**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(28) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(35) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(29)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(31) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(39) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(33) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(33) - 1605(30) - 1606(44) - 1607(21) - 1608(40) - 1609(47) - 1610(31) - 1611(47) - 1612(33)

2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(48) - 1705(32) - 1706(31) - 1707(29) - 1708(22)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2557] **viXra:1708.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-20 19:39:10*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In the article "On the Influence of Gravitation on Propagation of Light" 1911, Einstein uses as a basis a homogeneous gravitational field in which there is equal (absolute) gravitational acceleration everywhere. Consequently, in this field there must be also a homogeneous time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2556] **viXra:1708.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-19 16:25:48*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Cosmologists use equivocation, which confuses the public and even themselves. They do this to make sure they can never be wrong in any situation, by never taking a stance one way or the other. Their intent is to deceive to protect their careers and to sell books that say nothing. It is essentially a political tactic that does not belong in science, and neither does cosmology (which is a quasi-religion) as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2555] **viXra:1708.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-18 19:18:40*

**Authors:** Mohamed Abdelwhab

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This study shows that time dilation supposed by Einstein can be derived from absolute time supposed by Newton if Newtonian space is sloped with motion where space of moving frames is sloped with respect to space of the stationary frame of reference. Slope of Newtonian space creates a new kind of energy that causes moving frames to experience slight resistance while moving to forward in Newtonian space; hence, moving frames reverse slightly backward in space. With respect to observers at rest, the sum of the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the moving frame to forward and the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the same frame to backward is equal to the distance ( ) that the light travels vertically in frame from the perspective of the observers in the same frame . The motion of light through the reversed space dilates Newtonian time of the moving frames with respect to the stationary frame of reference, like a car that moves slowly because it is climbing a hill, the time of the moving bodies moves slowly because of the slope of Newtonian space. This work does not aim to prove slope or straightness of space; rather it aims to show that time dilation can be exists in nature as a result of a reaction between Newtonian time and slope of Newtonian space, therefore testing of slope's property must be included in the interests of applied physicists in the next days.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2554] **viXra:1708.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-18 07:54:16*

**Authors:** Mohamed Haj Yousef

**Comments:** 28 Pages. The concept of the Duality of Time is based on a previous research published in The Single Monad Model of the Cosmos (www.amazon.com/dp/1499779844).

Based on the Duality of Time hypothesis, a dynamic, granular and self-contained space-time is introduced and investigated. A new time-time or complex-time Euclidean space is defined and it is shown that the non-Euclidean Minkowski space is the first global approximation of this complex-time space in which the space-time interval becomes invariant between different inertial and non-inertial frames alike. Therefore, in addition to Lorentz factor, the equivalence principle is derived directly from the resulting discrete symmetry. To support this hypothesis, it will be applied to derive the mass-energy equivalence relation directly from fundamental classical principles. It will be also shown that the resulting dynamic quintessence could diminish the cosmological constant discrepancy by 117 orders of magnitude.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2553] **viXra:1708.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-17 11:07:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper will be submitted to Open Physics J.

Many physicists and philosophers alike have debated a long standing puzzle: whether the
space is continuous or discrete. It has been known for long time that most of the existing
cosmology models rely on pseudo-Riemannian metric as the cornerstone of Einsteinian universe. But the metric itself is based on continuum model. It is known that such models have led us to too many (monster) problems, including dark matter and dark energy etc. Now what if the universe is discrete? Then perhaps we can solve these problems
naturally. Despite majority of cosmologists rely on such a Standard Model which is called Lambda CDM theory, we will explore here the redshift theory based on a few of lattice-cellular models, including Lindquist-Wheeler theory and beyond it. We will also touch briefly some peculiar models such as Voronoi tesellattice and also Conrad
Ranzan’s cellular model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2552] **viXra:1708.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-17 01:29:25*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment has been considered as a verification of the validity of Einstein’s postulate of the universal constancy of the speed of light in vacuum. However, it has been shown that the special theory of relativity can be developed by applying only the principle of relativity without the need to postulate the universal constancy of the speed of light and, as a consequence, this raises the question of what role the Michelson-Morley experiment would play in special relativity. In this work we show that the Michelson-Morley experiment can be used to verify the fact that the speed of light is not universal as postulated in Einstein’s special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2551] **viXra:1708.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-17 01:58:54*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Similar to Einstein’s method to formulate a special relativity for inertial reference systems in classical physics, we show that a special relativity can also be formulated for systems of circular reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2550] **viXra:1708.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 12:07:35*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models have singularity problem. Cosmological singularity has been a consequence of excessive symmetry of flow, such as “Hubble’s law”. More realistic one is suggested, based on Newtonian cosmology model but here we include the vertical-rotational effect of the whole Universe. We review a Riccati-type equation obtained by Nurgaliev, and solve the equation numerically with Mathematica. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2549] **viXra:1708.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-15 18:10:58*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments proved that the fundamental constants are changing by the evolution of the universe, this paper tries to give some explanations. We have observed that the proton-to-electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant both are changing over time. Some scientists think the vacuum dielectric constant and the speed of light are changing, too. I agree them. So I finish this paper to explain those experiments and develop those guesses. The constants are changing over time. They are different from early universe. We can't understand why them change now, maybe they change because the change of the entropy because entropy is very closed with time (to know the relation between time and entropy, you can see the note under this paper), I want to prove that in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2548] **viXra:1708.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 01:51:29*

**Authors:** Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s field equations (Fig. 1), mass curves space time and curvature of
space-time dictates the gravitational field around the mass. Based on the interpretation
today of the Einstein’s field equations the curvature of space time causes a smaller
mass B to move towards a greater mass A since it is the shortest geodesic path in the
curved space-time. This article tries to analyze the Einstein field equations in a new
heuristic approach in which curvature of space-time and geodesic path is replaced by
an equivalent dynamic flow of space –time model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2547] **viXra:1708.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-13 07:36:46*

**Authors:** David L. Berkahn, James M. Chappell, Derek Abbott

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The principle of equivalence is used to argue that the known law of decreasing acceleration for high speed motion, in a low acceleration regime, produces the same result as found for a weak gravitational field, with subsequent implications for stronger fields. This result coincides with Hilbert's little explored equation of 1917, regarding the velocity dependence of acceleration under gravity. We derive this result, from first principles exploiting the principle of equivalence, without need for the full general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2546] **viXra:1708.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-13 09:06:24*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

There is fundamental misnomer about what General Relativity describes. This is why Einstein’s field equations do not explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. Dilation fields have two different shapes, spherical and flat. Stellar systems are spherical and have only one shape gradient, and events are evolved forward and accelerated sequentially as the dilation gradient deepens. Flattened spiral galaxies have two types of interacting gradients. From above and below the disk, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. Along the edge the effect is spherical and this causes the circular orbits, as in General Relativity. This paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of the continuum, how events and spaces evolve forward together and how relative velocities equate to forward evolution within the continuum rather than movement through pre-existing, static, spaces. This approach also allows the Hubble shift to be described in terms of time dilation. Since events are always being accelerated in the rate of time, older frames have progressively slower rates the older they are, creating a time dilation gradient. As we are always being accelerated in time and space, objects in older frames must appear to be accelerating away from us. This eliminates the need for Dark Energy. The theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMBR is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at C through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna, translating the force in time into “real” energy. Also, IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 14 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like, which is where the difference in the rate of time between frames, the dRt, = 1 s/s, both looking into a gravity well, and looking outward to the limits of perception.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2545] **viXra:1708.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-11 14:05:34*

**Authors:** T. Yarman, A. L. Kholmetskii, O. Yarman, M. Arik

**Comments:** 5 pages

We provide our reply to a new attempt by C. Corda where he calumniates Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory (http://vixra.org/pdf/1705.0287v1.pdf.). It therefore becomes incumbent upon us to once more demonstrate that the origin of his criticism is based on his misunderstanding of the basic aspects of YARK theory, as well as on his misinterpretation of the outcomes of Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system. All of this came to be despite the fact that we had drawn a final point to his agitations in our recent papers published in Annals of Physics in 2015 and 2016 in response to his adverse behavior.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2544] **viXra:1708.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-11 04:27:33*

**Authors:** Corrado La Posta

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity [1], conceived in 1905 by A. Einstein and now universally applied, involves some theoretical problems as well as some difficulties in the interpretation of experimental facts. Theoretical issues have long been debated [2,4] but have not found a sufficiently good explanation, indeed many interpretations [3,24] appear forceful and prejudicial. The many paradoxes expressed and debated and never clarified are still unresolved. The consequences of adopting a radical point of view, such as the relativistic one, also appear in the Quantum Field Theory, where the Lorentz-covariance formulation of the theory results, with careful analysis, the cause of many of the problems [54, 78].
The experimental point of view, contrary to what is commonly stated, does not undoubtedly support the theory; actually several results [5,42, 78] appear of difficult interpretation and others [6, 75] even in sharp contrast to the theory itself [23, 76].
The analysis of these inconsistencies leads to the assumption that the theory is spoiled by its foundations, that is the postulates, from defective origins that can not be eliminated [40, 77]. An alternative hypothesis, based on different premises, is therefore elaborated in this paper to reach a number of conclusions [81].
Such a different theoretical context recovers certain concepts of classical, mechanical and electrodynamic physics, which are however extended in a relativistic sense. Modifications are introduced in current kinematic, dynamic, electrodynamic and Quantum field theory. The theory thus developed is devoid of paradoxical aspects, adhering to experimental facts and free of divergence problems; superluminary motions are especially possible. Electrodynamic equations are extended into a new invariant form, compatible with Newtonian mechanics. Lorentz's force law is rewritten as a force variable with speed while the mass remains constant. A generalization of the equation of the waves is introduced, from which the equations of the superluminal motion and the equations of the material waves (Schrodinger and Klein-Gordon) can be obtained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2543] **viXra:1708.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-09 01:33:39*

**Authors:** Gary Osborn

**Comments:** 4 pages, no figures

The time shown by a moving clock depends on its history. The Lorentz
transform does not distinguish between the history of an accelerated
clock and a constant velocity clock. The history of the clock can be
assimilated by integrating the first derivative of the Thomas precession
from the time t=0. A definite integral is required because the
unknown trajectory of the clock in the distant past affects its
displayed time. The coordinates are spinning in the second frame of
reference during the integration, but in the definite integral from time
t=0 to time t the spin accumulates to a specific angle. The integral is
equivalent to a Lorentz transform followed by a space rotation. A space
rotation does not affect the invariant quantity r^{2} -
c^{2} t^{2}. The
history of a jerked clock is different than that of an accelerated
clock. The solution in that order is equivalent to a Lorentz transform
followed by two consecutive space rotations in different directions.
Similarly, there are three rotations in the **ä** solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2542] **viXra:1708.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-08 07:08:51*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I applied the method of the second variations of the Calculus of Variations to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Since the Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian for a gravitational field is proportional to the Ricci curvature scalar construction of the Euler-Lagrange equations requires dealing with the tensor quantities from which the Ricci curvature scalar is composed rather than the Ricci curvature scalar itself. As the result of applying this method two Euler-Lagrange equations emerged; both equations yielded the same Einstein’s field
equations in absence of energy-momentum fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2541] **viXra:1708.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 19:00:46*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

- In given article author has summarized and corrected a theory [1 -3] which allows derivation of the unknown relations between the main parameters (energy, time, charge, distance, volume, matter) in the Universe. He finds also the quantum (minimal values) of energy, time, charge, distance, volume and matter and he applied these quantum for estimations of quantum volatility and the estimation of some values of our Universe and received both well-known and new unknown relations.
Author offers possibly valid relations between charge, time, matter, charge, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that in the Universe exists ONLY one substance – ENERGY. Charge, time, matter, volume, fields are evidence of this energy and they can be transformed one to other. Author gives the equations which allow to calculate these transformation like the famous formula E = mc2. Some assumptions about the structure of the Universe follow from these relations.
Most offered equations give results close to approximately known data of Universe, the others allow checking up by experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2540] **viXra:1708.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 04:31:53*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

By means of the Lorentz Transformation, Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity purports invariance of the standard wave equation. Counter-examples, satisfying the Lorentz Transformation, and hence Lorentz Invariance, prove that the Lorentz Transformation does not in fact produce invariance of the standard wave equation. Systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers are Galilean and necessarily transform by the Galilean Transformation. Einstein's insistence that systems of Galilean observers transform, not by the Galilean Transformation, but by the non-Galilean Lorentz Transformation, is logically inconsistent. The Special Theory of Relativity is therefore logically inconsistent. Therefore, it is false. The Lorentz Transformation is meaningless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2539] **viXra:1708.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-04 10:03:35*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 3 Pages, 3 Tables

Abstract
This paper builds on published research regarding psi-lines. Quantitative experiments that are detailed here, demonstrate that psi-lines and the mind are intrinsically connected to the Golden Ratio (1.6180). As this is a universal constant, the conclusion strongly suggests that mind created psi-lines are connected to the structure of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2538] **viXra:1708.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-02 08:33:43*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The wave-particle dual nature of light was discovered from experimental observations and from theoretical works of Max Planck and Albert Einstein during the beginning of the twentieth century. This paper reveals that wave-particle duality is just one aspect of the all dual nature of light (electromagnetic waves) and electromagnetic fields and that light and electromagnetic fields manifest dual natures in other ways also. For example, light is not only a local phenomenon as conventionally viewed, but also a non-local phenomenon. Light behaves both according to classical ether theory and emission theory. Light acts as if it travels both in a straight line and in curved path, at the same time! Electrostatic lines of force behave as if they are both straight and curved lines. Electrostatic fields behave as if they ‘propagate’ both at the speed of light and with infinite speed, at the same time! This paper is a summary of the findings reported in previous papers published by this author. An extensive theoretical research carried out by this author in an attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and other light speed experiments led to uncovering of the broader and more fundamental nature of duality in electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2537] **viXra:1708.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-01 13:31:25*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object’s mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 must be a mistake.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2536] **viXra:1708.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-01 17:13:46*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

This article discusses an electric field in complex space-time. Using an orthogonal paravector transformation that preserves the invariance of the wave equation and does not belong to the Lorentz group, the Gaussian equation has been transformed to obtain the relationships corresponding to the Maxwell equations. These equations are analysed for compliance with classic electrodynamics. Although, the Lorenz gauge condition has been abandoned and two of the modified Maxwell's equations are different from the classical ones, the obtained results are not inconsistent with the experience because they preserve the classical laws of the theory of electricity and magnetism contained therein. In conjunction with the previous papers our purpose is to show that space-time of high velocity has a complex structure that differently orders the laws of classical physics but does not change them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2535] **viXra:1707.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-31 14:29:32*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: (H-Z) x mc^2 "quanta of the universe", universe matter density and the cosmological constant are all closely related to Planck's constant of quantum mechanics save for its time dependence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2534] **viXra:1707.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-29 04:04:04*

**Authors:** Xiaogang Ruan

**Comments:** 25 pages with 4 figures and supplementary information of 13 pages.

The invariance of light speed (ILS) is the mainstay of Einstein's special relativity (SR). However, to this day, we do not even know why the speed of light is invariant, why the speed of light cannot be exceeded, and why the photon has no mass. Here, we have theoretically derived the theory of observational relativity (OR) from the most basic facts and prerequisites, which reveals the truth behind the ILS. OR have unified Einstein's SR and de Broglie's theory of matter wave. More importantly, as the result of logical derivation, the light speed in the Lorenz factor has been replaced by the speed of information wave (IW) that carries and transmits the spacetime information of observed objects. OR has gotten a vital logic inference of pure rationality (rather that a hypothesis like the ILS): the invariance of IW speed. Only when light is employed as IW, can the ILS be valid, and can Einstein's SR be a special case of OR. OR suggests that: Einstein's theory of relativity is flawed and limited. Actually, all relativistic effects are observational effects rather than real natural phenomena. The theory of OR will profoundly change our view of spacetime and endow physics with a significant mission to explore superluminal IWs so that we can break though the observational limit of light and observe a more abundant and more objective natural world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2533] **viXra:1707.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-28 09:16:38*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The expanding Universe is likened to a collapsing star in this context, where the future spacetime of the Universe is empty (justifying the vacuum solution) and the present is a 3-sphere boundary akin to the 2-sphere surface of a collapsing star. Because the present time of the Universe is the boundary, it sees the vacuum solution just as the surface of a collapsing star sees the vacuum solution. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. With a simple coordinate change we get a metric resembling the FRW metric for flat space with a time dependent scale factor. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, perhaps causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle. The consequences for an observer in freefall in a local gravitational field are then examined in the context of this model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2532] **viXra:1707.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-26 14:00:13*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

My purpose with this paper is to show that the theory of special relativity is derivable from algorithmic information theory (AIT). Specifically, I construct a partition function of Omega such that the program-runtime and the program-size are observables of a prefix free universal Turing machine. This partition function implies a maximum speed in bits per iterations of the UTM, which has a similar interpretation as the speed of light does in special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2531] **viXra:1707.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-25 16:14:38*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is partially an excerpt from a third chapter of author's in July 2017 newly published book titled "Einstein's destruction of physics". Book is distributed directly by author's link www.createspace.com/7339672 or by Amazon.com or .de or co.uk.
In this paper Einstein’s destruction of physics and scientific principles is documented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2530] **viXra:1707.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-24 13:10:06*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Birkhoff’s theorem says that the spacetime inside a spherically symmetric collapsing shell is Minkowskian. Given this fact, signals exchanged between the shell and a central observer as well as between observers on the shell itself are examined, and it is shown that these signals will become infinitely blueshifted as the shell approaches its Schwarzschild radius. It is also shown that the space inside the shell will contract to zero volume in the frame of a shell observer as the shell approaches its Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2529] **viXra:1707.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-24 04:37:53*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Postulate of General covariance, a last choice that Einstein introduced in his General relativity theory of gravitation, endows the theory with an excessive generality that needs to be restrained. Otherwise it is easy to check that, beyond the first order of approximation, several space-time models, all of them derived from the original Schwarzschild's initial solution of Einstein's field equations corresponding to a static spherical source, would predict different results to two fundamental experiments: the measure of the force acting on a given passive test mass at a distance $R$ of the center of the source, or equivalently, its initial acceleration when falling from rest, and the comparison of two way transit times of light traveling into an optic fiber along a vertical direction and along a meridian. The last section describes how to find numeric, static and spherically symmetric, interior models with pre-selected mass $m$ and radius $R$ with $m/R<1$ or $m/R>1$ solving the horizon problem.
\end{abstract}

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2528] **viXra:1707.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-23 09:15:17*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Considering Special Relativity Theory, energy has been derived through the case of mass points’ collision applying the equation from the theory.
But the difference of space distance and the difference of time distance are based on the different view for each frame of references.
So relativistic mass and energy quantity assumed real quantity should be tried to derive directly and deductively from the same assumption for the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2527] **viXra:1707.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-22 14:18:09*

**Authors:** Giacomo Roccaforte

**Comments:** 79 Pages. This version is in Italian, but conclusions are in English.

This theory arises from the analysis of specific situations that the Special Theory of Relativity does not consider, or for which it does not provided information about them.
These situations are listed as critical points, scenarios that would lead to ambiguous, contradictory or unexplained conclusions, using the same principles as the theory itself.
Using the same experimental data as the basis for the birth of the Special Theory of Relativity, and which are normally used to confirm the theory itself, we comes to a solution where these critical points would be eliminated.
We then come to a theory where the results would be unambiguous, independent by how we choose to consider variables, in line with data experiences and established theory principles, such as the constancy of the speed of light and its independence from the motion of the source , means the same elements that are in Special Theory of Relativity, but interpreted in a different way.
It would therefore provide a new explanation of the Nature of Light, and a basis for further studies not yet examined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2526] **viXra:1707.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-21 20:38:29*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In frame of the quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger), supported by cosmic data (without fitting), a new physically distinguished scale is obtained. This scale indicate a mechanism of formation new particles from the background matter. At the same time that scale corresponds to the size of a living cell.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2525] **viXra:1707.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-21 13:19:06*

**Authors:** Bandaru Ramu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Many thinkers and scientists tried to prove that Relativity is wrong. But this article show EXPERIMENTAL PROOFS TO PROVE THAT THE THEORY OF RELATIVTY IS WRONG.
In this article, two experiments are explained.
EXPERIMENT-1 PROVES:( whatever the relative constant velocities may be 50, 75, or 90 percent of `C` the velocity of light, The information P Simultaneity not follow any time dilations when compared with the information `Q`)
Michelson and Morley’s experiment conducted many times. But all their
experiments were conducted in only one inertial frame. But if that experiment extended up to two inertial frames, which Results will be taken place?
1.Simultaneity not depend on the concept time interval.
2.‘C` not stand to calculate the time.
3.Time dilation can not keep the speed of light rays constant. It can not keep the relation - inversely proportional between the frequency and wave length.
4.The light rays not travel with equal velocity in all directions in vacuum. According to Max well, “The velocity of electromagnetic waves is specific.” This truth is valid in the observer’s own inertial frame not in vacuum because light rays not run in vacuum independently. The traveling of light rays is dependent on inertial frame. They run interacting along with the surroundings of inertial frames such as massive bodies.
EXPERIMENT -2 reveals:
1. According to Relative theory, Physical laws take place in one concerned inertial frame and follow the time of that inertial frame. Physical laws are interactive and dependent. These physical laws or interactions take place among many inertial frames.
Thus the interactions cannot follow any relative time among the inertial frames. that interaction should consider the relative velocity of concerned inertial frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2524] **viXra:1707.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-16 14:46:05*

**Authors:** Baihua Qi, Tian Qi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The source of gravitation may come from the virtual electron-positron pairs generated by vacuum polarization and the force carrier particles would be pairs of virtual photons generated by the virtual electron-positron pair that travels in unison, and the origin of gravitation would be electron-positron pair that exchanges virtual photons. Based on this assumption, we establish a theory to describe gravitation. We discuss Barnett effect

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2523] **viXra:1707.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-16 07:10:07*

**Authors:** A.V. Mamaev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this article using Einstein’s method from his known 1905 year article the formulas for the Dopler effect and aberration valid in my new relativistic space-time theory are derived.
Key words: relativity, Doppler effect, aberration

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2522] **viXra:1707.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-13 08:03:22*

**Authors:** A.V. Mamaev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper introduces an idea of experimental demonstration of electrons superluminal speed existence or non-existence in vacuum of near-Earth space of Universe. As according to Einstein’s special relativity theory superlight speeds of both particles having non-zero rest mass and particles with zero rest mass are forbidden, such an experiment will either confirm Einstein’s special relativity theory in the part of absence in Nature of superlight speeds of any particles or disprove Einstein’s theory clearly, crudely and seeably.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2521] **viXra:1707.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-13 10:22:39*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Although contemporary cosmology and physics allow the mass to be pushed into the singularity (dimensionless point) in the center of black holes, it still doesn't understand that mass in such a state loses the quality of matter. Matter, being a substance and field, is the energy distributed in space. If we take away space from energy, it then changes to a different quality, to pure energy. Today it is often called the negative, dark energy, causing the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2520] **viXra:1707.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-13 10:30:27*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Can there be universes in dimensions other than those of our 3 (or 4 if we are talking about a time-space) ?
When we want to talk about it, we must first make sure there is a logical reason for the existence of other dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2519] **viXra:1707.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-11 07:05:04*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Relativistic physics is based on the principle of least action. Conclusions from the proposed theory give formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2518] **viXra:1707.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-11 09:17:53*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Einstein’s relativism is not only “physical” but also philosophical because it forbids any concept leading to the idea of the absolute. But this phobia is translated into flight forward without giving decisive answers to the crucial questions raised by the paradoxes arising from Special Relativity. In what follows, we show by a thought experiment that absolute rest has it’s discreet but real place in the Einsteinian reasoning under the pseudonym of stationary system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2517] **viXra:1707.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-10 14:41:45*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity is a very “popular” theory among physicists, so don’t dare to state that it is a nonsense theory. The most basic reason for the weirdness of this theory is the acceptance by almost all physicists of the fact that the velocity of light in vacuum in this theory is fully undefined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2516] **viXra:1707.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-09 12:27:37*

**Authors:** Fayaz Ahmed Siyal

**Comments:** 6 Pages. my research have well application for the resolution of black hole information paradox and singularity solution . author have prove it by mathematically

Contemporary physics of this century have measured many problems regarding the behaviour of gravity, black hole evolution and its information paradox. Our physicists have struggled to resolve these problems but they again and again failed. The reason of their failure has been resolved by author. The general relativity narrates the behaviour of masses and their gravitational fields on the basis of their space time curvatures. The reason scientist failed to measure the relation of mass and space time curvature because, always they made their calculations in inertial frame of reference for space time curvature but the galaxies, stars, sun, earth, etc are continued in acceleration or moving in accelerating frame of reference so, their space time curvature must be in acceleration. Then space time curvature should behave like variable accelerating wave (these are same waves which have been discovered by LIGO gravitational waves) and by author with mathematical proof it is estimated that space time curvature is the classical property of matter or mass depending upon alternation in the quantum energy of mass or matter. Then the Schrödinger, Hamilton operator H and time evolution operator are applicable for the calculation of space time geometry and its energy. From the author creational research black hole problems are easily solved. Even the unification of general relativity and quantum mechanics can be done.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2515] **viXra:1707.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-07 12:56:14*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Calculations of relativistic physics are based on the principle of least action. Conclusions from the proposed theory give formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2514] **viXra:1707.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 14:31:07*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, the integration of a function over a curved manifold is examined in the case where the curvature of the manifold results in a varying density of coordinates over which the function is being integrated where the upper bound of the of integration is infinity. It is shown that when the coordinate density varies in such a case, the true area under the curve is not correctly calculated by traditional techniques of integration, but must account for the varying coordinate density. This integration technique is then applied to the Schwarzschild metric of General Relativity to examine the proper time taken for a freefalling observer to reach the event horizon of a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2513] **viXra:1707.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-04 13:57:13*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 0

Relativistic physics is built on the principle of least action. The conclusions from this theory give the formulas that the electrical interaction makes responsible for the gravitational interaction, inertia and accelerated "expansion of the universe." The calculations are all extremely elementary and indisputable, since they use the conclusions of relativistic physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2512] **viXra:1707.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 01:55:53*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In the article titled “Each Point of Space in Expansion is the Preferred Reference Frame for Any Object Transiting to that Point”, published on March 30th, 2017, I presented a theory that demonstrates the existence of the Preferred Reference Frame and at which speed the Earth moves relative to it. I also stated that further theories about various phenomena of the Universe, may be derived from this theory and that it, therefore, opens a new path towards the truth about how the Universe works.
And now, with this article, I will tray to begin to walk the above path, exposing some hypotheses explaining various phenomena of the Universe, in a way compatible with said theory.
Here are, in short, these hypotheses.
The Universe is exclusively composed of an infinity of space quanta, which tend to expand and thus cause it to expand, as a consequence.
Matter manifests on sets of space quanta, which are compressed and thus enable the neighbouring quanta, and later the quanta further apart, to expand further.
Gravity is the effect of the fact that each object tends to move towards the least compressed space quanta and, therefore, towards other objects.
Speed of light depends on the degree of compression of space quanta in the locations (or points) in which it transits, meaning that the greater the compression, the higher the speed.
But since also clocks move more or less rapidly according to their degree of compression, speed of light results always the same at any location.
Therefore, in the past, when the degree of compression of space quanta was greater, speed of light was also greater.
Cosmological redshift is due to the speed of the location in which the celestial object receiving photons, is moving, compared to the location in which the celestial object emitting it, has moved, in a Universe in decelerating expansion. In support of this hypothesis, I present two tables that simulate the journey of the photons of a high-redshift galaxy and that of CMBR photons, and, above all, a formula for calculating apparent luminosity, compatible with the observations of the high-redshift type Ia supernovae.
I would like to point out that I haven’t mentioned either the dark energy or dark matter, since I haven’t considered it necessary for this model of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2511] **viXra:1707.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-02 13:39:04*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 15 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

In this article, we derive the properties of kinematics of bodies from the universal frame of reference (UFR, ether), which we called the Special Theory of Ether.
The article explains why Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the universal frame of reference.
In article, a different transformation of time and position than the Lorentz transformation is derived on the basis of the geometric analysis of the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments. The transformation is derived based on the assumption that the universal frame of reference exists. UFR is a frame of reference in which the velocity of light is constant in every direction. In inertial frames of reference moving in the UFR, the one-way velocity of light may be different.
Formulas for summation for absolute speed and relative speeds has been derived. The formulas for length contraction and dilatation of time were also derived.
The entire article contains only original research conducted by its authors.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2510] **viXra:1707.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-02 13:41:25*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 15 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

W artykule wyprowadzamy własności kinematyki ciał z uniwersalnym układem odniesienia (universal frame of reference - UFR, eter), którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru.
W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia.
W artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia. UFR jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku. W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem UFR, jednokierunkowa prędkość światła może być inna.
Wyprowadzone zostały wzory na sumowanie prędkości dla prędkości bezwzględnej oraz prędkości względnych. Wyprowadzone zostały także zależności na skrócenie długości oraz dylatację czasu.
Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania autorów publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2509] **viXra:1707.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-03 01:31:47*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 16 Pages. This is a backup for my files of my entry in the "Catch A Star" contest for 2017

AN ASTRONOMICAL HYPOTHESIS IN 6 PARTS -
1) Uniting Quantum Mechanics with General Relativity
2) Special Relativity Viewed from Einstein's Unified Field
3) MATHEMATICS AND UNIFICATION
4) IMAGINARY TIME, QUANTUM GRAVITY AND CREATING THE COSMOS
5) NEGATIVE ENTROPY AND ETERNAL LIFE
6) DARK ENERGY, DARK MATTER, AND THE UNIFYING QUBIT IN A NONEXPANDING AND TOPOLOGICAL COSMOLOGY
Science today - this report focuses on physics, quantum physics, cosmology and mathematics - is naturally very dependent on the empirical aspects of observation and experiment. The trend in modern physics is towards a unified theory of the universe - starting with the unified theories of the 20th century (notably Einstein's) and extending to string theory. At present, no observation or experiment can confirm or deny the existence of unification. The main point of this report is to show how sciences, and maths, could be altered by a unified space-time. In 1919, Einstein wrote a paper asking if gravitational waves play an essential role in forming elementary particles. If so, the waves that fill the space-time between particles would connect them in a unified field which a future LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory) may be able to detect.* With waves that travel forwards in time being potentially cancelled by waves going back in time (see TIQM and Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory in this report), the cancelling of the waves might unite Relativity's gravity with quantum mechanics by producing what we call entanglement.
* See "Physicists use Einstein’s ‘spooky’ entanglement to invent super-sensitive gravitational wave detector" - May 17, 2017 by David Blair.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2508] **viXra:1707.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-02 02:38:21*

**Authors:** Bill Gaede

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The black hole and dark matter are two pillars of contemporary General Relativity. Week after week, we read about them in the specialized journals and in popularization magazines. Here we show that the term ‘black hole’ has yet to be defined scientifically. To pique the skeptic, mathematical physicists assign many dimensions to the black hole, confess that they have never seen one, and have no idea what these alleged objects are mad of. For its part, dark matter is nothing more than an ad hoc variable that Mathematical Physics invented to plug holes in its leaky conception of gravity. The Rope Model of Light and Gravity offers a rational alternative for phenomena attributed to magical black holes and invisible dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2507] **viXra:1706.0573 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-30 15:05:28*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: The recent success of cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory in predicting the ordinary and total positive mc^2 matter density of the universe is now followed by the prediction that early super massive black holes were filled entirely with dark matter H particles

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2506] **viXra:1706.0571 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-30 11:19:59*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The frame-dragging effect tells us that when a body rotates around itself the metric of spacetime around its surface is dragged. This occurs, for example, in the metric of the spacetime around the Earth surface, and produces the well-known phenomenon of shifting of the orbits of the satellites near the Earth. Such as the orbits of the satellites, the force lines of the gravitational field produced by rotating bodies are also affected by the frame-dragging effect. This means that the direction of a gravitational central force in a rotating body should be radially displaced, in respect to their initial position. In this work, we show that the radial displacement angle depends on the angular velocity of the rotating body, and that this fact point to the possibility of controlling the direction of these gravitational central forces, simply by controlling the angular velocity of the rotating body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2505] **viXra:1706.0541 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-29 01:12:37*

**Authors:** Bume Rang

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The simple "Black" hole theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2504] **viXra:1706.0540 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-29 01:24:22*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Novel Technique to Create a Positive or/ and Negative Time Beam.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2503] **viXra:1706.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-29 09:32:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

A renewed suggestion that dark energy may not be real—dispensing with 70% of the stuff in the universe—has reignited a longstanding debate. [32] Physicists from the University of Liverpool have made a huge step forwards towards building a novel experiment to probe the "dark contents" of the vacuum. [31] Researchers at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research in Mumbai have proposed a theory that predicts how dark matter may be annihilating much more rapidly in the Milky Way, than in smaller or larger galaxies and the early Universe. [30] Two teams working independently have conducted studies with similar results suggesting the possibility that some of the cosmic rays striking the Earth arise from dark matter particles colliding with one another. [29] A mysterious gamma-ray glow at the center of the Milky Way is most likely caused by pulsars – the incredibly dense, rapidly spinning cores of collapsed ancient stars that were up to 30 times more massive than the sun. [28] Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2502] **viXra:1706.0526 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-28 10:58:18*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 123 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2501] **viXra:1706.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-26 22:57:25*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this research investigation the author has presented a novel technique of creation of a Time Beam.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2500] **viXra:1706.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-27 02:13:08*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Simultaneity Symmetry

Two identical stopwatches moving at the same speed will elapse the
same time after moving the same distance. If both stopwatches were started at the same time, there will be no time difference between
these two stopwatches after both stopwatches have
elapsed the same time. Both stopwatches will continue to show no time difference under identical acceleration.
Therefore, both stopwatches show identical time in an accelerating reference frame if both stopwatches were restarted at the same time in a stationary reference frame.
Consequently, a physical system that exhibits Translational Symmetry in
its motion demonstrates that two simultaneous events in one reference frame should be simultaneous in another reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2499] **viXra:1706.0467 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-25 05:30:44*

**Authors:** C. K. Raju

**Comments:** 12 pages, 3 tables, 6 graphs

We use Lorentz covariant retarded gravitation theory (RGT), without simplifications, to validate the earlier calculations for the flyby anomaly as a gravitational effect of Earth's rotation at the special relativistic (v/c) level. Small differences persist between the theoretical predictions of RGT and the data reported by Anderson et al. That reported data, however, is not direct observational data but consists of un-modeled residues. To settle doubts, we propose a 3-way experimental test to discriminate between RGT, Newtonian gravitation (no flyby anomaly), and Anderson et al.'s formula. This involves two satellites orbiting Earth in opposite directions in the equatorial plane in eccentric orbits. For these orbits, Earth's rotation should not affect velocity on (1) Newtonian gravitation and (2) the formula of Anderson et al. However, (3) on RGT, one satellite gains and the other loses velocity, by typically a few cm/s/day, which is easily measurable by satellite laser ranging.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2498] **viXra:1706.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-22 05:16:29*

**Authors:** Fang Zhou

**Comments:** 37 pages in Chinese

Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation) is the only objectively existing in nature transformation of space (the co-ordinates of material points) and time (the parameter of events) for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity, and actually underlies the theoretical and methodological basis for the motion observation theory.The article presents two methods of physical-mathematical derivation for Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation).One method relies on algebra means, and the other on vector analysis as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2497] **viXra:1706.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-21 09:48:46*

**Authors:** Marco Pereira

**Comments:** 107 Pages.

3077 38th Street
Apt 2B

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2496] **viXra:1706.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-20 08:42:54*

**Authors:** Richard Palkovac

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In 2003, I was thinking about would happen if we pushed two fundamental particles of matter into ourselves (in the same location in space, in the same point). My intuition told me that it could not be mass anymore and therefore gravity would cease to have an effect. After I developed this idea, I also found the cause for the expansion of the universe and, ultimately, its acceleration.
The basic idea of my hypothesis is: "Gravitational mass is being lost in black holes (Grey Objects)."
It is clear to me that the physical definition of the term "black hole" is something other than what I use in this hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2495] **viXra:1706.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-20 10:30:41*

**Authors:** Robert D. Bock

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We present a simple model of light propagation that allows for the one-way speed of light, or equivalently, the simultaneity convention, to depend on the distance between the emitter and the absorber. This is distinct from variable speed of light (VSL) theories that assume the two-way speed of light is variable. We show that this model predicts wavelength shifts that are consistent with wavelength shifts measured from light propagating on astrophysical scales, thus eliminating the need to propose ad hoc mechanisms, such as dark matter, dark energy, and cosmological expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2494] **viXra:1706.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-19 20:19:10*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract
This paper endeavours to explain why light and elementary particles have dual wave and particle characteristics, and proposes a physical interpretation of Huygens’ principle. It also explains why the famous Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and to show that it did, in fact, detect the ether but was not correctly interpreted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2493] **viXra:1706.0394 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-19 21:20:19*

**Authors:** Azzam K I Almosallami

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper I study the precession of Mercury’s perihelion and the free fall from the point of view of the field theory and retardation. SRT and GR do not support the field theory and retardation, that is because They consider the reality in physics is observer independent according to the Minkowski Geometry of space-time continuum. According to that SRT and GR must be understood from the point of view of the field theory and thus the reality must be observer dependent and in this case the mathematics that describe the physical reality will be different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2492] **viXra:1706.0374 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-18 10:29:55*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

We investigate time dilation under the conditions of the theory of special relativity (TSR). The arguments apply a direct comparison of clock readings at identical positions. As observations of time depends on (the location of) the clocks used for time registrations we investigate various observational principles. Three principles are in focus: Reference frame applying single clock (SC); reference frame applying multiple clocks (MC); and the completely symmetric situation. We also study variants of the Lorentz transformation. Finally, we apply the approach to present a thorough discussion of the travelling twin example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2491] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-17 12:14:46*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we will show that there exist a simple relationship between the Einstein and Newton formula. They are closely
connected when it comes to fundamental particles. Newton indirectly had E=mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein without knowing about it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2490] **viXra:1706.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-16 08:10:58*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Friedmann Equation which is often described as the most important equation in cosmology can be derived from Newtonian gravity without General Relativity. However, it is shown here that this derivation is mathematically incorrect and cannot even be a good approximation specifically because of invalid application of the shell theorem. Derivations from general relativity and Machian derivation are also without foundation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2489] **viXra:1706.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-12 02:16:13*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibanez Fernandez

**Comments:** 84 Pages.

Abstract
The paper is the second part of PHYSICAL & MATHEMATICS THEORETICAL ANALYSIS OF SPECIAL RELATIVITY, Albert Einstein. It presents a deep theoretical analysis of the historical overview to the special theory of relativity. Unfortunately, the special theory of relativity violated the basic principle of relativity. The wrong development of processing of experiments affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity and other areas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2488] **viXra:1706.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-14 06:13:56*

**Authors:** Jan Helm

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A relativistic rotator is a pair of black-holes moving around their center-of mass (com) on GR-orbits in their own gravitational field. First we present a GR-solution in the com-frame for non-rotating (Schwarzschild) black-holes in the usual spherical coordinates (t,r,theta,phi) using a complex transformation of the radius r . with the condition that for r→∞ the resulting orbit equations must be the Newtonian equations. We analyze the solution and show examples of orbits. In a second step we generalize it to the case of rotating (Kerr) black-holes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2487] **viXra:1706.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-09 11:41:34*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Spanish

We understand the principle of Mach as the assertion that the inertia of a body is not an intrinsic quality of matter, but is the effect of the action of the whole Universe. The forces of inertia act when a body is accelerated. But if we assume that is the Universe that is accelerated, it will generate a gravitational inductive force on the body, which can be understood as the force of inertia.
In this research we calculated the gravitational induction produced on a body by the accelerated movement of the whole of the Universe. We used the linearized theory of General Relativity, therefore the results are approximate, but sufficient to give us an idea of how the Universe conforms the inertia of the bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2486] **viXra:1706.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-08 16:09:05*

**Authors:** Bill Gaede

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Different cultures around the world have independently discovered time in antiquity and developed calendars and clocks to measure this mysterious unknown. We say ‘mysterious’ because to this day no one has defined what ‘time’ is or means. Yet Mathematical Physics, particularly Special and General Relativity, are founded on time; neither can do without this strategic term. Time dilation is one of the three pillars of Special Relativity and the dimension of time is the fourth leg of General Relativity’s ubiquitous space-time. What is it that theoreticians are stretching? What are they warping? Is time a dimension? Is it legal to replace height with time on a Cartesian chart and turn it into a Feynman diagram? And if time was born at the Big Bang, what is it that came to life? What does the babe look like? A closer analysis reveals that time is not a dimension. We discover that time cannot do without an observer. More fundamentally, we discover that unless we define this enigmatic word we will never understand what anyone who uses it is talking about.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2485] **viXra:1706.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-08 02:53:44*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

The period of a light wave emitted by an oscillating electron in a “stationary” reference frame was determined in a relatively moving frame using the Lorentz transformation applied on different event intervals; one being between two events on the wave propagation path, and the other between two co-local events on the oscillating source path. A critical inconsistency in the Special Relativity was revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2484] **viXra:1706.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-06 09:05:48*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this paper an elaboration of the physical concept of inertia is presented and it leads to a definition of the Generalized Principle of Inertia and of inertial motions in the order of a wider view that considers also the presence of the gravitational field. At last the paper terminates with the examination of a few paradoxes of time that certainly represent evident contradictions inside theories that prove the existence of relativistic effects of time that would be generated by imaginary changes of spacetime due to the inertial speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2483] **viXra:1706.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-06 02:38:42*

**Authors:** Laszlo A. Marosi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, I reconsider the interpretation of Hubble’s Law as recession velocity of distant galaxies, in association with novel theories of the physical properties of the quantum vacuum, by assuming thermalization of starlight into a homogeneous black-body energy distribution. I present scientific theories and experimental results supporting the assumption that the proposed equilibration process might take place without any material mediator. The equilibration follows from the interaction between quantum states of the excited spacetime entity, and therefore, energy equilibration has to be looked at as a natural quantum physical process, instead of as a physically unlikely one. Cosmological implications of the presented theory are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2482] **viXra:1706.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-05 07:23:50*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In the current paper, the Universe is modeled as a spherically symmetric isotropic collection of mass falling toward a gravitational center located in the time dimension. The interior black hole solution of the Schwarzschild metric in Kruskal-Szekeres coordinates is used to mathematically describe the freefall through the time dimension where worldlines emerge from the singularity at infinite proper speed through the cosmological time dimension, slow to zero proper velocity after a finite proper time, then accelerate to infinite proper velocity (through the time, not space dimension) once more where it reaches a future singularity. It is shown that during the first phase, where the velocity decreases, space appears to contract, whereas during the second phase, where the velocity increases, space appears to expand at an accelerated rate. With a simple coordinate change, we then see that the internal Schwarzschild metric takes the form of the FRW metric, which is the metric currently used to describe the expanding Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2481] **viXra:1706.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-05 07:44:56*

**Authors:** Mohammed Mezouar

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We show that even Special Relativity predicts, as a consequence of length contraction, a kind of light’s
deflection for an observer having a relativistic speed relative to the source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2480] **viXra:1706.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-04 16:36:31*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** Pages.

This is a short note to show how the speed of light c can be derived from dimensional analysis from the Gravitational constant, the Planck constant and the Planck length.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2479] **viXra:1706.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-04 06:25:09*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Like stars in the universe so are freckles and moles on the body. In the universe one can see constellation but on a certain persons body there is a Pulga Constellation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2478] **viXra:1706.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-03 12:18:13*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

A new simple cosmological model is shown to be able to overcome all major problems of modern cosmology without using ad hoc elements and without any modification in general relativity or quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2477] **viXra:1706.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-02 11:17:25*

**Authors:** Hubert J. Veringa

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

In this document an attempt is made to explain the origin of gravity. The basis for the analysis is a merger of Quantum theory and Relativity. Nowhere in the analysis there is any need to deviate from well proven and successful concepts of both theories and rules of calculation, and no exotic new particles will have to be introduced. By doing so it is demonstrated that, next to its local interactions of a multi-particle system, the Schrödinger equation leads to pairs of two and only two members. This solution is used as the invariant term in the quantized Einstein energy equation which finally leads to gravitational interactions between members of the pairs. With this particular solution for the quantum-mechanical wave function it is found that gravity is a second order effect operating over a long range. In this document it is tried to give a complete and consistent account of all steps that have been taken in de derivation of the classical Newton’s law. Further the document emphasizes precise justification of some of the basic assumptions made, on the historical context into which it should be placed, how it affects the ordering of our immediate environment and how it works out works out on a cosmological ale. It is also found that the generator of gravity is contributing mass to particles that have gravitational interaction. This contribution is therefore related to cosmological parameters and will be further elucidated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2476] **viXra:1705.0477 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-31 14:17:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The cosmological constant comes in holographic and non-Holographic versions each of which supports Friedmann"s equations concerning the matter density of the universe in different ways and 8 fold supersymmetry and cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory in general

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2475] **viXra:1705.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-28 15:37:41*

**Authors:** John R. Berryhill

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Discussion at unmysticalphysics.com

The calculation of lookback time and particle horizon in the Lambda-CDM model is simplified by use of an explicit formula for the cosmic expansion scale factor S(t). The present article continues the exposition begun in viXra 1704.0303.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2474] **viXra:1705.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-28 18:35:40*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger) is supported by cosmic data (without fitting). Qmoger equations consist of Einstein equations with two additional terms responsible for production/absorption of matter. In Qmoger cosmology there was no Big Bang and matter is continuously producing by the Vacuum. Particularly, production of the ultralight gravitons with tiny electric dipole moment (EDM) was started about 284 billion years ago. Quantum effects dominate interaction of these particles and they form the quantum condensate. Under influence of gravitation, the condensate is forming galaxies and producing ordinary matter, including photons. As one important result of this activity, it recently created us, the people, and continues to support us. Particularly, our subjective experiences are a result of an interaction between the background condensate and the neural system of the brain. The action potentials of neural system create traps and coherent dynamic patterns in the dipolar condensate. So, our subjective experiences are graviton-based. Some problems with the origin of life can also be clarified by taking into account the background dipolar condensate. It seems natural to call this graviton condensate bright matter. It not only produced ordinary matter, including light, but also produced and nurturing conscious life, as we know it, and, perhaps, some other forms of life in the universe. EDM of gravitons is small and existing telescopes can not see them, but we actually see bright matter in our subjective experiences. So, cosmology and brain science must work together to investigate bright matter, which will be the most important enterprise of humankind,

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2473] **viXra:1705.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-26 07:54:04*

**Authors:** Robert D. Bock

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

When confronted with the challenge of defining distant simultaneity Einstein looked down two roads that seemingly diverged. One road led to a theory based on backward null cone simultaneity and the other road led to a theory based on standard simultaneity. He felt that alone he could not travel both. After careful consideration he looked down the former and then took the latter. Sadly, years hence, he did not return to the first. In the following we investigate Einstein's road not taken, i.e., the road that leads to a theory based on backward null cone simultaneity. We show that both roads must be traveled to develop a consistent quantum theory of gravity and also to understand the relationship between the gravitational and electromagnetic fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2472] **viXra:1705.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-26 09:55:01*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 3 Pages. When seconds count, Artificial Intelligence on faster hardware makes the difference. Like High Frequency Trading Algorithms on Wall Street.

AI is like a brain with no conscience. It rules itself unbridled. You shouldn’t try set parameters on AI because that will stifle innovation. What you have to do is like a High Frequency Trade on Wall Street. It’s all about speed. The fastest algorithm wins. So purposely don’t allow the public to have faster chips than the Government to the public. Give the Government the advantage by giving the government faster chip >THZ with many cores. Give the public AI but at GHZ or <. See Retro Causal Machine Learning below. Its use, should make sense now. Give it to GOOGLE or any company that aligns itself to look out for American Interests. In short one can look towards Wall Street, fastest algorithm wins in High Frequency Trade, so control chip speed for the masses Ghz or < and run Government AI Programs on fastest chip to win against all other AI to prevent the AI Apocalypse.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2471] **viXra:1705.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-25 17:15:36*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 5 Pages. -

It is believed that the Sagnac effect does not contradict Special Relativity theory because it is manifest in non-inertial rotational motion; therefore, it should be treated in the framework of General Relativity theory. However, several well-designed studies have convincingly shown that a Sagnac Effect identical to the one manifest in rotational uniform motion is also manifest in transverse uniform motion. This result should have been sufficient to falsify Special Relativity theory. In the present article, we offer theoretical support to the experimental results by elucidating the notion that the dynamics of transverse and rotational types of motion are completely equivalent. Since the transverse Sagnac effect contradicts Special Relativity theory, it follows that the rotational Sagnac effect contradicts Special Relativity theory as well. In addition, we show that our recently proposed Information Relativity theory, in which we abandoned the constancy of the velocity of light axiom, theoretically accounts for the Sagnac effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1695] **viXra:1708.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-14 13:45:02*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

There is fundamental misnomer about what General Relativity describes. This is why Einstein’s field equations do not explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. Dilation fields have two different shapes, spherical and flat. Stellar systems are spherical and have only one shape gradient, and events are evolved forward and accelerated sequentially as the dilation gradient deepens. Flattened spiral galaxies have two types of interacting gradients. From above and below the disk, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. Along the edge the effect is spherical and this causes the circular orbits, as in General Relativity. This paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of the continuum, how events and spaces evolve forward together and how relative velocities equate to forward evolution within the continuum rather than movement through pre-existing, static, spaces. This approach also allows the Hubble shift to be described in terms of time dilation. Since events are always being accelerated in the rate of time, older frames have progressively slower rates the older they are, creating a time dilation gradient. As we are always being accelerated in time and space, objects in older frames must appear to be accelerating away from us. This eliminates the need for Dark Energy. The theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMBR is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at C through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna, translating the force in time into “real” energy. Also, IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 14 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like, which is where the difference in the rate of time between frames, the dRt, = 1 s/s, both looking into a gravity well, and looking outward to the limits of perception.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1694] **viXra:1708.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-14 05:49:26*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I applied the method of the second variations of the Calculus of Variations to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Since the Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian for a gravitational field is proportional to the Ricci curvature scalar construction of the Euler-Lagrange equations requires dealing with the tensor quantities from which the Ricci curvature scalar is composed rather than the Ricci curvature scalar itself. As the result of applying this method two Euler-Lagrange equations emerged; both equations yielded the same Einstein’s field
equations in absence of energy-momentum fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1693] **viXra:1708.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-15 17:07:22*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. v.2 corrects a typo in one of the eqs. 5

By means of the Lorentz Transformation, Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity purports invariance of the standard wave equation. Counter-examples, satisfying the Lorentz Transformation, and hence Lorentz Invariance, prove that the Lorentz Transformation does not in fact produce invariance of the standard wave equation. Systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers are Galilean and necessarily transform by the Galilean Transformation. Einstein's insistence that systems of Galilean observers transform, not by the Galilean Transformation, but by the non-Galilean Lorentz Transformation, is logically inconsistent. The Special Theory of Relativity is therefore logically inconsistent. Therefore, it is false. The Lorentz Transformation is meaningless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1692] **viXra:1708.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-05 17:03:46*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object's mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 is a mistake and I can explain why.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1691] **viXra:1708.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-02 18:00:30*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object’s mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 must be a mistake.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1690] **viXra:1707.0376 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-17 12:54:51*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The expanding Universe is likened to a collapsing star in this context, where the future spacetime of the Universe is empty (justifying the vacuum solution) and the present is a 3-sphere boundary akin to the 2-sphere surface of a collapsing star. Because the present time of the Universe is the boundary, it sees the vacuum solution just as the surface of a collapsing star sees the vacuum solution. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, perhaps causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle. An examination of the Hubble parameter and redshift is made and it is shown that the model agrees with cosmological data in predicting the transition redshift when the expansion of the Universe changes from deceleration to acceleration. Distance modulus is plotted against redshift and compared to cosmological data. The consequences for an observer in freefall in a local gravitational field are then examined in the context of this model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1689] **viXra:1707.0376 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-29 11:26:03*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The expanding Universe is likened to a collapsing star in this context, where the future spacetime of the Universe is empty (justifying the vacuum solution) and the present is a 3-sphere boundary akin to the 2-sphere surface of a collapsing star. Because the present time of the Universe is the boundary, it sees the vacuum solution just as the surface of a collapsing star sees the vacuum solution. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. With a simple coordinate change we get a metric resembling the FRW metric for flat space with a time dependent scale factor. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, perhaps causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle. The consequences for an observer in freefall in a local gravitational field are then examined in the context of this model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1688] **viXra:1707.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-14 14:28:25*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

My purpose with this paper is to show that the theory of special relativity is derivable from universal Turing machines. Specifically, I construct a partition function of Ω such that the program-runtime and the program-size are observables of a prefix free universal Turing machine. This partition function implies a maximum speed in bits per iterations of the UTM, which has a similar interpretation as the speed of light does in special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1687] **viXra:1707.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-14 10:11:29*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

My purpose with this paper is to show that the theory of special relativity is derivable from universal Turing machines. Specifically, I construct a partition function of Ω such that the program-runtime and the program-size are observables of a prefix free universal Turing machine. This partition function implies a maximum speed in bits per iterations of the UTM, which has a similar interpretation as the speed of light does in special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1686] **viXra:1707.0300 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-02 07:00:37*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Considering Special Relativity Theory, energy has been derived through the case of mass points’ collision applying the equation from the theory.
But the difference of space distance and the difference of time distance are based on the different view for each frame of references.
So relativistic mass and energy quantity assumed real quantity should be tried to derive directly and deductively from the same assumption for the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1685] **viXra:1707.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-30 10:01:14*

**Authors:** Bandaru Ramu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

I. Accelerating aspects can follow General relativity?
II. Dialogues between :
1.Acceleration by dark energy and Acceleration by gravitation
2. Expanding Universe and Rotating Universe
3. Finite space and infinite space

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1684] **viXra:1707.0190 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-09 12:47:15*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The article is published in the journal "The Scientific Heritage" # 14 (14) 2017

This paper introduces an idea of experimental demonstration of electrons superluminal speed existence or non-existence in vacuum of near-Earth space of Universe. As according to Einstein’s special relativity theory superlight speeds of
both particles having non-zero mass and particles with zero mass are forbidden, such an experiment will either confirm Einstein’s special relativity theory in the part of absence in Nature of superlight speeds of any particles or disprove
Einstein’s theory clearly, crudely and seeably.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1683] **viXra:1707.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-26 11:06:39*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper, the integration of a function over a curved manifold is examined in the case where the curvature of the manifold results in a varying density of coordinates over which the function is being integrated where the upper bound of the of integration is infinity. It is shown that when the coordinate density varies in such a case, the true area under the curve is not correctly calculated by traditional techniques of integration. This situation is then applied to the Schwarzschild metric and geodesic equation of General Relativity to examine the proper time taken for a freefalling observer to reach the event horizon of a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1682] **viXra:1707.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-06 09:26:52*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper, the integration of a function over a curved manifold is examined in the case where the curvature of the manifold results in a varying density of coordinates over which the function is being integrated where the upper bound of the of integration is infinity. It is shown that when the coordinate density varies in such a case, the true area under the curve is not correctly calculated by traditional techniques of integration, but must account for the varying coordinate density. This integration technique is then applied to the Schwarzschild metric of General Relativity to examine the proper time taken for a freefalling observer to reach the event horizon of a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1681] **viXra:1706.0571 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-31 11:41:52*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The frame-dragging effect tells us that when a body rotates around itself the metric of spacetime around its surface is dragged. This occurs, for example, in the metric of the spacetime around the Earth surface, and produces the well-known phenomenon of shifting of the orbits of the satellites near the Earth. Such as the orbits of the satellites, the force lines of the gravitational field produced by rotating bodies are also affected by the frame-dragging effect. This means that the direction of a gravitational central force in a rotating body should be radially displaced, in respect to their initial position. In this work, we show that the radial displacement angle depends on the angular velocity of the rotating body, and that this fact point to the possibility of controlling the direction of these gravitational central forces, simply by controlling the angular velocity of the rotating body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1680] **viXra:1706.0571 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-24 15:25:38*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The frame-dragging effect tells us that when a body rotates around itself the metric of spacetime around its surface is dragged. This occurs, for example, in the metric of the spacetime around the Earth surface, and produces the well-known phenomenon of shifting of the orbits of the satellites near the Earth. Such as the orbits of the satellites, the force lines of the gravitational field produced by rotating bodies are also affected by the frame-dragging effect. This means that the direction of a gravitational central force in a rotating body should be radially displaced, in respect to their initial position. In this work, we show that the radial displacement angle depends on the angular velocity of the rotating body, and that this fact point to the possibility of controlling the direction of these gravitational central forces, simply by controlling the angular velocity of the rotating body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1679] **viXra:1706.0571 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-21 05:21:15*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1678] **viXra:1706.0571 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-06 17:02:35*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1677] **viXra:1706.0571 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-05 12:41:27*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1676] **viXra:1706.0541 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-16 03:11:43*

**Authors:** BuMe Rang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Simple theory of "Black" Hole

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1675] **viXra:1706.0541 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-29 13:22:55*

**Authors:** Bume Rang

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The simple "Black" Hole theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1674] **viXra:1706.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-21 11:13:29*

**Authors:** Marco Pereira

**Comments:** 107 Pages.

This paper presents a simple and purely geometrical Grand Unification Theory. Quantum Gravity, Electrostatic and Magnetic interactions are shown in a unified framework. Newton's Gravitational Law, Gauss' Electrostatics Law and Biot-Savart's Electromagnetism Law are derived from first principles.
Gravitational Lensing and Mercury Perihelion Precession are replicated within the theory. Unification symmetry is defined for all the existing forces. This alternative model does not require Strong and Electroweak forces.
A 4D Shock-Wave Hyperspherical topology is proposed for the Universe which together with a Quantum Lagrangian Principle and a Dilator based model for matter result in a quantized stepwise expansion for the whole Universe along a radial direction within a 4D spatial manifold. The Hypergeometrical Standard Model for matter, Universe Topology and a new Law of Gravitation are presented. Newton's and Einstein's Laws of Gravitation and Dynamics, Gauss Law of Electrostatics among others are challenged when HU presents Type 1A Supernova Survey results. HU's SN1a results challenge current Cosmological Standard Model (L-CDM) by challenging its Cosmological Ruler d(z). SDSS BOSS dataset is shown to support a new Cosmogenesis theory and HU proposal that we are embedded in a 5D Spacetime. The Big Bang Theory is shown to be challenged by SDSS BOSS dataset. Hyperspherical Acoustic Oscillations are demonstrated in the SDSS BOSS Galaxy density. A New de-Broglie Force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1673] **viXra:1706.0396 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-30 23:23:19*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper endeavours to explain why light and elementary particles have dual wave and
particle characteristics, and proposes a physical interpretation of Huygens’ principle. It also
explains why the famous Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result,
and to show that it did, in fact, detect the ether but was not correctly interpreted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1672] **viXra:1706.0374 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-20 14:39:40*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Abstract. We investigate time dilation within the theory of special relativity (TSR); basing the argumentation on the Lorentz transformation. The location of the clocks used for time registrations is essential for the value of time dilation, and we investigate various observational principles. Three principles are in focus: A reference frame applying a single clock (SC); or applying multiple clocks (MC); or there can be a completely symmetric situation between reference frames. We specify two types of simultaneity. First, there can be a direct comparison of clock readings at identical positions (‘basic’ simultaneity). Further, we can consider simultaneity ‘in the perspective’ of any reference frame. We then introduce auxiliary reference frames, which combined with symmetry considerations, provides a means to define ‘simultaneity at a distance’. We apply the approach to present a thorough discussion of the travelling twin example, giving a concise conclusion regarding the twins’ ages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1671] **viXra:1706.0374 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-04 11:50:46*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Abstract. We investigate time dilation under the conditions of the theory of special relativity (TSR). The arguments utilise variants of the Lorentz transformation and a direct comparison of clock readings at identical positions. The observations of time depends on (the location of) the clocks used for time registrations we investigate various observational principles. Three principles are in focus: Reference frame applying a single clock (SC); reference frame applying multiple clocks (MC); and the completely symmetric situation between reference frames. Further, the approach introduces an auxiliary reference frame and thereby gives a means to define simultaneity at different locations. We apply the approach to present a thorough discussion of the travelling twin example.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1670] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-07 16:32:56*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein. As we will see, the speed of light (which is equal to the speed of gravity) was hidden within Newton’s formula.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1669] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-24 06:58:57*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1668] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-21 02:36:23*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1667] **viXra:1706.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-19 16:56:09*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we will show the existence of a simple relationship between Einstein’s and Newton’s formulas. They are closely connected in terms of fundamental particles. Without knowing so, Newton indirectly conceptualized E = mc^2 two hundred years before Einstein.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1666] **viXra:1706.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-10 03:13:32*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 66 Pages. Spanish

We understand the principle of Mach as the assertion that the inertia of a body is not an intrinsic quality of matter, but is the effect of the action of the whole Universe. The forces of inertia act when a body is accelerated. But if we assume that is the Universe that is accelerated, it will generate a gravitational inductive force on the body, which can be understood as the force of inertia.
In this research we calculated the gravitational induction produced on a body by the accelerated movement of the whole of the Universe. We used the linearized theory of General Relativity, therefore the results are approximate, but sufficient to give us an idea of how the Universe conforms the inertia of the bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1665] **viXra:1706.0042 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-05 14:44:43*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The model gives a vacuum solution where the center of gravity is an infinitely dense point in time rather than space. The internal metric is dynamic and describes two phases. In the first phase, space starts off infinitely sparse and then collapses to infinite density in a finite proper time measured by an inertial observer. In the second phase, the space expands out from this infinitely dense state (the temporal center of gravity) back to the zero density state. The geodesics remain well defined when traversing this infinitely dense state. It is shown that the second phase corresponds to current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. With a simple coordinate change we get a metric resembling the FRW metric for flat space with a time dependent scale factor. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology