**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(14) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(34) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(37) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(39) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(26) - 1503(24) - 1504(26) - 1505(31) - 1506(32) - 1507(23) - 1508(33) - 1509(38) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(31) - 1602(45) - 1603(39) - 1604(32) - 1605(30) - 1606(43) - 1607(23) - 1608(38) - 1609(44) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(32)

2017 - 1701(27) - 1702(26) - 1703(43) - 1704(44) - 1705(31) - 1706(30) - 1707(27) - 1708(28) - 1709(41) - 1710(34) - 1711(40) - 1712(45)

2018 - 1801(34) - 1802(41) - 1803(45) - 1804(46) - 1805(37) - 1806(40) - 1807(47) - 1808(28) - 1809(21) - 1810(36) - 1811(52) - 1812(43)

2019 - 1901(36) - 1902(29) - 1903(35) - 1904(56) - 1905(46) - 1906(38) - 1907(24)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3418] **viXra:1907.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-19 11:46:11*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Submission is on the 19th to note the Cosmological Constant: also 11 (Apollo 11), 12, and 13 (bad luck)

Abstract: The 2-digit Cosmological Constant 0.19 is duplicated in reverse order to form the 4-digit Z boson 91.19: the 4-digit bottom quark 4.180 can be similarly presented in 41.08 form to notify us of the importance of c/alpha

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3417] **viXra:1907.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-18 18:18:45*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

ABSTRACT
The new points of view of relativity and the new physical phenomena opened in the systems of inertial movement presents in this work. The new points of view in the special theory of relativity, open new laws of motion in works1-16 for solid bodies, as for electromagnetic waves. For all physical objects of motion, the new laws of motion present a new theory of physical processes, which occur in the rest system, and in inertial motion systems. In addition, the bijective transformation of these physical processes to all systems of inertial movement in absolute time presents.
In the works 1-16 is shown experimentally and theoretically the change a speed in the systems of inertial movement. The causes of the change of the speed in moving systems describe for solids and for electromagnetic waves. In addition, shown that in an inertial system in motion, there is no possibility to measure the real values of the distances, which pass the solid bodies and electromagnetic waves with respect to the rest system.
The enormous base of practical experiments in science, carried out in inertial movement systems, confirms all the scientific conclusions developed in the given works.
The theoretical analysis of the state of special theory of relativity of A. Einstein 17-20 in this work convincingly confirms reality of the need to find a new solution to errors in this work and exposes a new special theory of relativity.
ABSTRACT
Los nuevos puntos de vista de la relatividad y los nuevos fenómenos físicos abiertos en los sistemas de movimiento inercial, se presentan en este trabajo. Los nuevos puntos de vista en la teoría especial de la relatividad, abren nuevas leyes de movimiento en trabajas 1-16., tanto para los cuerpos sólidos, como para las ondas electromagnéticas. Para todos los objetos físicos de movimiento, las nuevas leyes de movimiento presentan una nueva teoría de los procesos físicos, que ocurren tanto en el sistema de reposo, como en los sistemas de movimiento inerciales. Además, se presenta la trasformación biyectiva de estos procesos físicos a varios sistemas de movimiento inercial en tiempo absoluto.
En estos trabajos1-16 se muestra experimentalmente y teóricamente el cambio de la velocidad en los sistemas de movimiento inercial. Se describen las causas del cambio de la velocidad en los sistemas en movimiento, tanto para sólidos, como para ondas electromagnéticas. Y se muestra que en un sistema inercial en movimiento, no hay posibilidad de medir los valores reales de las distancias, que pasan los cuerpos sólidos y ondas electromagnéticas con respecto al sistema de reposo.
La enorme base de experimentos prácticos en ciencia, realizados en sistemas de movimiento inerciales, confirma todas las conclusiones científicas desarrollados en los trabajos dados.
El análisis teórico del estado de teoría especial de relatividad de A. Einstein17-20, en este trabajo, confirma convincentemente realidad de necesidad de encontrar nueva solución de errores de este trabajo y exponer nueva Teoría especial de la relatividad.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3416] **viXra:1907.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-18 20:59:13*

**Authors:** Natan A Cerqueira

**Comments:** Pages.

> Pure thought brought up and developed an idea that should have emerged in the pre-relativity time: Isn`t the “wind of space”, in Earth`s surface, what we call gravity? The flow of a real something, vertical at the surface, pointed towards the planet`s center, and put to accelerate by the convergence of the trajectories (funneling). > The idea found no contradictons, and is actually endorsed by general relativity, because a non-solid can only present a geometry precisely when flowing and being funneled; “*space flow” instead of “curved space” did not imply in any compromise to equations or experimental tests. > Reflections on the idea naturally led to an all-encompassing mechanical model of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3415] **viXra:1907.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-19 05:56:43*

**Authors:** Harry K. Hahn

**Comments:** 38 pages

The M87 (EHT2017) black hole images indicate a dodecahedral structure of the gravitational singularity. One feature in the fiducial image sequence caught my eye and forced me to write this paper here ! It‘s the apparent existence of 5 knots in the ring-structure and the nearly symmetrical pentagonal-shape of the black hole shadow !
In Paper IV it is written that the current image reconstructions and visibility-domain analyses are not able to confirm or reject the reality of the “knots” seen in the images, and these features should therefore be interpreted with caution.
But if these knots turn out to be real and stable, then we may look at a gravitational singularity which indicates a more complex universe then expected ! The pentagonal ring structure may indicate a Poincare Dodecahedral Space ( PDS ) structure of our universe, and a dodecahedral shaped gravitational singularity ( black hole ) in the center of M87.
The images may provide evidence for the underlying universal theory of our universe Albert Einstein was searching for. I.V. Volovich describes the construction of a universal physical theory based on pure numbers as fundamental entities.
And I want to show the importance of number 5 for the distribution of primes and non-primes as a base for this theory.
With the help of another study with title: Phase spaces in Special Relativity : Towards eliminating gravitational singularities - a way was found to express (calculate) all natural numbers and their square roots only by using the constant Phi (ϕ) and number 1.
An algebraic term found by Mr Peter Danenhower in this study made this possible.
With the formulas which I have found it‘s possible to express all natural numbers and their square roots only with Phi & 1 ! This is an interesting discovery because it also allows to describe most ( maybe all ) geometrical objects only with Phi & 1.
The constant Pi (π) can also be expressed only by using the constant Phi and 1 !
The result of this discovery may lead to a new base of number theory. Not numbers like 1, 2, 3,…. and constants like Pi (π) etc. may form base of number theory ! Only the constant Phi and the base unit 1 (which shouldn’t be considered as a number) may form the base of mathematics and geometry. This will certainly also have an impact on physics ! And eventually it will lead to an universal mathematical and physical theory !

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3414] **viXra:1907.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-18 00:28:51*

**Authors:** Nishant kumar sharma

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Non-Interactive Mechanics Which Is Evaluated From Fermi-Dirac Statistics And The Formulation Is Based On The Contraction Of Fermions. By using the rules of non-interactive mechanics Defining The condition for creating a zero space And Infinity Space, condition for space creation and it’s formula With Satisfying The Condition , condition for appearance of time With Satisfying The Condition Theoretically And Experimentally ,varies types of systems For The Movement Of Class Zero Particles, Atmamoul medium for the movement of Class Zero particles , concept of Para-Kans. concepts of app. Stable systems (planets ,Stars) ,concept of consciousness, Gravitation The Emergent Phenomena From Non-Intractable Particles , How Newton To Einstein We Are On The Correct Path Of Gravitation And How Einstein Was Right About Cosmological Constant Even When Universe Is Expanding And Why We Need An Extension To Understand Gravitation Correctly, What Is Gravitation And How It Originate , Types Of Gravitation And Gravitational Waves, The Test About Contracting Gravitation That Could Be or May Be already detected In Ligo, The Equations To Describe The Behavior Of Gravitation, The Combined Field Equation Of Gravitation For Expanding And Contraction Nature With Satisfying The Equation, Conditions To Find Graviton.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3413] **viXra:1907.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-14 10:46:13*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Adrian Klein, Slobodan Nedic, Yunita Umniyati, Marian Mesina

**Comments:** 387 Pages. This book is still a draft version. Your comments and suggestions are welcome

It is a wide-spread rumor among the Frontiers of physics, that some time “sweeping under the rug” practice has been quite the norm rather than exception. In other words, the leading paradigms have strong tendency to be hailed as the only game in town. For example, renormalization group theory was hailed as cure in order to solve infinity problem in QED theory.
A quote from Richard Feynman goes as follows:
“What the three Nobel Prize winners did, in the words of Feynman, was "to get rid of the infinities in the calculations. The infinities are still there, but now they can be skirted around . . . We have designed a method for sweeping them under the rug."[1]
And Paul Dirac himself also wrote with similar tune:
“Hence most physicists are very satisfied with the situation. They say: "Quantum electrodynamics is a good theory, and we do not have to worry about it any more." I must say that I am very dissatisfied with the situation, because this socalled "good theory" does involve neglecting infinities which appear in its equations, neglecting them in an arbitrary way. This is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it turns out to be small—not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it!”[2]
Similarly, dark matter and dark energy were elevated as plausible way to solve the crisis in prevalent Big Bang cosmology.
That is why we choose a theme here: Speakable and Unspeakable in Contemporary Physics, analogous to J.S. Bell’s book.[3]
Similarly we observe similar sweeping under the rug practice in the electromagnetic theory development, in particular what is termed as "longitudinal wave."

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3412] **viXra:1907.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-14 13:00:05*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. The Apollo moon flight occurred 50 years ago: I saw the Saturn V take off.

Abstract: The physics magic number 50 appears on MHCE8S theory 2019 flow charts: it was responsible for the metal tin and its useful alloy bronze which led to early great civilizations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3411] **viXra:1907.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-15 00:45:06*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 5 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy bears great similarity to the frequency shift in the Doppler effect.
Both blueshift and redshift can be described by the movement of the double-slit interference.
In the rest frame of the star,
the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen.
The intersection of this path and the screen determines how the spectrum is shifted.
If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center of the screen.
This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center of the screen.
This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also resizes proportionally.
The spectral shift is caused by the motion of earth in the rest frame of the star while the wavelength of the star light remains
constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3410] **viXra:1907.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-12 10:13:27*

**Authors:** Geo Douglas

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, a new formula to determine the size of the accretion disks at the center of galaxies. The formula starts with Einstein’s field equations and moves to the Schwarzschild radius. From there, following the patterns of nature and the golden ratio, I have configured a precise formula to determine the radius, diameter and circumference of all accretion disks that surround supermassive black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3409] **viXra:1907.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-12 10:44:07*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Einstein's theory works only for v < 0.1c.

Nobel laureates in physics are mostly physicists, who mainly create and defend physics. Einstein never received a Nobel prize for relativity...
For nearly 100 years ago have been Nobel Prize winners said:
"- The theory of relativity is a mathematical and not a physical theory.
- The theory is far from being confirmed experimentally, the results of the solar eclipse expeditions allow other interpretations
- The principle of relativity is only valid for mass-dependent movements
- The theory of relativity contradicts the fundamental ideas about space and time: the Euclidean space and the usual ideas of time must remain binding. "

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3408] **viXra:1907.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-10 03:54:35*

**Authors:** José Alberto Pardi

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The replacement of the vacuum dielectric constant Epsilon0, in the energy equation of electromagnetic fields, is a key element in any attempt to quantize the gravitational fields that is based on the reality of our Universe and not in a pure conceptual exercise. Usually, the choice falls on the inverse of the Universal Gravitational Constant G. This seems reasonable, since Epsilon0 has an inverse relationship with the Coulomb constant K, used to determine the force between two charges, just like G does between two masses. But this choice leads to the replacement of the unit charge by a mass not very common in the Universe: the Planck’s mass. However, the fine structure found in the Cosmos in the last century and the dimension of Time Crystals found in 2016, seem to differ with this option. The analysis made in this paper, leads to determine a different constant for the replacement of Epsilon0, more concordant with the cosmological data and Quantum Mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3407] **viXra:1907.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-08 06:40:29*

**Authors:** Manfred U.E.Pohl

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In first chapter of ToE-Framework “The Solution to the Problem of Time” and second Chapter of ToE-Framework “The Solution to the Problem of Gravity” this author informed scientific community about the framework for the Theory of Everything concept, that must be applied in order to get back into Paradise on earth. Within a third chapter, the author explains how to perform to decode the Matrix of thought. In this paper, the author gives an image of the holographic universe from outside.
Keywords: Theory of Everything, Matrix, Black Hole, Big Bang, Holographic Universe

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3406] **viXra:1907.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-07 12:01:37*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Einstein field equations was originally derived by Einstein in 1915 in respect
with canonical formalism of Riemann geometry,i.e. by using the classical sufficiently
smooth metric tensor, smooth Riemann curvature tensor, smooth Ricci tensor,smooth
scalar curvature, etc.. However have soon been found singular solutions of the Einstein
field equations with degenerate and singular metric tensor and singular Riemann
curvature tensor. These degenerate and singular solutions of the Einstein field equations
was formally accepted by main part of scientific community beyond rigorous canonical
formalism of Riemannian geometry.Recall that the classical Cartan’s structural equations show in a compact way the
relation
between a connection and its curvature, and reveals their geometric interpretation in
terms of moving frames. In order to study the mathematical properties of singularities,
we need to study the geometry of manifolds endowed on the tangent bundle with a
symmetric bilinear form which is allowed to become degenerate (singular). But if the fundamental tensor is allowed to be degenerate (singular), there are some obstructions in
constructing the geometric objects normally associated to the fundamental tensor. Also, local
orthonormal frames and co-frames no longer exist, as well as the metric connection and its curvature operator [2].As an important example of the geometry with the fundamental tensor which is
allowed to be degenerate, we consider now Mӧller’s uniformly accelerated frame given by
Mӧller’s line element

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3405] **viXra:1907.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-08 04:37:21*

**Authors:** Milan D. Nešić

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

If Feynman 1985 announced that he only describes how nature behaves and that nobody understands why it behaves that way–QED: The Strange Theory of Light and Matter–and Laughlin 2005 that it is necessary to build a new physics basically–A DIFFERENT UNIVERSE: Reinventing Physics From The Bottom Down–then a real understanding of the postulate c=const as c2 inertia of whole Universe is finally the opportunity for it. And all the laws of physics remain; only cosmology is basically changing. There is no single mass of the same origin, there is no “Big Bang” as the beginning, and that can also explain dark energy. And even new opportunities for further research open up. And the passing of Planck's law of black-body radiation through singularity by decreasing, let's say, the volume of Bose to zero, and the transition to Maxwell Boltzmann's distribution of velocity can be a good example or at least a clue to these new possibilities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3404] **viXra:1907.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-05 12:05:30*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

this is a paper about time and non stationary masses

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3403] **viXra:1907.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-05 23:52:42*

**Authors:** Скоробогатов В.П.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. in Russian

В работе дан простой вывод преобразований Лоренца и рассмотрены некоторые следствия. При этом формала сложения скоростей отличается от той, что получена в СТО. Установлена связь с моделью 4D материи, в которой частицам и телам соответствуют 4-вихри.Выражения для волн де Бройля получены на основании такого представления.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3402] **viXra:1907.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-04 22:24:08*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

В этой статье,более короче и доступно и с некоторыми дополнительными разъяснениями изложено доказательство "Парадокса Близнецов",которое я дал ранее 2019-05-23.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3401] **viXra:1907.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-03 11:43:42*

Вселенная расширяется замедленно

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. rus

According to astronomical observations, remote supernovae Ia have a brightness lower than that predicted by the standard Hubble law. This circumstance is interpreted as evidence of a smaller value of the Hubble constant in the past, as an accelerated expansion of the Universe. However, this conclusion is erroneous. The lower brightness of distant supernovae means that, on the contrary, the Hubble constant has now decreased. It follows from this that the Universe expands more slowly than in the past, the expansion of the Universe occurs with deceleration.

Согласно астрономическим наблюдениям удаленные сверхновые Ia имеют яркость меньшую, чем это предсказывается стандартным законом Хаббла. Это обстоятельство трактуется как свидетельство меньшего значения постоянной Хаббла в прошлом, как ускоренное расширение Вселенной. Однако этот вывод ошибочен. Меньшая яркость дальних сверхновых означает, что, напротив, в настоящее время постоянная Хаббла уменьшилась. Из этого следует, что Вселенная расширяется медленнее, чем в прошлом, расширение Вселенной происходит с замедлением.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3400] **viXra:1907.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-03 12:12:09*

Парадокс близнецов – обзор решений, гл.4 Противоречия решение парадокса близнецов в ОТО

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 12 Pages. rus

The well-known solutions of the relativistic "twin paradox" are considered and new ones are proposed. Contrary to popular belief, the paradox has the correct solution in the SRT. In contrast, in the GRT, the solutions to the paradox raise a number of questions. A fundamentally new paradox of twins is considered - in the tachyon theory of relativity.

Рассмотрены известные решения релятивистского "парадокса близнецов" и предложены новые. Вопреки распространенному мнению, парадокс имеет корректное решение в СТО. Напротив, в ОТО решения парадокса вызывают ряд вопросов. Рассмотрен принципиально новый парадокс близнецов - в тахионной теории относительности.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3399] **viXra:1907.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-03 00:32:51*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy arises from the relative motion between the observed star
and the earth. Both blueshift and redshift can be explained with the relative movement of the double-slit interference.
In the rest frame of the star,
the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen.
The intersection of this path and the screen is shifted by the movement of the screen.
If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center
of the screen. This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center
of the screen. This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also expands in size.
The spectral shift is the result of the relative motion between the projection screen and the path of phase shift.
It is not the result of any variation in the wavelength.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3398] **viXra:1907.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-02 03:04:39*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Daniel Chandra

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

In this paper , we review shortly UVS model of the Universe, based on information in their website. Universal Vortical Singularity (UVS) is a postulated cosmic archetype of a nested vortical hypersphere system. All sorts of its torus transformed hypersphere structures, are perceivable to be ubiquitously manifested in the observable universe throughout macrocosms and microcosms. We also discuss briefly a new model that we call Navier-Stokes cosmology, because we realize that the Cosmic Web of large scale structure of the Universe can only be approached using turbulence/NS theory. This short review is of course not complete, and therefore more research is needed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3397] **viXra:1907.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-02 03:06:42*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Daniel Chandra

**Comments:** 15 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

In recent years, there is growing interest to describe the Universe we live in from the perspective of scale-invariant turbulence approach. Such an approach is not limited to hydrodynamics Universe model a la Gibson & Schild, but also from Kolmogorov turbulence approach as well as from String theory approach (some researcher began to explore String-Turbulence). In this article, we hope to bring out some correspondence among existing models, so we discuss shortly: the topological vortice approach, Burgers equation in the light of KAM theory and Golden Mean, and the Cantorian Navier-Stokes approach. Of course, this short article is far from being complete. We hope further investigation can be done around this line of approach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3396] **viXra:1907.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-02 03:08:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

