational relativists have to agree some of these conclusions. But, most of the relativists only can select silent.
6.Maybe, relativists will close their eyes on the conclusions to continue the declaration that the theory of relativity is a great theory as they did in the past. But, now, it is the internet time. The conclusions cannot be concealed and shielded as did before internet time. Now, they can be generally and quickly spread and transformed. Relativists shall lose their public credibility quickly if they could not have a valid response.
7.We clearly know, it is risk to criticize Einstein. But, the scientists, including relativists, want to know scientific truth. And, we believe, we have the clear and simple arguments. Therefore, we hope, some of the mainstream physicists should accept the conclusions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2470] **viXra:1705.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-19 07:40:16*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 122 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2469] **viXra:1705.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-19 07:49:07*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 122 Pages.

A Teoria da Relatividade Especial conduz a dois resultados, considerados incompreensíveis por vários renomados físicos, que são a dilatação do tempo e a denominada contração espacial de Lorentz. A solução desses paradoxos me conduziu ao desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória onde a variação temporal é devida à diferença nos percursos de propagação da luz e o espaço é constante entre os observadores.
Da análise do desenvolvimento da Relatividade Ondulatória podemos sintetizar as seguintes conclusões:
-é uma teoria com princípios totalmente físicos,
-as transformações são lineares,
-matem intactos os princípios Euclidianos,
-considera a transformação de Galileu distinta em cada referencial,
-une a velocidade da luz e o tempo em um único fenômeno,
-desenvolve uma translação real entre os referenciais

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2468] **viXra:1705.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-19 08:30:11*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 6 Pages. I insert this comment to avoid further confusion on gravitational theory and equivalence principle by Mr. T. Yarman, Mr. A. Kholmetskii and collaborators

Despite it is well known at the elementary level of university courses that completely non-metric gravitational theories macroscopically violate
Einstein's equivalence principle, in a series of recent papers published also in Canadian Journal of Physics, T. Yarman and collaborators claimed
that the so-called YARK theory of gravitation (the name has been self-created by T. Yarman and collaborators from the initials of their proper
surnames), which is completely non-metric, should replace Einstein's general theory of relativity as the correct theory of gravitation. Here we
ultimately show the crackpot behavior of the YARK theory of gravitation by using Einstein's equivalence principle which has today a strong,
unchallengeable empiric evidence. Hence, we formally request the Editors of Canadian Journal of Physics to ultimately withdraw the papers
of T. Yarman and collaborators for the sake of scientific correctness. In addition, we formally request the Editors of Canadian Journal of Physics
to ultimately stop the publication of other papers on the unscientific and non-viable YARK theory of gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2467] **viXra:1705.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-18 17:36:05*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The paper proposes a scenario of origin and emerging of intelligent life in Universe based upon the mathematical discovery of a new class of dynamical systems described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian and quantum-like properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. At the same time, these systems expose properties of livings: decomposition into motor and mental dynamics, the capability of self-identification and self-awareness, as well as self-supervision. But the most surprising discovery is the existence of a special sub-class, in which the dynamical systems can violate the second law of thermodynamics, and that makes them different from both Newtonian and quantum physics. This sub-class should be associated with intelligent livings due to capability to move from disorder to order without external help. Based upon the mathematical discovery described above, on can assume that there are good chances that similar dynamical systems representing intelligent livings exist in real physical world. This provides a reason for a “rehabilitation “of the Maxwell demon and put it into physics of intelligent systems. Indeed, the Maxwell demon is implemented by the feedback from the Liouville equation to the original ODE while this feedback is capable to rearrange the probability distribution against the second law of thermodynamics. In addition to that, the same feedback removes the entropy paradox by explaining high order in our surrounding by “intelligent life support”. Two-steps transition: from the Newtonian physics to the linear model of Life, and from the latter to the model of Intelligent life are analyzed. The first transition is triggered by the Hadamard instability of the Newtonian physics with respect to small random disturbances in linear terms of the Liouville feedback. The second transition is triggered by instability of linear model of Life with respect to small random disturbances of non-linear terms of Liouville feedback. This transition could be implemented by such physical phenomena as shock waves or negative diffusion in probability space. Both transitions can be associated with catastrophe theory, in which sudden shifts in behavior arises from small changes in parameters of the model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2466] **viXra:1705.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 17:48:18*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 13 pages in Chinese

The Galilean Transformation is, strictly speaking, applicable only in assumed case of unlimited light velocity. The Galilean Transformation describes the composition of observers’ observation vectors. The author of the article, utilizing this inherent property of Galilean Transformation, presents the simplest deduction for space-time transformation objectively existing in motion observation under the circumstances of limited light velocity, and revealed the ‘Law of Equi-Status for Reference Systems’ as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2465] **viXra:1705.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 11:18:45*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The early universe's deficit of of dark matter is simply explained using up-to-date theory: dark matter entered new recycled active galaxies at their supermassive black holes at an overall steady rate that has continued unchanged to the present day

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2464] **viXra:1705.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 08:24:39*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 8 pages

Although mass is a very common and fundamental concept, but the problem of mass is still one of the key problems of modern Physics, up to the present, the experts are not able to reach a consensus. In this paper, we have discussed the problems relating to mass, energy and matter, and been aware that mass is neither the amount of matter an object has, nor the measure of inertia and the source of gravitational field, whereas energy is. As before, that mass is used to measure the inertia and to calculate gravitational force is just an approximate method, only for very slowly moving objects and particles for which the rest energy is much larger than the kinetic energy. Actually, the concept of mass is a superfluous artificial concept, just rest energy divided by a constant (If selecting c=1, the mass is exactly equal to the rest energy), does not has any other meaning. If the concept of mass is completely superseded by energy(or more precisely, rest energy), the physical equations are completely perfect, their meanings are clearer, and the puzzles such as the relationship of mass and energy, nature of matter, the essence of the weak equivalence principle, the physical meaning of Higgs mechanism, etc., can be made clearer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2463] **viXra:1705.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 08:53:13*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 20 pages, PHYSICS ESSAYS 27, 1 (2014)

The success of Special Relativity (SR) comes from the requirement of Lorentz co-variance to all physical equations. The explanation with regard to the Lorentz co-variance is based on two hypotheses, namely the principle of special relativity and the constancy of the speed of light. However, the statements of the principle of special relativity are various and confusing. The co-variance of physical equations and the equality of inertial frames of reference are mixed up. The equality of inertial frames of reference is obvious, but the co-variance of the physical equations is a more advanced requirement. Additionally, the way that the propagation property of light is placed in a central position of SR has caused people misunderstandings towards space-time, and also there is a logical circularity between the measurement of speed of light and the synchronization of clocks. These have obstructed to correctly extend the theory of space-time from an inertial frame of reference to a non-inertial frame of reference. These are the main reasons why many people criticize SR. In present paper, the two hypotheses have been discussed in detail and a new requirement to the equations of Physics has been proposed. The requirement is the Requirement of Special Completeness, namely, the physical equations used to describe the dynamics of matter and/or fields should include the descriptions that not only the matter and/or fields are at rest relative to an inertial frame of reference, but also they move relative to this frame. Basing on this requirement and the equality of the inertial frames of reference, we can approach to SR. Thereby let the theory of Lorentz co-variance has a clear and solid foundation. The constancy of the speed of light is just a deduction, not a premise. The Lorentz co-variance is just a characteristic of the Special Complete equations. Maxwell equations automatically satisfy the Lorentz trans-formations without any modification, while Newton law of gravity does not, because Newton law of gravity is not Special Complete and Maxwell equations are. The new approach has paved a road leading towards the generalizing of the theory of space-time from the inertial frame of reference to non-inertial frame of reference without considering gravitation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2462] **viXra:1705.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 09:18:05*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 6 pages

We have discussed the characteristics of the space-time of non-inertial frame of reference (NFR)and proposed the Requirement of General Completeness (RGC) and the Principle of Equality of All Frames of Reference (PEAFR) in present paper. The RGC is that the physical equations used to describe the dynamics of matter should include the descriptions that the matter rest and move (uniformly rectilinearly and acceleratedly) relative to a frame of reference, and consider the structure of the space-time of frame of
reference. The PEAFR is that any frame of reference can be used to describe the motion of matter and the equations of General Completeness in all frames of reference are identical. According to the RGC and the PEAFR, we can deduce that the general complete physical equations are covariant. The descriptions of the space-time of NFR can be dealt without gravitation. The space-time of NFR is inhomogeneous and/or anisotropic caused by the accelerating motion. The inertial force is the manifestation of the deformed
space-time. The Riemann curvature tensor of the space-time of NFR equals zero, but the affine connection does not vanish no matter what coordinate system be selected in the NFR. Mach’s principle is incorrect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2461] **viXra:1705.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-15 10:03:23*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 12 Pages. International Journal of Astronomy and Astrophysics, 2013, 3, 8-19

Let the coordinate system of flat space-time to absorb a second rank tensor field of the flat space-time deforming into a Riemannian space-time, namely, the tensor field is regarded as a metric tensor with respect to the coordinate system . After done this, is not the coordinate system of flat space-time anymore, but is the coordinate system of the new Riemannian space-time. The inverse operation also can be done. According to these notions, the concepts of the absorption operation and the desorption operation are proposed. These notions are actually compatible with Einstein's equivalence principle. By using these concepts, the relationships of the Riemannian space-time, the de Donder conditions and the gravitational field in flat space-time are analyzed and elaborated. The essential significance of the de Donder conditions (the harmonic conditions or gauge) is to desorb the tensor field of gravitation from the Riemannian space-time to the Minkowski space-time with the Cartesian coordinates. Einstein equations with de Donder conditions can be solved in flat space-time. Base on Fock's works, the equations of gravitational field in flat space-time are obtained, and the tensor expression of the energy-momentum of gravitational field is found. They all satisfy the global Lorentz covariance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2460] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-14 09:02:20*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram - comments welcome.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2459] **viXra:1705.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-11 15:35:38*

**Authors:** Ivan L. Zhogin

**Comments:** 2 pages (English and Russian)

The special and general relativity theories suggest different descriptions of our spacetime. It is impossible that both are absolutely true, nevertheless both theories are engaged in physics - in its different parts. Such a fragmentarily worldview was inappropriate to Einstein, and he proposed another theory which in a sense (at least in the symmetry group of its equations) was a sort of synthesis of SR and GR; a few features of this theory are touched here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2458] **viXra:1705.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-11 16:44:25*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

New simple and exact analytical solutions of Einstein equations of general relativity (GR) and of Qmoger (quantum modification of GR) equations are obtained. These solutions corresponds to processes with invariant density of enthalpy (energy plus pressure). Interpretation of this solutions in terms of cosmic radiation and production of massive particles, as well as comparison with cosmic data (without fitting), are presented. It is suggested, that isenthalpic processes can be relevant also to excessive radiation from Jupiter and Saturn. Similar processes potentially can be used as a new source of energy on Earth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2457] **viXra:1705.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-10 05:55:08*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 10 pages in Chinese

The Galilean Transformation exhibits a composition of observers’ observation vectors.The author of this article presents the simplest deduction for space-time transformation objectively existing in motion observation under the circumstances of limited light velocity, utilizing the inherent exiting property of Galilean Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2456] **viXra:1705.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-10 01:02:13*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

According to the Theory of Relativity the Universe is an amalgam of time and space containing matter; a four-dimensional spacetime continuum alleged as an analytic generalisation of the Theorem of Pythagoras from three dimensions. Spacetime is said to be curved by matter and undergoes rippling due to gravitational waves travelling at the speed
of light. Points in spacetime are called 'events'. The distance between two events is called the spacetime interval, which is manifest as a distance formula, often called a metric or line-element, in terms of 'coordinates'. However, Minkowski-Einstein spacetime is not actually a
four-dimensional continuum because it is self-referential via the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2455] **viXra:1705.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-09 10:12:15*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Comments welcome.

We model the physicalized manifestation of the Universe as bootstrapped ‘Brain of the Universe’ and seek evidence for brain-like functional organization of the observable universe, resulting from the Holon of the Universe facilitated by space-like correlated gravitational holomovement and rotation. The orthodox model of gravity, based on “tangent vectors” and “curvature of spacetime”, is replaced with the proposal that the physicalized clocks and rulers are very flexible ‘jackets’ (cf. John’s jackets parable in CEN.pdf), which can slow down or speed up viz. shrink or expand, leading to perfectly correlated Brain of the Universe living in so-called ‘relative scale’ (RS) spacetime. The question of Universal Mind, complementing the Brain of the Universe, pertains to physical theology and the doctrine of trialism, and was examined in previous publications (e.g., Sec. 6 in spacetime.pdf).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2454] **viXra:1705.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-08 15:20:31*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is felt by many that faster-than-light particles (tachyons) exist though none has been detected so far. Is it really possible to detect these particles? Some methods are brought up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2453] **viXra:1705.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-08 12:53:41*

**Authors:** Andreus A. I.

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In Russian

False cience spawned the Big Bang Theory.
An exquisite pseudoscience, since all points over i have not yet been put, and scientists (scientists) do not dethrone such benchmarks in a person's world view.
Pseudoscientific Theory of the Big Bang. Propaganda of the Big Bang Theory illustrates the loss of honor by scientists around the globe for more than a century for the blessings and content of their lives from society on planet Earth ...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2452] **viXra:1705.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-07 12:05:19*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. 1 screenshot, 1 illustrative graph

It is proposed that we can travel through time by using good theory, but not the time travel that is represented in Hollywood. To do this we must use our common sense and good theory. Since the universe recycles itself constantly and is eternal, we can find objects that exist and time periods that are very similar to our own past and are good analogs to our future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2451] **viXra:1705.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-02 05:06:17*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Lorentz transformation allows two ways to compare time measures from two moving clocks. We show that the more realistic way leads to discover that absolute rest plays a hidden role and prescribes a restriction on the relativity principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2450] **viXra:1704.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-30 14:28:10*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The latest experimental value of 67.80 (Km/s)/Mpc for Hubble's constant supports 8-fold supersymmetry and cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2449] **viXra:1704.0403 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-30 15:22:59*

**Authors:** Michael J. Burns

**Comments:** 2 Pages. mburns92003@yahoo.com

The experimental data is beyond dispute. But it relates to the change in composition over time of the class of supernovae that are observed. Instead, the interpretation of the data in terms of the simplest kind of acceleration contains an error in sign. Actually, a recent acceleration of the earth away from the most distant supernovae would leave all of of the supernovae at intermediate distances with a higher - not lower - relative red shift for their distances, because these supernovae would have not yet accelerated. My paper, “Neglect of General Covariance” describes the many ways in which the cosmological equation and the Friedmann coordinates violate the principles of relativity. And these violations provide cover for the concept of dark energy and its breaking of the conservation laws. There is a version of dark energy which is conserved, but this does lead to the error in sign. Annotations to this argument follow below. Then the ugliness of the alternative to the error in sign is physically described, and the conservation laws are defended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2448] **viXra:1704.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-28 18:11:58*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, Time is formulated as a measure of the average volume of a time quantum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2447] **viXra:1704.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-27 05:08:15*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The interaction of the non-gravitating Higgs field with an inertial mass, due to the fifth force, resulting from the dynamic viscosity of the inertial mass and Higgs field, causes the inertial mass to be surrounded by non-gravitating/inertial gravitational field which is the gradient in the Higgs field. Such gravitational clothing does not result in the appearance of a new mass type commonly referred to as gravitational mass. Since there is only one kind of mass, that is inertial mass, so the challenge is not to answer the question of why the inertial and gravitational masses are the same. The challenge is to answer why the gravitational constant G does not depend on the internal structure of bodies - this is the fundamental problem of the Equivalence Principle. Here we justify that the invariance of the gravitational constant is due to the fact that the second component of spacetime, i.e. the Einstein spacetime, and all bodies consist of inertial masses-charges having invariant inertial mass. Interactions such as gravity, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and nuclear strong interactions can not change the mass of the inertial masses-charges - they can only change their number in the system under consideration. The same concerns the quantum entanglement which is a result of simultaneous exchanges of the same parts of the inertial masses-charges. In formula ma = GMm/(rr), M and m are the inertial masses, not some gravitational masses, whereas G depends on properties of Higgs field and dynamic viscosity of it and indirectly of the invariant masses-charges. The inertial masses-charges produce only the invariant negative gradients in the Higgs field so gravitational force is always attractive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2446] **viXra:1704.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-26 07:29:54*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Einstein in his works from 1905 till 1907 discarded the ether from physics but his more than 5 papers from 1920 to 1934 deal with the ether as an unexceptionable physical reality. In these papers Einstein becomes more an enthusiastic advocate of the testification of the ether than supporters of the ether before the year 1905. It is regrettable that except of Einstein’s widely cited less important paper presented at a conference in Leiden in 1920 other more important papers on ether in which Einstein comes with the definitive claim that without the ether it is not possible to explain the physical world around us are not known to wider physical community and even not known to dissident physicists community as well. In this paper we show that Einstein by his own declarations after 1920 about testified existence of the ether himself openly repudiated his Special and General theories of relativity. In amendment we bring the text of Einstein’s 1924 paper “On the ether”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2445] **viXra:1704.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-26 09:09:00*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2444] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-25 21:05:36*

**Authors:** Arthur Eugene Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Accelerated Expansion, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) postulates that time is actually observed and measured with an inherent perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture.
Time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event. Subsequently, decreased time intervals appear as increased velocity. TPD rewrites accelerating expansion,
alternatively, as constant expansion viewed in time perspective.
Both linear and rotational velocities, as well as universal expansion are skewed (oblique) to an observer on Earth. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals.
Please note: TPD does not contradict or violate time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length: (t). Subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using (t), instead of t
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TPD.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2443] **viXra:1704.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-25 09:25:42*

**Authors:** Eva Déli

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Recent cosmological data shows the Milky Way galaxy being pushed ahead of a void. Independently, laboratory research created matter with negative mass. A possible relationship between these seemingly unrelated results indicates the need to reexamine our understanding of gravity. According to Page and Wootter mechanism, time is globally static, but emergent for ‘internal’ observers. That is, interaction increases the energy-information differences among the constituents of the cosmos. Such temporal evolution engenders polar singularities, known as black and white holes, in accordance with general relativity. The second law of thermodynamics leads to Landauer’s principle, which shows that the emitted heat is proportional to the erased information of the system. Thus, information accumulates heat in black hole horizons, which have been found to be two dimensional; whereas information-free areas are energy rich and cold. The principle of static time dictates an information and dimensionality symmetry between antipodal areas of the universe. Two dimensional, positive curvature black holes must be balanced by negative curvature, four dimensional white holes, which expand space and lead to the experience of ‘dark energy.’ Positive curvature forms great field strength, which stabilizes the universe with a pressure experienced as excess gravity, called dark matter. Enhanced field strength leads to clumping, forming planets, stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters, which slows expansion. The dimensional anisotropy (two in the black holes and four in the white holes) straddle unstable three dimensional galactic environments between them. An object’s position in space corresponds to a freely hanging plumb. Deviations in angle of that plumb (position of the object) – thereby changes the equilibrium of the whole universe and leads to inertia, a force that is proportional to both the mass of the object and the field strength (i.e. radial topological distance from the center). Therefore inertia is greatest in the vicinity of the black holes. On the positively curved polar surfaces of space (such as a planet) a path that curves toward the pole forms the shortest distance. On positive curving temporal surfaces the shortest time is acceleration, which leads to the twin paradox. The hypothesis is congruent with the latest CMB data, satisfies Mach’s principle as well as Occam’s razor by uncovering a surprisingly simple, stable and unified alignment of the universe. This new physical world view is presented without equations, reflecting the futility of a universal calculation method.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2442] **viXra:1704.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-24 06:54:45*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 62 pages in Chinese

The only objectively existing in nature transformation of space and time for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity is first revealed in the article.The discovered transformation ,referred to as Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation), is logically derived, using in derivation the concepts of both the principle of relativity and the postulate of constant light velocity. The Z-Transformation takes the typical form of Galilean Transformation. Moreover, a theoretical interpretation for Hubble’s Law is given firstly by the author as well, utilizing the Z-Transformation revealed .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2441] **viXra:1704.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-23 09:42:42*

**Authors:** John R. Berryhill

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Discussion at unmysticalphysics.com

An explicit closed-form solution applicable to the lambda - CDM model has been known, or perhaps forgotten, for decades. It incorporates zero spatial curvature and a nonzero cosmological constant, as recent observations support. The model incorporating these essential points is presented here in updated form. An explicit, closed-form, solution is displayed, together with useful formulas and graphs. The presentation is accessible with first-year physics and calculus.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2440] **viXra:1704.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-23 10:44:47*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

Powszechnie uważa się, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a z 1887 roku oraz eksperyment Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a z 1932 roku wykazały, że nie istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter) oraz, że prędkość światła w próżni jest absolutnie stała. Analiza tych eksperymentów doprowadziła do powstania Szczególnej Teorii Względności (STW).
W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia.
W tym artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter). Eter jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku. W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem eteru, prędkość światła może być inna.
W oparciu o nową transformację została stworzona Szczególna Teoria Eteru (STE).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2439] **viXra:1704.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-19 10:09:41*

**Authors:** G.N.N.Martin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I argue that maximal extension makes improbable assumptions about future conditions. I start by looking at the Schwarzschild metric, and showing that it does not quite represent the exterior of a collapsed star, although it is easy to argue that the mismatch is immaterial. I then look at the collapse of a cloud of dust using the Robinson Walker metric, which might seem to justify using the Schwarzschild metric to describe the exterior of a black hole. I then show how the Schwarzschild metric is modified when the interior is a collapsed dust cloud, and finally show how the maximal extension of a Schwarzschild black hole makes unrealistic assumptions about the future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2438] **viXra:1704.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-19 10:41:43*

**Authors:** Arthur Eugene Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple
galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within
the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge
to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic
scale.
TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion
from (constant expansion with TC).
TC provides alternative explanations for: Accelerated expansion, Rotational and
recessive velocities approaching c, as well as superluminal velocities. Also, a potential
explanation for galaxy rotational curves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2437] **viXra:1704.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-18 15:55:52*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 1 Page.

What dominates the other, Special Relativity or light ? Einstein believed to have submitted bodies
and light to the same laws. In what follows, we show that there are light-clocks which do not matches
with his Special Relativity exigences. The equivalence between bodies and light turns out utopian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2436] **viXra:1704.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-17 07:18:16*

**Authors:** Enrique Cantera del Río

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A SYMMETRY OF LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION IS PROPOSED FOR THE VISUALIZATION OF THE MOST BASIC PHYSICAL LANDSCAPE DERIVED FROM SPECIAL RELATIVITY. ALTHOUGH BASIC ARGUMENTS ,THE SYMMETRY SHOWS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY AND THE EXISTENCE OF TWO POSSIBLE STATES FOR THIS PHYSICAL RELATION. THE SPIN AND THE ABRAHAM-MINKOWSKI CONTROVERSY ARE ANALYZED REGARDING THIS IDEAS AND A NEW HYPOTHESIS ON WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY IS PRESENTED.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2435] **viXra:1704.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-17 08:26:16*

**Authors:** Bandaru Ramu

**Comments:** PAGES:8

ABSTRACT:1. `REDSHIFT, DARK ENERGY, COSMIC RADIATION BACK GROUND, GRAVITATIONAL WAVES … NOT SUPPORT EXPANDING UNIVERSE.”
2. According to RELATIVE PRINCIPLE: MOVING is always RELATIVE. THUS REDSHIFT ALSO RELATIVE. This relative motion or relative red shift cannot say particularly only one both of two: Expanding or contracting universe.
3. To support Accelerating expansion, Dark energy introduced. But equal or unequal rate spread of Dark energy prevailed? If the quantity of Dark energy is not changed in this Universe at early time, whether the influence of Dark energy increased or decreased in course of time because this universe is expanding in this way by consuming the dark energy.
Instead of Total Dark energy at early times, GRADUALLY INCREASING DARK ENERGY SHOULD BE REQUIRED FOR ACCELERATING UNIVERSE. BUT MORE ENERGY IS NOT CREATED GRADUALLY IN THIS UNIVERSE with out any more consumption of source. THUS DARK ENERGY CAN NOT SUPPORT ACCELERATING UNIVERSE. WITH OUT DARK ENERGY, ACCELERATING - EXPANDING UNIVERSE NOT WORKS. IF THERE IS NO EXPENDING UNIVERSE, THEN THERE WILL BE NO COTRACTING UNIVERSE. BECAUSE CONTRACTING IS THE POST EVOLUTION OF EXPANDING. SO THERE IS NO CHANCE FOR THE EXISTANCE OF EXPANDING AND CONTRACTING UNIVERSE.
4. Now received the information concerning cosmic microwave radiation is belonging to present time or various times?
This cosmic radiation observed at anywhere in this universe. The information from various distant places stand for also various times. At various times the expansion of this universe is also various. The cosmic radiation should be variously cast from different space times. But actually different space times show same cosmic microwaves radiation. This means in different times, no different density of cosmic radiation. So this same radiation reveals not expanding universe.
5. Space time curvature influence the pass of information? WHEN SUN DISAPPEAR, what happened really in relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2434] **viXra:1704.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-17 04:57:47*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Because the Einstein equation can't uniquely determine the metric, it must be supplemented by additional metric constraints. Since the Einstein equation can be derived in a purely special-relativistic context, those constraints (which can't be generally covariant) should be Lorentz-covariant; moreover, for the effect of the constraints to be natural from the perspective of observational and empirical physical scientists, they should also constrain the general coordinate transformations (which are compatible with the unconstrained Einstein equation) so that the constrained transformations manifest a salient feature of the Lorentz transformations. The little-known
Einstein-Schwarzschild coordinate condition, which requires the metric's determinant to have its -1 Minkowski value, thereby constrains coordinate transformations to have unit Jacobian, and for that reason causes tensor densities to transform as true tensors, which is a salient feature of the Lorentz transformations. The Einstein-Schwarzschild coordinate condition also allows the static Schwarzschild solution's singular radius to be exactly zero; though another coordinate condition that allows zero Schwarzschild radius
exists, it isn't Lorentz-covariant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2433] **viXra:1704.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-16 23:53:15*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 52 pages, 16 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 64 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2432] **viXra:1704.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-15 12:43:01*

**Authors:** Mihai Grumazescu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

As a departure from Einstein's GR, gravity is described as the cumulative effect of all protons and neutrons in the universe acting as self-propelled particles called nucleon kinetic dipoles. They signal to each other their relative positions through the propagation of gravitational information at a superluminal speed.
Mach's principle is interpreted as the reciprocal influence of all masses in the universe because of the propagation of directional information of kinetic dipoles at astronomical distances. Every time we measure big G we find a different value because the gravitational information received by a test mass is changing continuously.
Speed of gravity also shapes the universe, as a consequence of Mach's principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2431] **viXra:1704.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-15 01:13:43*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. reflection symmetry time relativity

Two identical stopwatches moving at the same speed will elapse the same time after moving the same distance. Start one stopwatch later than the other stopwatch. The time difference between these two stopwatches will remain constant after both stopwatches have elapsed the same time. Such time difference will remain constant while both stopwatches are under identical acceleration.
Therefore, the elapsed time in an accelerating reference frame is identical to the elapsed time in a stationary reference frame. Consequently, a physical system that exhibits Reflection Symmetry in its motion demonstrates that the time of a moving clock is independent of the relative motion between the clock and its observer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2430] **viXra:1704.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-14 02:20:41*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper has been submitted to CTPNP 2017

It has been known for long time that the cosmic sound wave was there since the early epoch of the Universe. Signatures of its existence are abound. However, such a sound wave model of cosmology is rarely developed fully into a complete framework. This paper can be considered as our second attempt towards such a complete description of the Universe based on soliton wave solution of cosmological KdV equation. Then we advance further this KdV equation by virtue of Cellular Automaton method to solve the PDEs. We submit wholeheartedly Robert Kurucz’s hypothesis that Big Bang should be replaced with a finite cellular automaton universe with no expansion. Nonetheless, we are fully aware that our model is far from being complete, but it appears the proposed cellular automaton model of the Universe is very close in spirit to what Konrad Zuse envisaged long time ago. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2429] **viXra:1704.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 15:44:48*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we take a closer look at the initial mass relative to the relativistic mass of the payload for an ideal photon rocket travelling at its maximum velocity. Haug has recently suggested that for all known subatomic particles, a minimum of two Planck masses of fuel are needed to accelerate the fundamental particle to its suggested maximum velocity (see [1]).
Here we will show how this view is consistent with insight given by Tipler at a NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop Proceedings in 1999 (see [2]). Tipler suggested that the mass ratio of the initial rest mass of an ultra-relativistic rocket relative to the relativistic mass of the payload is likely “just” two. An ultrarelativistic rocket is one travelling at a velocity very close to the speed of light. We will here show that the Tipler factor is consistent with results derived from Haug’s suggested maximum velocity for any known observed subatomic particle.
However, we will show that the Tipler factor of two is unlikely to hold for ultra-heavy subatomic particle payloads. With ultra-heavy particles, we think of subatomic particles with mass close to that of the Planck mass. Our analysis indicates that the initial mass relative to the relativistic mass of the payload for any type of subatomic particle rocket must be between one and two. Remarkably, the mass ratio is only one for a Planck mass particle. This at first sounds absurd until we understand that the Planck mass particle is probably the very collision point between two photons. Even if a photon’s speed “always is” considered to be the speed of light, we can think of it as standing still at the instant it collides with another photon (backscattering). The mass ratio to accelerate a particle that only exists at velocity zero is naturally one. This is true since no fuel is needed to go from zero to zero velocity. Remarkably this indicates that the Planck mass particle and the Planck length likely are invariant. This can only happen if the Planck mass particle only lasts for an instant before it bursts into energy, which is what we could expect for the collision between two photons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2428] **viXra:1704.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 11:28:30*

**Authors:** Ahmida Bendjoudi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Submitted to IJMPD

It is commonly believed that the self-rotation angular momentum of planets is due to
an original angular momentum of dense interstellar clouds at the formation stage of
the stars. However, the study shows something completely dierent: a test planet in
free-fall, in fact, follows two geodesics; the rst is the usual Schwarzschild path, and
the second is a Schwarzschild-like path, dened (spatially) locally: an elliptical orbit
in the plane (U(1)-variable, azimuthal angle). The analysis leads to the fact that: the
motion along these geodesics (physically) is exactly the self-rotation of a charged test
planet in Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime. The results reveal a more general understanding
of Einstein equivalence principle: locally, gravitational eld can be (in the Reissner-
Nordstrom space) replaced with an accelerated and rotated local frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2427] **viXra:1704.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-11 23:59:12*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 30 pages, 16 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 62 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2426] **viXra:1704.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 01:35:41*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

According to Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), the position of a light source changes apparently relative to a co-moving observer, if the light source (and observer) is in absolute motion. Apparent Source Theory successfully explains almost all light speed experiments. However, there are some (apparent ) paradoxes in AST. In this paper, these paradoxes are described and solutions will be proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2425] **viXra:1704.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 02:07:14*

**Authors:** Henry-Couannier Frederic

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article continues the exploration of the Dark Gravity Theory which foundationsand some consequences we have detailed in two previous article

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2424] **viXra:1704.0133 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-11 05:45:14*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles
into the oscillating Axion /Axion Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively into chunky nuclei of primary dark matter black holes.
Now recent HST observations show us a possible retarded splitting process at 10.8 billion light years and even a dual energy source which seem to point to an early Herbig Haro system at even 13.8 billion light years.
The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time.
The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles.
Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster.
If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Axion Higgs field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2423] **viXra:1704.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-10 23:59:27*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 30 pages, 15 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 62 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2422] **viXra:1704.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-09 18:38:05*

**Authors:** Arthur Eugene Pletcher

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Cosmology, as well as quantum Mechanics

I explain the primary mysteries of cosmology and quantum mechanics, by proposing that time intervals appear to vary between scales of great magnitude.
In macroscopic scales time appears to converge
(contract per distance), and in nanoscopic scales time appears to diverge (expand).
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale.
TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of time, from past to present, in his single moment, like a time-lapse. For example, an electron orbital, viewed in a single moment represents a time interval from −∆t (past)
to +∆t future. Unlike superposition, modulus states do progress in time between ground and excited.
TD explains the orbital gaps as simply the portions of rotation that are outside of this time range.
TD predicts that wave collapse occurs when the introduction of an intermediate apparatus (such as a detector), brings the observation (from source to effect) to essentially the same scale.
TD offers an alternate explanation to the ”undetermined probability wavefunction Ψ”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2421] **viXra:1704.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-09 12:36:56*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a mass to inductance transformation L0=2/(a*m0^2). L is the inductance (Henry) of a rest mass m0. And a is a constant. The main propose of this paper was to find an analog electrical circuit in order to simplify the solution of Relativistic Problems. Fortunately, the analog circuit that I had found, change our knowledge about waves and particles, help to explain why Special Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are both correct and why Space-Time is equivalent to another well known theory.
In this paper
1) I almost eliminate mass from Newtonian Mechanics and Relativistic Problems including interactions between photons and elementary particles.
The proof of the suggested transformation relies entirely on Einstein's Special theory of relativity.
The most important conclusion from this paper is that Special Relativity is a wave and not a mechanical theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2420] **viXra:1704.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-09 04:02:43*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Gravity is redefined as accelerating inertial space. An Inertial reference frame is that reference frame upon which there are no forces acting. Inertial space does not have an actual relative velocity. Michelson and Morley failed to detect such relative velocity of the light-carrying medium.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2419] **viXra:1704.0106 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 17:53:01*

**Authors:** Y, K, K

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We begin with a diagram, which explores the various implementations and manifestations of Hodge theory in the study of reinforcement learning. We review the Pavolovian exercise of using the reinforced reward learning schema to induce entropy in an arbitrary economic system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2418] **viXra:1704.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 18:38:47*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 19 Pages. In English. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction

In the article, the whole class of time and position transformations was derived. These transformations were derived based on the analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment and its improved version, that is the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment. It is possible to derive a different kinematics of bodies based on each of these transformations. In this way, we demonstrated that the Special Theory of Relativity is not the only theory explaining the results of experiments with light. There is the whole continuum of the theories of kinematics of bodies which correctly explain the Michelson-Morley experiment and other experiments in which the velocity of light is measured.
Based on the derived transformations, we derive the general formula for the velocity of light in vacuum measured in any inertial reference system. We explain why the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether. We present and discuss three examples of specific transformations. Finally, we explain the phenomenon of anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation by means of the presented theory.
The theory derived in this work is called the Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2417] **viXra:1704.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 18:41:54*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 19 Pages. In Polish. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction

W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje te zostały wyprowadzone na podstawie analizy eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz jego udoskonalonej wersji czyli eksperymentu Kennedyego-Thorndikea. Na podstawie każdej z tych transformacji można wyprowadzić inną kinematykę ciał. W ten sposób wykazaliśmy, że Szczególna Teoria Względności nie jest jedyną teorią wyjaśniającą wyniki eksperymentów ze światłem. Istnieje całe kontinuum teorii kinematyki ciał, które prawidłowo wyjaśniają eksperyment Michelsona-Morleya oraz inne eksperymenty, w których mierzona jest prędkość światła.
Na podstawie wyprowadzonych transformacji wyprowadzamy ogólny wzór na prędkość światła w próżni mierzoną w dowolnym inercjalnym układzie odniesienia. Wyjaśniamy dlaczego eksperymenty Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea nie mogły wykryć eteru. Przedstawiamy i dyskutujemy trzy przykłady konkretnych transformacji. Na koniec wyjaśniamy zjawisko anizotropii mikrofalowego promieniowania tła przy pomocy przedstawionej teorii.
Wyprowadzoną w tej pracy teorię nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru - z dowolnym skróceniem poprzecznym.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2416] **viXra:1704.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 05:29:16*

**Authors:** Yang-Ho Choi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Sagnac effect has been shown in inertial frames as well as rotating frames. We solve the problem of the generalized Sagnac effect in the standard synchronization of clocks. The speed of a light beam that traverses an optical fiber loop is measured with respect to the proper time of the light detector, and is shown to be other than the constant c, though it appears to be c if measured by the time standard-synchronized. The fiber loop, which can have an arbitrary shape, is described by an infinite number of straight lines such that it can be handled by the general framework of Mansouri and Sexl (MS). For a complete analysis of the Sagnac effect, the motion of the laboratory should be taken into account. The MS framework is introduced to deal with its motion relative to a preferred reference frame. Though the one-way speed of light is other than c, its two-way speed is shown to be c with respect to the proper time. The theoretical analysis of the generalized Sagnac effect corresponds to the experimental results, and shows the usefulness of the standard synchronization. The introduction of the standard synchrony can make mathematical manipulation easy and can allow us to deal with relative motions between inertial frames without information on their velocities relative to the preferred frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2415] **viXra:1704.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-07 06:31:03*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract
Speed of light in the past was slower than present
The speed of light in vacuum is constant at all time and is equal to C=3x108ms-1 , but the yard stick that is measured in is shorter in the past than present due to the density or the temperature of the space or the CMB. In the past the space was hotter and the CMB photons were of shorter wavelength compare to the present epoch that space has stretched or expanded making the yard stick longer.
The consequences of the above interpretation of the vacuum of space will give rise to the illusion that the speed of light has been slower in the past and hence suggests that the speed of light depends on the quality of the vacuum that is travelling through or according to James Clark Maxwell [1] relative to the luminiferous aether background.
Furthermore the propagation of light in vacuum would be transfer of energy by completely elastic collisions through the medium of the CMB photons and hence the ghostly photons of the CMB are the medium in which the electromagnetic radiation propagate with the collision rate that is the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation which in turn the speed of light through the vacuum depends on the size of the wavelength of the CMB.
The above approach will replace the Dark Energy with the CMB photons that are the missing mass in the Universe as well as the force of the expansion in the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2414] **viXra:1704.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-06 08:37:52*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, PhD, Pe

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

I tackle the topic of quantization of intrinsic QSO redshifts, especially based on the lifetime work of Halton Arp, examining first the potential relationship between intrinsic QSO redshift and QSO mass, then the phenomenon of quantization for both QSO mass and redshift. My approach is primarily a mathematical one, as developing a theory for intrinsic QSO redshift, let alone its quantization, is beyond my expertise. I postulate a geometric explanation of intrinsic redshift given a possible dependence on mass to the 2/3 power, related to possible attenuation of light energy (and therefore frequency) within the “emitting nucleus” of a QSO, compounded by a further “dilution,” and therefore energy (and frequency) decrease due to spread over the surface area. To do the quantization aspect justice, I summarize three theories by other experts and examine the plausibility of the two within my realm of knowledge. Finally, I offer at least a mathematical representation of the quantization aspect as “food for thought.”

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2413] **viXra:1704.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-05 12:22:18*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An alternate explanation to Michelson and Morley’s null result is presented. The dilemma is resolved by the approach that the medium is not separate from matter, rather, it is comprised of a field of quantum particles

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2412] **viXra:1704.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-04 14:30:01*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper uncovers the reason why gravity obeys an inverse square law and not, for example, an inverse cubic law, or any other law with any other power. A relativistic approach is sufficient, if not necessary, to understand the answer to this question as the answer is not obvious.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2411] **viXra:1704.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-04 10:36:28*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Hubble constant and the age of the Universe
Abstract
In this paper a new approach to the Hubble constant has produced two values
One for the expansion of galaxies in the universe at giving the age of the universe at about and the other, the expansion of the space or the inflation of the space (creation of more space or expansion of radiation) at giving apparent age of the universe at about ,exactly half the real age of the universe.
Hence showing that the both teams of Gérard de Vaucouleurs, later by Sidney van den Berghwho claiming a high value for the Hubble constant and a low value of the Hubble constant by Allan Sandage, later by prof Gustav Tammann are correct and there approach had been different, one team looking at the expansion (inflation) of space and the other team looking at the expansion of the galaxies.
Furthermore the value of has been resulted from this new approach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2410] **viXra:1704.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-04 04:50:05*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An elemental particle is proposed to facilitate the increase in mass under relativistic conditions. The conservation of energy is invoked to justify the conservation of mass and thus the new particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2409] **viXra:1704.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 13:32:57*

**Authors:** Ahmida Bendjoudi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A new independent derivation of general theory of relativity using only special relativity principles
is shown. Some solutions are derived and discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2408] **viXra:1704.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 22:59:28*

**Authors:** Kenneth M. Sasaki.

**Comments:** 30 pages, 15 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 64 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work establishes three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy in frozen stars and frozen universes, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming not more then current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2407] **viXra:1704.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 07:26:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The most straight forward explanation of the Michelson-Morley experiment null result is the emission or ballistic theory of light, according to which the velocity of light is constant c relative to the source. In fact, the Michelson-Morley experiment may be seen as a compelling evidence for the emission hypothesis. The emission theory was abandoned mainly due to moving source experiments which proved the independence of the speed of light from the velocity of the source. It will be shown in this paper that physicists hastened to discard the emission theory which will be shown to be crucial to solve the light speed puzzle. The conventional emission theory is modified intuitively as follows. The speed of light emitted from a light source that is moving with absolute velocity Vabs is equal to c - Vabs relative to the source in the forward direction and c + Vabs relative to the source in the backward direction. Therefore, relative an observer at absolute rest in front of the moving source, the speed of light is equal to the sum of the speed of light relative to the source and the speed of the source: ( c - Vabs )+ Vabs = c . Relative to an observer at absolute rest behind the source, the speed of light is equal to the difference between the speed of light relative to the source and the speed of the source : ( c + Vabs ) - Vabs = c . We can see that this model predicts that the speed of light is independent of the velocity of the source. This model also predicts the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment because the speed of light is c ± Vabs relative to the source., in the forward and backward directions. Change of the speed of light relative to the source doesn’t result in any fringe shift because , intuitively, both the transverse and longitudinal light beams will be delayed or advanced by equal amounts of time. This theory is a modified emission theory, a fusion between ' ether ' theory and emission theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2406] **viXra:1704.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-02 05:52:41*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 48 pages,in Chinese

The only objectively existing in nature transformation of space and time for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity is first revealed in the article.The discovered transformation ,referred to as Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation), is logically derived, using in derivation the concepts of both the principle of relativity and the postulate of constant light velocity. The Z-Transformation takes the typical form of Galilean Transformation. Moreover, a theoretical interpretation for Hubble’s Law is given firstly by the author as well, utilizing the Z-Transformation revealed .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2405] **viXra:1704.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-01 13:51:03*

**Authors:** Artekha S., Chubykalo A., Espinoza A.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Some difficult moments of the article Artekha S., Chubykalo A., Espinoza A. "Some of the complexities in the special relativity: new paradoxes", are additionally explained. Detailed critical analysis of "Critical Comment" is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2404] **viXra:1704.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-01 01:02:27*

**Authors:** Ahmida Bendjoudi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to IJMPD journal

Einstein Equivalence Principle is the cornerstone of general theory of relativity. Special relativity
is assumed to be veried at any point on the Riemann curved manifold. This leads to a mathematical
consistency between Einstein equations and special relativity principles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2403] **viXra:1703.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 14:41:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Using cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory, a value for the critical fermion density of the universe is found in excellent agreement with published results. Also found is a very useful volume of 10^27 cubic meters per active galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2402] **viXra:1703.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 07:11:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Lorentz transform converts the Euclidean storage format of dynamic geometric data into the corresponding observed spacetime format.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2401] **viXra:1703.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-30 08:22:44*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate, by means of CMBR, a theory which states that the speed of light is isotropic with respect to each point in expanding space, so it cannot also be isotropic with respect to transiting objects.
Hence the result found by Michelson-Morley experiment, which showed that the speed of light is isotropic in any Reference Frame, is due to the phenomenon suggested by Lorentz, i.e., that each object undergoes a contraction of its length and a dilation of its time as a function of its speed with respect to the points it passes through, which, therefore, constitutes its preferred Reference Frame.
Hence now Special Relativity is complementable with a theory for which light waves are manifested in a medium (and not in a vacuum) and their speed is not isotropic in all Reference Frames, no matter what their speed is, a frame with respect to an other frame. It is a theory that opens another path to the truth about the workings of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2400] **viXra:1703.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-29 16:05:39*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Lorentz transformation of the special theory of relativity (STR) describes the time dilation between two reference frames moving relative to each other at a constant speed. The present work focuses on the fact that the time observed on the ‘other’ system depends on the location of the clocks used for time comparisons. First, the paper presents a unified framework for the various ‘observational principles’, i.e. the specification of which clocks to apply; throughout restricting to consider a single space coordinate. Next we suggest that the time can be defined by a two-dimensional variables, involving both ‘clock time’ and position. This two-dimensional (time, space)-vector intends to alleviate the inherent paradox of time dilation. In particular, a formulation of this vector as a complex number seems interesting. Both the absolute value, as well as the real and imaginary part have simple interpretations. The real part is denoted ‘positional time’ and is invariant under the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2399] **viXra:1703.0275 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-29 06:01:12*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 173 Pages.

A new model and theoretical framework of absolute motion and the speed of light is proposed in this paper. 1. For absolutely co-moving light source S and observer O, with uniform rectilinear motion, the effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the position of the source relative to the observer. The apparent source, just as the real source, is at rest relative to the observer and the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. Therefore, the procedure of analysis of a light speed experiment in this case is to replace the real source by an apparent source and analyze the experiment by assuming that the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. Once the real source is replaced with an apparent source to account for absolute velocity, we assume conventional emission theory, in which, the speed of light is constant relative to the (apparent) source and depends on mirror velocity. The position of the apparent source is determined by assuming the ether to calculate the time delay of light emitted by the real source and detected directly by the observer and interpreting the result as being due to an apparent change in the source position relative to the observer, rather than as being a result of varying speed of light which would be the case if the ether existed. In this paper it is revealed that the ether doesn’t exist but absolute motion does exist. 2. For all other cases/experiments in which the light source S, an observer A and mirrors have independent, arbitrary absolute and relative velocities, for uniform rectilinear motion and for accelerated motion, including rotation, the experiment is analyzed according to the following principle: an observer A who is at a given point relative to the light source, at a given instant of time, observes what a co-moving observer at that point is observing at that instant of time . A co-moving observer O is defined in this paper as an observer who is at a given point in the reference frame of the source and is at rest relative to the source and continues to move with the same velocity (magnitude and direction) as the velocity of the source at the instant of light emission. For example, to determine the time instant when light emitted by a source is observed by an arbitrary observer (A) with known initial position and motion (velocity and acceleration), we find a point relative to the source where a co-moving observer at that point observes light at the time instant that observer A is passing through that point. 3. The phase velocity of light is constant, independent of source, observer and mirror velocity. However, the group velocity of light is independent of source absolute velocity, but depends on observer absolute velocity and on mirror velocity. 4. A new law of Exponential Doppler effect of light is proposed as: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e - V/c , where V is the source observer relative velocity. 5. Light has dual natures: local and non-local, constant (phase) velocity and variable ( group) velocity, behaving according to both ether theory and emission theory. Static electric and magnetic fields also have dual nature: finite and infinite speed of transmission 6. Inertia is electromagnetic radiation reaction. The speed of light is the universal limit on the absolute velocity of all physical objects in the universe. The mass (inertia) increase of electrons with velocity is due to non-linear law of electromagnetic radiation power and radiation reaction. As the absolute velocity of a body approaches the speed of light, any further acceleration will result in or require increasingly infinite amounts of radiation power and radiation reaction. 7. Gravity is a difference between electrostatic attraction and repulsion forces. 8. Absolute velocity of an object is the resultant of its mass weighed velocities relative to all massive objects in the universe. The universal principle that applies to all light speed experiments is : an observer at a given point relative to the source, at a given instant of time , observes the same light phenomenon being observed by a co-moving observer at that point, at that instant of time. However, a more convenient procedure for experiments involving rectilinear motions is : 1. Replace the real source by an apparent source 2. Analyze the experiment by assuming that the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source; i.e. once the real source is replaced by an apparent source , we apply (modified) emission theory in which the group velocity is constant relative to the apparent source and depends on mirror velocity, but the phase velocity is always constant. Physically ( intuitively ) the group velocity ( magnitude and direction) of light varies relative to the real source, due to absolute motion of the source. AST is a modified emission theory, a fusion between emission theory and absolute motion theory. In the Sagnac experiment, the source appears farther away than its physical distance when looking in the backward direction and closer than its actual/ physical distance in the forward direction. Physically this means that the velocity of light is c + V in the backward direction and c - V in the forward direction, relative to the source , hence a fringe shift at the detector. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in the position of the light source relative to an observer does not create a fringe shift, for the same reason that an actual ( physical ) change of the source position doesn't create any significant fringe shift. The group velocity of light relative to the source moving with absolute velocity Vabs is c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction. Therefore, the velocity of light relative to a stationary observer will be: (c - Vabs ) + Vabs = c and (c + Vabs ) - Vabs = c . This is why the group velocity of light has been found to be independent of source velocity in moving source experiments; the (group) velocity of light changes relative to the source in such a way that it will not be affected by source velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2398] **viXra:1703.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 10:51:56*

**Authors:** Pierre-Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Web site : http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/eng/zhp_en_htm3.html

It is believed that the Pioneer satellites anomaly could be resolved by the orbit
determination programs (ODP) if some particular elements of the satellite that were
omitted or rejected as non applicable were taken into account. This is not the case
and up to now, not a single proposition has been able to resolve the anomalous
acceleration that plagued those satellites. We show that the Pioneer anomaly is
in fact a natural and universal constant also remarked as an apparent numerical
coincidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2397] **viXra:1703.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 10:58:44*

**Authors:** Pierre-Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Site web : http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/fra/zhp_fr_htm3.html

On croit que l’anomalie des satellites Pioneer serait expliquée en tenant compte
de certains éléments omis ou rejetés comme non pertinents dans les programmes de
calcul des orbites des satellites (Orbit Determination Program). Il n’en est rien, et
jusqu’à maintenant, aucune proposition en ce sens n’a réussi de façon concluante
à expliquer cette accélération. Nous montrons que ce qui est apparu comme une
coïncidence numérique n’en n’est pas une, mais n’est en fait qu’une constante
universelle naturelle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2396] **viXra:1703.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 08:11:20*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

EVERYTHING IS EMERGENT

Space is NOT empty. There is an all encompassing lattice-type thread particle network in space. It is gravity centered -- Einstein called it Space-Time. Otherwise known as the Fabric of Space. (yes, the fabric of space must actually be made from something)

A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web made of the finest web-silk-thread filament. Now imagine a 3-D web.

It is made from individual yet connected thread particles and of course the web has tension on it (that's were gravity gets its pull).

Everything is a simple emergent property of the thread particle network.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2395] **viXra:1703.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-27 01:37:19*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The Hypersphere World – Universe Model (WUM) provides a mathematical framework that allows calculating the primary cosmological parameters of the World that are in good agreement with the most recent measurements and observations. WUM explains the experimental data accumulated in the field of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics over the last decades: the age of the World and critical energy density; the gravitational parameter and Hubble’s parameter; temperatures of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the peak of the far-infrared background radiation; the concentration of intergalactic plasma and time delay of Fast Radio Bursts. Additionally, the Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter particles, photons, and neutrinos; proposes new types of particle interactions (Super Weak and Extremely Weak); shows inter-connectivity of primary cosmological parameters of the World. WUM proposes to introduce a new fundamental parameter Q in the CODATA internationally recommended values.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2394] **viXra:1703.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 12:11:54*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** Pages.

Prof. Reg Cahill has reported [1] that Random Event Generator (REG) devices can detect passage of dynamical 3-space waves. Herein we describe an attempt to ﬁnd additional evidence for this discovery, using data from a REG located in Perth, Australia and from another in Manchester, U.K., for ﬁfteen days centered on each full moon during a period of one year.
For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by ﬁtting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination, speed and associated standard deviations for the waves of each day.
Following this we examined the directions and speeds to determine if they were consistent with a real physical phenomena, rather than being artifacts of random correlations. To this end we made use of probability density plots and other statistical techniques.
On the way we recognized that wave orientation is not the same as 3-space ﬂow direction and that it is the latter rather than the former which is of principle interest. Geometry implies that variation of ﬂow speed will cause the detected speeds of wave fronts moving parallel to 3-space ﬂow to have larger standard deviations than those moving across the ﬂow. On this basis we preferentially selected the 50% of days with the largest speed standard deviations as being the most likely proxies for space ﬂow direction.
A probability density plot of directions for these days exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming 3-space ﬂow direction by Cahill [3] and Dayton Miller [8]. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inﬂow velocities from the observed velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with what one would expect of a real physical phenomena. The peak indicated a most probable galactic ﬂow direction of RA = 4.14 h, dec = −77.8 deg, and wave speed of 500 km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2393] **viXra:1703.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 06:23:44*

**Authors:** Thomas Görnitz

**Comments:** Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27468.00649

Some thirty years ago, the model of a closed cosmos expanding at the speed of light was develo-ped deriving from basic quantum-theoretical arguments. In this model, the equation of state reads ρ+3p=0 (ρ and p denoting cosmological energy density and pressure). At the core of the model, there are the quantum bits of absolute quantum information (AQI), the simplest of all possible quantum structures. Taken as the ultimate substance, referred to as protyposis, the AQI concept affords a unifying explanation of the structure of space and time and the evolution of the cosmos and its inventory.
Recent astrophysical investigations show that the protyposis model is in better agreement with the observation data than the present standard flat - Λ CDM model. Ad hoc assumptions such as Dark Energy and Inflation are dispensable.
The protyposis theory has been advanced to account for the formation of relativistic quantum particles from AQI bits. Moreover, a rationalization has been given of the General Theory of Rela-tivity and of the three non-gravitational forces.
Ultimately, the protyposis concept will allow us to understand the emergence of both matter and consciousness.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2392] **viXra:1703.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 23:32:27*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

abstract:shows a veiwpoint with regards to the dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2391] **viXra:1703.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 12:05:37*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the spinning cosmic loops built of the entangled Einstein-spacetime (ES) components, with centres overlapping with centres of galaxies, are the basic dark-matter (DM) structures. Their interactions with baryonic matter via weak interactions of leptons lead to the flat rotation curves of galaxies. Here, applying such mechanism, we derived universal law that relates actual baryonic masses of galaxies with radial accelerations of stars at a critical radius (for radii bigger than such radius, there dominates the baryon-DM interaction). We calculated as well a parameter at a critical scale that is consistent with observational data. We need to change our ideas about dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2390] **viXra:1703.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 12:10:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

New data suggest that the initial period of evolution of galaxies should be modified. Here, on the basis of the cosmology described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain in a very simple way why spins of massive galaxies are, generally, perpendicular to cosmic filaments whereas of dwarf galaxies are, generally, tangential to them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2389] **viXra:1703.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 14:27:22*

**Authors:** Pantelis M. Pechlivanides

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Based on the paths of signals emanating from a rotating point body, we find the equations and properties of the field that they form. Depending on the type of observer the field differs. The field is not central but varies in orientation and magnitude with both distance and angular velocity of rotation. The magnitude of the field in some cases forms a barrier away from the origin, which may be very strong depending on the angular velocity of rotation. The results apply both to microcosmos (sub-atomic level) and macrocosmos (cosmic level).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2388] **viXra:1703.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 11:29:24*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci, Pe

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Electric Universe Theory (EUT) offers serious objections to the current concept of pulsars (neutron stars) as almost unbelievably dense, very small diameter, possibly incredibly rapidly rotating, collapsed star cores with densities comparable to an atomic nucleus, composed entirely of neutronium. Objections are both physical, phenomenological and geometrical/mathematical. This paper examines the last set, geometrical/mathematical, comparing what might derive from the current theory with that postulated by EUT, namely that “pulsars” are really binary “strobe” stars.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2387] **viXra:1703.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 13:20:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2386] **viXra:1703.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 09:56:01*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Until the early twentieth century, the three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time were considered separate beings. In 1909, German mathematician H. Minkowski connected together space and time into single idea, creating a new the four-dimensional spacetime. We proposed the extension of this idea by the connection together the Minkowski four-dimensional spacetime and the mass density into the single idea, creating a new entity: the four-dimensional spacetime with the mass density. In this article we discussed the physical consequences of this new idea in terms of the gravitational phenomena.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2385] **viXra:1703.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 03:17:26*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages. ...........

The influence of the speed of motion of the satellite and the Earth relative to Jupiter is skipped by a Römer. The influence of distance is greatly exaggerated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2384] **viXra:1703.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 06:18:49*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The dark universe represents a concept of present physics and cosmology that regards whether great stellar systems or elementary particles. The first question, that has to be considered, concerns its effective existence because there are at present only a few experimental proofs and its existence is purely theoretical and it is due to the difference between total matter and energy predicted by theoretical calculations and those deriving from experimental measurements. The second question regards its physical nature. In general at least a part of dark matter is explained in the present physics by the gravitational theory like in the event of black holes. In the order of the Theory of Reference Frames (TR) dark matter, in all possible shapes including black holes, is explained by the relativistic theory of the Doppler Effect, whether for cosmological systems or for elementary particles and besides the Doppler Effect represents also an useful theoretical tool for explaining the physical behaviour of variable stars and galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2383] **viXra:1703.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-19 05:20:50*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this essay, light is shed on the Special Relativity hidden conflicts. The first part, consisting of the first five headings, will point out some of the Special Relativity self-contradictions in relation to its main five outcomes. The second part reveals the reasons beyond the Special Relativity inconsistencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2382] **viXra:1703.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-17 23:01:41*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A Universe without aim or intent, and without the brilliant but problematic theories of Einstein is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2381] **viXra:1703.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 15:29:59*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Translational symmetry in one-dimensional space requires the distance between two objects moving at equal speed under equal acceleration to be constant in time. However, motion between the object and the observer is relative. Therefore, this distance is constant in time for an accelerating observer. Consequently, the length of an accelerating object is constant in time. The length of an object is invariant to its motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2380] **viXra:1703.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 07:17:54*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

New data based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile, lead to conclusion that baryons in the early Universe efficiently condensed at the centres of dark matter halos when dark matter was less concentrated. It means that we must solve following cosmological problem: Was there a sufficiently long period during the mainstream Big Bang for concentration of baryonic matter, partially separated from dark matter, to create the discs of massive galaxies in very early Universe? Here we showed that new data are consistent with the evolution of massive galaxies presented within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The main features are as follows. The expansion of the Universe was separated in time from the inflation. The return shock wave after the inflation created the cosmic structure which looked as very big quasar (the Protoworld). Inside the torus of the Protoworld were created massive protogalaxies with supermassive black holes in their centres. Due to a phase transition of the Protoworld, its torus and supermassive central black hole transformed into dark matter. Only then there were the inflows of dark matter and dark energy into the baryonic protogalaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2379] **viXra:1703.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 16:18:32*

**Authors:** Rajiv Thapa

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A novel technique was introduced to re-investigate the “No Drama” conclusion of the Equivalence principle at the event horizon of the Schwarzschild Black Hole. It was found that the Equivalence principle has a different solution at the event horizon, on contrary to the popular belief that the gravitational effect on the observer at the horizon holds the similar properties as that to the observer travelling in the weaker gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2378] **viXra:1703.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 16:38:07*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The article shows that based on the obvious postulates, using the existing mathematical tools, an alternative theory of special relativity can be build. The results were obtained studying the invariance of a four-dimensional wave equation by the paravector calculus. As a field domain the complex space-time was selected. Its meaningfulness and implicit naturalness is shown on simple examples. The aim of the publication is to show that the physical space-time may be viewed from a different perspective, not known so far.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2377] **viXra:1703.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 04:05:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is obvious that the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) applies only to systems containing physical inertial reference systems, each equipped with a physical clock initially synchronized with other clocks. This leads to the conclusion that it is easy to prove that SR is logically inconsistent when we try to describe, via SR, a system in which listed above two conditions, i.e. inertia and initial synchronization, are simultaneously not satisfied. Here we described the initial conditions which must be satisfied to obtain a system composed of physical inertial reference systems with initially synchronized physical clocks. In previous papers we showed why SR sometimes leads to formulae which do not concern Nature - it applies to the SR contraction in length and phenomena in which, apart from radial velocities automatically appear, due to flows in the Einstein spacetime, transverse velocities also.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2376] **viXra:1703.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 08:51:06*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physicists since Einstein have assumed that the Galilean system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is consistent with the Special Theory of Relativity. More specifically, they have always assumed that the Galilean system of clock-synchronised stationary observers, that obeys the Galilean transformation equations, is consistent with the non-Galilean Lorentz transformation equations. Einstein's assumption is however, demonstrably false.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2375] **viXra:1703.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 11:04:47*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Length contraction is a principal feature of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is purported to be independent of position, being a function only of uniform relative velocity, via the Lorentz Transformation. However, it is not possible for a system of clock-synchronised stationary observers to assign by the Lorentz Transformation, a common definite length to any object in a 'moving system'. Consequently, the Theory of Relativity is false due to an insurmountable intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2374] **viXra:1703.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 12:54:38*

**Authors:** Witold Nawrot

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity is almost certainly based on a serious error that led to the unnecessary complication of the model of space-time and practically stopped the development of science for 100 years. The essence of the error is the assumption that the reality looks exactly as we perceive it. Authors of the Theory of Relativity ignored the analysis of the process of observation which may make the observed shape of the reality different from its real shape.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2373] **viXra:1703.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 05:27:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) we showed that for a free-fall on neutron black hole (NBH), the relativistic mass is real so synchronization of clocks via the Lorentz Transformation is logically inconsistent. To obtain correct formula for gravitational time dilation, instead of using the Lorentz Transformation, we must start from the law of conservation of spin. Near and inside the Schwarzschild surface the gravitating grainy Einstein spacetime (ES) inspirals towards the centre of NBH (the ES leaks from NBH via the NBH jets). It causes that near the Schwarzschild surface down to the surface of NBH (its equatorial radius is two times smaller than the Schwarzschild radius) the time dilation does not follow from pure radial motions but from orbital motions as well. We showed that time practically stops when vector sum of orbital and radial velocities of freely falling body is close to the velocity of light in “vacuum” c. Due to the inspiralling ES, the trajectory of the body is deflected from the radial direction but trajectories of a freely falling initially radial photon and the body do not overlap. The inspiralling ES causes that for a distant observer, the radial speed on the Schwarzschild surface of a freely falling body is lower than c. For radii smaller than the equatorial radius of NBH, time is going as in frame of reference in the absolute rest - it follows from the fact that inside NBH both NBH and ES have the same angular velocities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2372] **viXra:1703.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-12 05:38:13*

**Authors:** Grisha Filippov

**Comments:** Pages.

In 1900, A. Poincare discussed the Problem about two inertial observers that exchanged by light signals. In 1905 A. Einstein gave solution this problem in the form of the Lorentz transformations.
From the point of view of Similarity theory the Lorentz transformations are Similarity transformations. Moreover, according this theory can be another solutions of the Poincare problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2371] **viXra:1703.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-10 15:32:03*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Our universe probably began as a production of the "Multiverse", which is truly eternal and infinite, the "scientific" (or rational) equivalent of "God". The "given" physical constants which cannot be otherwise derived have their origins in the Multiverse. All else can be explained through considerations of conservation of energy and symmetry (Noether's Theorem).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2370] **viXra:1703.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-10 05:36:36*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Time dilation is a principal feature of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is purported to be independent of position, being a function only of uniform relative velocity, via the Lorentz Transformation. However, it is not possible for a 'stationary system' of observers K to assign a definite time to any 'event' relative to a 'moving system' k using the Lorentz Transformation. Consequently, the Theory of Relativity is false due to an insurmountable intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2369] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 08:48:10*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formula for relativistic mass on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2368] **viXra:1703.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 04:56:09*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An observed two-dimensional shadow might encompass more information than its corresponding three-dimensional object. By changing the orientation of a three-dimensional object or the observer’s position, we detect different shadows from diverse perspectives, therefore increasing our available information. Starting from this simple observation and extending it to the Einstein’s four-dimensional spacetime and to Bekenstein and Hawking equations, we show how, in terms of special and general relativity, information content is not a stationary and fixed quantity as currently believed, but rather depends on the observer’s standpoint. This has deep implications in digital physics, information theory, computer vision, shape theory and cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2367] **viXra:1703.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-05 23:24:27*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity employs both clock synchronisation and the Lorentz Transformation. Without both the Theory of Relativity fails. Clock synchronisation is proven inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Since the possibility of clock synchronisation is essential to physics, the Lorentz Transformation is not. The Theory of Relativity is invalid due to an intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2366] **viXra:1703.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-05 09:40:57*

**Authors:** V.D.Krasnov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A mechanism of originating and forming of the inclination of the rotation plane of the planets (bodies) in the space systems of planetary type is considered. The inclination of the rotation plane is formed by resonant oscillations of planets (bodies) along the direction of motion of planetary systems. The resonant oscillations are a natural condition of all cosmic formations of planetary type.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2365] **viXra:1703.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-05 09:49:41*

**Authors:** V.D.Krasnov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Continuous attempts to create theories of the Moon's motion have been made since the time of Isaac Newton.
The theory of the Moon's motion which would take into account the influence of the Sun, Earth and other planets proved to be one of the most complicated tasks in astronomy.
In this article, a physical model of the lunar motion built on the basis of the statements of the "Comprehensive Law of Motion of Objects in Planetary Type Systems" is presented.
It is shown that the Moon's motion is formed by a complex combination of the gravitational attraction from the Earth and the Sun, acting on the Moon in the direction of the planetary system's motion.
In accordance with the physical model presented, a calculation of the Moon's motion is performed.
The results of the calculations of the Moon's motion in the field of mutual interaction of the Earth, Sun, and Moon, agree with the motion observed and confirm the Theory of Lunar Motion set forth here.
Any quantity of bodies (planets) affecting the Moon's motion could be included in the the calculations.
The results of the calculations verify the "Comprehensive Law of Motion of Objects in Planetary Type Systems".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2364] **viXra:1703.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-03 15:11:29*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Essay submitted to Fundamental Questions Institute (FQXi) 2017 Essay Contest

Human ideas of how life and consciousness relate to mathematics and physics are conditioned by the fact that we have lived our lives on a 5.97 x 10^24 kg ball of matter. These ideas would arguably be different if we had evolved instead inside a large rotating world far from astronomical bodies. Contemplating the latter perspective provides some insight on how prevailing views may be in error and how to correct them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2363] **viXra:1703.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 14:15:34*

**Authors:** M.B.Cilek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Copyright M.B.Cilek - All rights reserved

General Theory of Relativity constitutes the framework for our understanding of the universe, with an emphasis on gravity. Many of Einstein’s predictions have been verified experimentally but General and Special Theories of Relativity contain several anomalies and paradoxes, yet to be answered. Also, there are serious conflicts with Quantum Mechanics; gravity being the weakest and least understood force, is a major problem.
Supported by clear experimental evidence, it is theorised that gravity is not a field or spacetime curvature effect, but rather has a flow mechanism. It is also concluded that any spatially isolated lump of matter in freefall creates a unique frame of reference around itself by gravitation, and carries it along.
This is not an alternative theory of gravity with an alternative metric. Established laws and equations from Newton and Einstein are left unchanged. However, spacetime curvature is replaced with flow, producing a refined and compatible theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2362] **viXra:1703.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 10:02:07*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Einstein's time dilation and length contraction in his Special Theory of Relativity are, in general, inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2361] **viXra:1702.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-28 15:33:33*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract: It has been about 10 months since I updated the cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory. Since the last update I have included supersymmetric top quark-antiquark effects and effects linking new cosmological data such as that of supermassive black holes, M-sigma galaxies, galaxies with "bars", and gamma annihilation radiation from the center of our galaxy

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2360] **viXra:1702.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-26 02:37:04*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As a result of the submission of non-collinear relativistic boosts, apart from the resultant boost, a component of turn is obtained which is called the Thomas-Wigner rotation. The paper discusses the Lorentz transformation using the paravector calculus. It has been shown that any Lorentz rotation is a combination of real boost and an Euclidean rotation, and that as a result of the submission of appropriately selected boosts any object can rotate in place, which may indicate the fallacy of the idea of the Lorentz rotation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2359] **viXra:1702.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-23 06:53:57*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The relativity of simultaneity of the analogue of the Fourier law of thermodynamic

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2358] **viXra:1702.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-22 05:21:44*

**Authors:** Viktor D Krasnov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. in Russia

This paper reviews origination and forming mechanism of rotation plane inclination of the planets (objects) as part of planetary type space systems. Inclination of rotation plane is originated and formed by resonance vibrations of planets (objects) toward the motion of planetary systems. Resonance vibrations are natural state of all planetary type space formations. Reviewed mechanism of origination and forming of planet vibration toward planetary system motion is the Law for any planetary system. // Рассмотрен механизм возникновения и формирования наклона плоскости вращения планет (объектов) в составе космических систем планетарного типа. Наклон плоскости вращения возникает и формируется резонирующими колебаниями планет (объектов) в направлении движения планетарных систем. Резонирующие колебания являются естественным состоянием всех космических образований планетарного типа. Рассмотренный механизм возникновения и формирования колебательного движения планеты в направлении движения планетарной системы является Законом для любых планетарных систем.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2357] **viXra:1702.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-21 07:08:53*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 2 Pages. preliminary version, comments welcome

It is extremely unlikely that global warming is caused by humans,
rather it appears to have a gravitational origin.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2356] **viXra:1702.0260 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-20 23:49:52*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The cause of electromagnetic radiation is generally believed to be due to an accelerating charge. However, physicists have also been aware of the inadequacy of this theory and have long been troubled to explain the different phenomena of electromagnetic radiation. This is not to say that accelerating charges never radiate, but to point out that the accelerating charge view does not always hold. Other attempts at alternative explanations have been made by physicists. For example, one idea is that it is the rate of change of acceleration, not acceleration, that causes radiation and radiation reaction. All existing mainstream and alternative theories have failed to reveal the principle behind all radiation phenomenon. What is the basic law of nature that underlies all radiation phenomenon ? This paper reveals a profound law of electromagnetic radiation, which we may call Steady State theory of electromagnetic radiation and motion. The proposed principle underlying all radiation phenomenon is that electromagnetic radiation occurs during the transient period of motion of a charge and ceases when the moving charge reaches steady state condition. The assumption that an accelerated charge always radiates is wrong. The Steady State theory also explains the apparently unrelated phenomenon of stability of planetary orbits. The planetary orbits are so stable because they have reached steady state condition after millions of years of transient, unstable, oscillatory motions. This paper reveals the subtle difference between inertial motion and steady state motion, and proposes to replace the former with the latter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1617] **viXra:1705.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-17 02:21:23*

**Authors:** Gordon Liu

**Comments:** 8 pages

Although mass is a very common and fundamental concept, but the problem of mass is still one of the key problems of modern Physics, up to the present the experts are not able to reach a consensus. In this paper, we have discussed the problems relating to mass, energy and matter, and been aware that mass is neither the amount of matter an object has, nor the measure of inertia and the source of gravitational field, whereas energy is the measure of the inertia of an object and also is the source of gravitational field. As before, Mass being used to measure the inertia and to calculate gravitational force is just an approximate method only for very slowly moving bodies and particles for which the rest energy is much larger than the kinetic energy. Actually the concept of mass is a superfluous artificial concept, just rest energy divided by a constant (If selecting c=1, the mass is exactly equal to the rest energy), does not have any other meaning. If the concept of mass is completely superseded by energy(or more precisely, rest energy), the physical equations are completely perfect, their meanings are clearer, and the puzzles such as the relationship of mass and energy, nature of matter, the essence of the weak equivalence principle, the physical meaning of Higgs mechanism, etc., can be made clearer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1616] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-20 06:03:24*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. One reference added. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1615] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-16 11:20:14*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Title changed. Final version.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1614] **viXra:1705.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-15 10:19:49*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. One reference added and typos corrected. Comments welcome.

Brief outline of Penrose diagram and related topics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1613] **viXra:1705.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-12 05:54:22*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Two references added. Final version.

We model the physicalized manifestation of the Universe as bootstrapped ‘Brain of the Universe’ and seek evidence for its brain-like functional organization, resulting from the Holon of the Universe facilitated by space-like correlated gravitational holomovement and rotation. The orthodox model of gravity, based on "tangent vectors" and "curvature of spacetime", is replaced with the proposal that the physicalized clocks and rulers are very flexible ‘jackets’ (cf. John’s jackets parable in CEN.pdf), which can slow down or speed up viz. shrink or expand, leading to perfectly correlated Brain of the Universe living in so-called ‘relative scale’ (RS) spacetime. The question of Universal Mind, complementing the Brain of the Universe, pertains to physical theology and the doctrine of trialism, and was examined in previous publications (Sec. 6 in spacetime.pdf).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1612] **viXra:1705.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-10 20:45:19*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Text expanded for clarity. Comments welcome.

We model the physicalized manifestation of the Universe as bootstrapped ‘Brain of the Universe’ and seek evidence for its brain-like functional organization, resulting from the Holon of the Universe facilitated by space-like correlated gravitational holomovement and rotation. The orthodox model of gravity, based on "tangent vectors" and "curvature of spacetime", is replaced with the proposal that the physicalized clocks and rulers are very flexible ‘jackets’ (cf. John’s jackets parable in CEN.pdf), which can slow down or speed up viz. shrink or expand, leading to perfectly correlated Brain of the Universe living in so-called ‘relative scale’ (RS) spacetime. The question of Universal Mind, complementing the Brain of the Universe, pertains to physical theology and the doctrine of trialism, and was examined in previous publications (Sec. 6 in spacetime.pdf).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1611] **viXra:1705.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-11 09:43:59*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is felt by many that faster-than-light particles (tachyons) exist though none has been detected so far. Is it really possible to detect these particles? Some methods are brought up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1610] **viXra:1705.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-09 21:16:06*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is felt by many that faster-than-light particles (tachyons) exist though none has been detected
so far. Is it really possible to detect these particles? Some methods are brought up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1609] **viXra:1705.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-08 16:36:42*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1608] **viXra:1704.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 13:41:24*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Einstein in his works from 1905 till 1907 discarded the ether from physics but his more than 5 papers from 1920 to 1934 deal with the ether as an unexceptionable physical reality. In these papers Einstein becomes more an enthusiastic advocate of the testification of the ether than supporters of the ether before the year 1905. It is regrettable that except of Einstein’s widely cited less important paper presented at a conference in Leiden in 1920 other more important papers on ether in which Einstein comes with the definitive claim that without the ether it is not possible to explain the physical world around us are not known to wider physical community and even not known to dissident physicists community as well. In this paper we show that Einstein by his own declarations after 1920 about testified existence of the ether himself openly repudiated his Special and General theories of relativity. In amendment we bring the text of Einstein’s 1924 paper “On the ether”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1607] **viXra:1704.0349 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-12 06:23:56*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1606] **viXra:1704.0349 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 13:13:11*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Replacement

On Aberration of Light Part #2
This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1605] **viXra:1704.0349 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 11:56:50*

**Authors:** Florian Michael Schmitt

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1604] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-03 18:27:35*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Somehow, most of my reviews have misconstrued my ideas, which has caused me to add revisions.

"Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) proposes that all velocities, including radial recessive and rotational, will naturally appear to increase per distances of great magnitude as an illusion between scales viewed in magnification.
In the introduction, I cite a clear deviation from Kepler’s orbital laws with a correlation study of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. However, TPD explains this as only an illusion.
In section: 4, I explain why galaxy rotations appear to deviate from Kepler’s laws.
In section: 5, I generalize how velocities appear to increase with distance, using a pulsar application.
In section: 6, I Show how galaxy rotational velocity appears to increases with distance.
In section: 8, I show how TPD is a factor in galaxy rotational curves.
In Section: 9, I show how TPD affects the spherical asymmetry of supernova remnant velocity.
In section: 10, I provide a mathematical proof to distinguish TPD from accelerated expansion.
Please note: TPD is only evident over great distances. For instance, TPD predicts an apparent increase in comet orbital velocities over distance, however the margin of error (especially from unstable gas emissions) is greater than observable results.
TPD is distinct from time dilation and does not contradict or violate either time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t.
"

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1603] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-02 12:48:31*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) proposes that all velocities, including radial recessive and
rotational, will naturally appear to increase per distances of great magnitude as an illusion
between scales viewed in magnification. See section: 2
In section: 5, I include a clear deviation from Kepler’s orbital laws with a correlation study of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
In section: 3.A, I explain why galaxies rotations appear to deviate from Kepler’s laws.
In Section: 3.B, I show how TPD affects the spherical asymmetry of supernova remnant velocity.
In section 12 I show how TPD is a factor in Galaxy rotational curves
In section: 6, I provide a mathematical proof to distinguish TPD from accelerated expansion.
Note that the TPD affect is only evident over great distances. For instance, comet orbit velocities are predicted to increase over distance, however the margin of error (especially from unstable gas emissions) are greater than observable results.
Please note: TPD is distinct from time dilation and does not contradict or violate
either time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are
first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1602] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-27 09:10:25*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Accelerated Expansion, is supported by correlated studies of multiple
galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same
body appears to increase per distance.
Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) postulates the novel idea of a linear point perspective in the
time dimension. Just as subtended arcs in linear spacial perspective create the appearance of
decreasing (and converging) geometry over distance, TPD proposes that time perspective creates the appearance of decreasing (and converging) time intervals over distance.
The result is an illusion of accelerated velocity, as the appearance of decreasing time intervals is equivalent to increasing velocity.
TPD rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion viewed (obliquely) in time perspective. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals.
Please note: TPD is distinct from time dilation and does not contradict or violate either time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TPD

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1601] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 14:53:37*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Accelerated Expansion, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) postulates the idea of perspective in the time dimension.
Just as linear spacial perspective has the appearance of decreasing (and converging) geometry over distance, TPD proposes that time perspective has the appearance of decreasing (and converging) time intervals over distance.
The result is an illusion of accelerated velocity, as the appearance of decreasing time intervals is equivalent to increasing velocity.
TPD rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion viewed (obliquely) in time perspective. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals.
Please note: TPD does not contradict or violate time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥)
subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TPD

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1600] **viXra:1704.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 08:43:23*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Accelerated Expansion, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) postulates that time is actually observed and measured with an inherent perspective, analogous to 2D linear perspective in architecture. Time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event. Subsequently, decreased time intervals appear as increased velocity.
TPD rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion viewed
(obliquely) in time perspective. Photons travelling to an observer, from remote past events, will appear to arrive with successively decreased time intervals.
Please note: TPD does not contradict or violate time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion
from constant expansion with TPD.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1599] **viXra:1704.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-25 13:19:25*

**Authors:** Eva Deli

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Recent cosmological data shows the Milky Way galaxy being pushed ahead of a void. Independently, laboratory research created matter with negative mass. A possible relationship between these seemingly unrelated results indicates the need to reexamine our understanding of gravity. According to Page and Wootter mechanism, time is globally static, but emergent for ‘internal’ observers. That is, interaction increases the energy-information differences among the constituents of the cosmos. Such temporal evolution engenders polar singularities, known as black and white holes, in accordance with general relativity. The second law of thermodynamics leads to Landauer’s principle, which shows that the emitted heat is proportional to the erased information of the system. Thus, information accumulates heat in black hole horizons, which have been found to be two dimensional; whereas information-free areas are energy rich and cold. The principle of static time dictates information and dimensional complementarity between antipodal areas of the universe. Two dimensional, positive curvature black holes must be balanced by negative curvature, four dimensional white holes, which expand space and lead to the experience of ‘dark energy.’ Positive curvature forms great field strength, which stabilizes the universe with a pressure experienced as excess gravity, called dark matter. Enhanced field strength leads to clumping, forming planets, stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters, which slows expansion. The dimensional anisotropy (two in the black holes and four in the white holes) straddle unstable three dimensional galactic environments between them. An object’s position in space corresponds to a freely hanging plumb. Deviations in angle of that plumb (position of the object) – thereby changes the equilibrium of the whole universe and leads to inertia, a force that is proportional to both the mass of the object and the field strength (i.e. radial topological distance from the center). Therefore inertia is greatest in the vicinity of the black holes. On the positively curved polar surfaces of space (such as a planet) a path that curves toward the pole forms the shortest distance. On positive curving temporal surfaces the shortest time is acceleration, which leads to the twin paradox. The hypothesis is congruent with the latest CMB data, satisfies Mach’s principle as well as Occam’s razor by uncovering a surprisingly simple, stable and unified alignment of the universe. This new physical world view is presented without equations, reflecting the futility of a universal calculation method.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1598] **viXra:1704.0302 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-30 10:01:48*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

Powszechnie uważa się, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a z 1887 roku oraz eksperyment Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a z 1932 roku wykazały, że nie istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter) oraz, że prędkość światła w próżni jest absolutnie stała.
Analiza tych eksperymentów doprowadziła do powstania Szczególnej Teorii Względności (STW). W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia.
W tym artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza.
Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter). Eter jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku.
W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem eteru, prędkość światła może być inna. W oparciu o nową transformację została stworzona Szczególna Teoria Eteru (STE).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1597] **viXra:1704.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-25 16:15:36*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple
galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time convergence (TC) rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant
expansion with apparent decreasing time intervals. TC is a corollary of Minkowski’s
assertion that ”Whatever happens to space also happens to time”, and can be conceptualized
as a linear perspective in the time dimension.
TC proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event
over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale. Thus,
accelerated expansion is interpreted to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
Please note that TC is not time dilation. Time intervals do not actually decrease per distance, rather appear to decrease per distance similar to linear spatial perspective from subtended arcs. Thus, there is no contradiction or violation of special relativity nor GR
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TC.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1596] **viXra:1704.0235 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-20 09:51:08*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple
galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
”Time interval distortion” rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion with apparent decreasing time intervals.
TC is a corollary of Minkowski’s assertion that ”Whatever happens to space also happens to time”, and can be conceptualized as a linear perspective in the time dimension.
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale. Thus, Accelerated expansion is interpreted to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion
from constant expansion with TC.
TC provides alternative explanations for: Accelerated expansion, Rotational and recessive velocities approaching c, as superluminal velocities. Also, a potential explanation for galaxy rotational curves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1595] **viXra:1704.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-21 09:23:53*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A simple observational test of a proposed cosmological model with radial time and spherical space is introduced. It is shown briefly how the proposed model which can solve many problems of cosmology is wrongly excluded.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1594] **viXra:1704.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 11:22:25*

**Authors:** Henry-Couannier Frederic

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This article continues the exploration of the Dark Gravity Theory which foundationsand some consequences we have detailed in two previous article

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1593] **viXra:1704.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-14 04:32:14*

**Authors:** Henry-Couannier Frederic

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This article continues the exploration of the Dark Gravity Theory which foundationsand some consequences we have detailed in two previous article

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1592] **viXra:1704.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-11 12:54:04*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles
into the oscillating Axion /Axion Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively into chunky nuclei of primary dark matter black holes.
Now recent HST observations show us a possible retarded splitting process at 10.8 billion light years (called CDF-S-XT1) and even a dual energy source which seem to point to an early Herbig Haro system at even 13.1 billion light years ( MACS1423-z7p64)
The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time.
The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles.
Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster.
If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Axion Higgs field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1591] **viXra:1704.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-15 14:21:29*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance.
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale.
TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from TC (Time Convergence).
Note: Also included are sections showing how this same concept of time interval distortion is applicable to superpostion at nanoscales.
Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of time, from past to present, in his single moment, like a time-lapse. For example, an electron orbital, viewed in a single moment represents a time interval from −∆t (past) to +∆t future. Unlike superposition, modulus states do
progress in time between ground and excited.
In section 5, I provide a potential mesoscopic proof, with two observations, separated in time, representing the exact same event.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1590] **viXra:1704.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-11 16:15:33*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Therefore, I
focus on explaining accelerated expansion as a function of distance, since the same body varies in radial velocity per distance.
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at
classic scale.
TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from TC (Time Convergence).
Note: Also included are sections showing how this same concept of time interval distortion is applicable to superpostion at nanoscales.
Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of time, from past to present, in his single moment, like a
time-lapse. For example, an electron orbital, viewed in a single moment represents a time interval from −∆t (past) to +∆t future. Unlike superposition, modulus states do
progress in time between ground and excited.
In section 5, I provide a potential mesoscopic proof, with two observations, separated in time, representing the exact same event.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1589] **viXra:1704.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-10 10:22:14*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

I explain the primary mysteries of cosmology and quantum mechanics, by proposing that time intervals appear to vary between scales of great magnitude.
In macroscopic scales time appears to converge (contract per distance), and in nanoscopic scales time appears to diverge (expand).
In Section 8, I provide strong evidence of my supposition with a correlation study which shows multiple galaxies with increased velocity on their
far sides.
In section 9, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with time convergence.
Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at
classic scale.
TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3.
Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of time, from past to present, in his single moment, like a
time-lapse. For example, an electron orbital, viewed in a single moment represents a time interval from −∆t (past) to +∆t future. Unlike superposition, modulus states do
progress in time between ground and excited.
In section 5, I provide a potential mesoscopic proof, with two observations, separated in time, representing the exact same event.
TD explains the orbital gaps as simply the portions of rotation that are outside of this time range.
TD predicts that wave collapse occurs when the introduction of an intermediate apparatus (such as a detector), brings the observation (from source to effect) to
essentially the same scale.
TD offers an alternate explanation to the ”undetermined probability wavefunction Ψ”.
Explanations, resolutions and insights gained:
In macroscales: Accelerated expansion, Galaxy rotation and centripetal force, Superluminal recession of galaxies.
I nanoscales: The cloud appearance of electron orbits, The gaps between electron orbits, The shapes of orbitals, Collapse and duality, Why orbital density appears closest
to nucleus, TD suggests that information about energy states and position can be gained from comparing observations at two separate points in time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1588] **viXra:1704.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-30 10:08:47*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 19 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction

In the article, the whole class of time and position transformations was derived. These transformations were derived based on the analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment and its improved version, that is the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment.
It is possible to derive a different kinematics of bodies based on each of these transformations. In this way, we demonstrated that the Special Theory of Relativity is not the only theory explaining the results of experiments with light.
There is the whole continuum of the theories of kinematics of bodies which correctly explain the Michelson-Morley experiment and other experiments in which the velocity of light is measured.
Based on the derived transformations, we derive the general formula for the velocity of light in vacuum measured in any inertial reference system. We explain why the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether.
We present and discuss three examples of specific transformations. Finally, we explain the phenomenon of anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation by means of the presented theory.
The theory derived in this work is called the Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1587] **viXra:1704.0104 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-30 10:13:30*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 19 Pages. In Polish. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction

W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje te zostały wyprowadzone na podstawie analizy eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz jego udoskonalonej wersji czyli eksperymentu Kennedyego-Thorndikea.
Na podstawie każdej z tych transformacji można wyprowadzić inną kinematykę ciał. W ten sposób wykazaliśmy, że Szczególna Teoria Względności nie jest jedyną teorią wyjaśniającą wyniki eksperymentów ze światłem.
Istnieje całe kontinuum teorii kinematyki ciał, które prawidłowo wyjaśniają eksperyment Michelsona-Morleya oraz inne eksperymenty, w których mierzona jest prędkość światła.
Na podstawie wyprowadzonych transformacji wyprowadzamy ogólny wzór na prędkość światła w próżni mierzoną w dowolnym inercjalnym układzie odniesienia. Wyjaśniamy dlaczego eksperymenty Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea nie mogły wykryć eteru.
Przedstawiamy i dyskutujemy trzy przykłady konkretnych transformacji. Na koniec wyjaśniamy zjawisko anizotropii mikrofalowego promieniowania tła przy pomocy przedstawionej teorii.
Wyprowadzoną w tej pracy teorię nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru - z dowolnym skróceniem poprzecznym.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1586] **viXra:1704.0062 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-09 07:27:31*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An alternate explanation to Michelson and Morley’s null result is presented. The dilemma is resolved by the approach that the medium is not separate from matter, rather, it is comprised of a field of quantum particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1585] **viXra:1704.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-19 21:10:18*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper uncovers the reason why gravity obeys an inverse square law and not, for example, an inverse cubic law, or any other law with any other power. A relativistic approach, along with the scale law and the Plank force, are the tools I used to derive the Newton's law of universal gravitation. I also show that the approach presented here is, qualitatively, in agreement with Einstein's general relativity field equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1584] **viXra:1704.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-02 14:23:34*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper uncovers the reason why gravity obeys an inverse square law and not, for example, an inverse cubic law, or any other law with any other power. A relativistic approach, coupled to the scale law and the Plank force, are the tools used to derive the Newton's law of universal gravitation. I also show that the approach presented here is, qualitatively, in agreement with Einstein's general relativity's field equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1583] **viXra:1704.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-20 15:21:01*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper uncovers the reason why gravity obeys an inverse square law and not, for example, an inverse cubic law, or any other law with any other power. A relativistic approach is sufficient to understand the answer to this question as the answer is not obvious. I also show that the approach presented here is, qualitatively, in agreement with Einstein's general relativity's field equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1582] **viXra:1704.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-05 06:03:48*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Abstract
In this paper a new approach to the Hubble constant has produced two values
One for the expansion of galaxies in the universe at H0m=38.565KmS-1Mpc-1 giving the age of the universe T0m=25.3425x109 Years and the other the expansion of the space or the opening of the space (inflation, creation of more space or expansion of radiation) at H0R=77.13KmS-1Mpc-1 giving apparent age of the universe at about T0R=12.67125x109 Years exactly half the real age of the universe. Hence showing that the both teams of Gérard de Vaucouleurs, later by Sidney van den Bergh claiming a high value for the Hubble constant and the team of Allan Sandage, later by prof Gustav Tammann claiming a low value of the Hubble constant are both correct and there approach had been different, one team looking at the expansion (inflation) of space and the other team looking at the expansion of the galaxies.
Furthermore the value of Ω≈1 has been resulted from this new approach, which indicates the value of omega is universally equal to 1 and fluctuates locally in all parts of the universe to allow the formation of galaxies and cluster of galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1581] **viXra:1704.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-09 07:22:25*

**Authors:** Chuck Bennett

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An elemental particle is proposed to facilitate the increase in mass under relativistic conditions. The conservation of energy is invoked to justify the conservation of mass and thus the new particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1580] **viXra:1703.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-06 15:02:35*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract. The Lorentz transformation of the special theory of relativity (STR) describes the time dilation between two reference frames moving relative to each other at a constant speed. The present work focuses on the fact that the time observed on the ‘other’ system depends on the location of the clocks used for time comparisons. First, the paper presents a unified framework for the various ‘observational principles’, i.e. the specification of which clocks to apply; throughout restricting to consider a single space coordinate. Next we suggest that the time can be defined by a two-dimensional variables, involving both ‘clock time’ and position. This two-dimensional (time, space)-vector intends to alleviate the inherent paradox of time dilation. One suggestion is to formulate this vector as a complex number. Here both the absolute value, as well as the real and imaginary part have simple interpretations. The real part is denoted ‘positional time’ and is actually invariant under the Lorentz transformation. The paper also includes a discussion of the travelling twin example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1579] **viXra:1703.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-30 13:36:25*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Lorentz transformation of the special theory of relativity (STR) describes the time dilation between two reference frames moving relative to each other at a constant speed. The present work focuses on the fact that the time observed on the ‘other’ system depends on the location of the clocks used for time comparisons. First, the paper presents a unified framework for the various ‘observational principles’, i.e. the specification of which clocks to apply; throughout restricting to consider a single space coordinate. Next we suggest that the time can be defined by a two-dimensional variables, involving both ‘clock time’ and position. This two-dimensional (time, space)-vector intends to alleviate the inherent paradox of time dilation. One suggestion is to formulate this vector as a complex number. Here both the absolute value, as well as the real and imaginary part have simple interpretations. The real part is denoted ‘positional time’ and is actually invariant under the Lorentz transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1578] **viXra:1703.0275 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-10 03:17:27*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 175 Pages.

A new model and theoretical framework of absolute motion and the speed of light is proposed in this paper. 1. For absolutely co-moving light source S and observer O, with uniform rectilinear motion, the effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the position of the source relative to the observer. The apparent source, just as the real source, is at rest relative to the observer and the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. Therefore, the procedure of analysis of a light speed experiment in this case is to replace the real source by an apparent source and analyze the experiment by assuming that the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. Once the real source is replaced with an apparent source to account for absolute velocity, we assume emission theory in which the group velocity of light is constant relative to the (apparent) source and depends on mirror velocity. The position of the apparent source is determined by assuming the ether to calculate the time delay of light emitted by the source and detected directly by the observer and interpreting the change in time delay as being due to an apparent change in the source position relative to the observer, rather than as being a result of varying speed of light which would be the case if the ether existed. In this paper it is revealed that the ether doesn’t exist but absolute motion does exist. 2. For all other cases/experiments in which the light source S, an observer A and mirrors have independent, arbitrary absolute and relative velocities, for uniform rectilinear motion and for accelerated motion, including rotation, the experiment is analyzed according to the following principle: an observer A who is at a given point relative to the light source, at a given instant of time, observes what a co-moving observer at that point is observing at that instant of time . A co-moving observer O is defined in this paper as an observer who is at a given point in the reference frame of the source at the instant of light emission and continues to move with the same velocity (magnitude and direction) as the velocity of the source at the instant of light emission. For example, to determine the time instant when light emitted by a source is observed by an arbitrary observer (A) with known initial position and motion (velocity and acceleration) at the instant of light emission, we find a point relative to the source where a co-moving observer O at that point observes light at the time instant that observer A is passing through that point. 3. The phase velocity of light is constant, independent of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity of light is independent of source absolute velocity, but depends on observer absolute velocity and on mirror velocity. 4. A new law of Exponential Doppler effect of light is proposed as: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e - V/c , where V is the source observer relative velocity. 5. Light has dual natures: local and non-local, constant (phase) velocity and variable ( group) velocity, behaving according to both ether (wave) theory and emission (particle) theory. Static electric and magnetic fields also have dual nature: finite and infinite speed of transmission 6. Inertia is electromagnetic radiation reaction. The speed of light is the universal limit on absolute velocities of all physical objects in the universe. The mass (inertia) increase of electrons with velocity is due to non-linear law of electromagnetic radiation power and radiation reaction. As the absolute velocity of a body approaches the speed of light, any further acceleration will result in or require increasingly infinite amounts of radiation power and radiation reaction. 7. Gravity is a difference between electrostatic attraction and repulsion forces. 8. Absolute velocity of an object is the resultant of its mass weighed velocities relative to all massive objects in the universe. The universal principle that applies to all light speed experiments is : an observer at a given point relative to the source, at a given instant of time , observes the same light phenomenon being observed by a co-moving observer at that point, at that instant of time. A co-moving observer is an observer that continues to move at the same velocity the source had at the instant of light emission. However, a more convenient procedure for experiments involving rectilinear motions is : 1. Replace the real source by an apparent source 2. Determine the velocity of the apparent source relative to the observer 3. Analyze the experiment by assuming that the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source; i.e. once the real source is replaced by an apparent source , we apply (modified) emission theory in which the group velocity is constant relative to the apparent source and depends on mirror velocity, but the phase velocity is always constant. Physically ( intuitively ) the group velocity ( magnitude and direction) of light varies relative to the real source, due to absolute motion of the source. AST is a modified emission theory, a fusion between emission theory and ether theory. In the Sagnac experiment, the source appears farther away than its physical distance when looking in the backward direction and closer than its actual/ physical distance in the forward direction, relative to the detector. Physically this means that the velocity of light is c + Vabs in the backward direction and c - Vabs in the forward direction, relative to the source , hence a fringe shift at the detector. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in the position of the light source relative the detector does not create a fringe shift, for the same reason that an actual ( physical ) change of the source position doesn't create any significant fringe shift. The group velocity of light relative to the source moving with absolute velocity Vabs is c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction. Therefore, the velocity of light relative to a stationary observer will be: (c - Vabs ) + Vabs = c and (c + Vabs ) - Vabs = c . The (group) velocity of light changes relative to the source in such a way that it will not be affected by source velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1577] **viXra:1703.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-19 14:38:46*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Prof. Reg Cahill has reported [1] that Random Event Generator (REG) devices can detect passage of dynamical 3-space waves. Herein we describe an attempt to ﬁnd additional evidence for this discovery, using data from a REG located in Perth, Australia and from another in Manchester, U.K., for ﬁfteen days centered on each full moon during a period of one year.
For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by ﬁtting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination, speed and associated standard deviations for the waves of each day.
Following this we examined the directions and speeds to determine if they were consistent with a real physical phenomena, rather than being artifacts of random correlations. To this end we made use of probability density plots and other statistical techniques.
On the way we recognized that wave orientation is not the same as 3-space ﬂow direction and that it is the latter rather than the former which is of principle interest. Geometry implies that variation of ﬂow speed will cause the detected speeds of wave fronts moving parallel to 3-space ﬂow to have larger standard deviations than those moving across the ﬂow. On this basis we preferentially selected the 50% of days with the largest speed standard deviations as being the most likely proxies for space ﬂow direction.
A probability density plot of directions for these days exhibited a peak near RA = 4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming 3-space ﬂow direction by Cahill [3] and Dayton Miller [8]. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inﬂow velocities from the observed velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with what one would expect of a real physical phenomena. The peak indicated a most probable galactic ﬂow direction of RA = 4.14 h, dec = −77.8 deg, and wave speed of 500 km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1576] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-07 21:14:54*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 21 Pages. One reference added and typos corrected. Comments welcome.

It seems possible to suggest the evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo from the quantum vacuum, without leading to catastrophic events. The physicalized presentation of the Universe is interpreted as 'Brain of the Universe', which gives access to 'God's thoughts' (Albert Einstein) with spacetime engineering performed by the human brain embedded in the Brain of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1575] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-02 06:35:58*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Comments welcome.

It seems possible to suggest the evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo from the quantum vacuum, without leading to catastrophic events. The physicalized presentation of the Universe is interpreted as 'Brain of the Universe', which gives access to 'God's thoughts' (Albert Einstein) with spacetime engineering performed by the human brain embedded in the Brain of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1574] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-29 18:35:38*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Two references added and typos corrected.

It seems possible to suggest the evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo from the quantum vacuum, without leading to catastrophic events. The physicalized presentation of the Universe is interpreted as 'Brain of the Universe', which gives access to 'God's thoughts' (Albert Einstein) with spacetime engineering performed by the human brain embedded in the Brain of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1573] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-27 09:07:07*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 20 Pages. One drawing two references added. Comments welcome.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1572] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-25 11:29:54*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 19 Pages. One drawing added and text expanded. Comments welcome.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1571] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-19 10:53:37*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Title changed and abstract expanded. Comments welcome.

It seems possible to suggest the evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo from the quantum vacuum, without leading to any catastrophic event. The physicalized presentation of the Universe is interpreted as 'Brain of the Universe', which gives access to 'God's thoughts' (Albert Einstein) with spacetime engineering performed by the human brain embedded in the Brain of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1570] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-16 04:36:41*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Final version. Comments welcome.

It seems possible to suggest an evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo from the quantum vacuum, yet may not lead to catastrophic events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1569] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-14 06:16:48*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Typos corrected and one reference added. Final version.

It seems possible to suggest an evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo from the quantum vacuum, yet may not lead to catastrophic events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1568] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-11 17:35:51*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 17 Pages. One question answered and two references added. Comments welcome.

It seems possible to suggest an evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo from the quantum vacuum, yet may not lead to catastrophic events.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1567] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-09 13:21:11*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Final version.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1566] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-07 17:40:20*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Comments welcome.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1565] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-06 06:36:55*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Comments welcome.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1564] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-04 07:08:25*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Three references added and text expanded. Comments welcome.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1563] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-02 15:19:49*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. One drawing added and typos corrected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1562] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-30 05:03:35*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Text expanded and two references added.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1561] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-27 14:52:23*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. References added and text expanded. Comments welcome.

It seems possible to suggest an evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo of mass and energy from the quantum vacuum, yet does not lead to any catastrophic event.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1560] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-24 13:28:35*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Text added and typos (hardly all) corrected. Comments welcome.

It seems possible to suggest a hypothetical evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo of mass and energy from the quantum vacuum, yet does not lead to any catastrophic event.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1559] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-23 18:54:29*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Typos corrected, text expanded.

It seems possible to suggest a hypothetical evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo of mass and energy from the quantum vacuum, yet does not lead to any catastrophic event.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1558] **viXra:1703.0221 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-22 22:35:26*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1557] **viXra:1703.0221 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-22 07:03:58*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1556] **viXra:1703.0221 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-23 07:36:53*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

abstract:shows a veiwpoint with regards to the dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1555] **viXra:1703.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-04 13:38:15*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Until the early twentieth century, the three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time were considered separate beings. In 1908, German mathematician H. Minkowski connected together space and time into single idea, creating a new the four-dimensional spacetime. We proposed the extension of this idea by the connection together the four-dimensional spacetime and the mass density into the single idea, creating a new entity: the four-dimensional spacetime with the mass density. In this paper we discussed the physical consequences of this a new idea in terms of the gravitational phenomena.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1554] **viXra:1703.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-03 08:02:05*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages. The second version replaces the first for an error in the title of paper

The dark universe represents a concept of present physics and cosmology that regards whether great stellar systems or elementary particles. The first question, that has to be considered, concerns its effective existence because there are at present only a few experimental proofs and its existence is purely theoretical and it is due to the difference between total matter and energy predicted by theoretical calculations and those deriving from experimental measurements. The second question regards its physical nature. In general at least a part of dark matter is explained in the present physics by the gravitational theory like in the event of black holes. In the order of the Theory of Reference Frames (TR) dark matter, in all possible shapes including black holes, is explained by the relativistic theory of the Doppler Effect, whether for cosmological systems or for elementary particles and besides the Doppler Effect represents also an useful theoretical tool for explaining the physical behaviour of variable stars and galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1553] **viXra:1703.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-04 01:50:43*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Translational symmetry in one-dimensional space requires the distance
between two objects moving at equal speed under equal acceleration to
be constant in time. However, motion between the object and the
observer is relative. Therefore, this distance is constant in time for
an accelerating observer. Consequently, the length of an accelerating
object is constant in time. The length of an moving object in the direction of
motion is independent of its speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1552] **viXra:1703.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-20 12:15:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is obvious that the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) applies only to systems containing physical inertial reference systems, each equipped with a physical clock initially synchronized with other clocks. This leads to the conclusion that it is easy to prove that SR is logically inconsistent when we try to describe, via SR, a system in which listed above two conditions, i.e. inertia and initial synchronization, are simultaneously not satisfied. Contrary to the SR based on the Lorentz Transformation, the SR based on the law of conservation of spin shows that we cannot synchronize clocks separated spatially with non-zero relative velocity (both theories lead to the same formulae). Here we described the initial conditions which must be satisfied to obtain a system composed of physical inertial reference systems with initially synchronized physical clocks. In previous papers we showed why SR sometimes leads to formulae which do not concern Nature - it applies to the SR contraction in length and phenomena in which, apart from radial velocities automatically appear, due to flows in the Einstein spacetime, transverse velocities also.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1551] **viXra:1703.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-18 11:22:10*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is obvious that the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) applies only to systems containing physical inertial reference systems, each equipped with a physical clock initially synchronized with other clocks. This leads to the conclusion that it is easy to prove that SR is logically inconsistent when we try to describe, via SR, a system in which listed above two conditions, i.e. inertia and initial synchronization, are simultaneously not satisfied. Contrary to the SR based on the Lorentz Transformation, the SR based on the law of conservation of spin shows that we cannot synchronize clocks separated spatially with non-zero relative velocity (both theories lead to the same formulae). Here we described the initial conditions which must be satisfied to obtain a system composed of physical inertial reference systems with initially synchronized physical clocks. In previous papers we showed why SR sometimes leads to formulae which do not concern Nature - it applies to the SR contraction in length and phenomena in which, apart from radial velocities automatically appear, due to flows in the Einstein spacetime, transverse velocities also.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1550] **viXra:1703.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-17 06:48:56*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is obvious that the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) applies only to systems containing physical inertial reference systems, each equipped with a physical clock initially synchronized with other clocks. This leads to the conclusion that it is easy to prove that SR is logically inconsistent when we try to describe, via SR, a system in which listed above two conditions, i.e. inertia and initial synchronization, are simultaneously not satisfied. Contrary to the SR based on the Lorentz Transformation, the SR based on the law of conservation of spin shows that we cannot synchronize clocks separated spatially with non-zero relative velocity (both theories lead to the same formulae). Here we described the initial conditions which must be satisfied to obtain a system composed of physical inertial reference systems with initially synchronized physical clocks. In previous papers we showed why SR sometimes leads to formulae which do not concern Nature - it applies to the SR contraction in length and phenomena in which, apart from radial velocities automatically appear, due to flows in the Einstein spacetime, transverse velocities also.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1549] **viXra:1703.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-05 11:17:56*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Length contraction is a principal feature of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is purported to be independent of position, being a function only of uniform relative velocity, via systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers and the Lorentz Transformation. However, a system of stationary observers reports not length contraction but length expansion. Two observers in a system of clock-synchronised observers assign a common length contraction, but at the expense of time dilation and of being stationary. Systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers are logically inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Consequently, the Theory of Relativity is false due to an insurmountable intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1548] **viXra:1703.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-20 13:52:47*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. embedding figure in body of paper

Our universe probably began as an offshoot or "bud" of the "Multiverse"; the latter, as usually envisioned, is truly eternal and infinite, the "scientific" (or "rational") substitute for typical metaphysical notions of "God". The "given" physical constants of our universe which cannot be derived from first principles (such as the value of "velocity c"), find their origins quite naturally in the Multiverse. All else (in the abiotic realm) can be explained through general considerations of energy and symmetry conservation (Noether's Theorem), or, in the biotic realm, by Darwin's Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1547] **viXra:1703.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-20 08:02:37*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. adding new diagram (see bottom of paper)

Our universe probably began as an offshoot or "bud" of the "Multiverse"; the latter, as usually envisioned, is truly eternal and infinite, the "scientific" (or "rational") substitute for typical metaphysical notions of "God". The "given" physical constants of our universe which cannot be derived from first principles (such as the value of "velocity c"), find their origins quite naturally in the Multiverse. All else (in the abiotic realm) can be explained through general considerations of energy and symmetry conservation (Noether's Theorem), or, in the biotic realm, by Darwin's Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1546] **viXra:1703.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-29 15:34:25*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Additional section added to postscript regarding gravity.

Our universe probably began as an offshoot or "bud" of the "Multiverse"; the latter, as usually envisioned, is truly eternal and infinite, the "scientific" (or "rational") substitute for typical metaphysical notions of "God". The "given" physical constants of our universe which cannot be derived from first principles (such as the value of "velocity c"), find their origins quite naturally in the Multiverse. All else (in the abiotic realm) can be explained through general considerations of energy and symmetry conservation (Noether's Theorem), or, in the biotic realm, by Darwin's Theory. It is to be noted that in a truly infinite Multiverse (or one that is otherwise "sufficiently large"), difficulties associated with probability/improbability and time (or lack thereof) simply do not apply. The only limitations that would seem to restrict productions from the Multiverse are due to certain conservation laws (Energy, Entropy, Charge, Causality, etc.).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1545] **viXra:1703.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-26 19:08:48*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 6 Pages. large postscript added

Our universe probably began as an offshoot or "bud" of the "Multiverse"; the latter, as usually envisioned, is truly eternal and infinite, the "scientific" (or "rational") substitute for typical metaphysical notions of "God". The "given" physical constants of our universe which cannot be derived from first principles (such as the value of "velocity c"), find their origins quite naturally in the Multiverse. All else (in the abiotic realm) can be explained through general considerations of energy and symmetry conservation (Noether's Theorem), or, in the biotic realm, by Darwin's Theory. It is to be noted that in a truly infinite Multiverse (or one that is otherwise "sufficiently large"), difficulties associated with probability/improbability and time (or lack thereof) simply do not apply. The only limitations that would seem to restrict productions from the Multiverse are due to certain conservation laws (Energy, Entropy, Charge, Causality, etc.).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1544] **viXra:1703.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-01 11:58:30*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Time dilation is a principal feature of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is purported to be independent of position, being a function only of uniform relative velocity, via the Lorentz Transformation. However, it is not possible for a 'clock-synchronised stationary system' of observers K to assign a definite time to any 'event' relative to a 'moving system' k using the Lorentz Transformation. Consequently, the Theory of Relativity is false due to an insurmountable intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1543] **viXra:1703.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-14 04:25:54*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Time dilation is a principal feature of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is purported to be independent of position, being a function only of uniform relative velocity, via the Lorentz Transformation. However, it is not possible for a 'clock-synchronised stationary system' of observers K to assign a definite time to any 'event' relative to a 'moving system' k using the Lorentz Transformation. Consequently, the Theory of Relativity is false due to an insurmountable intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1542] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-14 06:16:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formulae for relativistic mass and time dilation on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation. Notice as well that the reciprocation of the SR time dilation (each observer claims that the moving clocks are time dilated) suggests that the SR is an incomplete theory. Generally, theories starting from the Lorentz Transformation lead to correct formulae because we incorrectly assume that the relativistic mass is always not real. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the consistent SR and General Theory of Relativity (GR), instead starting from the invariant speed of light, must start from the law of conservation of spin (it concerns the spin-0 particles as well). The origin of the SR reciprocation is considered. We showed that grainy spacetime, commonness of spinning vortices of matter inside particles and conservation of spin lead directly to the SR and to the GR formula for the gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1541] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-12 05:22:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formulae for relativistic mass and time dilation on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation. Notice as well that the reciprocation of the SR time dilation (each observer claims that the moving clocks are time dilated) suggests that the SR is an incomplete theory. Generally, theories starting from the Lorentz Transformation lead to correct formulae because we incorrectly assume that the relativistic mass is always not real. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the consistent SR and General Theory of Relativity (GR), instead starting from the invariant speed of light, must start from the law of conservation of spin (it concerns the spin-0 particles as well). The origin of the SR reciprocation is considered. We showed that grainy spacetime, commonness of spinning vortices of matter inside particles and conservation of spin lead directly to the SR and to the GR formula for the gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1540] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-11 13:06:30*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formulae for relativistic mass and time dilation on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation. Notice as well that the reciprocation of the SR time dilation (each observer claims that the moving clocks are time dilated) suggests that the SR is an incomplete theory. Generally, theories starting from the Lorentz Transformation lead to correct formulae because we incorrectly assume that the relativistic mass is always not real. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the consistent SR and General Theory of Relativity (GR), instead starting from the invariant speed of light, must start from the law of conservation of spin (it concerns the spin-0 particles as well). The origin of the SR reciprocation is considered. We showed that grainy spacetime, commonness of spinning vortices of matter inside particles and conservation of spin lead directly to the SR and to the GR formula for the gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1539] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-11 06:24:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formulae for relativistic mass and time dilation on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation. Notice as well that the reciprocation of the SR time dilation (each observer claims that the moving clocks are time dilated) suggests that the SR is an incomplete theory. The origin of the SR reciprocation is considered. We showed that grainy spacetime, commonness of spinning vortices of matter inside particles and conservation of spin lead directly to the SR and to the General-Theory-of-Relativity (GR) formula for gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1538] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-10 12:29:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formulae for relativistic mass and time dilation on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation. Notice as well that the reciprocation of the SR time dilation (each observer claims that the moving clocks are time dilated) suggests that the SR is an incomplete theory. Here we showed the origin of the SR reciprocation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1537] **viXra:1703.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-31 09:08:54*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity requires systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers and the Lorentz Transformation. Without both, the Theory of Relativity fails. A system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is proven inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation, because it is Galilean. The Special Theory of Relativity insists that Galilean systems must transform not by the Galilean Transformation, but by the non-Galilean Lorentz Transformation. The Theory of Relativity is therefore invalid due to an intrinsic logical contradiction

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1536] **viXra:1703.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-16 09:58:27*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physicists since Einstein have assumed that a system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is consistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Without both, the Theory of Relativity fails. Herein I assure a stationary system of observers by mathematical construction and then prove that a system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1535] **viXra:1703.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-14 11:06:34*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity employs both a system of clock-synchronised stationary observers and the Lorentz Transformation. Without both the Theory of Relativity fails. A system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is proven inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. The Theory of Relativity is therefore invalid due to an intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1534] **viXra:1703.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-07 07:05:22*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity employs both clock synchronisation and the Lorentz Transformation. Without both the Theory of Relativity fails. Clock synchronisation is proven inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. The Theory of Relativity is therefore invalid due to an intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1533] **viXra:1703.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-17 16:10:15*

**Authors:** Richard J. Benish

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Fixed subscripts in Eq. (4). Other minor changes.

Human ideas of how life and consciousness relate to mathematics and physics are conditioned by the fact that we have lived our lives on a 5.97 x 10^24 kg ball of matter. These ideas would arguably be different if we had evolved instead inside a large rotating world far from astronomical bodies. Contemplating the latter perspective provides some insight on how prevailing views may be in error and how to correct them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1532] **viXra:1703.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-13 09:40:26*

**Authors:** M. B. Cilek

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Copyright M.B.Cilek - All Rights Reserved

General Theory of Relativity constitutes the framework for our understanding of the universe, with an emphasis on gravity. Many of Einstein’s predictions have been verified experimentally but General and Special Theories of Relativity contain several anomalies and paradoxes, yet to be answered. Also, there are serious conflicts with Quantum Mechanics; gravity being the weakest and least understood force, is a major problem.
Supported by clear experimental evidence, it is theorised that gravity is not a field or spacetime curvature effect, but rather has a flow mechanism. This is not an alternative theory of gravity with an alternative metric. Established laws and equations from Newton and Einstein are essentially left unchanged. However, spacetime curvature is replaced with flow, producing a refined and compatible theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1531] **viXra:1703.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-13 07:58:17*

**Authors:** M. B. Cilek

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Copyright M.B.Cilek - All Rights Reserved

General Theory of Relativity constitutes the framework for our understanding of the universe, with an emphasis on gravity. Many of Einstein’s predictions have been verified experimentally but General and Special Theories of Relativity contain several anomalies and paradoxes, yet to be answered. Also, there are serious conflicts with Quantum Mechanics; gravity being the weakest and least understood force, is a major problem.
Supported by clear experimental evidence, it is theorised that gravity is not a field or spacetime curvature effect, but rather has a flow mechanism. This is not an alternative theory of gravity with an alternative metric. Established laws and equations from Newton and Einstein are essentially left unchanged. However, spacetime curvature is replaced with flow, producing a refined and compatible theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1530] **viXra:1703.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-04 03:52:10*

**Authors:** M. B. Cilek

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Copyright M.B.Cilek - All Rights Reserved

General Theory of Relativity constitutes the framework for our understanding of the universe, with an emphasis on gravity. Many of Einstein’s predictions have been verified experimentally but General and Special Theories of Relativity contain several anomalies and paradoxes, yet to be answered. Also, there are serious conflicts with Quantum Mechanics; gravity being the weakest and least understood force, is a major problem.
Supported by clear experimental evidence, it is theorised that gravity is not a field or spacetime curvature effect, but rather has a flow mechanism. This is not an alternative theory of gravity with an alternative metric. Established laws and equations from Newton and Einstein are left unchanged. However, spacetime curvature is replaced with flow, producing a refined and compatible theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1529] **viXra:1703.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-07 23:45:32*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Einstein's method of synchronising clocks in his Special Theory of Relativity is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation, despite the latter being a fundamental component of his theory. This inconsistency subverts the very foundations of Special Relativity because it follows that Einstein's time dilation and length contraction are also quite generally inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Moreover, clock synchronisation is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Clock synchronisation and the Lorentz Transformation are mutually exclusive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1528] **viXra:1702.0314 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-07 12:01:39*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

As a result of the superposition of non-collinear relativistic velocities, apart from the resultant velocity, a component of turn is obtained which is called the Thomas-Wigner rotation. The paper discusses the Lorentz transformation using the paravector calculus. It has been shown that any Lorentz rotation is a combination of real velocity and a Euclidean rotation, and that as a result of the superposition of appropriately selected velocities any object can rotate in place, which may indicate the fallacy of the idea of the Lorentz rotation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology