# Relativity and Cosmology

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)
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2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(14) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)
2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)
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2014 - 1401(34) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)
2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(33) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(33) - 1509(38) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)
2016 - 1601(33) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(32) - 1605(30) - 1606(44) - 1607(23) - 1608(39) - 1609(45) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(32)
2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(46) - 1705(31) - 1706(31) - 1707(28) - 1708(28) - 1709(42) - 1710(34) - 1711(41) - 1712(47)
2018 - 1801(35) - 1802(41) - 1803(46) - 1804(46) - 1805(39) - 1806(42) - 1807(49) - 1808(12)

## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3020] viXra:1808.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-16 12:22:04

### The Tau Lepton Mass (1776.84 Mev) Signals the Completion of Signing of the Declaration of Independence

Authors: George R. Briggs

Abstract: It is observed that the mass of the tau lepton matches closely the date of the last signing of the Declaration of Independence
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3019] viXra:1808.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 13:37:49

### Scalar Theory of Everything Replacement of Special Relativity

Authors: John Hodge

The Special Theory of Relativity applies where gravitation is insignificant. There are many observations that remain poorly explained by the standard models of either the big of cosmology or the small of Quantum mechanics. Each of the STOE axioms has been used in the development of models of observations in the big and the small. The strength of the Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) is its ability to describe an extremely wide range of observations and to predict observations. The axioms that replace Special Relativity are: (1) Time progression (d$t$) is a constant in the universe rather than the speed of light. (2) The diameter of the hods is the same throughout the universe. (3) The distance between hods is related to plenum density$\rho$. Higher $\rho$ reduces the distance between hods. (4) The speed of photons and hods is the greatest of any matter in a given environment. And (5) The speed of the plenum wave is much faster than the speed of the hods. The STOE passes the tests of Special Relativity and does much more. The STOE is a major paradigm shift.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3018] viXra:1808.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-13 11:21:55

### Calculating the Mass of the Neutron in a Better Way with Hce8s Theory

Authors: George R. Briggs

Abstract: Calculation of the mass of the neutron can be done accurately utilizing only the mass of the Z(4430) tetraquark together with an understood factor and another not understood but smaller factor the neutron has in common with the proton
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3017] viXra:1808.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-14 03:47:16

### Czarnodziurowy Wszechświat a Temperatura Hawkinga ### Black Hole Universe and Hawking Temperature

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak

Pokazano, że temperatura Hawkinga Czarnodziurowego Wszechświata jest wprost proporcjonalna do stałej Hubble’a. Oszacowano wartość tej temperatury, moc promieniowania, energię emitowaną w ciągu jednego roku oraz długość fali odpowiadającą maksymalnej mocy promieniowania. ### It has been shown that the Hawking temperature of the Black Hole Universe is directly proportional to the Hubble constant. The value of this temperature, the power of radiation, the energy emitted in one year and the wavelength corresponding to the maximum radiation power were estimated.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3016] viXra:1808.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-14 03:50:52

### Black Hole Universe and Hawking Temperature

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak

It has been shown that the Hawking temperature of the Black Hole Universe is directly proportional to the Hubble constant. The value of this temperature, the power of radiation, the energy emitted in one year and the wavelength corresponding to the maximum radiation power were estimated.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3015] viXra:1808.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-10 20:32:26

### Current Conflicts in General Relativity: is Einstein's Theory Incomplete?

Authors: Kathleen A. Rosser

A review of refutations of general relativity commonly found in today’s literature is presented, with comments on the status of Einstein’s theory and brief analyses of the arguments for modified gravity. Topics include dark matter and the galactic rotation curve, dark energy and cosmic acceleration, completeness and the equation of state, the speed of gravity, the singularity problem, redshift, gravitational time dilation, localized energy, and the gravitational potential. It is conjectured that the contemporary formalism of general relativity offers an incomplete description of gravitational effects, which may be the most compelling reason for seeking new theories of gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3014] viXra:1808.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-09 12:41:39

### A Quantum Field Theory Conjecture for the Origin of Gravitation

Authors: DT Froedge

Gravitation defined in curved space has never been found to be compatible with quantum mechanics or quantum field theory. This is likely due to the fact that one theory is based in local conservation of energy and the other defines energy globally, and not locally conserved [1]. Equations mixed with variables from the two conservation laws, could neither be invariant nor covariant under coordinate transformations. This paper presents a theory of gravitation constructed within the locally conserved concepts of QFT. In previous papers the author has illustrated that for photons, and confined light speed particles, a gradient in c demonstrates the effect of gravitation. The illustration of a gradient in c generated by Quantum Field Theory equivalent to gravitation therefore could create a theory of gravitation within a Lorenz, local conservation of energy four-space. With a few assumptions regarding the nature of photons and the reality of path integrals, gravitation can be illustrated as a feature of Quantum Field Theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3013] viXra:1808.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-10 06:26:20

Authors: Mesut Kavak

After midnight just before sleeping, I noticed in my bed, that free space itself can cause a parachute effect on the moving bodies especially the bodies move in low gravitational fields like in pioneer anomaly. Because of this reason, while speed of a satellite is decreasing, speed of another one which spins around the world on different axis can increase; a satellite wandering in interstellar medium can speed up as also it can slow down; low frequency light and high frequency light behavior differently. These are only a few examples.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3012] viXra:1808.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-08 10:26:48

### CLTG Emergent and Fission Classifications of Multi-Object Systems for Morphological Taxonomy Part I

Authors: Tarzan

As outlined in Part I of this series there are many types of paired- and multi-object systems which exemplify emergent and fission systems. This report describes the CLTG (clone or compact, later-type galaxy) multi-object system. The CLTG have a variety of morphological appearances albeit many are non-spiral ‘stellate’ types and contrast with clones or late spiral type objects. Along with this collection of CLTG families we include a data-driven method of classification members of the family. We also created several ad hoc descriptions of patterns formed by family objects.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3011] viXra:1808.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-07 08:08:13

### The Superluminal Phenomenon of Light For The Kerr-Newman Black Hole

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei

We use the Kerr-Newman metric based on the general relativity to discuss the superluminal phenomenon of light at the black hole. The black hole have the rotation term a and the charge term RQ with the Schwarzschild radius RS. The geodesic of light is ds2=0 and the equation for three velocity components (dr/dt, rdθ/dt, rsinθdϕ/dt) is obtained in the spherical coordinate (r, θ, ϕ) with the coordinate time t. Then three cases of the velocity of light (dr/dt, 0, 0), (0, rdθ/dt, 0), and (0, 0, rsinθdϕ/dt) are discussed in this research. According to our discussions, only the case of (dr/dt, 0, 0) gives the possibility of the occurrence of the superluminal phenomenon for r between RS and (R_Q^2+a^2 sin^2 θ/2)/R_S at sinθ>0 when RQ∼RS. The calculations of the velocity of light reveal that the maximum speed of light and the range of the superluminal phenomenon are much related to the rotational term a. Generally speaking, the superluminal phenomena for light can possibly occur in these cases that the radial velocity dr/dt is dominant and the other two velocity components are comparably small. When the relative velocity between the reference frame and the black hole is not heavy, these results of the superluminal phenomenon are suitable for the observations by an observer in a reference frame at infinity or very weak gravitation like on Earth.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3010] viXra:1808.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-08 03:50:51

### Lorentz Force in Rindler Spacetime

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 9 Pages. Thank you for reding

In the general relativity theory, we define the force in Rindler space-time We find Lorentz force (electromagnetic force) by electro-magnetic field transformations in Rindler space-time. In the inertial frame, Lorentz force is defined as 4-dimensional force. Hence, we had to obtain 4-dimensional force in Rindler space-time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3009] viXra:1808.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-06 13:49:28

### A Summary of Forces

Authors: John A. Gowan

Presenting a summary of my website regarding a "Theory of Everything".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3008] viXra:1807.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 08:10:14

### The Near Abortion of Gravistrong

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

a brief overview of the concise unification between gravitation and strong-nuclear
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3007] viXra:1807.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 11:42:35

### Still Further Improvement of the Accuracy of HCE8S Theory: the Neutron and Z Boson Masses and More

Authors: George R. Briggs

Abstract: The HCE8S theory accuracy of the neutron, proton, Z boson and other particle masses has been further improved
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3006] viXra:1807.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 11:46:17

### A Derivation of Fluidic Maxwell-Proca Equations for Electrodynamics of Superconductors and Implication to Chiral Cosmology model

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

In a rather old paper, Mario Liu described a hydrodynamic Maxwell equations. While he also discussed potential implications of these new approaches to superconductors, such a discussion of electrodynamics of superconductors is made only after Tajmar's paper. Therefore, in this paper we present for the first time a derivation of fluidic Maxwell-Proca equations. The name of fluidic Maxwell-Proca is proposed because the equations were based on modifying Maxwell-Proca and Hirsch's theory of electrodynamics of superconductor. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in superconductor. It may be expected to have some impact to cosmology modeling too, for instance we consider a hypothetical argument that photon mass can be origin of gravitation. Then, after combining with the so-called chiral modification of Maxwell equations (after Spröessig), then we consider chiral Maxwell-Proca equations as possible alternative of gravitation theory. Such a hypothesis has never been considered in literature to the best of our knowledge.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3005] viXra:1807.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 09:59:17

### Electromagnetic Wave Function and Equation in Rindler Space-Time

Authors: Sangwha Yi

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic wave function and equation in Rindler space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equation is corrected by the gauge fixing equation in Rindler space-time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3004] viXra:1807.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 07:08:56

Authors: Dariusz Dudało

Next part of Simply Theory
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3003] viXra:1807.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 09:59:56

### Pseudo-Acceleration of Nasa Space Vehicles: Adequate Interpretation "PIONEER EFFECT"

Authors: Tcherepanov O.A.

It is possible that the so-called "anomaly of the Pioneers" is actually caused by the "blue shift", that is, gradually as the approach to the ground transmitter changes in the frequency of the returned signals of the radar tracking of space vehicles, the cause of which may be the weakly refracting properties of the near-solar space. Considering the near space as an optical medium that is inhomogeneous in the direction "from" the Sun or "to" the Sun, we supplement the calculation using the Doppler formula by the Mikhelson rule.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3002] viXra:1807.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 14:44:54

### Time Arrow Spinors for the Modified Cosmological Model

Authors: Jonathan W. Tooker
Comments: 24 Pages. 15 figures, 2 tables

We construct time arrow spinor states and define for them a Stern--Gerlach analogue Hamiltonian. The dispersion relations of the allowed modes are derived in a few special cases. We examine experimental data regarding negative frequency resonant radiation and show that the energy shift of the negative frequency mode is on the characteristic scale of the energies of the new Hamiltonian. We describe the similitude of the modified cosmological model (MCM) and the Stern--Gerlach apparatus, and we also show how the Pauli matrices are well-suited to applications in MCM cosmology. Complex and quaternion phase are combined in the wavefunction to generate new multiplectic structures. The principles described in this paper are oriented toward a time circuit application so we briefly describe an electrical circuit whose constructive elements elucidate the requirements needed for a working time circuit. The algebraic graph representation of electrical nodes with different electric potentials is replaced with time nodes that have different times in the time circuit graph.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3001] viXra:1807.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 04:21:03

### Commentary on Shafiq Khan’s Paper: “Experimental & Theoretical Evidences of Fallacy of Space-Time Concept and Actual State of Existence of the Physical Universe”

Authors: Lann N. Ramez

In his referenced paper (Khan 2012), Khan concluded that Einstein’s basic equation obtained in his paper (Einstein 1905) to derive the Special Relativity equations is based on trickery. This paper reveals that Khan conclusion is based on misconceptions and wrong interpretation of the Einstein’s derivation method.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3000] viXra:1807.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 01:18:40

### Time In Projectile Motion

Authors: Eric Su

In the projectile motion under vertical gravity, the horizontal speed remains constant while the vertical speed increases. The elapsed time to travel over a fixed length in the horizontal direction remains constant regardless of the vertical speed. Such elapsed time is independent of any reference frame in vertical motion. Therefore, the elapsed time is independent of the reference frame. Consequently, time is independent of the reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2999] viXra:1807.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 04:20:07

### Is Charge Another Form of Energy?

Authors: Moshe Segal

The kinetic energy of a moving mass is attributed to the mass increase because of its velocity. Thus, mass is recognized as a special form of energy. In contast to mass, charge is believed to be a constant entity, not affected by its velocity. From the above, two questions might be asked: 1. Why charge remains a distinct entity while mass was discovered to be a special sort of enery. 2. If mass increase by velocity is recognized to be the cause of the kinetic enrgy embeded in a moving mass, what is the cause for the generation of a magnetic field while the charge is moving? This article deals with these questions by executing the following "thinking exercise": It assumes that charge is also another form of energy, as mass turned to be. This assumption makes Energy as the only distinct entity, a simpler and cleaner view of nature. Then, it uses that assumption as follows: It adds the following two assumptions: 1. The charge magnitude value is not a constant entity and it is affected by the charge velocity. 2. The increase of the charge magnitude because of its velocity is the cause for the generation of the magnetic field of a moving charge. Then, by analyzing the existing experimental results related to charges and the fields they create from a new point of view, and applying these assumptions, the article tries to evaluate if these assumptions lead to new insights. The result is the following four conclusions: 1. Charge magnitude increase because of its velocity is described by the following formula: 1/2))2/c21v –/((1 0q = q - 2 - - 2 - This is very similar to the equation: 1/2))2c/2v -((1 /0m = m Which describes the increase in mass when the mass is moving. 2. The magnetic field generated by a moving point charge is actually two moving field components. One of these moving field components is a moving electric field component. Another moving field component is perpendicular to this moving electric field and it can be seen as the actual magnetic field created. These two moving fields resemble and might be related to the electromagnetic emission from moving charges. 3. Since charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then the energy embeded in charge also comes in two energy types. The article assigns these energy types to one set of Energy Pairs. 4. A magnetic field energy conservation paradox is resolved using the above concept of Energy Pairs. This is done by assuming that Energies belonging to Energy Pairs, cancel each other if they coexist in the same space volume, such that only the net energy intensity of the energy type in the Energy pair that had initially more intensity, remains in the space volume where the two Energy Pairs coexist. Thus, energy conservation exists only when the total amount of energy in a specific volume in space contains only the net amount of one member of the energies which belong to an Energy Pair. Thus, by assuming that charge is a special form of energy, and analyzing the existing data and knowledge according to this assumption, it seems that new insights can be found, and also an explanation can be supplied to a magnetic field energy conservation paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2998] viXra:1807.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 19:51:43

Authors: Dariusz Dudało

Uwzględnienie dylatacji czasu przy analizowaniu Czarnych Dziur.Time dilation with black holes.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2997] viXra:1807.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 08:52:02

### Physical Reality and Einstein's "Principles of Relativity".

Authors: W.Berckmans

There seems to be a fundamental conflict between a PhR model, proposing a cosmos on a double layered grid and Einstein's Special Relativity Theory".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2996] viXra:1807.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 12:14:10

### Czarnodziurowy Wszechświat a Przestrzeń Einsteina ### Black Hole Universe and Einstein Space

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak

Równania pola modelujące czarną dziurę z maksymalną otoczką antygrawitacyjną oraz Nasz Wszechświat można sprowadzić do postaci opisującej tzw. przestrzeń Einsteina. ### Field equations modeling a black hole with maximal anti-gravity halo and Our Universe can be reduced to the form describing the so-called. Einstein space.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2995] viXra:1807.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 12:17:46

### Black Hole Universe and Einstein Space

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak

Field equations modeling a black hole with maximal anti-gravity halo and Our Universe can be reduced to the form describing the so-called. Einstein space.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2994] viXra:1807.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 20:53:05

### Additional Exemplification of December 27, 2017 Vixra Submission Http://vixra.org/pdf/1712.0489v2.pdf Entitled “Refutation of SRT Time Dilation”

Authors: John Lawrence Duval

What we have done in this work is remove the misdirection Relativity Theory employs.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2993] viXra:1807.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 22:35:41

### A Model of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Based on Relativizing Newton's Physics

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 30 Pages. a preprint of a paper accepted for publication

The nature and properties of dark matter and dark energy in the universe are among the outstanding open issues of modern cosmology. Despite extensive theoretical and empirical efforts, the question "what is dark matter made of?" has not been answered satisfactorily. Candidates proposed to identify particle dark matter span over ninety orders of magnitude in mass, from ultra-light bosons, to massive black holes. Dark energy is a greater enigma. It is believed to be some kind of negative vacuum energy, responsible for driving galaxies apart in accelerated motion. In this article we take a relativistic approach in theorizing about dark matter and dark energy. Our approach is based on our recently proposed Information Relativity theory. Rather than theorizing about the identities of particle dark matter candidates, we investigate the relativistic effects on large scale celestial structures at their recession from an observer on Earth. We analyze a simplified model of the universe, in which, large scale celestial bodies, like galaxies and galaxy clusters, are non-charged compact bodies that recede rectilinearly along the line-of-sight of an observer on Earth. We neglect contributions to dark matter caused by the rotation of celestial structures (e.g., the rotation of galaxies) and of their constituents (e.g., rotations of stars inside their galaxies). We define the mass of dark matter as the complimentary portion of the derived relativistic mass, such that at any given recession velocity the sum of the two is equal to the Newtonian mass. The emerging picture from our analysis could be summarized as follows: 1. At any given redshift, the dark matter of a receding body exists in duality to its observable matter, such that the sum of their masses is equal to the body's mass at rest. 2. The dynamical interaction between the dark and the observed matter is determined by the body's recession velocity (or redshift). 3. The observable matter mass density decreases with its recession velocity, with matter transforming to dark matter. 4. For redshifts z < 0.5, the universe is dominated by matter, while for redshifts z > 0.5 the universe is dominated by dark matter. 5. Consistent with observational data, at redshift z = 0.5, the densities of matter and dark matter in the universe are predicted to be equal. 5. At redshift equaling the Golden Ratio (z ≈ 1.618), baryonic matter undergoes a quantum phase transition. The universe at higher redshifts is comprised of a dominant dark matter alongside with quantum matter. 6. Contrary to the current conjecture that dark energy is a negative vacuum energy that might interact with dark matter, comparisons of our theoretical results with observational results of ΛCDM cosmologies, and with observations of the relative densities of matter and dark energy at redshift z ≈ 0.55, allow us to conclude that dark energy is the energy carried by dark matter. 7. Application of the model to the case of rotating bodies, which will be discussed in detail in a subsequent paper, raises the intriguing possibility that the gravitational force between two bodies of mass is mediated by the entanglement of their dark matter components.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2992] viXra:1807.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 04:26:05

### Analysis of the Around-the-World Atomic Clocks Experiment

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk

The description of the experiment, published in 1972 in Science by J.C. Hafele and R.E. Keating, shows in the first part, called: Predicted Relativistic Time Gains, the theoretical background for the calculated time gains. In the second part: Observed Relativistic Time Gains, the results of the measurements are shown. This analysis shows several theoretical errors and a tendentious presentation of the measurements, so clear that the reader cannot avoid a feeling of being deceived in order to get convinced of the correctness of the Special Theory of Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2991] viXra:1807.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 13:38:40

### Space-time Contraction Fields Offer an Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: John S. Huenefeld
Comments: 20 Pages. A simple elegant theory of the cosmos - easy to understand.

An inward dynamic, within a gravitational field of General Relativity, provides the basis to propose a space-time contraction field around matter. This can only be achieved by making a fundamental shift in thinking from Einstein’s conception of GR. This shift, if fully embraced, will change the paradigm of understanding for both space-time and matter, with implications ranging from quark behavior to the expanding cosmos. Adding mass is not the only way to influence orbital velocities. A field of contracting space-time surrounding a massive object will also increase orbital velocities above that of Newtonian gravity alone. When applied to a model galaxy, a contraction field yields a flat rotation curve consistent with observations. The contraction field will also create gravitational lensing and hold galactic clusters together, explaining all observations attributed to dark matter. Cosmologically, space-time contraction fields surrounding galaxies embedded within intergalactic regions of expanding space-time can lead to an observed acceleration of universal expansion. Over time, a greater proportion of the universe becomes occupied by expanding space-time. In the early universe, contraction fields acting within vast clouds of hydrogen gas , can explain the rapid formation of super-massive black holes, quasars, and large early stars. The theoretical contraction field arises from consideration of a special class of inertial reference frames in freefall around a gravitating body. This class of inertial reference frame, falling from an infinite distance, reveals not only the metric of the GR field, but also a dynamic process where space-time is continuously contracted around matter in a very specific way.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2990] viXra:1807.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 03:16:06

### Reply to Mohammad Shafiq Khan’s Paper “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies by Albert Einstein is Based on Trickeries (Open Letter to Professors, Teachers, Researchers and Students of Physics)”

Authors: Anonymous

This reply to Khan’s referenced paper (Khan 2012) shows that Khan performed erroneous, false, and invalid operations on a wrongly assumed equation to obtain Einstein’s basic partial differential equation that Einstein derived in in his paper (Einstein 1905) to develop the Special Relativity equations. Khan naively concluded that the latter Einstein’s equation must be an “equation of trickery”, without realizing that performing invalid operations on a wrong equation to force it to lead to a desired equation doesn’t necessarily falsify the forced equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2989] viXra:1807.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 03:25:22

### The Chronology Protection Conjecture and the Formation of the Kerr Black Hole Through Gravitational Collapse

Authors: Moninder Singh Modgil

Exterior of the Kerr black hole is considered as the likely spacetime geometry around a black hole formed by gravitational collapse. However the Kerr black hole has chronology violating Closed Time-like Curves (CTCs), near the ring singularity in interior. Hawking has considered formation of CTCs using a scalar field and shown that back reaction of nature - divergence of energy-momentum tensor - would prevent formation of CTCs. The question being raised here is whether the physics behind Hawking's concept of "chronology protection", will actually prevent formation of the Kerr black hole - through gravitational collapse. On the other hand, if the Kerr black hole indeed gets formed by gravitational collapse, then one has a counter example to Chronology Protection Conjecture. Chronology protection thus imposes the constraint that formation of a rotating black hole through gravitational collapse should be such that the interior metric of the black hole does not match that of the Kerr black hole, or any other black hole with CTCs. It is possible that the quantum gravity effects rule out formation of CTCs during gravitational collapse - as they are expected to remove singularities. There may however be classical solutions to the problem. Angular momentum orginating from the rotation and the formation of CTCs are intimately related - through the off diagonal term $g_{t \phi}$ i.e., the coefficient of the $dtd\phi$ term (corresponding to the temporal coordinate $t$ and the longitudinal angular coordinate $\phi$) - of the metric tensor. A possible solution is that during the gravitational collapse, all the angular momentum of the star, is radiated away by gravitational waves - leaving behind as residual, the Schwarzschild black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2988] viXra:1807.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 07:47:22

### On Certain Theories of Physics Considered Important

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá

In a previous paper, I gave my opinion on some significant questions of physics. This note is to reinforce that opinion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2987] viXra:1807.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 03:10:22

### The Size of the Universe and the Speed of the Gravitons

Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2986] viXra:1807.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 20:35:54

### Reconciliation Between Relativistic Ether and Lorentz's Ether

Authors: Piscedda Giampaolo

When we discuss the ether, we must specify what type of ether we are referring to: Dirac's ether, Einstein's ether, Lorentz's ether, Weyl's ether, etc. Among the physicists the word ether became gradually unusual over time. It has been replaced by the empty term, but the meaning has not changed. Currently, we have return to the use of the wird ether. The use of the term: stationary ether, new ether, relativistic ether, has already becomes normal during son international conferences. See the book of LUDWIK KOSTRO title: EINSTEIN AND THE ETHER. In this article we combine reconciles the Lorentz's ether with the relativistic ether of Einstein
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2985] viXra:1807.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-15 12:00:32

### The Z(4430) Tetraquark Acts Like a Heavy Majorana Neutrino Having No Electric Charge

Authors: George R. Briggs

Abstract: A chargeless Z(4430) tetraquark acts physically like a ~ 270X heavier neutrino
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2984] viXra:1807.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 01:08:43

### One Way Speed Of Light Based on Fizeau's Experiment

Authors: Eric Su

Based on Fizeau's experiment, the single cogwheel is replaced with two rotating disks to measure the one-way speed of light. A single slit is cut out in the radial direction on each disk for the light to pass through the disk. With both disks rotating at the same angular speed, the light can pass through both disks only if the second slit is in a different radial direction from the first slit. The light takes time to travel from the first disk to the second disk. With both slits rotating into the straight path of light, the one-way speed of light can be calculated from the distance between two disks, angular speed of the disks and the angular difference between two slits.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2983] viXra:1807.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 15:06:38

### The Role of Light in Observation: Why is the Speed of Light Invariant?

Authors: Xiaogang Ruan

In 1905, based on the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein proposed the hypothesis of invariance of light speed (ILS). He then theoretically deduced the Lorentz transformation from ILS, established the theory of special relativity (SR), and revealed the relativistic phenomena of matter motion. Up till today, however, we still don’t exactly know what role light plays in Einstein’s theory, or why the speed of light is invariant; moreover, we still don’t exactly understand relativistic phenomena. Based on the locality of physical world, this paper establishes the principle of observational locality (POL), proposes the hypothesis of observational limit (HOL), and tries to accertain the role of light in observation and the root and essence of ILS. According to POL and HOL, the Michelson-Morley experiment does not really mean ILS, but does demonstrate to us a significant phenomenon in physical observation: the speeds that observational media transmit the spacetime information about observed objects possess observational invariance. In Michelson-Morley experiment, light acts as both the observed object and the observational medium, and therefore, its speed is observationally invariant. Perhaps, this paper could provide new knowledge on light speed and new understanding on relativistic phenomena including ILS. Perhaps, in the future, the observational locality of light would be broken through with technological progress so that we could observe a more real objective world.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2982] viXra:1807.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 10:10:05

### A Theory of Special Relativity Based on Four-Displacement of Particles Instead of Minkowski Four-Position

Authors: Albert Zur Ph.D

All Lorentz four-vectors of Special Relativity (SR) are derived from a basic Lorentz four-position in a Minkowski space. This article explores use of a Lorentz four-displacement, describing translatory motion of particles in a 4-dimensional space irrespective of position, as a basic four-vector. Derivations based on this assumption have striking outcomes and impact: All four-vectors of SR associated with frame invariants are intact and valid. All postulates and predictions of SR are intact and valid, with two exceptions - Length contraction in the boost direction and relativity of simultaneity are both obviated. Notably, these two aspects of SR have never been definitively proven in experiments and can therefore be challenged. We propose an adapted SR theory, based on four-displacement of particles, predicting the following revolutionary and far-reaching consequences: 1. 4D-space is absolute and Euclidean relative to which all particles, mass and massless, are never at rest and perform an equal distance of translatory displacement at a universal displacement rate equivalent to the speed of light. Inertial frames of 3D-space+time remain relative. 2. What appear as Lorentz four-vectors in a Minkowski metric of a relative spacetime are actually Lorentz four-vectors in an absolute Euclidian 4D-space. 3. Special Relativity actually emerges from describing properties of particles in 4 momentum-space, irrespective of position and localization in space. In this form, SR achieves inherent compatibility with Quantum theories, reflecting the particle-wave duality of particle fields. 4. Time is a property of mass particles associated with their displacement in 4D-space, as opposed to a Minkowski-space property. 5. Frames of 3D-space+time represent mixed domain coordinates: 3 spatial coordinates of position-space and a temporal coordinate of momentum-space, unlike the position-space status of 4 spacetime coordinates in conventional SR.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2981] viXra:1807.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 04:55:19

### Czarnodziurowy Wszechświat a Dwu-Potencjalność Pola Grawitacyjnego ### Black Hole Universe and Two-Potentiality of Gravity

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak

Przyjęcie hipotezy o dwu-potencjalności stacjonarnego pola grawitacyjnego umożliwiło znalezienie w ramach Ogólnej Teorii Względności rozwiązań równań pola i równań ruchu, które w granicznym przypadku prowadzą do zgodności z newtonowską teorią grawitacji zarówno wewnątrz jak i na zewnątrz źródłowej masy. ### The acceptance of the hypothesis about two-potentiality of the stationary gravitational field made it possible to find solutions of field equations and equations of motion within the General Relativity, which in extreme case lead to compliance with the Newtonian theory of gravity both inside and outside of the mass source.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2980] viXra:1807.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 05:00:44

### Black Hole Universe and Two-potentiality of Gravity

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak

The acceptance of the hypothesis about two-potentiality of the stationary gravitational field made it possible to find solutions of field equations and equations of motion within the General Relativity, which in extreme case lead to compliance with the Newtonian theory of gravity both inside and outside of the mass source.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2979] viXra:1807.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 11:05:25

Authors: Edward G. Lake

Paul Langevin’s so-called “Twin Paradox,” based upon Albert Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity, seems to be by far the most argued topic in physics. Many hundreds of articles have been written about the “Twin Paradox,” but all they seem to accomplish is to make the subject even more confusing. This is an attempt to simplify the subject by identifying the causes of the confusion. And it proposes a relatively simple experiment to clarify how time dilation works.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2978] viXra:1807.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 11:34:07

### Representation of Gravity Field Equation and Solutions, Hawking Radiation in Data General Relativity Theory

Authors: Sangwha Yi

In the general relativity theory, we find the representation of the gravity field equation and solutions.We treat the representation of Schwarzschild solution, Reissner-Nordstrom solution, Kerr-Newman solution, Robertson-Walker solution. Specially Robertson-Walker solution is an uniqueness.We found new General relativity(we can call it Data General Relativity Theory;DGRT).We treat the data of Hawking radiation by Data General relativity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2977] viXra:1807.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 15:39:23

### Dark Energy and its Problem

Authors: Saif Mohamed

Dark energy is energy that fills the universe with a lot and is the reason for the expansion The Universe Accelerates Scientists believe that they have the energy or negative pressure they have Anti-gravity but scientists did not know its interpretation or what it is or who I came and my hypothesis solved this problem and explained it
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2976] viXra:1807.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 07:12:24

### Time is not Relative

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe

An atom requires a certain amount of energy for a transition between two energy levels, we can use that amount of energy in an experiment to prove that time is not relative.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2975] viXra:1807.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 09:47:20

### About New Planck Units and Gravity Wave

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu

New Planck units as well as gravity wave formula can be derived by using the spinity constant (2G/c^2). Thus, the original Planck units can be simplified. I call these new Planck units. The deduction is listed below.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2974] viXra:1807.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 04:16:53

### Matter Creation from Dynamical Dark Energy

Authors: Bernard Riley

The ‘quantum/classical connection’, a set of equations found in an analysis of dynamical vacuum energy, maps: the age of the universe at the onset of inflation onto the GUT scale, the age at nucleosynthesis onto the mass scale of light nuclei, the age at the onset of recombination onto the mass of the electron and the age at the onset of the accelerating expansion of the universe onto a mass scale of 7 keV—the mass of a dark matter candidate. The analysis suggests that as the universe expands and the vacuum (dark) energy density reduces, a particle emerges from the vacuum when the Hubble radius surpasses the length scale that maps onto the mass of the particle. When the Hubble radius maps onto, in turn, the weak, QCD, electromagnetic and 7 keV scales, the value of the dark energy density takes specific values that have a binary basis.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2973] viXra:1807.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 08:16:21

### The Zero Dimension

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe

Everything in the universe has one, two or three dimensions, and the next dimension cannot exist in the previous dimension. So it's obvious that 4-dimensional spacetime cannot exist, and that means that Einstein's theory of gravity cannot be correct. But physicists didn't realize that there was one more dimension, because we know that each dimension is based on the previous dimension(s).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2972] viXra:1807.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 11:02:18

### Löschverschiebungsprinzip ( Extinction Shift Principle ) a Replacement for Relativity

Authors: Edward Henry Dowdye Jr. Ph.D.
Comments: 20 Pages. A German language version of Extinction Shift Principle publshed in Refereed Journals

The observational evidence in Astrophysics clearly shows that if the light bending rule of General Relativity were actually valid, then the following would be the consequences: The star-abundant skies would be filled with images of Einstein rings. At high impact parameters far above the plasma rim of the stars, the astrophysical observations of deep space would be totally denied to all modern Astronomy. Deep space images of the skies due to gravitational lensing effects, would be completely blurred to all modern astronomy. The sought after Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) or simply put, the modification of Newton's law and/or General Relativity, in the attempt to satisfactorily explain the prevailing observations pertaining to the subject matters of gravitational lensing and the so-called dark matter would be totally unnecessary. These findings are clearly supported by the observational evidence.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2971] viXra:1807.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 11:44:30

### Improvement of the Accuracy of HCE8S Theory Thanks to the Z(4430) Tetraquark

Authors: George R. Briggs

Abstract: Due to a mistake on HCE8S flow diagram the accuracy of the neutron mass was less than it should have been. Correction of this error leads to both up neutron and down neutron quark mass changes for neutronic quarks.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2970] viXra:1807.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-06 21:28:06

### The Golden Ratio in the Modified Cosmological Model

Authors: Jonathan Tooker

The golden ratio Phi is very important in the modified cosmological model (MCM). In previous work, we have inserted it artificially rather than showing where it comes from. Where the real numbers are extended to the complex numbers for routine physical applications, we extend the complex numbers to the hypercomplex numbers and show that Phi is inherent to the transfinite structure. We formalize the transfinite concept of continuation beyond infinity. We improve upon previous motivations for deriving general relativity and the fine structure constant in the MCM, and we propose an origin for the Yang--Mills mass gap.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2969] viXra:1807.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 02:51:08

### Euclidean-Planck Metrics of Space, Particle Physics and Cosmology

Authors: Amrit Sorli1, Uros Dobnikar2, Santanu Kumar Patro3, Magi Mageshwaran4, Davide Fiscaletti
Comments: 8 Pages. This is already published in the journal of NeuroQuantology,

Recent research has introduced a novel model where a fundamental arena of the universe is infinite Euclidean space of Planck metrics, where time is merely mathematical parameter of universal changes. The history of the universe has merely a mathematical existence and is nonexistent in the physical sense. On the other hand, the future is not yet existent. The only existent physical reality is the universe, which exists in the timeless space of Euclidean-Planck metrics. This view is the basis of an “Energy-Mass-gravity” Model that unifies energy, mass, and gravity. Additionally, this model reveals some discrepancies in the Big Bang cosmology model that need to be examined in details in order to keep the Big Bang cosmology as the leading model of today’s physics
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2968] viXra:1807.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 09:06:27

### Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Authors: Friedhelm Jöge

The rudiments of a theory of dark energy. The theoretical result is confronted with the numerical value calculated from the available data. Excellent matching of numerical values resulting in three independent paths makes the approach plausible. The work at hand is analogous to Kepler's laws of planetary orbits. Only Isaac Newton put Kepler's laws on a theoretical basis, which is provided here by Thomas Görnitz [1]. The empirical Balmer formula was also theoretically justified by Niels Bohr.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2967] viXra:1807.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 14:46:47

### Gauge Coordinates and Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Karl De Paepe

We show there is a gauge and coordinate choice such that the electromagnetic field is zero.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2966] viXra:1807.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 06:41:57

### Astronomical Evidence for Antimatter Black Holes

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

a fascinating development surrounding PABHs, primordial antimatter black holes
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2965] viXra:1807.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 10:08:53

### Space, Time, Movement (In Russian)

Authors: V.A.Kasimov

The properties of space-time relations at three levels of matter organization are analyzing: micro-, macro- and mega-; the possibility of combining their coordinate characteristics on the basis of a single ordering factor in distinguishing dynamic and evolutionary times. The thesis about the secondary nature of space-time relations and anout their conceptual origin as parameters of averaging procedures in macro observation of microprocesses is formulated. The book is the result of physical and philosophical understanding of the problem of space-time relations - a topic that is currently very relevant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2964] viXra:1807.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 10:11:20

Authors: V.A.Kasimov

It is shown that the "Twin paradox" is a consequence of the conceptual symmetry of relativity. The twin paradox is not successfully resolved in a continuous coordinate time, nor a STR, nor in GTR due to the symmetry of twin-brothers reference frames. Resolution of the paradox is seen by the author in the distinction between dynamic and evolutionary times. However, the twin paradox is successfully resolved within the discrete time, that is, when the metric measurement scale used for continuous coordinate time is changed to the ordinal one for the discrete time. This can be achieved by changing the metric scale of measurement used for continuous coordinate time, to sequence one, as for discrete own time; that is the paradox disappears when we consider continuous coordinate time in the affine scale representation, in other words, by refusal from metric measurability. The development of the concept of time in this direction greatly enhances the Leibniz aspect of relativity versus Newtonian - substantiality.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2963] viXra:1807.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:16:26

### Classical Unified Field Theory of Gravitation and Electromagnetism

Authors: Jaekwang Lee

According to Noether's theorem, for every continuous symmetry of the action, there exists corresponding conserved quantity. If we assume the stationary condition as a role of symmetry, there is a conserved quantity. By using the definition of the Komar mass, one can calculate the mass in a curved spacetime. However, it fails to give the mass for the well-known charged 4D black hole such as Kerr-Newman black hole. In this paper, to solve this problem, we consider an extension to 5-dimensions by using results of ADM formalism. In terms of (4+1) decomposition, with alternative surface integral, we find the rotating and charged 5D metric solution and check whether it gives the mass, charge and angular momentum exactly.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2962] viXra:1807.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 08:36:51

### Theory of Relativity (In Russian)

Authors: V.A.Kasimov

Special theory of relativity (without the second postulate). The possibility of constructing a STR without the second postulate is considered. The necessity of abandoning the metric factorization of the properties of space-time relations in favor of affine relations is discussed. And from the analysis of the "Twin paradox" it is proposed to distinguish between dynamic and evolutionary ordering time factors. General theory of relativity (principles). Discusses the principles of GTR as a generalization of STR, and the principles of Relativistic Theory of Gravity (RTG) as a theory of filling GTR of metric specifics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2961] viXra:1807.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 15:52:01

### Special Relativity in Complex Space-Time. Part 3. Description of Complex Space-Time Phenomena in the Real Coordinate System of the Observer.

The current article is a next stage of construction of the alternative Special Relativity. The problems of Special Theory of Relativity (STR) arise from their colliding assumptions. The correct postulates of STR do not match the seemingly obvious assumption that space-time is real. In our articles, we try to prove the hypothesis that space-time has a complex structure, and the real one is only locally in a system related to an observer. The misleading impression that space-time is real results from the fact that the information carrier is energy that is always real. This article shows how the complex space-time phenomena can be seen by the observer in his real coordinate system. The concept of realisation of the complex orthogonal paravector, which represents a compound boost, to the form of the real velocity paravector has been introduced on the basis of energy equivalence . The realisation of coordinates of the state paravectors of any object is interpreted as a choice of real coordinates in the observer's frame, which in classical mechanics corresponds to the choice of the object's axis of motion with which the coordinates of the motion of another object are distributed. Mathematical properties of realisation are studied and an attempt to apply it to describe the physical object states.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2960] viXra:1807.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 15:05:43

### The SuperConducting Ether

Authors: Larry Allen West

The SuperConducting Ether (SCE) reinterprets Dirac’s negative energy sea of electrons as a filled Fermi sea (FFS) of both spin-up and spin-down electron neutrinos with collective modes on the Fermi surface (FS), BCS condensation, and particles with mass and charge created when excited across the BCS energy gap. Newtonian gravitation derives from zero sound phonons with propagation velocity, s=c/√3, and with a Doppler force effect. Electric and magnetic fields are collective modes of dipolar quasi-particles and holes. The fine structure constant is interpreted to be a Thomas-Fermi many body screening effect. Special relativity is a byproduct of interactions occurring on the Fermi surface (FS) with c = vF. Quantum single pair decays cause photon propagation losses that result in a distance-dependent red shift superseding the geocentric Doppler red shift. The Fermi surface has a finite temperature that results in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Gravitational Wave Background (GWB) with black body like spectra. Particles are categorized as composites of their final stable decay products resulting in a self-consistent buildup of particle number consistent with the two-neutrino FFS. Quarks are nonexistent. Neutrino mass is disregarded. Matter and antimatter are balanced. The SCE is therefore a steady state universe. Black holes are problematic. The quantum nature and limitations of classical field theory are made evident. SI units are used for explicit expression of free space constitutive parameters. SCE is a physical realization of the Plank units.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2959] viXra:1807.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 01:01:18

### Time and Reference Frame

Authors: Eric Su

Time in a reference frame can be represented by a rotating ring with constant angular velocity. The rotational motion of this ring is not affected by any acceleration parallel to its axis of rotation. The rotation period remains constant as the ring accelerates along the axis of rotation. The rotation period in the rest frame of the ring is always constant. Therefore, the rotation period is independent of reference frame. The rotation period represents the elapsed time in a reference frame. As a result, the elapsed time is also independent of reference frame. Consequently, time is independent of reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2958] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-30 05:49:13

### The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patrons, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. I am looking for a University where I can advance my research. I do not care how far this University is. I like research, training and learning. Others articles, of differente area: -- https://lnkd.in/ga9TidS -- https://lnkd.in/gnde8mN
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2957] viXra:1806.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-30 11:33:35

### An 8th HCE8S Flow Diagram Improving the Z(4430) Tetraquark Connection

Authors: George R. Briggs

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 8th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown incorporating the Z(4430) tetraquark in an improved way
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2956] viXra:1806.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 13:13:07

### Gravitational Waves in Newton’s Gravitation and Criticism of Gravitational Waves Resulting from the General Theory of Relativity (Ligo)

Authors: Szostek Roman, Góralski Paweł, Szostek Kamil
Comments: 20 Pages. From the General Theory of Relativity do not result any gravitational waves, but just ordinary modulation of the gravitational field intensities caused by rotating of bodies.

The most important conclusion from this article is that from the General Theory of Relativity do not result any gravitational waves, but just ordinary modulation of the gravitational field intensities caused by rotating of bodies. If the LIGO team has measured anything, it is only this modulation, rather than the gravitational wave understood as the carrier of gravity. This discussion shows that using too complicated mathematics in physics leads to erroneous interpretation of results (in this case, perhaps the tensor analysis is guilty). Formally, various things can be calculated, but without knowing what such analysis means, they can be attributed misinterpreted. Since the modulation of gravitational field intensities has been called a gravitational wave in contemporary physics, we have also done so, although it is misleading. In the article it was shown, that from the Newton’s law of gravitation resulted an existence of gravitational waves very similar to these, which result from the General Theory of Relativity (GTR). The article shows differences between the course of gravitational waves that result from Newton’s gravitation, and the course of gravitational waves that result from the General Theory of Relativity, which measurement was announced by the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory). According to both theories, gravitational waves are cyclical changes of the gravitational field intensities. The article proposes a method of testing a laser interferometer for gravitational wave measurement used in the LIGO Observatory. Criticism of results published by the LIGO team was also presented.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2955] viXra:1806.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-28 15:29:38

### Black Holes in the Present Tense.

Authors: G.N.N.Martin

General relativity does not offer a meaning to ‘at the same time in a different place’. This paper examines what might be implied or inferred from the use of the present tense. I start by looking at Schwarzschild space to show that the oft made statement that “There is a singularity at the centre of a black hole” is misleading. I use this as a starting point for exploring the notion of a moment in time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2954] viXra:1806.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-27 17:28:19

### An Ads Related Spacetime with Time Dependent Scale Factor

Authors: Thomas Heiko Günther

McVittie's model [10], which interpolates between a Schwarzschild Black Hole and an expanding global (FLRW) spacetime, can be constructed by a simple coordinate replacement in Schwarzschild's isotropic intervall. Analogously, one gets a similarly generated exact solution of Einstein's equations based on a static transformation of de Sitter's metric, cf. [6]. The present article is concerned with the application of this method on the AdS (Anti de Sitter) spacetime. Multiplying the radial coordinate and it's differential by a function a(t) gives the basic line element. Einstein's equations for the modified interval reduce to a system of two differential equations, which are solved in the article. The resulting solution is classified depending on the value of the cosmological constant. Several promising theories like String theorie and AdS/CFT correspondence [11] include spacetimes with higher dimensions. Thereby motivated, the previous results of this article are generalized to D dimensions in the last section.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2953] viXra:1806.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-26 13:33:04

### Dark Matter and the Energy-Momentum of the Gravitational Field

Authors: Gary Nash

The $\Lambda$ Cold Dark Matter cosmological model assumes general relativity is correct. However, the Einstein equation does not contain a symmetric tensor which describes the energy-momentum of the gravitational field itself. Recently, a modified equation of general relativity was developed which contains the missing tensor and completes the Einstein equation. An exact static solution was obtained from the modified Einstein equation in a spheroidal metric describing the gravitational field outside of its source, which does not contain dark matter. The flat rotation curves for a class of galaxies were calculated and the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation followed directly from the gravitational energy-momentum tensor. The Newtonian rotation curves for galaxies with no flat orbital curves, and those with rising rotation curves for large radii were described as examples of the flexibility of the orbital rotation curve equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2952] viXra:1806.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-26 04:23:07

### Theory of Dark Matter and Dark Energy (Version 2)

Authors: Thierry Delort

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. We then study according to our new theory of dark matter the different possible distributions of dark matter in galaxies and in galaxy clusters, and the velocities of galaxies in galaxy clusters. Then using the new model of dark matter we are naturally led to propose a new geometrical model of Universe, finite, that is different from all geometrical models proposed by the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM). Despite that our Theory of dark matter is compatible with the SCM, we then expose a new Cosmological model based on this new geometrical form of the Universe and on the interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF), that has not physical interpretation on the SCM and that we will call local Cosmological frame. We then propose 2 possible mathematical models of expansion inside the new Cosmological model. The 1st mathematical model is based on General Relativity as the SCM and gives the same theoretical predictions of distances and of the Hubble’s constant as the SCM. The 2nd mathematical model of expansion of the Universe is mathematically much simpler than the mathematical model of expansion used in the SCM, but we will see that its theoretical predictions are in agreement with astronomical observations. Moreover, this 2nd mathematical model of expansion does not need to introduce the existence of a dark energy contrary to the mathematical model of expansion of the SCM. To end we study the evolution of the temperature of dark substance in the Universe and we make appear the existence of a dark energy, due to our model of dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2951] viXra:1806.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-25 05:07:40

### A New Effect in Black Hole Physics

Authors: Amal Pushp
Comments: 6 pages, Currently in Peer Review

Quantum fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation reveal tiny fluctuations in the average temperature of the universe. This corresponds to differences in photon energies of Cmb in different regions of the universe. So initially, assuming two black holes with exactly same macroscopic properties, located in two different regions of the universe in accordance with Cmb anisotropy, i.e. one in a region with higher energy per photon and the other in a region with lower photon energy, it is found that this brings about inhomogeneity in the mass, temperature (event horizon) and entropy of the two black holes at the microscopic level. The final calculations show the deviation in properties of one black hole from the other on the microscopic scale. The arguments and calculations form the basis for a new effect in black hole physics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2950] viXra:1806.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-22 15:01:00

### An HCE8S Flow Diagram Including the Z(4430) Tetraquark

Authors: George R. Briggs

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 8th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown incorporating the Z(4430) tetraquark both as normal matter and DM
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2949] viXra:1806.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 10:46:36

### Temporal Elasticity and a Multiphase Transport Model

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

­-relative to Bell’s theorem ­-and more
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2948] viXra:1806.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-21 01:19:56

### Temporal Curvature, Gravitation’s Mediator

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

the theoretical development of temporal curvature, the theory required for the notion of temporal elasticity in gravitation, physics
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2947] viXra:1806.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-20 15:30:42

### The Schwartzschild Solution and the Embedding of Special Coordinates in 4D Space

Authors: Vincenzo Nardozza

We present some formulas and calculations worked out while studying the Schwartzschild Solution. Nothing new!
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2946] viXra:1806.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-15 14:28:37

### Czarnodziurowy Wszechświat a Grawitacyjne Prawo Gaussa ### Black Hole Universe and Gauss’ Law for Gravity

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak

Radialna składowa przyspieszenia grawitacyjnego w Czarnodziurowym Wszechświecie dla małych odległości od centrum w stosunku do promienia Wszechświata pokrywa się z radialną składową przyspieszenia wynikającą z grawitacyjnego prawa Gaussa. ### The radial component of gravitational acceleration in the Black Hole Universe for small distances from the center in relation to the radius of the Universe coincides with the radial component of the acceleration resulting from the Gauss’ Law for Gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2945] viXra:1806.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-15 14:31:48

### Black Hole Universe and Gauss’ Law for Gravity

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak

The radial component of gravitational acceleration in the Black Hole Universe for small distances from the center in relation to the radius of the Universe coincides with the radial component of the acceleration resulting from the Gauss’ Law for Gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2944] viXra:1806.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-16 11:22:35

### The Holy Grail of Physics

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

a brief review of unification inspired by relativity and some relevant personal thoughts
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2943] viXra:1806.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-16 17:29:10

### Cosmic Vacuum Cleaners: Primordial Antimatter Black Holes

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

a brief letter to Dr. Hawking asking for help
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2942] viXra:1806.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-17 10:50:13

### Stephen Hawking, Salvatore Micheal, and Black Holes

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

a sweet dedication to Stephen Hawking, one of my spirtual mentors / inspirators
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2941] viXra:1806.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-17 13:28:07

### Stephen+

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

primordial antimatter black holes: their unique characteristics define the early cosmos and evolution of it
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2940] viXra:1806.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-18 00:41:02

### Explanation of the "Null" Result of the Michelson-Morley Experiment - Apparent Source Theory

A new explanation of the Michelson-Morley experiment is presented in this paper. This paper reveals the subtle nature of light that has eluded physicists for centuries. It is revealed that the puzzle of the speed of light is solved only by a new theory that is a fusion of the classical theories: ether theory and emission theory of light, the two theories that have been wrongly seen as rivals for centuries.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2939] viXra:1806.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-18 04:05:22

### The Devil is in the Details

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

an explanation of baryon asymmetry, accelerating expansion rate, and dark energy via PABHs, primordial antimatter black holes – and – their interactions
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2938] viXra:1806.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-19 20:28:19

### Universe Without Dark Energy

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times greater than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very large, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the paper emphasizes upon the actual recession of large-scale structures. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2937] viXra:1806.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-20 03:23:59

### The Eötvös Experiment, GTR, and Differing Gravitational and Inertial Masses: Proposition for a Crucial Test of Metric Theories

Authors: T. Yarman, A.L. Kholmetskii, C. Marchal, O. Yarman, M. Arik

The Eötvös experiment has been taken as basis for metric theories of gravity and particularly for the general theory of relativity (GTR), which assumes that gravitational and inertial masses are identical. We highlight the fact that, unlike the long lasting and reigning belief, the setup by Eötvös experiments and its follow-ups serve to demonstrate no more than a mere linear proportionality between said masses, and not ineludibly their exclusive equality. So much so that, as one distinct framework, Yarman–Arik–Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory, where a purely metric approach is not aimed, makes the identity between inertial and gravitational masses no longer imperative while still remaining in full conformance with the result of the Eötvös experiment, as well as that of free fall experiments. It is further shown that Eötvös experiment deprives us of any knowledge concerning the determination of the proportionality coefficient coming into play. Henceforward, the Eötvös experiment and its follow-ups cannot be taken as a rigorous foundation for GTR. In this respect, we suggest a crucial test of the equality of gravitational and inertial masses via the comparison of the oscillation periods of two pendulums with different arm lengths, where the deviation of the predictions by GTR and by YARK theory represents a measurable value.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2936] viXra:1806.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-14 12:15:29

### Вывод общего вида кинематики с универсальной системой отсчета (In Russian)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 22 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Russian).

В статье выведен целый класс преобразований времени и положения. Эти преобразования выведены на основе анализа эксперимента Майкельсона-Морли и его усовершенствованной версии – эксперимента Кеннеди-Торндайка. На основе каждого из этих преобразований можно вывести другую кинематику тел. Таким способом мы продемонстрировали, что Специальная теория относительности (СТО) не является единственной теорией, объясняющей результаты экспериментов со светом. Существует целый континуум теорий кинематики тел, которые правильно объясняют эксперимент Майкельсона-Морли, а также другие эксперименты, в которых измеряют скорость света. На основе выведенных преобразований получаем общий вид выражения для скорости света в вакууме, измеренной в произвольной инерциальной системе отсчета (ИСО). Мы объясняем, почему эксперименты Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка не смогли выявить наличие эфира. Представляем и обсуждаем три примера конкретных преобразований. В заключение объясняем явление анизотропии реликтового излучения (РИ) с использованием представленной теории. Представленную в данной работе теорию мы назвали Специальной теорией эфира (СТЭ) – с произвольным поперечным сокращением. Статья содержит лишь оригинальные исследования, поведенные ее авторами.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2935] viXra:1806.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-13 09:41:10

### Introduction of Emergent and Fission Classifications to Paired-Object Systems for Morphological Taxonomy

Authors: Tarzan Graystone

The scope of this exercise is not to propose any initiation mechanism1 for proband systems but rather to follow the latter components of an emergent system event and extrapolate a timeline, to connect the dots, in a lineage of multi-object systems from , primordial emergent anlage to a fission system. These taxonomic classifications will resolve multi-object morphological dilemmas. The next publication will include discussions of larger family groups.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2934] viXra:1806.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-11 09:17:00

### Antimatter and Time

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

the explanation for baryon asymmetry
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2933] viXra:1806.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-11 10:39:19

Authors: V.A. Kasimov

As often in discussions of the theory of relativity denied the existence of the twin paradox, there is a need to dwell on this again. It is shown that the formal means of SRT and GRT a paradox twins are not resolved.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2932] viXra:1806.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-11 21:15:18

### The Theory of Electrodynamic Space-Time Relativity（Revision 4 / Chinese）

Authors: Yingtao Yang

Abstract: The theory of electrodynamic space-time relativity (TESTR) is the study of the transformation of time and space between two electrodynamic inertial frames of reference, which have both inertial velocity difference and electric potential difference. It is a fundamental space-time theory of theoretical physics based on the Einstein’s special theory of relativity (STR), the electric potential limit postulate and the high-precision experimental facts of the inversion proportional square law of Coulomb’s force. It also proposed new basic physical concepts, such as electric potential limit, quaternion velocity, quaternion electric potential, etc. The two basic physical quantities, electric potential, and velocity are unified through the form of quaternions. It revealed the inherent relationships between the quaternion velocity or the quaternion electric potential and space-time. In mathematical form, it starts with the special theory of relativity in the real form and develop into the complex form and then further into the quaternion form. In the physical sense, it expands the special relativity from having an only inertial frame of reference to having both the inertial frame of reference and electric equipotential frame of reference. This paper discusses in detail the process of establishing the theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity and theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity as well as their various conversions and transformations. With the use of the new concept of system time, it leads to the expression of the fundamental equations of TESTR to be as concise as the form of Galilean transformation. Also, its content is also more symmetrical and universal. It can correctly derive a set of more complex equations of the special three-dimensional theory of relativity. At the same time, proved that the special theory of relativity is a special case of TESTR, and found another important new special case: the theory of electric potential relativity (TEPR). The basic effects of TESTR were also discussed. It predicts some important new space-time change effects, for example, the electric potential time expansion effect. Such proposed effects would provide some theoretical basis for the experimental validation of TESTR. The appendix of the paper proves mathematically that the basic equations of the theory are consistent with the hypothesis.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2931] viXra:1806.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-11 21:36:15

### The Theory of Electrodynamic Space-Time Relativity (Revision 4 )

Authors: Yingtao Yang

Abstract: The theory of electrodynamic space-time relativity (TESTR) is the study of the transformation of time and space between two electrodynamic inertial frames of reference, which have both inertial velocity difference and electric potential difference. It is a fundamental space-time theory of theoretical physics based on the Einstein’s special theory of relativity (STR), the electric potential limit postulate and the high-precision experimental facts of the inversion proportional square law of Coulomb’s force. It also proposed new basic physical concepts, such as electric potential limit, quaternion velocity, quaternion electric potential and etc. The two basic physical quantities, electric potential and velocity, are unified through the form of quaternions. It revealed the inherent relationships between the quaternion velocity or the quaternion electric potential and space-time. In mathematical form, it starts with the special theory of relativity in the real form and develop into the complex form and then further into the quaternion form. In the physical sense, it expands the special relativity from having an only inertial frame of reference to having both the inertial frame of reference and electric equipotential frame of reference. This paper discusses in detail the process of establishing the theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity and theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity as well as their various conversions and transformations. With the use of the new concept of system time, it leads to the expression of the fundamental equations of TESTR to be as concise as the form of Galilean transformation. In addition, its content is also more symmetrical and universal. It can correctly derive a set of more complex equations of the special three-dimensional theory of relativity. At the same time, proved that the special theory of relativity is a special case of TESTR, and found another important new special case: the theory of electric potential relativity (TEPR). The basic effects of TESTR were also discussed. It predicts some important new space-time change effects, for example, the electric potential time expansion effect. Such proposed effects would provide some theoretical basis for the experimental validation of TESTR. The appendix of the paper proves mathematically that the basic equations of the theory are consistent with the hypothesis. Keyword: special theory of relativity, postulates of electric potential limit, the theory of electric potential relativity，theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity, the theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity,
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2930] viXra:1806.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-10 15:57:07

### Principle of Constancy and Finiteness of the Speed of Gravitational Interaction and Dark Matter.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

It can be shown that the anomalously high rates of rotation of the outer regions of galaxies follow from the constancy and finiteness of the rate of gravitational interaction, which is equal to the speed of light in accordance with general relativity of A. Einstein. Since the speed of propagation of the gravitational interaction is constant and equal to the speed of light, then for compensation of lag of the gravitational field, an increase in the mass velocity will always be used, since the metric tensor according to general relativity of A. Einstein is depends on to both geometry and kinematics of masses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2929] viXra:1806.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-10 16:52:51

### The Connection Between HCE8S Theory and the Z(4430) Tetraquark

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page. Excuse confusion between X and Z tetraquarks

Abstract: The development of HCE8S theory has advanced to a point that a connection can be discerned between the prolific tetraquark Z(4430) and HCE8S theory
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2928] viXra:1806.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-09 13:12:42

Authors: Colin James III

"BUT states that two features with matching description are mapped to a single feature one dimension lower, provided the function under assessment is continuous." This as rendered is not tautologous due to the C contingency values (falsity), hence refuting BUT. BUT is properly named the Borsuk-Ulam conjecture (BUC).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2927] viXra:1806.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-10 04:02:18

### Einstein’s Dream

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

a brief informal discussion of gravistrong, gravitation + strong-force, unification
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2926] viXra:1806.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 09:44:26

### Inertial Frames of Reference

Authors: George Rajna

In an inertial frame of reference, a body with zero net force acting on it does not accelerate. [28] A team led by researchers María José Caturla and Carlos Untiedt, from the University of Alicante Department of Applied Physics, have studied the importance of relativistic effects on long-range interactions between objects. [27] The theory of the Breit-Wheeler process says it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing two particles of light (photons) together to create an electron and a positron. However, past attempts to do this have required the addition of other high-energy particles. [26] Dr. Pascal Del'Haye and his team at NPL have created an optical version of a diode that transmits light in one direction only, and can be integrated in microphotonic circuits. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2925] viXra:1806.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 10:15:31

### Czarnodziurowy Wszechświat a Ziemska Grawitacja ### Black Hole Universe and the Earth’s Gravity Field

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak

Przedstawiono istotne różnice dotyczące właściwości pola grawitacyjnego Ziemi i pola grawitacyjnego Czarnodziurowego Wszechświata. ### Significant differences regarding the properties of the Earth's gravitational field and the gravitational field of the Black Hole Universe are presented.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2924] viXra:1806.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 10:19:45

### Black Hole Universe and the Earth’s Gravity Field

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak

Significant differences regarding the properties of the Earth's gravitational field and the gravitational field of the Black Hole Universe are presented.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2923] viXra:1806.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 14:28:07

### The Theory of Everything

Authors: Bill Tantalos

The writer finds solutions, with simple mathematics, of the famous mass-energy equation of Einstein. By generalizing this equation, so that it also includes the physics of the microcosm, quantum mechanics, it discovers a new equation which unifies the General Relativity Theory with quantum mechanics. A fundamental equation, in a simple form, which explains the Big Bang, the beginning of the universe creation and describes the physics of both the macrocosm and the microcosm. It is the Theory of Everything or otherwise Quantum Gravity. The behavior of an exotic particle, the tachyon, is mentioned, and its relation with the Big Bang.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2922] viXra:1806.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-06 10:07:16

### Grounding the Fifth Dimension from Kaluza-Klein Theory in Observed Physical Reality, Using Dirac’s Quantum Theory of the Electron to Ensure Five-Dimensional General Covariance

Authors: Jay R. Yablon

We require all the components of the Kaluza-Klein metric tensor to be generally-covariant across all five dimensions by deconstructing the metric tensor into Dirac-type square root operators. This decouples the fifth dimension from the Kaluza-Klein scalar, makes this dimension timelike not spacelike, makes the metric tensor inverse non-singular, covariantly reveals the quantum fields of the photon, makes Kaluza-Klein fully compatible with Dirac theory, and roots this fifth dimension in the physical reality of the chiral, pseudo-scalar and pseudo-vector particles abundantly observed in particle physics based on Dirac’s gamma-5 operator, thereby “fixing” all of the most perplexing problem in Kaluza-Klein theory. Albeit with additional new dynamics expected, all of the benefits of Kaluza-Klein theory are retained, insofar as providing a geometrodynamic foundation for Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz Force motion and the Maxwell-Stress energy tensor, and insofar as supporting the viewpoint that the fifth dimension is, at bottom, the matter dimension.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2921] viXra:1806.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 12:35:05

### An HCE8S Flow Diagram Incorporating the Latest Ideas

Authors: George R. Briggs

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 8th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the energy cycle is shown incorporating my latest ideas.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2920] viXra:1806.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-06 03:29:53

### On the Postulate of the Constancy of the Speed of Light in the STR (English Version)

Authors: V.A. Kasimov

The question of whether the necessary postulate of the constancy of the speed of light for the construction of the Special Theory of Relativity was raised and discussed, at least two independent authors [1, 2]. The answer to this question is methodologically very important in recognition of the fact that the foundations of the output of the Galilean transformations and Lorentz are the same basic properties of substantial space and time of Newton. It turned out that in the classical physics "hiding" a contradiction in the substantial properties of space and time. What is the essence of this contradiction? The article attempts to answer this question. Note that the authors of the mentioned works have received their findings generally avoiding mention of the words "light" and "the speed of its spread".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2919] viXra:1806.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 03:00:03

### Uv Outburst in the M87 Jet: Subluminal or Superluminal?

Authors: Giorgio Capezzali

The observations of the M87 jet with the STIS instrument mounted on board the Hubble Space Telescope revealed that an outburst originating in the HST-1 knot occurred. Measuring the dimensions of the outburst in the epochs between 2001 July 30 and 2003 July 27 and correcting for optical illusion an expansion velocity v/c = 0.99893 ± 0.00007 is found. However, the relativistic model fails to correctly predict the dimensions of the source and the outburst brightness. For this reason, as the apparent motion suggests, a superluminal mechanical model where even the light rays travel faster than light is introduced. By applying this model to correct for optical illusion an expansion velocity v/c = 21.8 ± 0.7 is found along with reasonable source dimensions and brightness. This result, the study of the apparent motion of features in the M87 jet and the time-of-flight measurements of muonic neutrinos seem to confirm the possibility to travel faster than light. That does not imply a refusal of special relativity. Instead only the dogmatic interpretations of it are refused. Without them, the so-called twin paradox does not have any reason to exist. Further developments of physics, for example in the superluminal world, will be forbidden as long as the religious view of special relativity is continuously provided by mainstream science.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2918] viXra:1806.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-03 10:58:15

### Radar Guns and Einstein’s Theories

Authors: Edward G. Lake

Radar guns provide an excellent and inexpensive means of explaining and demonstrating some of Einstein’s theories in a very simple and undeniable way. Specifically, radar guns demonstrate how the speed of the emitter cannot add to the speed of the light being emitted, but the speed of light can be combined with the speed of the receiver. In practice, this appears to conflict with a basic tenet of mathematicians who believe that motion is reciprocal, and therefore radar guns must show that motion is reciprocal. A step by step analysis of how radar guns work shatters that basic tenet.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2917] viXra:1806.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-04 05:09:51

### The Time Scale of Gravitational Collapse

Authors: Trevor W. Marshall

In a previous article it was shown that the end state for the dust metric of Oppenheimer and Snyder has most of its mass concentrated just inside the gravitational radius; it is proposed that the resulting object be considered as an idealized \emph{shell collapsar}. Here the treatment is extended to include the family of interior metrics described by Weinberg, and involving the curvature parameter of a Friedmann metric. The end state is again a shell collapsar, with a shell which becomes more concentrated as the curvature parameter increases, which shows that the details of the shell structure are dependent on the initial density profile at the beginning of the collapse. What is lacking in most previous commentaries on the Oppenheimer-Snyder article is the recognition that their matching of the time coordinate at the surface implies a finite upper limit for the comoving time coordinate. A collapse process having all the matter going inside the gravitational radius would require comoving times which go outside that limit.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2916] viXra:1806.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 22:06:08

### Moon and Earth Gravitational Interaction Explained with Gravitons

Moon and Earth gravitational interaction explained with Gravitons “I explained the Gravitational force between Earth and Moon, mediated by Gravitons” Adrian Ferent Distance from the center of the earth to the center of the moon is 384,400,000 m Gravitational force between Moon and Earth: 1.9 × 10^20 N The gravitational potential energy between Moon and Earth: 7.6 × 10^28 J What is the energy of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon? I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz I consider the Moon made of electrons. The Moon is made of 8 × 10^52 electrons Each electron emits a Graviton. The energy of each Graviton: 9.5 × 10^(-25) J Graviton energy: a×f This means the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon: 5.9 × 10^51 Hz I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth, Moon must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^51 Hz This is another proof that Ferent Gravitation theory is right! One argument against my Gravitation theory was that the Gravitons are too small to mediate the gravitational force between planets. “I explained the Gravitational force between Earth and Moon, mediated by Gravitons” Adrian Ferent You learned from Einstein gravitation theory, from your professors that Gravitation is caused by the spacetime curvature. There are also waves of the spacetime curvature, the gravitational waves. This is another proof that Ferent gravitation theory is right and Einstein gravitation theory, String theory, LQG… are wrong theories. The massless Gravitons have infinite range: “Gravitons mediate the Gravitational force between planets, between stars, between galaxies…” Adrian Ferent “Because the graviton flux emitted by the Earth is bigger than the graviton flux emitted by the Moon, the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth” Adrian Ferent “Because the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth, Newton’s third law is wrong” Adrian Ferent 80. I am the first who explained Moon and Earth gravitational interaction with Gravitons 81. I am the first who explained because the graviton flux emitted by the Earth is bigger than the graviton flux emitted by the Moon, the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth 82. I am the first who explained because the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth, Newton’s third law is wrong
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[2096] viXra:1808.0117 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-14 05:40:07

Authors: Mesut Kavak

After midnight just before sleeping, I noticed in my bed, that free space itself can cause a parachute effect on the moving bodies especially the bodies move in low gravitational fields like in Pioneer Anomaly. Because of this reason, while speed of a satellite is decreasing, speed of another one which spins around the world on different axis can increase; a satellite wandering in interstellar medium can speed up as also it can slow down; low frequency light and high frequency light behave differently; galaxies have lower mass can spin faster since mutual gravitation is not only option. These are only a few examples.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2095] viXra:1808.0117 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-11 12:43:23

Authors: Mesut Kavak

After midnight just before sleeping, I noticed in my bed, that free space itself can cause a parachute effect on the moving bodies especially the bodies move in low gravitational fields like in Pioneer Anomaly. Because of this reason, while speed of a satellite is decreasing, speed of another one which spins around the world on different axis can increase; a satellite wandering in interstellar medium can speed up as also it can slow down; low frequency light and high frequency light behavior differently; galaxies have lower mass can spin faster since mutual gravitation is not only option. These are only a few examples.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2094] viXra:1807.0535 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-13 10:34:51

### The Near Abortion of Gravistrong

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal

a brief overview of the concise unification between gravitation and strong-nuclear
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2093] viXra:1807.0335 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-03 08:24:10

### Reply to Mohammad Shafiq Khan’s Paper “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies by Albert Einstein is Based on Trickeries (Open Letter to Professors, Teachers, Researchers and Students of Physics)”

Authors: Lann N. Ramez

This reply to Khan’s referenced paper (Khan 2012) shows that Khan performed invalid operations on a wrongly assumed equation to obtain Einstein’s basic partial differential equation that Einstein derived in in his paper (Einstein 1905) to develop the Special Relativity equations. Khan concluded that the latter Einstein’s equation must be an “equation of trickery”, without realizing that performing invalid operations on a wrong equation to force it to lead to a desired equation doesn’t necessarily falsify the forced equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2092] viXra:1807.0181 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-05 05:09:11

### Time is not Relative

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe

A clock mechanism doesn't produce time, it produces seconds and a second doesn't say anything about what time is. We say that a clock tells us what time it is, but the seconds only represent a time period (an amount of time). So when you measure a difference in the rate of clocks then you cannot conclude that time itself dilates, you can only conclude that the seconds dilate. You can only conclude that the clock mechanism is able to produce a second more quickly or more slowly, and that results in second dilation. So you cannot conclude that gravity affects time and that means that spacetime doesn't exist, you can only conclude that gravity (or something else) affects the clock mechanism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2091] viXra:1807.0181 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-16 03:38:45

### Time is not Relative

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages. I had to change my paper after a discussion with physicists, I decided to explain it in different way

Time dilation is not the dilation of time itself, it's the dilation of a second. A clock runs faster or slower in a certain situation, but that doesn't mean that time itself dilates. It means that a clock is able to create a second more quickly or more slowly, so it's second dilation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2090] viXra:1807.0181 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-12 07:26:16

### Time is not Relative

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe

An atom requires a certain amount of energy for a transition between two energy levels, we can use that amount of energy in an experiment to prove that time is not relative.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2089] viXra:1807.0175 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-10 20:11:09

### About New Planck Units and Gravity Wave

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu

New Planck units as well as gravity wave formula can be derived by using the spinity constant (2G/c^2). Thus, the original Planck units can be simplified. I call these new Planck units. The deduction is listed below.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2088] viXra:1807.0152 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-10 05:00:42

### The Zero Dimension

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe

Everything in the universe has one, two or three dimensions, and the next dimension cannot exist in the previous dimension. So it's obvious that the fourth dimension (4-dimensional spacetime) or higher dimensions (string theory) cannot exist in our 3-dimensional universe, but there is another dimension that we cannot see. Logic dictates that there must be one more dimension, why?, because each dimension is based on the previous dimension(s).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2087] viXra:1807.0136 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-26 19:14:20

### The Golden Ratio in the Modified Cosmological Model

Authors: Jonathan W. Tooker

The golden ratio Phi is very important in the modified cosmological model (MCM). In previous work, we have inserted it artificially rather than showing where it comes from. Where the real numbers are extended to the complex numbers for routine physical applications, we extend the complex numbers to the hypercomplex numbers and show that Phi is inherent to the transfinite structure. We formalize the transfinite concept of continuation beyond infinity. We improve upon previous motivations for deriving general relativity and the fine structure constant in the MCM, and we propose an origin for the Yang-Mills mass gap.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2086] viXra:1807.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-24 04:24:30

### Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Authors: Friedhelm Jöge

The rudiments of a theory of dark energy. The theoretical result is confronted with the numerical value calculated from the available data. Excellent matching of numerical values resulting in three independent paths makes the approach plausible. The work at hand is analogous to Kepler's laws of planetary orbits. Only Isaac Newton put Kepler's laws on a theoretical basis, which is provided here by Thomas Görnitz [1]. The empirical Balmer formula was also theoretically justified by Niels Bohr.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2085] viXra:1807.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-06 08:13:06

### Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Authors: Friedhelm Jöge

The rudiments of a theory of dark energy. The theoretical result is confronted with the numerical value calculated from the available data. Excellent matching of numerical values resulting in three independent paths makes the approach plausible. The work at hand is analogous to Kepler's laws of planetary orbits. Only Isaac Newton put Kepler's laws on a theoretical basis, which is provided here by Thomas Görnitz [1]. The empirical Balmer formula was also theoretically justified by Niels Bohr.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2084] viXra:1807.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-05 13:44:36

### Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Authors: Friedhelm Jöge

The rudiments of a theory of dark energy. The theoretical result is confronted with the numerical value calculated from the available data. Excellent matching of numerical values resulting in three independent paths makes the approach plausible. The work at hand is analogous to Kepler's laws of planetary orbits. Only Isaac Newton put Kepler's laws on a theoretical basis, which is provided here by Thomas Görnitz [1]. The empirical Balmer formula was also theoretically justified by Niels Bohr.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2083] viXra:1807.0027 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-24 15:31:13

### Time and Reference Frame

Authors: Eric Su

Time in a reference frame can be represented by a rotating ring with constant angular velocity. The rotational motion of this ring is not affected by any acceleration parallel to its axis of rotation. The rotation period remains constant as the ring accelerates along the axis of rotation. The rotation period in the rest frame of the ring is always constant. Therefore, the rotation period is independent of reference frame. The rotation period represents the elapsed time in a reference frame. As a result, the elapsed time is also independent of reference frame. Consequently, time is independent of reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2082] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-08 08:43:53

### The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes

Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2081] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-07 12:34:43

### The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes

Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2080] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-06 11:49:43

### The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes

Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2079] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-06 04:50:26

### The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes

Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2078] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-04 08:14:55

### The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes

Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2077] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-03 12:10:25

### The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes

Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2076] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-03 03:40:03

### The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patrons, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy.... Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. Others articles, of different area: -- https://lnkd.in/ga9TidS -- https://lnkd.in/gnde8mN https://www.linkedin.com/in/timoteobriet/
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2075] viXra:1806.0472 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-01 06:57:08

### The Sloth of the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes

The main goal for any mathematician is create numeric models about nature phenomenon. For that, is necessary discovery (or create) patrons, and if is possible lineally, but that, is not easy, and normally not real. As a writer, a mathematician thinks with a language and as all language, have their rules, their pretty rules…. Is very nice is front a white paper and write ideas and translating dreams…. The fact of call one event as unpredictable, is to assume ignorance. Our goal so, is know the evolution (temporal or spatial) of any object or event from similarities. About the phenomenon prediction, if there are few laws which define him, it will be more complicated know the evolution (chaos essence). From all that, is necessary to ask us, if there some think common for all these cases, some law able to means these examples. That is the objective for me and this article: know how the nature think and decides, and create language mathematics, pretty and simple, in order to explain any event, as a fluid. There is a special relation between sloth or minimum energy principle and fluid dynamics. If I must to go from here to there; yes, I will go. But with the minimum energy.... Is a Article not finished yet. I will be publishing corrections and extensions. Thanks a lot. ALSO, IF YOU WANT TO ADD SOME THINK, WILL BE GENIAL. Thanks a lot again. I AM LOOKING FOR A UNIVERSITY WHERE I CAN ADVANCE MY RESEARCH. I DO NOT CARE HOW FARE THIS UNIVERSITY IS. I LIKE RESEARCH, TRAINING AND LEARNING. THERE ARE A LOT THEMES AND POINTS IN THIS ARTICLE, TO RESEARCH. Others articles, of different area: -- https://lnkd.in/ga9TidS -- https://lnkd.in/gnde8mN
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2074] viXra:1806.0210 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-16 12:05:31

### Universe Without Dark Energy

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 18 pages, 16 tables, 5 graphs, 2 figures

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times greater than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very large, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the paper emphasizes upon the actual recession of large-scale structures. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. The study conducted in this paper finds the recessional behaviour of large-scale structures to be consistent with the recessional behaviour of molecules, thereby proving the molecular diffusion model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2073] viXra:1806.0210 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-26 12:49:21

### Universe Without Dark Energy

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 18 pages, 16 tables, 5 graphs, 2 figures (manuscript submitted to a journal)

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times greater than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very large, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the paper emphasizes upon the actual recession of large-scale structures. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. The study conducted in this paper finds the recessional behaviour of large-scale structures to be consistent with the recessional behaviour of molecules, thereby proving the molecular diffusion model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2072] viXra:1806.0198 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-17 16:07:50

### Вывод общего вида кинематики с универсальной системой отсчета (In Russian)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 21 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Russian).

В статье выведен целый класс преобразований времени и положения. Эти преобразования выведены на основе анализа эксперимента Майкельсона-Морли и его усовершенствованной версии – эксперимента Кеннеди-Торндайка. На основе каждого из этих преобразований можно вывести другую кинематику тел. Таким способом мы продемонстрировали, что Специальная теория относительности (СТО) не является единственной теорией, объясняющей результаты экспериментов со светом. Существует целый континуум теорий кинематики тел, которые правильно объясняют эксперимент Майкельсона-Морли, а также другие эксперименты, в которых измеряют скорость света. На основе выведенных преобразований получаем общий вид выражения для скорости света в вакууме, измеренной в произвольной инерциальной системе отсчета (ИСО). Мы объясняем, почему эксперименты Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка не смогли выявить наличие эфира. Представляем и обсуждаем три примера конкретных преобразований. В заключение объясняем явление анизотропии реликтового излучения (РИ) с использованием представленной теории. Представленную в данной работе теорию мы назвали Специальной теорией эфира (СТЭ) – с произвольным поперечным сокращением. Статья содержит лишь оригинальные исследования, поведенные ее авторами.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2071] viXra:1806.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-27 23:22:33

### Grounding the Kaluza-Klein Fifth Dimension in Observed Physical Reality, Using Dirac’s Quantum Theory of the Electron to Ensure Five-Dimensional General Covariance

Authors: Jay R. Yablon