Inspired by “One Note Samba,” a standard jazz repertoire, we present an outline of BoseEinstein Condensate Cosmology (BECC). Although this approach seems awkward and a bit off the wall at first glance, it is not impossible to connect altogether BEC, Scalar Field Cosmology and Feshbach Resonance with Ermakov-Pinney equation. We also discuss shortly possible link with our previous paper, where we describe Newtonian Universe with Vortex in terms of Ermakov equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3395] **viXra:1907.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-07-01 00:33:07*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Some cosmologists have noted the profound coincidence of the value of the anomalous acceleration ( 8.74 x 10-10 m/s2 ) of Pioneer spacecraft with the value of the so-called cosmological acceleration, about which mainstream physics has been silent. The starting argument in this paper is that this may not be a coincidence and that both accelerations are manifestations of the same phenomenon.However, the anomalous acceleration of the Pioneer is negative, whereas cosmological acceleration is positive, which would be a contradiction. Therefore, both accelerations must have not only the same magnitude, but also the same sign. This leads us to question of the usual interpretation of distance-redshift curves of receding galaxies, which is based on the theory of expansion of the universe .In this paper, we will show that the universe is in decelerating 'expansion', not accelerating expansion. A decelerating force will increase the time taken for a galaxy to reach a given receding velocity, compared to the time taken according to Hubble's law.Using elementary kinematics we will show that increase in the time taken to reach a given receding velocity will increase the corresponding distance travelled.The longer the time the galaxy is in motion, the larger the distance it will travel. The effect of increase in time will always more than offset the effect of decrease in acceleration.Hubble's law is not due to expansion of the universe; it is due to a modified Newtonian law of gravity. The coincidence of the Pioneer anomalous acceleration with cosmological acceleration disproves general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3394] **viXra:1906.0576 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-30 14:03:25*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The dimensionless constant 1.0000055 appears twice in MHCE8S theory for production of the proton and neutron and the dimensionless constant 1.000055 appears once for a date of extinction. The dimensionless constants 273.55 and 273.55488 also make single appearances

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3393] **viXra:1906.0515 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-26 11:56:26*

**Authors:** R. Winnubst

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Quantum Physics (QP) has proven tremendously successful in describing the behaviour of subatomic particles, yet it cannot fundamentally explain particle-wave duality and other related paradoxes. As a consequence, starting with Einstein, there has always been the suspicion that QP is merely a mathematical approximation of a deeper underlying physical reality. Now, nearly a century later, many theories have been added, yet the old paradoxes remain. This suggests something fundamental we implicitly take for granted may yet be false….
Remarkably, it would appear the solution lies not within QP but at the very heart of classical physics; Used to only think in terms of ‘the big’, we humans have always assumed there is a fixed relation between the four ‘functions’ of our continuum -Grid, Clock, Potential, Inertia- and the four SI base units 0r ‘dimensions’ of Space, Time, Energy, Mass.
In this paper we will prove this relation is actually a binary or dual one: When crossing the Planck length, the function of ‘Grid’ is no longer defined by ‘Space’ but by ‘Energy’, while also ‘Time’ and ‘Mass’ switch orthogonally in their function of ‘Clock’ and ‘Inertia’. This switch includes an orthogonal ½ π polar Planck energy ‘distanced’ spiralled wrapping of physical grid field lines which run unabridged through both continuums as closed strings.
Crucially, both orthogonal dimensional setups always apply for all particles of both continuums, their influence getting equally strong near the border of the Planck scale. This results in the observed ‘quantum effects’ which can now all be classically explained. As such, Quantum Physics may be a great mathematical approximation, fundamentally it is a flawed mono-continuum human perception of a world that is inherently governed by the symmetric dual continuum set-up.
The implications of the dual setup are far-reaching: It provides 2x4=8 base dimensions and 3 encapsulated ‘brane’ singularity levels, consistent with 11 dimensional string theory. In addition, when applying the dual setup at the atomic level, an improved ‘Bosonic’ atom model emerges, shattering our classic view of especially the electron. Finally, the physical and very tangible fundamentals behind mass and gravity on all scales are now exposed, as are the solutions to dark energy and dark matter on the cosmic scale.
Summarised, the dual continuum literally adds the missing 50% of our classical physics, offering the solid foundation for physics on all scales, solving the QP paradoxes that have blocked progress in fundamental physics for nearly a century…

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3392] **viXra:1906.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-27 06:44:09*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

We consider a static spherically symmetric distribution of matter. Time intervals for a free falling and a stationary clock are compared. This does not agree with that calculated using Newton approximation to gravity and the equivalence principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3391] **viXra:1906.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-27 12:46:51*

**Authors:** Mr. Exception

**Comments:** 42 Pages. Don't worry no need to know

Jao jao dhoond ke lao

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3390] **viXra:1906.0494 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-27 12:49:19*

**Authors:** Mr. Exception

**Comments:** 007 Pages. Hat

Dekhlo baeya

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3389] **viXra:1906.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-25 20:14:12*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to my theory, the space/medium field is an energy field comprised from the sum of the gravitational potentials of all masses in the Universe, with a total value of c^2 in empty space.
The Frame Dragging effect is due to a percentage of that total energy being set in motion. The inertia of objects in this energy field is determined by referenced to the state of motion of the field, thus if the field itself is set in motion, it affects the state of motion of objects within the field too.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3388] **viXra:1906.0464 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-24 16:36:17*

**Authors:** Manuel Urueña Palomo

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

An expected behaviour of spacetime and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, solving mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox by considering a time transformation and the corresponding antigravitational negative mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3387] **viXra:1906.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-19 11:19:07*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The simplified introduction of ether and the theory of general relativity, allows us through an imaginary experiment, to demonstrate the electromagnetic nature of the gravitational field, to calculate the theoretical value of G and the theoretical value of the proton ray and experimental through the contributions of mass to the proton.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3386] **viXra:1906.0359 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-19 12:27:20*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

We find the energy-momentum density of electromagnetic field by energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field in Rindler space-time. We find the energy-momentum density's conservation law of electromagnetic field in Rindler Space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3385] **viXra:1906.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-19 18:41:26*

**Authors:** Georgi Stanimirov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We present evidence that physicists at the turn of the 20th century, including Lorentz, Poincare, and Einstein, have collectively misconstrued the result of the influential Michelson-Morley experiment from 1887. Physicists have incorrectly assumed that the experi¬ment measured the speed of light in space, when in actual fact it measured the speed of light inside the earth's atmosphere.
In light of these findings, we conclude that the Special Theory of Relativity is not reflective of observation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3384] **viXra:1906.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-20 00:05:36*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The double-slit interference shows that the product of the wavelength and the distance
from the slit plate to the projection screen is conserved in all inertial reference frames.
This conservation ensures that the observed wavelength in any inertial reference frame
is identical to the original wavelength in the rest frame of the light source.
According to the Doppler effect, the observed frequency depends on the choice of inertial reference frame.
With the same wavelength but different frequency, the speed of light is different in a
different inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3383] **viXra:1906.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-17 11:52:43*

**Authors:** Gerd Pommerenke

**Comments:** 321 Pages. German version of viXra:1310.0189

Bezugnehmend auf eine früher formulierte Idee von LANCZOS wird eine spezielle Lösung der MAXWELL-Gleichungen vorgestellt, die ein spezielles metrisches Wellenfeld beschreibt, das die Ursache aller relativistischen Effekte und der Gravitation sein soll. Die Gravitation läßt sich zurückführen auf ebendieses elektromagnetische Feld. Interessanterweise ähneln die Eigenschaften dieses Feldes denen, die das bereits seit einiger Zeit postulierten HIGGS-Feld haben müßte, um Widersprüche mit gesicherten Erkenntnissen und Beobachtungen zu vermeiden.
Basierend auf dieser Lösung wird eine alternative Vakuum-Ausbreitungsfunktion für EM-Wellen entwickelt, die im Gegensatz zur bisher als einzig richtig angenommenen Standardlösung für ein verlustfreies Medium auch solche Effekte, wie die kosmologische Rotverschiebung und die nicht erwarteten Meßergebnisse des SN-Ia-Kosmologie-Experiments erklärt, ohne "Dunkle Materie" o.ä. zu bemühen. Ein ganzer Abschnitt ist den Ergebnissen dieses Experiments und deren Interpretation gewidmet. Die Beziehungen zwischen den fundamentalen Naturkonstanten, bei denen es sich nicht immer um echte Konstanten handelt, werden genauer untersucht. So gelingt es, einen Ausdruck für die Berechnung des HUBBLE-Parameters allein aus lokal meßbaren Werten, zu erarbeiten. Ausgehend von der alternativen Vakuum-Ausbreitungsfunktion wird im Anhang die Frage "Ist der Verlauf der Planckschen Strahlungsfunktion das Resultat der Existenz einer oberen Grenzfrequenz des Vakuums?" genauer untersucht. Kein Standardmodell, keine Inflation, keine Dunkle Materie, exakte Kosmologie. Fragen und Anregungen an gerdpommerenke@arcor.de.
English version see viXra:1310.0189

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3382] **viXra:1906.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-18 04:12:05*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We make some observations regarding a paper by Gianluca Geloni, Vitali Kocharyan and Evgeni Saldin (2016 Misconceptions Regarding Conventional Coupling of Fields and Particles in XFEL Codes, DESY 16017, ISSN 0418-9837).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3381] **viXra:1906.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-18 04:19:30*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu, Vasco Guerra

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We make some comments on “a realistic experiment to determinate eventual anisotropies in the one-way speed of light independently of specific clock synchronization procedures. This establishes that we are not free to define either the one-way speed of light or time itself and must rely instead on further empirical observations to clarify these concepts, contrary to what was originally proposed in 1905” by Manuel Ricou [Physics Essays, 30, 4 (2017)].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3380] **viXra:1906.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-16 22:47:04*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Einstein argued that in his Special Relativity Theory all systems are equal. However, Einstein refused to give a simple solution to the twin paradox, which I showed earlier. Because the solution to the twin paradox shows the inequality of the reference systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3379] **viXra:1906.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-17 03:01:57*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Weber's formula for the force of interaction between charged particles, which is a modification of Coulomb's law, may solve many of the paradoxes and puzzles in classical and relativistic electromagnetism. In this paper we propose modification of Newton's law of gravitation according to Weber's formula. This may solve many of the outstanding problems in cosmology such as dark matter, dark energy and the Pioneer anomaly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3378] **viXra:1906.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-15 14:05:16*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. I welcome the contribution of Bruce Wallman to my work

Abstract: If the strong force is included in MHCE8S theory a final value of Ho = 74.03 brings in the strong force safely energetically (0.86 %) to the theory whereas a reduction in Ho from 74.03 to 73.24 excludes the strong force by ~ 1/4 %.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3377] **viXra:1906.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-14 23:51:52*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The speed of light is identical in all directions in the rest frame of the light source.
In a different inertial reference frame, the direction of light may change due to the motion of the light source.
The speed of light in the longitudinal direction of the motion of the light source is compared to
the speed of light in the transverse direction. The result shows that these two speeds are equal only if
the speed of the light source is greater than the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3376] **viXra:1906.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-13 06:31:04*

**Authors:** José Alberto Pardi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The last century has left us four unresolved facts about a possible "fine structure" of the Cosmos that, according to some theories already existing at that time, it seems that could shed light on some of the great current frustrations of physics, such as, for example, the unification of Quantum Mechanics with the General Theory of Relativity.
These facts have the characteristics of true mysteries because, although their existence has been verified independently by several researchers, they have not found a satisfactory explanation.
They reveal a "fine structure" like that of the H atom, although it is more "discrete" because even though it has some of the characteristics of the quantization of the atom, it does not have all of them and is also less restrictive, more "soft". Due to these characteristics and the lack of an explanation, these facts have fallen into oblivion.
One of the attempts at explanation wrongly used wave mechanics, due to the similarity with the quantization of the atomic orbitals, but the phenomenon is evidently independent of the mass, which makes the use of Quantum Field Theory more plausible.
Although if the basic models of quantum gravity proposed at that time do not fit properly, a review of them shows that if a different constant is used to compute the field energy, everything square up. The computations of the Solar System orbits discretization seem to confirm it.
This article is just a presentation of these mysteries and how they lead to discover a probable fine structure of the Cosmos, giving only a global view of the integration of theories that help explain it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3375] **viXra:1906.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-13 18:41:59*

**Authors:** Tom Fuchs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I derive an equation to calculate the constant speed needed by an unpowered rocket, such that its crew ages a given time during a trip of a given distance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3374] **viXra:1906.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-12 07:58:02*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 71 Pages.

In this paper, a new theoretical framework for absolute motion and the speed of light is presented. The new theoretical framework consists of two parts: 1. Constancy of phase velocity of light 2. Apparent Source Theory. The theory of constancy of phase velocity of light is a consequence of non-existence of the ether. Thus the phase velocity of light in vacuum is always constant c, irrespective of absolute or relative motion of the light source, the observer and the mirror, for uniform or accelerated motions. The constancy of phase velocity of light leads to a new Exponential Doppler Effect of light: f ' = f eV/c and λ' = λe -V/c , which fulfills the constant phase velocity condition : f ' λ ' = f eV/cλe-V/c = f λ = c . The Exponential Doppler Effect theory can also explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment. The Michelson-Morley disproved the ether hypothesis but failed to detect absolute motion, which was decisively detected by the Silvertooth experiment, in combination with the NASA CMBR anisotropy experiment. Absolute motion is not motion relative to the ether. According to Apparent Source Theory, the effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the point of light emissionrelative to an inertial observer, in the reference frame of an absolutely moving inertial observer. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in point of light emission relative to the observer/detector will create only a small fringe shift for the same reason that an actual/physical change in the source position ( actual change in point of light emission ) will result only in a small fringe shift. This is the small fringe shift observed in the original Michelson-Morley experiment and in the Miller experiments. A profound prediction of Apparent Source Theory regarding the phenomenon of stellar aberration is that the apparent change in star position in not in the same direction as the observer's velocity, but in the opposite direction ! Thus, an observer in absolute motion needs to tilt his telescope backwards, not forward, to see star light.A formulation of Apparent Source Theory for a non-inertial observer is also presented. For a non-inertial observer/detector, the light speed experiment is analyzed based on thefollowing principle.An imaginary inertial observer is assumed who will be at the same point and moving with the same velocity as the instantaneous velocity of the real accelerating observer at the instant of light detection. In other words, the real accelerating observer and the imaginary inertial observer will detect the light at the same point in space, simultaneously, while moving with the same instantaneous velocity. This general formulation of Apparent Source Theory is applied to analyze the Sagnac effect. The Sagnac effect is shown to be an acceleration effect, not an absolute motion effect. Apparent Source Theory is also applied to static electric, magnetic and gravitational sources. A qualitative analysis of Mercury perihelion advance is presented. It is found that the conventional view that a moving charge creates magnetic field is not strictly correct. Magnetic field is created by objects that have intrinsic magnetic property, i.e., objects that have magnetic field when at absolute rest. Absolute motion is not the cause of magnetic field; it only modifies magnetic field. A current carrying coil and a permanent magnet are sources of magnetic field because they have intrinsic magnetic property. A moving charge cannot be source of magnetic field because it does not have intrinsic magnetic property.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3373] **viXra:1906.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-10 11:06:38*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

as a continuum to the last paper thr mass vs nothingness9 if you go at a speed that is fast and you have someone going at a slower speed you would beat him in distance covered that fine but then you have to look at stuff happening inside the faster person when he goes faster his subatomic particles spin slower as a compensation to the slower speed the other goes by but then the slower man have to pay tribute to the faster man and so the slower man goes faster in the eye of the faster man

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3372] **viXra:1906.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-09 09:52:10*

**Authors:** Ting-Hang Pei

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We think about the contribution of the dipole moment whether it is useful or not. In this article, we will see that the contribution of the dipole moment nonzero. In addition, we also discuss the possibility of gravitational waves escaping the black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3371] **viXra:1906.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-09 13:31:10*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

E=mc2 is Einstein's mass-energy equation. It is an algebraic equation that uses letters to represent single or composite numbers. Each number type on the right side of the equal sign, mass, distance and a unit time duration are defined as System International basic units. As described, they correctly represent a dimension type. Over a centuries ago, the unit time duration dimension, the second, was improperly used to represent the time duration for the longest wavelength an electromagnetic wave can have and it would have a frequency of “one”. As a result, all current physical law equations that contain a value for electromagnetic wave frequency or the speed of light are using a non-linear scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3370] **viXra:1906.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-09 19:38:38*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

as in the paper the mass vs nothingness8if you spin fast you will spin faster than other masses if you spin normal and you will precieve more stuff about normal spin objects and if you spin slower you will precieve less about normal spin objects hence the time dilation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3369] **viXra:1906.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-08 07:24:59*

**Authors:** Krzysztof Sudlitz

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In the following work, a hypothesis is proposed that the curvature of space modifies the basic equations of electrodynamics. This is based on the assumption that the universe is a three-dimensional sphere in four-dimensional space. The modification of the equations results in the slowing of the speed of light over very large distances. This results in the observed red-shift of distant galaxies. Finally, an experiment is proposed that would ultimately validate or refute the hypothesis. The experiment would require a direct comparison of the angles of incidence and reflection of light from very distant galaxies, and would need to be performed in outer space to avoid atmospheric blur.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3368] **viXra:1906.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-08 07:29:57*

**Authors:** Bruce Wallman

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

There is an open question in cosmology about the significance of the difference between the 2016 Planck collaboration value H0=66.93±0.62 km/s/Mpc and the 2016 Riess et al value H0=73.24±1.74 km/s/Mpc. This paper shows that both the Planck collaboration and Riess et al values are valid. Tracing the cosmological redshift z from SN1a several thousand megaparsecs in the past to those that exploded closer to today describes an increase in our perception of Hv as distance to us lessens. A best fit power function of vr=73.227*Dp0.9907 for recessional velocity versus proper distance (where vr is recessional velocity and Dp is proper distance) is derived connecting these two values of H0 using 1836 SN1a in the NED database3. Taking the derivative of this formula to get Hubble slope gives the power function Hv=dvr/dDp= 72.546*Dp -0.0093. When this formula is used to describe an extrapolation of the universe from near the Milky Way galaxy to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), it describes a change of about 7 km/s/Mpc in the Hubble value for the observable universe increasing smoothly from 66.4 for our measures at the CMB to 73.4 km/s/Mpc locally as the universe expands. Most of the increase occurs in the last 1000 Mpc as was stated in Riess, Perlmutter, and subsequent SN1a studies. This is consistent with ΛCDM cosmology4. After converting distance in megaparsecs to light-seconds, it is possible to show Hv is an acceleration that varies from 6.45 angstrom/s/lt-s when measuring the CMB to 7.13 angstrom/s/lt-s in the local universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3367] **viXra:1906.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-08 11:30:26*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The 3-digit dimensional constants 0.511, 15.5, 1.55, and 155 are 4 constants based on the 2 digits 1 and 5 and they appear in 4 places in MHCE8S theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3366] **viXra:1906.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-08 12:26:20*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** Pages.

Abstract
The new special theory of relativity gives in this paper. The new theory presents the new ideas of the processes occurring inside of the inertial moving systems.
The new theory opens up news laws of motion of light wave inside of moving inertial systems and developing the new leys of physical process.
The potential energy of the inertial moving system depends on its velocity and the conservation law of energy of the moving system are need to achieve a consistent theory of special relativity with absolute time.
All experimental practice of the wide range of moving systems shows the integrity of the findings in this work.
The theoretical and experimental conclusions drawn in this work convincingly confirm the importance and authenticity of these new scientific discoveries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3365] **viXra:1906.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-07 18:15:12*

**Authors:** Dennis A. Bluver

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, the implications of the Planck Voltage as a universally constant voltage are explored. In particular, a surprising result is demonstrated, which is that the resulting modified voltage transformation laws demand the existence of a gravitational interaction. Therefore, there is a strong suggestion that gravitation and electrostatics can naturally be unified through the existence of the Planck voltage. This is directly analogous to the way that electricity and magnetism are unified through the constancy of the speed of light. The impli- cations and also limitations of this new framework are explored, highlighting the analogy with special relativity. It is believed that the general method of unification through Planck units outlined in this paper may ultimately be very fruitful for the unification of classical fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3364] **viXra:1906.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-08 01:22:53*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The harmonic mode of standing wave requires the number of nodes to be conserved in all inertial reference
frames. The half wavelength is proportional to the width of the microwave cavity. The same cavity width is observed by
all stationary observers in the same inertial reference frame. All observers observe the same
wavelength from the standing wave in a moving cavity. According to the Doppler effect, the observer will
detect a higher frequency if the microwave cavity is approaching. The observer will detect a lower frequency
if the microwave cavity is receding. With the same wavelength but different frequency, the speed of microwave in
the standing wave is different for different observer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3363] **viXra:1906.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-05 08:30:08*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Сокращения размеров в Теории Относительности Пуанкаре.И решение парадокса Шеста и Сарая ,впервые за 100 лет

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3362] **viXra:1906.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-04 08:00:58*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 29 Pages. « Le Monde dans une équation : une réévaluation des rayons cosmiques fossiles de Lemaître » is the French version of «The World in an Equation: A Reappraisal of the Lemaître’s Primeval Cosmic Rays» on viXra.org/abs/1906.0036

Prenant appui sur les phénomènes radioactifs (force faible), Georges Lemaître conçoit, dès 1927, l’univers primitif comme un « quantum super-dense unique », dont la désintégration a donné naissance à tous les composants actuels de l’univers [1, 2]. En s’aidant de la mécanique quantique, il se propose d'expliquer les origines du monde du point de vue de la théorie quantique. Il croit trouver dans les rayons cosmiques la manifestation de la fragmentation initiale. Toutefois, quel que soit la cosmologie adoptée, l’hypothèse de l’atome primitif (big bang froid) n’eut aucune équation pour la soutenir et ne fut pas retenue. Comme tous les autres cosmologistes, il se rabattit sur l’équation Friedmann-Einstein avec une constante cosmologique répulsive qui, d’après les observations de supernovae en fin du millénaire, propulse l’expansion vers l’infini. À cette équation de cosmologie relativiste nous juxtaposons notre équation de « cosmologie quantique ». Nous avons déjà proposé cette équation dans un travail antérieur [3], elle prend sa source dans la mécanique quantique et cadre avec l’hypothèse de « l’atome primitif » de Lemaître. C’est une équation dans lequel le concept de la matière-espace-temps est mathématiquement relié ; la gravitation et l’électromagnétisme sont également liés par l’espace-temps. Un mécanisme décrit comment sont corrélés la vitesse, le temps, la distance, la matière et l’énergie. Nous sommes amenés à constater que la gravité et l’électricité sont deux manifestations distinctes d’un même processus sous-jacent : l’électrogravitation. Pour la première fois, le temps cosmologique, considéré comme un objet physique réel, est intégré à une « une équation cosmologique » qui rend cohérent ce que l’on sait du temps (son origine, son écoulement…), de la matière et de l’espace. Par surcroît, l’équation indique une expansion constamment décélérée. La concentration du milieu matériel et l’importance de l’énergie décroissante du vide concourent à l’augmentation progressive de la pression positive qui devient responsable de la décélération croissante de l’expansion. Est-ce à dire que notre équation nous porte inéluctablement à l’hypothèse de l’atome primitif pour l’ensemble du cosmos ? Certainement pas, puisque notre modèle englobe autant le modèle chaud de Gamow que le modèle froid de Lemaître. L’expression « évolution dynamique » (employée au début par les spécialistes pour les modèles de big bang) convient à notre modèle étant donné qu’il y a à la fois une origine explosive et, tout au long de l’expansion, une désintégration d’une matière hyperdense. La découverte du rayonnement de fond cosmologique a confirmé le modèle de big bang chaud, que Gamow et son équipe ont réalisée. La lumière prédite l’emporta sur les rayons cosmiques (particules) primitifs suggérés par Lemaître. Néanmoins, nous pensons que Lemaître avait également raison. La théorie dite du big bang (explosion cataclysmique singulière), outre qu’elle ne répond pas à des critères élémentaires de la science, est contredite par plusieurs observations dont on se refuse à tenir compte. Par exemple, les travaux des astronomes arméniens nous ont convaincus que l’origine des particules cosmiques résulte non seulement des explosions de supernovae, mais encore de la division de radiogalaxies, non seulement de la mort de mondes, mais encore de leur naissance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3361] **viXra:1906.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-04 14:09:09*

**Authors:** L.Rimsha, V.Rimsha

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Критика статьи N.Ashby,M.Weiss "Why there is no noon-midnight red shift in GPS"

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3360] **viXra:1906.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-04 16:52:18*

**Authors:** A.P. Mahtessian, G.S. Karapetian, V.H. Movsisyan, L.A. Mahtessian

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In the present work, on the basis of compilations of supernovae Sne Ia Union and Union2, two cosmological models describing the Universe are considered. One of them (a model with a cosmological constant of zero) was widespread until 1998 when a study of type Ia supernovae showed that the Universe is expanding at an accelerating rate. After that, a model for the case of a flat universe, which is also discussed in this paper, received great recognition.
To accept or reject any cosmological model, it is proposed to carry out a test based on the statement that the absolute magnitude of type Ia supernovae should not depend on the redshift (M_SNeIa≠ M_SNeIa (z)), i.e. these supernovae are distance indicators.
It turns out that the values of the model parameters obtained according to this principle are also confirmed by the Hubble diagram. It is with these data that the best approximation of the observed data is obtained. Mathematical analysis of the Hubble diagram speaks in favor of a model with a cosmological constant of zero. This model also has one important advantage: it does not need to accept the idea of such a hypothetical substance as “Dark Energy”.
Thus, it turns out that we are in open space, filled to about 30% of the critical density of matter, which participates in gravitational interaction and expands with deceleration. This value coincides with the accepted amount of visible and dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3359] **viXra:1906.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-03 08:02:46*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Based on radioactive phenomena (weak force), Georges Lemaître conceives, as soon as 1927, the primeval universe as a "unique super-dense quantum", whose disintegration gave birth to all the current components of the universe [1, 2]. Using quantum mechanics, he proposes to explain the origins of the world from the point of view of quantum theory. He believes to find in the cosmic rays the manifestation of the initial fragmentation. However, regardless of the adopted cosmology, the hypothesis of the primeval atom (cold big bang) had no equation to support it and was not retained. Like all other cosmologists, he fell back on the Friedmann-Einstein equation with a repulsive cosmological constant which, according to supernova observations at the end of the millennium, propels expansion towards infinity. We juxtapose our equation of "quantum cosmology" to this equation of relativistic cosmology. We have already proposed this equation in an earlier paper [3], it has its source in quantum mechanics and fits Lemaître's hypothesis of the "primeval atom". It's an equation in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electrogravitation. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated in a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter and the space. Moreover, the equation indicates a constantly decelerated expansion. The concentration of the material medium and the importance of the decreasing energy of the vacuum contribute to the progressive increase of the positive pressure which becomes responsible for the increasing deceleration of the expansion. Does this mean that our equation leads us inevitably to the hypothesis of the primeval atom for the whole cosmos? Certainly not, since our model includes both the hot Gamow model and the cold Lemaître model. The term "dynamic evolution" (used in the beginning by specialists for big bang models) is appropriate for our model since there is both an explosive origin and, throughout the expansion, a disintegration of a hyper-dense matter. The discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation has confirmed the hot big bang model that Gamow and his team have achieved. The predicted light prevailed over the primitive cosmic rays (particles) suggested by Lemaitre. Nevertheless, we think that Lemaitre was also right. The so-called big bang theory (singular cataclysmic explosion), in addition to not meeting basic criteria of science, is contradicted by several observations that are ignored. For example, the work of Armenian astronomers has convinced us that the origin of cosmic particles results not only from supernova explosions, but also from the partition of radio galaxies, not only from the death of worlds, but also from their birth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3358] **viXra:1906.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-03 09:19:48*

**Authors:** Mark Titleman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper puts forward the notion that the universe possesses a scalar field similar to that proposed by E.T. Whittaker in which waveforms travel longitudinally. It is proposed that this scalar field forms through black holes, creating both normal transverse EM radiation as well as gravity. This conception of the universe has important consequences such as increasing the speed limit of light in the universe to 1.14c within a black hole, applying parsimonious explanations of dark matter and dark energy, and accounting for theories such as MOND. These conclusions are arrived at on the basis of an original cosmology as well as mathematical representations of universal rudiments and gravity. Newton’s gravitational constant is given a range that should be used at long distances.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3357] **viXra:1906.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-06-01 12:48:11*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

all objects time dilate just as photons redshift as in my paper photons redshift0 now when all masses start slowing down they vibrate at lower frequencies and they end up seeing stuff slower even thoug they gone at a faster speed and they end up being like at rest and so they see the speed of light constant

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3356] **viXra:1905.0611 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-31 09:22:11*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

The theory of special relativity showed that particles of light, photons, travel through a vacuum at a constant pace of 670,616,629 miles per hour-a speed that's immensely difficult to achieve and impossible to surpass in that environment. [28] Scientists believe that time is continuous, not discrete-roughly speaking, they believe that it does not progress in "chunks," but rather "flows," smoothly and continuously. [27] Physicists theorize that this time-reversal violation is the key ingredient needed to unravel the cosmic mystery of the missing antimatter. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3355] **viXra:1905.0606 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-31 11:39:09*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The frequency of the numbers 4 and 8 appearing in Majoranic Holographic Cyclic E8 Symmetric theory is sufficiently high that these numbers can be taken as a useful signal of the theory in operation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3354] **viXra:1905.0604 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-31 18:28:36*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

as the photon goes larger distances it stops spinning its space inside round and round more and so it calms down and has less frequencies and more "wavelength" and then ends up redshifting

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3353] **viXra:1905.0602 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-31 22:04:34*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Special relativity is non-intuitive, leading to logical contradictions. For over a century there has been no alternative theory capable of explaining the many relativity experiments, especially time-dilation experiments. Unlike quantum mechanics, relativity is interpreted only in terms of space-time symmetry. Here we derive and discuss an alternative theory, Energy-time dynamics, that explains relativistic experiments and does not yield the logical contradictions of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3352] **viXra:1905.0596 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-30 14:34:55*

**Authors:** Andrew Goldfarb, Nok Zgrgl

**Comments:** 5 pages.

This is a review of the main work on the ancient and experimental issues in the study of the potential for inflation in the framework of the classical general relativity. The major subjects considered include the extension of general relativity to the universe in a curved spacetime, and the implications of new and innovative methods for peculiar and general theories of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3351] **viXra:1905.0595 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-30 22:19:27*

**Authors:** Ting-Hang Pei

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The metric for describing the spacetime geometry of a charged and rotating source in general relativity is the Kerr-Newman metrics, and it is an appropriate one to discuss the motion on the Earth. It is explicit that the velocity of light we measure is dependent on the rotation and net charges of the Earth, and usually the measurements are less than it in the really free space, at infinity or the gravity-free space, as long as the net charges of the Earth are less than 1.4x10^19 C. According to this, the velocity of light in the really free space should be corrected and 0.2085 m/s slightly larger than what we identify in vacuum on Earth, 2.9979458x10^8 m/s. The calculations also show the tiny deviation on the speed of light along the longitudinal direction between two poles and the equator, and it is also the same result between the left-handed circularly light and the right-handed circularly one in the equator.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3350] **viXra:1905.0549 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-28 13:08:55*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This is a short note, based on previous work, which shows how a time varying gravitational constant may help solve the current tension in Hubble's constant, and the predicted age of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3349] **viXra:1905.0532 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-27 09:51:44*

**Authors:** Michael C Dickerson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The escape velocity between two opposite electrical charges can be treated in a similar fashion as the escape velocity of two gravitational masses. For a given positive and negative charge, one can ask at what radial distance would a particle need to travel at the speed of light in order to escape the electrical attraction towards the other charged mass. In an electron-proton system this distance is found to be 5.62 x 10^-15 meters, which is several times larger than the proton radius. It is proposed that once inside this radius, where it would have to travel the speed of light to escape the electrical attraction of the proton, it can never move to that radius or beyond toward the outside world. This new bound composite particle would be stable, electrically neutral, have no chemical properties, and a mass in the range of 1.73 x 10^-26 kg. It could have also been produced in copious amounts in the early universe when it was extremely hot and dense, in which case it could be a dark matter candidate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3348] **viXra:1905.0508 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-26 20:56:26*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Application of Newton’s laws to elastic collisions in different inertial frames produces disturbing violations of the revered laws of physics known as the conservation laws of momentum and energy. The analysis that follows will illustrate the problem – ignored by physics academia – but obvious to those with open and rational minds.
We intend to repeat classical collision theory in the reference frame of the laboratory - the ECEF to NASA – the same frame in which Galileo, Newton and subsequent experimentalists derived the primitive laws of motion and established the foundations of dynamics. Then the motion solution in the relative frame of motion will be considered... wherein lies the surprise. The findings are not surprising for adherents to the ALFA model of reality, one of whose key premises is the Earth as fixed and immovable. Yes, the geocentric Earth, revealing itself humbly in the simplest of motion – the laws governing particle collisions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3347] **viXra:1905.0506 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-27 00:03:37*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

For the first time in 100 years, an explanation of the Paradox of twins with the help of Poincaré’s Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3346] **viXra:1905.0492 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-24 13:33:36*

**Authors:** Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

If we want to get the Derived quantities Lorentz transformation we must be finds the Lorentz transformations for Fundamental Physical Quantities

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3345] **viXra:1905.0473 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-23 09:47:03*

**Authors:** John Raymond

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

I provide you with scientific clues for you to consider with respect to whether Einstein may have suffered some sort of oversight or not when he first released his Special Relativity Theory in 1905.
I briefly discuss the 1887 Michelson and Morely Ether experiment and then provide you with ideas to consider as to whether some sort of Ether like field [say like a dynamic fluid condition] exists in the universe. The question that I then ask you to think about is if there is such a field is it possible that the Earth is moving through this field at a specific and measurable rate of speed? I conclude by asking you to consider what the possible ramifications are for contemporary mainstream physics if this eventually proves to be the case.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3344] **viXra:1905.0472 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-23 10:43:01*

**Authors:** Daniele Zamori

**Comments:** 4 pages, possible model regarding the Big Crunch and the fate of the Universe.

In this paper there will be a theory about the destiny of the Universe, regarding a solution about the future movement of the Universe. Examinating the actual theories about the destiny of the Universe, and ,doing a reductio ad absurdum, we could formalize a solution. Unfortunately the things that we know about the Big Bang are few, and without any kind of evidence it is pretty difficult to create a plausible solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3343] **viXra:1905.0466 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-23 22:25:58*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The paradox of the twins.
The decision with the help of the Theory of Relativity Poincare. Language is Russian.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3342] **viXra:1905.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-22 17:04:42*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Analiza eksperymentu myślowego Einsteina i pokazanie błędu w założeniach.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3341] **viXra:1905.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-21 10:35:58*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** Today is my 95th birthday and this is my most important 1 page note to date.

Abstract: A highly accurate critical value of Hubble's constant of 78.20 (Km/s)/Mps has been found including the 4430 MeV heavy Majorana 4th neutrino.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3340] **viXra:1905.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-21 17:02:21*

**Authors:** Alfonso Leon Guillen Gomez

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The author discusses the theory of the time-space fluid that results from the supposed gravitational waves that would have detected LIGO, and reaffirms the spacetime as a structural geometric property of the dynamic matter, now with the strong argument that in an unnatural way, the physicists and philosophers of science confer the conception of the author to that ridiculous material spacetime, while depriving matter, of the intrinsic spacetime. In addition, he warns about the conceptual contradiction existing between NASA and Caltech over gravitational waves, being absurd the concept of Caltech, operator of LIGO, since gravitational waves would propagate in five non-detectable dimensions. NASA validly recognizes that they would be waves of space; therefore, there are no spacetime waves that correspond to gravitational waves that, according to the great current of relativistic physicists, would exist. Finally, the author reaffirms that quadrupole waves detected by LIGO are waves of quantum vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3339] **viXra:1905.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-22 02:25:53*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

so the main idea of relativity is that motion is relative to get a feel for that lets look at point A and point B and a car moving from one to the other now lets say that point A is moving away from point B you would need more speed to achieve the same velocity of the car originally and if point A goes nearer to point B you would need less velocity to reach with the car from point A to point B

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3338] **viXra:1905.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-05-18 18:07:48*

**Authors:** Tony Bermanseder

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

The experimental data collected by the various supernova observers, and under utility of the Hubble Space Telescope to track the brightness variations of discovered supernovae type Ia, now converged in 1998 to the conclusion, that distant supernovae are between 20% and 30% dimmer than expected and as a consequence of their measured redshift they appear to be further away than theory permits.
An interpretation of this discovery implies, that the universe's expansion is accelerating; the measured redshift depicting a distance further away for a dimmer brightness than anticipated by theory.
Closer analysis of the redshift data shows an expected distribution of luminosity, calibrated to their distances in the Chilean Cala-Tololo data, up to a redshift of about 0.11 and with a redshift-gap until a redshift of 0.3; after which the 'High-Z's' begin to show the 'curving away' from a predicted decelerating expansion rate in concordance with an Euclidean flat universe of Einsteinian General Relativity.
The highest redshift recorded in 1998 was that of 'supernova Iae' at (z=1.1) by the 'High-Z-Team'.
Why is there a redshift gap between z=0.11 and z=0.30 approximately?
Does this imply a scarcity of supernovas in this redshift interval or is there a cosmological reason for this gap?
Is this cosmological reason at the core of the Dark Energy implication and the 'factuality' of an accelerating universe?
This treatise shall elucidate the cosmological nature of Dark Energy and the inferred accelerating cosmology of an accelerating universe, stipulated to begin some 5-6 Billion years ago and as a change from a measured deceleration from light speed in the early universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2402] **viXra:1907.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-18 07:58:46*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Adrian Klein, Slobodan Nedic, Yunita Umniyati, Marian Mesina

**Comments:** 387 Pages. This book is under review for publication. Your comments are welcome

It is widely known among the Frontiers of physics, that “sweeping under the rug” practice has been quite the norm rather than exception. In other words, the leading paradigms have strong tendency to be hailed as the only game in town.
For example, renormalization group theory was hailed as cure in order to solve infinity problem in QED theory.
For instance, a quote from Richard Feynman goes as follows:
“What the three Nobel Prize winners did, in the words of Feynman, was "to get rid of the infinities in the calculations. The infinities are still there, but now they can be skirted around . . . We have designed a method for sweeping them under the rug."[1]
And Paul Dirac himself also wrote with similar tune:
“Hence most physicists are very satisfied with the situation. They say: "Quantum electrodynamics is a good theory, and we do not have to worry about it any more." I must say that I am very dissatisfied with the situation, because this so-called "good theory" does involve neglecting infinities which appear in its equations, neglecting them in an arbitrary way. This is just not sensible mathematics. Sensible mathematics involves neglecting a quantity when it turns out to be small—not neglecting it just because it is infinitely great and you do not want it!”[2]
Similarly, dark matter and dark energy were elevated as plausible way to solve the crisis in prevalent Big Bang cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2401] **viXra:1907.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-18 00:37:42*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 5 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy bears great similarity to the frequency shift in the Doppler effect.
Both blueshift and redshift can be described by the movement of the double-slit interference.
In the rest frame of the star,
the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen.
The intersection of this path and the screen determines how the spectrum is shifted.
If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center of the screen.
This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center of the screen.
This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also resizes proportionally.
The spectral shift is caused by the motion of earth in the rest frame of the star while the wavelength of the star light remains
constant. The redshift places a maximum limit on the radial velocity of the remote galaxy. The galaxy can not be detected
if the earth moves faster than the light in the rest frame of the galaxy. This is dark galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2400] **viXra:1907.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-16 23:00:58*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 5 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy bears great similarity to the frequency shift in the Doppler effect.
Both blueshift and redshift can be described by the movement of the double-slit interference.
In the rest frame of the star,
the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen.
The intersection of this path and the screen determines how the spectrum is shifted.
If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center of the screen.
This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center of the screen.
This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also resizes proportionally.
The spectral shift is caused by the motion of earth in the rest frame of the star while the wavelength of the star light remains
constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2399] **viXra:1907.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-15 20:53:15*

**Authors:** Скоробогатов В.П.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. in Russian

The simple derivation of the Lorentz transformation ans some consequences are given. In particularly, the expression for velocity adding became different from that in SR. Alas the Fizeau experiment gave not enouph confidence in its validation. The connection with the model of 4D matter is established. In this model so called 4-whirl is associated with body. The expressions for de Broyle wave are obtained from such presentation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2398] **viXra:1907.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-11 20:55:17*

**Authors:** Скоробогатов В.П.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. in Russian

The simple derivation of the Lorentz transformation ans some consequences are given. In particularly, the expression for velocity adding became different from that in SR. The connection with the model of 4D matter is established. In this model so called 4-whirl is associated with body. The expressions for de Broyle wave are obtained from such presentation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2397] **viXra:1907.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-17 11:47:02*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy arises from the relative motion between the observed star
and the earth. Both blueshift and redshift can be explained with the relative movement of the double-slit interference.
In the rest frame of the star,
the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen.
The intersection of this path and the screen is shifted by the movement of the screen.
If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center
of the screen. This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center
of the screen. This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also expands in size.
The spectral shift is the result of the relative motion between the projection screen and the path of phase shift.
It is not the result of any variation in the wavelength.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2396] **viXra:1907.0035 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-03 23:08:47*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The observation of spectral shift in astronomy arises from the relative motion between the observed star
and the earth. Both blueshift and redshift can be explained with the relative movement of the double-slit interference.
In the rest frame of the star,
the light passes through the slit to travel a straight path to reach the projection screen.
The intersection of this path and the screen is shifted by the movement of the screen.
If the screen moves away from the path, the spectrum will be shifted away from the center
of the screen. This is known as redshift. If the screen moves toward the path, the spectrum will be shifted toward the center
of the screen. This is known as blueshift. The spectrum not only shifts in position but also expands in size.
The spectral shift is the result of the relative motion between the projection screen and the path of phase shift.
It is not the result of any variation in the wavelength.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2395] **viXra:1906.0480 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-30 17:44:53*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to my theory [1], the space/medium field is an energy field comprised from the sum of the gravitational potentials of all masses in the Universe, with a total value of c^2 in empty space. The Frame Dragging effect is due to a percentage of that total energy being set in motion. The inertia of objects in this energy field is determined by reference to the state of motion of the field, thus if the field itself is set in motion, it affects the state of motion of objects within the field too. Due to this effect on the inertia, there is a difference in the energy of an object in orbit around a large spinning body compared to its orbits around a large stationary body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2394] **viXra:1906.0464 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-15 04:37:27*

**Authors:** Manuel Urueña Palomo

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

An expected behaviour of spacetime and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, solving mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox by considering a time transformation and the corresponding antigravitational negative mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2393] **viXra:1906.0464 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-06 16:13:17*

**Authors:** Manuel Urueña Palomo

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

An expected behaviour of spacetime and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, solving mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox by considering a time transformation and the corresponding antigravitational negative mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2392] **viXra:1906.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-15 15:03:16*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The double-slit interference shows that the product of the wavelength and the distance
from the slit plate to the projection screen is conserved in all inertial reference frames.
This conservation ensures that the observed wavelength in any inertial reference frame
is identical to the original wavelength in the rest frame of the light source.
According to the Doppler effect, the observed frequency depends on the choice of inertial reference frame.
With the same wavelength but different frequency, the speed of light is different in a
different inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2391] **viXra:1906.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-01 21:37:20*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The double-slit interference shows that the product of the wavelength and the distance
from the slit plate to the projection screen is conserved in all inertial reference frames.
This conservation ensures that the observed wavelength in any inertial reference frame
is identical to the original wavelength in the rest frame of the light source.
According to the Doppler effect, the observed frequency depends on the choice of inertial reference frame.
With the same wavelength but different frequency, the speed of light is different in a
different inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2390] **viXra:1906.0299 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-15 04:58:59*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Weber's electrodynamics formula for the force of interaction between moving charged particles, which is a modification of Coulomb's law, may solve many of the paradoxes and puzzles in classical and relativistic electromagnetism. In this paper we propose modification of Newton's law of gravitation according to Weber's formula. This may solve many of the outstanding problems in cosmology such as dark matter, dark energy and the Pioneer anomaly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2389] **viXra:1906.0299 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-17 08:44:47*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Weber's formula for the force of interaction between charged particles, which is a modification of Coulomb's law, may solve many of the paradoxes and puzzles in classical and relativistic electromagnetism. In this paper we propose modification of Newton's law of gravitation according to Weber's formula. This may solve many of the outstanding problems in cosmology such as dark matter, dark energy and the Pioneer anomaly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2388] **viXra:1906.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-07-10 03:42:20*

**Authors:** José Alberto Pardi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The last century has left us four unresolved facts about a possible Cosmos structure that, according to some theories already existing at that time, it seems that could shed light on some of the great current frustrations of physics, such as, for example, the unification of Quantum Mechanics with the General Theory of Relativity.
These facts have the characteristics of true mysteries because, although their existence has been verified independently by several researchers, they have not found a satisfactory explanation.
They reveal a "fine structure" like that of the H atom, although it is more "discrete" because even though it has some of the characteristics of the quantization of the atom, it does not have all of them and is also less restrictive, more "soft". Due to these characteristics and the lack of an explanation, these facts have fallen into oblivion.
One of the attempts at explanation wrongly used wave mechanics, due to the similarity with the quantization of the atomic orbitals, but the phenomenon is evidently independent of the mass, which makes the use of Quantum Field Theory more plausible.
Although if the basic models of quantum gravity proposed at that time do not fit properly, a review of them shows that if a different constant is used to compute the field energy, everything square up. The computations of the Solar System orbits discretization seem to confirm it.
This article is just an introduction of these mysteries and how they lead to discover a probable fine structure of the Cosmos, giving only a global view of the integration of theories that help explain it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2387] **viXra:1906.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-17 03:22:41*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

In this paper, a new theoretical framework for absolute motion and the speed of light is presented. The new theoretical framework consists of two parts: 1. Constancy of phase velocity of light 2. Apparent Source Theory. The theory of constancy of phase velocity of light is a consequence of non-existence of the ether. Thus the phase velocity of light in vacuum is always constant c, irrespective of absolute or relative motion of the light source, the observer and the mirror, for uniform or accelerated motions. The constancy of phase velocity of light leads to a new Exponential Doppler Effect of light: f ' = f eV/c and λ' = λe -V/c , which fulfills the constant phase velocity condition : f ' λ ' = f eV/cλe-V/c = f λ = c . The Exponential Doppler Effect theory can also explain the Ives-Stilwell experiment. The Michelson-Morley disproved the ether hypothesis but failed to detect absolute motion, which was decisively detected by the Silvertooth experiment, in combination with the NASA CMBR anisotropy experiment. Absolute motion is not motion relative to the ether. According to Apparent Source Theory, the effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the point of light emission relative to an inertial observer, in the reference frame of an absolutely moving inertial observer. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in point of light emission relative to the observer/detector will create only a small fringe shift for the same reason that an actual/physical change in the source position ( actual change in point of light emission ) will result only in a small fringe shift. This is the small fringe shift observed in the original Michelson-Morley experiment and in the Miller experiments. A profound prediction of Apparent Source Theory regarding the phenomenon of stellar aberration is that the apparent change in star position in not in the same direction as the observer's velocity, but in the opposite direction ! Thus, an observer in absolute motion needs to tilt his telescope backwards, not forward, to see star light. A formulation of Apparent Source Theory for a non-inertial observer is also presented. For a non-inertial observer/detector, the light speed experiment is analyzed based on the following principle. An imaginary inertial observer is assumed who will be at the same point and moving with the same velocity as the instantaneous velocity of the real accelerating observer at the instant of light detection. In other words, the real accelerating observer and the imaginary inertial observer will detect the light at the same point in space, simultaneously, while moving with the same instantaneous velocity. This general formulation of Apparent Source Theory is applied to analyze the Sagnac effect. The Sagnac effect is shown to be an acceleration effect, not an absolute motion effect. Apparent Source Theory is also applied to static electric, magnetic and gravitational sources. A qualitative analysis of Mercury perihelion advance is presented. It is proposed that magnetic field is a form of electric field as described by Weber's formula for electrostatic force between two charges. Weber's formula, which is a modification of Coulomb's formula, is adopted and combined with Apparent Source Theory, which may explain all electromagnetic phenomenon. Analogous Weber's formula for gravitation, which is a modification of Newton's law of gravitation, might solve some of the outstanding problems in physics, such as dark matter, dark energy and Pioneer anomaly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2386] **viXra:1906.0158 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-25 10:55:57*

**Authors:** Ting-Hang Pei

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We think about the contribution of the dipole moment whether it is useful or not. In this article, we will see that the contribution of the dipole moment nonzero. In addition, we also discuss the possibility of gravitational waves escaping the black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2385] **viXra:1906.0147 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-10 10:03:03*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

as in the paper the mass vs nothingness8 if you spin fast you will spin faster than other masses if you spin normal and you will precieve more stuff about normal spin objects and since there is not much to see about the normal spin objects the faster spin masses see the normal spin masses spin faster and if you spin slower you will precieve less about normal spin objects and so the slower spin masses would have more to see about the normal spin masses and so the slower spin masses see the normal spin masses slower hence the time dilation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2384] **viXra:1906.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-10 09:23:17*

**Authors:** Krzysztof Sudlitz

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the following work, a hypothesis is proposed in which the curvature of space modifies the basic equations of electrodynamics. This is done based on the assumption that the universe is a three-dimensional sphere in four-dimensional space. The modification of the equations results in the slowing of the speed of light over very large distances, which results in the observed redshift of distant galaxies. An experiment is proposed that would ultimately validate or refute the hypothesis: the experiment would require a direct comparison of the angles of incidence and reflection of light from very distant galaxies, and would need to be performed in outer space to avoid atmospheric blur.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2383] **viXra:1906.0139 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-09 11:15:21*

**Authors:** Krzysztof Sudlitz

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the following work, a hypothesis is proposed that the curvature of space modifies the basic equations of electrodynamics. This is based on the assumption that the universe is a three-dimensional sphere in four-dimensional space. The modification of the equations results in the slowing of the speed of light over very large distances, which results in the observed redshift of distant galaxies. An experiment is proposed that would ultimately validate or refute the hypothesis: the experiment would require a direct comparison of the angles of incidence and reflection of light from very distant galaxies, and would need to be performed in outer space to avoid atmospheric blur.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2382] **viXra:1906.0057 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-27 19:00:42*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 30 Pages. « Le Monde dans une équation : une réévaluation des rayons cosmiques fossiles de Lemaître » is the French version of «The World in an Equation: A Reappraisal of the Lemaître’s Primeval Cosmic Rays» on viXra.org/abs/1906.0036

Prenant appui sur les phénomènes radioactifs (force faible), Georges Lemaître conçoit, dès 1927, l’univers primitif comme un « quantum super-dense unique », dont la désintégration a donné naissance à tous les composants actuels de l’univers [1, 2]. En s’aidant de la mécanique quantique, il se propose d'expliquer les origines du monde du point de vue de la théorie quantique. Il croit trouver dans les rayons cosmiques la manifestation de la fragmentation initiale. Toutefois, quel que soit la cosmologie adoptée, l’hypothèse de l’atome primitif (big bang froid) n’eut aucune équation pour la soutenir et ne fut pas retenue. Comme tous les autres cosmologistes, il se rabattit sur l’équation Friedmann-Einstein avec une constante cosmologique répulsive qui, d’après les observations de supernovae en fin du millénaire, propulse l’expansion vers l’infini. À cette équation de cosmologie relativiste nous juxtaposons notre équation de « cosmologie quantique ». Nous avons déjà proposé cette équation dans un travail antérieur [3], elle prend sa source dans la mécanique quantique et cadre avec l’hypothèse de « l’atome primitif » de Lemaître. C’est une équation dans lequel le concept de la matière-espace-temps est mathématiquement relié ; la gravitation et l’électromagnétisme sont également liés par l’espace-temps. Un mécanisme décrit comment sont corrélés la vitesse, le temps, la distance, la matière et l’énergie. Nous sommes amenés à constater que la gravité et l’électricité sont deux manifestations distinctes d’un même processus sous-jacent : l’électrogravitation. Pour la première fois, le temps cosmologique, considéré comme un objet physique réel, est intégré à une « une équation cosmologique » qui rend cohérent ce que l’on sait du temps (son origine, son écoulement…), de la matière et de l’espace. Par surcroît, l’équation indique une expansion constamment décélérée. La concentration du milieu matériel et l’importance de l’énergie décroissante du vide concourent à l’augmentation progressive de la pression positive qui devient responsable de la décélération croissante de l’expansion. Est-ce à dire que notre équation nous porte inéluctablement à l’hypothèse de l’atome primitif pour l’ensemble du cosmos ? Certainement pas, puisque notre modèle englobe autant le modèle chaud de Gamow que le modèle froid de Lemaître. L’expression « évolution dynamique » (employée au début par les spécialistes pour les modèles de big bang) convient à notre modèle étant donné qu’il y a à la fois une origine explosive et, tout au long de l’expansion, une désintégration d’une matière hyperdense. La découverte du rayonnement de fond cosmologique a confirmé le modèle de big bang chaud, que Gamow et son équipe ont réalisée. La lumière prédite l’emporta sur les rayons cosmiques (particules) primitifs suggérés par Lemaître. Néanmoins, nous pensons que Lemaître avait également raison. La théorie dite du big bang (explosion cataclysmique singulière), outre qu’elle ne répond pas à des critères élémentaires de la science, est contredite par plusieurs observations dont on se refuse à tenir compte. Par exemple, les travaux des astronomes arméniens nous ont convaincus que l’origine des particules cosmiques résulte non seulement des explosions de supernovae, mais encore de la division de radiogalaxies, non seulement de la mort de mondes, mais encore de leur naissance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2381] **viXra:1906.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-27 18:53:41*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Based on radioactive phenomena (weak force), Georges Lemaître conceives, as soon as 1927, the primeval universe as a "unique super-dense quantum", whose disintegration gave birth to all the current components of the universe [1, 2]. Using quantum mechanics, he proposes to explain the origins of the world from the point of view of quantum theory. He believes to find in the cosmic rays the manifestation of the initial fragmentation. However, regardless of the adopted cosmology, the hypothesis of the primeval atom (cold big bang) had no equation to support it and was not retained. Like all other cosmologists, he fell back on the Friedmann-Einstein equation with a repulsive cosmological constant which, according to supernova observations at the end of the millennium, propels expansion towards infinity. We juxtapose our equation of "quantum cosmology" to this equation of relativistic cosmology. We have already proposed this equation in an earlier paper [3], it has its source in quantum mechanics and fits Lemaître's hypothesis of the "primeval atom". It's an equation in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electrogravitation. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated in a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter and the space. Moreover, the equation indicates a constantly decelerated expansion. The concentration of the material medium and the importance of the decreasing energy of the vacuum contribute to the progressive increase of the positive pressure which becomes responsible for the increasing deceleration of the expansion. Does this mean that our equation leads us inevitably to the hypothesis of the primeval atom for the whole cosmos? Certainly not, since our model includes both the hot Gamow model and the cold Lemaître model. The term "dynamic evolution" (used in the beginning by specialists for big bang models) is appropriate for our model since there is both an explosive origin and, throughout the expansion, a disintegration of a hyper-dense matter. The discovery of cosmic microwave background radiation has confirmed the hot big bang model that Gamow and his team have achieved. The predicted light prevailed over the primitive cosmic rays (particles) suggested by Lemaitre. Nevertheless, we think that Lemaitre was also right. The so-called big bang theory (singular cataclysmic explosion), in addition to not meeting basic criteria of science, is contradicted by several observations that are ignored. For example, the work of Armenian astronomers has convinced us that the origin of cosmic particles results not only from supernova explosions, but also from the partition of radio galaxies, not only from the death of worlds, but also from their birth.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2380] **viXra:1905.0595 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-28 12:34:50*

**Authors:** Ting-Hang Pei

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The metric for describing the spacetime geometry of a charged and rotating source in general relativity is the Kerr-Newman metrics, and it is an appropriate one to discuss the movement on the Earth. It is explicit that the velocity of light we measure is dependent on the rotation and net charges of the Earth, and usually the measurements are less than it in the really free space, at infinity or the gravity-free space, as long as the net charges of the Earth are less than 1.4x10^19 C. According to this, the velocity of light in the really gravity-free space should be corrected. When we adopt the coordinate time at infinity as the unified time at each measurement placement on the Earth, it is 0.2085 m/s slightly larger than what we identify in vacuum on the Earth, 2.9979458x10^8 m/s. The calculations also show the tiny deviation on the speed of light along the longitudinal direction between two poles and the equator, and it also exists deviation between the left-handed circularly light and the right-handed circularly one in the equator. We also discuss the difference on the speed of light in the local reference frame by using the proper time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2379] **viXra:1905.0595 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-06-23 08:41:47*

**Authors:** Ting-Hang Pei

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The metric for describing the spacetime geometry of a charged and rotating source in general relativity is the Kerr-Newman metrics, and it is an appropriate one to discuss the movement on the Earth. It is explicit that the velocity of light we measure is dependent on the rotation and net charges of the Earth, and usually the measurements are less than it in the really free space, at infinity or the gravity-free space, as long as the net charges of the Earth are less than 1.4x10^19 C. According to this, the velocity of light in the really gravity-free space should be corrected. When we adopt the coordinate time at infinity as the unified time at each measurement placement on the Earth, it is 0.2085 m/s slightly larger than what we identify in vacuum on the Earth, 2.9979458x10^8 m/s. The calculations also show the tiny deviation on the speed of light along the longitudinal direction between two poles and the equator, and it also exists deviation between the left-handed circularly light and the right-handed circularly one in the equator. We also discuss the difference on the speed of light in the local reference frame by using the proper time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2378] **viXra:1905.0549 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-29 08:16:03*

**Authors:** Christopher Pilot

**Comments:** 7 Pages. For some reason, the original version, was not transmitted correctly.

This is a short note, based on previous work, which shows how a time varying gravitational constant may help solve the current tension in Hubble's constant, and the predicted age of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2377] **viXra:1905.0508 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-05-27 21:22:09*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Application of Newton’s laws to elastic collisions in different inertial frames produces disturbing violations of the revered laws of physics known as the conservation laws of momentum and energy. The analysis that follows will illustrate the problem – ignored by physics academia – but obvious to those with open and rational minds.
We intend to repeat classical collision theory in the reference frame of the laboratory - the ECEF as known by NASA – the same frame in which Galileo, Newton and subsequent experimentalists derived the primitive laws of motion and established the foundations of dynamics. Then the motion solution in the relative frame of motion will be considered... wherein lies the surprise. The findings are not surprising for adherents to the ALFA model of reality, one of whose key premises is the Earth as fixed and immovable. Yes, the geocentric Earth, revealing itself humbly in the simplest of motion – the laws governing particle collisions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology