**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(14) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(29) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(34) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(33) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(33) - 1509(38) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(31) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(32) - 1605(30) - 1606(43) - 1607(23) - 1608(39) - 1609(44) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(32)

2017 - 1701(27) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(45) - 1705(32) - 1706(30) - 1707(28) - 1708(29) - 1709(41) - 1710(34) - 1711(41) - 1712(47)

2018 - 1801(35) - 1802(41) - 1803(45) - 1804(45) - 1805(38) - 1806(40) - 1807(48) - 1808(29) - 1809(23) - 1810(38) - 1811(54) - 1812(43)

2019 - 1901(36) - 1902(31) - 1903(16)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3261] **viXra:1903.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-17 17:15:00*

**Authors:** Bruce Wallman

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The value for the “Hubble constant” is referred to as the Hubble value in this paper. Hv is dealt with herein just as Edwin Hubble developed it in the 1920’s. However, Hubble drew a straight line through his points assuming that there might be a straight line relationship between expansion or recessional velocity and proper distance. This assumption is no longer correct since Riess and Perlmutter showed with better data that there is a slight acceleration or increase in the velocity of expansion especially in the past several billion light-years. Given the data available today this paper does not assume a straight line relationship between recessional velocity and distance. It proves that this relationship is a power series with a slight downward bend. There is an open question in cosmology as of 2018 about the significance of the difference between the 2016 Planck collaboration value H0=66.93±0.62 km/s/Mpc and the 2016 Riess et al value H0=73.24±1.74 km/s/Mpc. This paper shows that both the Planck collaboration and Riess et al values are likely correct. Tracing the cosmological redshift z from SN1a several thousand megaparsecs in the past to those that exploded closer to today describes an increase in our perception of Hv as distance to us lessens. A best fit power function of vr=73.586*Dp-0.9909 (where vr is recessional velocity and Dp is proper distance) for recessional velocity versus distance is derived connecting these two values of H0 using 1836 SN1a data points in the NED database3. Taking a Hubble derivative of this formula gives the power function Hv=dvr/dDp= 72.85014*Dp -0.01. This formula describes a change of over 5 km/s/Mpc in the Hubble value for the observable universe increasing smoothly from 66.8 to over 71.6 km/s/Mpc as the universe expands with most of the increase occurring in the last 1000 Mpc. This is consistent with the ΛCDM cosmology which gives an expansion to the observable universe that accelerates in the most recent several billion light-years4. The values 66.8 and 71.6 km/s/Mpc derived in this paper are affected by assumptions for the values of omega matter and omega lambda and are not meant to be taken as final numbers. They are calculated to show that there is a legitimate connection between the Planck collaboration and Riess et al values for H0. Furthermore, by converting distance in megaparsecs to light-seconds, it is possible to show Hv is an acceleration that varies from 6.47 angstrom/s/s at the distance of the CMB to 6.93 angstrom/s/s in the local vicinity of the visible universe (approximately 8 Mpc) where the Hubble flow breaks down due to local gravity. This depiction of Hv as an acceleration is helpful in envisioning what we have learned from the Riess and Perlmutter SN1a studies versus the WMAP and Planck probes dating from 1998 to today.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3260] **viXra:1903.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-16 14:17:14*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Cyclic Cosmological Theorem is established based on Total Relativity and the total energy conservation of nature, using the testable consequences of the cosmological principle of isotropy and homogeneity and incorporating a new
testable consequence, the redshift temporal on a large scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3259] **viXra:1903.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-15 11:16:54*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The mass of the neutron can be calculated simply yet accurately in MHCE8S theory by a method I outline in this note.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3258] **viXra:1903.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 08:22:56*

**Authors:** Ho Dong Jo, Chol Song Kim

**Comments:** 60 Pages.

We presented the difficulties of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory and Einstein’s gravitational theory in detail, established a new unified theory of field including consistent electromagnetic theory and gravitational theory on the basis of new starting postulates, and applied these theoretical methods to quantum electrodynamics. We accepted a new geometrical space in which metric tensor and all main physical functions become implicit functions, called “KR space” consistent to our starting postulates, and normalization of implicit functions in order to give physical meanings to all physical functions of implicit forms defined in this space. As a result, we naturally unraveled problem of radiation reaction, a historical difficult problem of Maxwell-Lorentz electromagnetic theory, built new quantum electrodynamics without renormalization procedure followed by quantum gravitational theory and also predicted new theoretical results which could not find in traditional theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3257] **viXra:1903.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 10:41:54*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A bi-metric formalism is introduced to describe two bodies gravitational interaction using Whitehead's version of Schwarzschhild's original solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3256] **viXra:1903.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 16:02:21*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Quasi-Steady State Cosmology (QSSC) posits a continuous creation at the center of galaxies. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) posits the components of the universe have a creation and an end. A Sink at the center of elliptical galaxies is added to the Source of the QSSC at the center of Spiral galaxies. This allows the explanation of many more anomalous cosmological observations and allows correspondence with quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3255] **viXra:1903.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-14 04:13:07*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The accelerated expansion of Universe is caused by the Universal antigravity force, with which the Hubble’s Law is proved. The black holes are
sustainable matter forms of the dynamic space that cannot disappear, because of the particulate antigravity force that prevents the further gravitational collapse. The inverse electric-nuclear field causes the nuclear forces, namely the strong nuclear force and the nuclear antigravity one, on which the architecture of the nuclei model is based.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3254] **viXra:1903.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-11 11:12:05*

**Authors:** Timoteo Briet Blanes

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

If you want to explain how the Universe works, it is necessary to know how the clusters of matter that originate the galaxies and the clusters of galaxies that originate the large-scale geometry of the Universe are formed. On the other hand, it is also necessary to know the mechanisms by which galaxies evolve and interact among them, and also, what the process for mater aggregation are. Finally, it is also necessary, therefore, an explanation of dark matter in terms of properties and not its composition, since it is a majority part of the matter of the Universe. A series of mechanisms and numerical models are established, which explain all this.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3253] **viXra:1903.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-10 12:45:13*

**Authors:** Attilio Colombo

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The intent of this work is to present a discussion of the Galilean Principle of Relativity and of its implications for what concerns the characteristics of light propagation and the nature of simultaneity. It is shown that by using a clock synchronization procedure that makes use of isotropically propagating signals of generic nature, the simultaneity of distinct events can be established in a unique way by different observers, also when such observers are in relative motion between themselves. Such absolute nature of simultaneity is preserved in the passage from a stationary to a moving reference frame also when a set of isochronous generalized coordinates is introduced. These transformations of coordinates can be considered as a generalization of the Lorentz transformations to the case of synchronization signals having characteristic speed different from the speed of light in vacuum. The specific invariance properties of these coordinate transformations with respect to the characteristic speed of propagation of the synchronization signals and of the corresponding constitutive laws of the underlying physical phenomenon are also presented, leading to a different interpretation of their physical meaning with respect to the commonly accepted interpretation of the Lorentz transformation as a space-time distortion. On the basis of these results, the emission hypothesis of W. Ritz, that assumes that light is always emitted with the same relative speed with respect to its source and that is therefore fully consistent with the Galilean Principle of Relativity, is then applied to justify the outcomes of the Michelson-Morley and Fizeau interferometric experiments by introducing, for the latter case, an additional hypothesis regarding the possible influence of turbulence on the refractive index of the fluid. Finally, a test case to verify the validity of either the Galilean or the Relativistic velocity composition rule is presented. The test is based on the aberration of the light coming from celestial objects and on the analysis of the results obtained by applying the two different formulas for the resultant velocity vector to process the data of the observed positions, as measured by a moving observer, in order to determine the actual un-aberrated location of the source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3252] **viXra:1903.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-10 22:05:00*

**Authors:** Gaurav kumar

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This pdf file is in hindi language

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3251] **viXra:1903.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-08 14:23:31*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The mysterious dimensionless constant 273.55488 signals that two new up and down quarks exist which accurately form neutrons: this makes 8 types of quark in all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3250] **viXra:1903.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-09 05:00:16*

**Authors:** Wikipedia

**Comments:** 19 Pages. In Russian

String theory is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the dynamics of interaction not of point particles, but of one-dimensional extended objects, the so-called quantum strings. String theory combines the ideas of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity, so it may be based on the future theory of quantum gravity.
Тео́рия струн — направление теоретической физики, изучающее динамику взаимодействия не точечных частиц, а одномерных протяжённых объектов, так называемых квантовых струн. Теория струн сочетает в себе идеи квантовой механики и теории относительности, поэтому на её основе, возможно, будет построена будущая теория квантовой гравитации.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3249] **viXra:1903.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-05 07:24:07*

**Authors:** Warren Tancock

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

General Relativity describes gravity as objects following straight paths through curved spacetime but this could equally be applied to acceleration in the absence of gravity. An object following a straight path through curved spacetime is physically equivalent to an object following a curved path through flat spacetime, either way the object is following a curved path through spacetime. Energy causes an outward negative curvature and mass causes an inwards positive curvature and because of the high energy to mass equivalence ratio, gravity is a comparatively weak force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3248] **viXra:1903.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-04 02:45:32*

**Authors:** Özgen Ersan

**Comments:** 4 Pages. If some factors are neglected, analyses may generate mystic inferences.

The present scientific paradigm does not allow cosmological analysis because of the non-simultaneity of data. However, a cosmological analysis was realized through a new method (the concept of Light Coordinate System). This new method also indicates that the theory of special relativity and light kinematics can be revised and improved to become more functional and useful. In this article, the essence and details of important/supplement factors (especially considering: the types of relativity, sequential chain of reference systems, prioritizing the method of co-reference frame, and relational holism) are explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3247] **viXra:1903.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-02 12:00:36*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

At least one observational study has claimed that Newton's gravitational constant seems to vary with the direction relative to the fixed stars, see [1]. We think this is unlikely, but such experiments should be repeated or at least investigated further. If it is the case that gravity is directionally dependent, then how could this be explained, and how could/should our gravity formulas be modified?
In this paper, we introduce an anisotropic big G that is dependent on the direction relative to the fixed stars, and therefore on a given location on Earth, dependent on the Earth's rotation. A series of experiments claim to have found the anisotropic one-way speed of light when getting around Einstein-Poincare synchronization, although they have not received a great deal of attention. We do not question that the one-way speed of light is isotropic when measured with Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks. We hypothesize here that gravity moves with the speed of light and that the true one-way speed of gravity is anisotropic. Based on this, we get an anisotropic gravitational ``constant," which, if calibrated to one-way light experiments, is inside two standard deviations of error as given by CODATA.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3246] **viXra:1903.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-03-03 05:25:27*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In special relativity, we operate with length contraction and length transformation; these are not the same thing even though they are related. In addition, we have time dilation and time transformation. However, when it comes to mass, we have only relativistic mass and no mass transformation. We will suggest here, based on a better understanding of mass at the quantum level, that there must also be a Lorentz mass transformation. Recent research strongly indicates that mass is directly linked to the Compton wavelength of the particle in question and since we can operate with both length contraction and length transformation, this means we should have corresponding masses. Length contraction of the Compton wavelength corresponds to what is known today as relativistic mass, while length transformation means we also need mass transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3245] **viXra:1902.0504 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-28 08:19:09*

**Authors:** Friedrich-Karl Boese

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

It will be shown that Newton’s theory already implies a maximum velocity with which a massive particle can travel if the universe is included into the consideration (according to Mach’s principle). The resulting formulas for the velocity dependence of the particle’s mass and it’s energy are identical with those of SR. The constancy of the speed of light does not have to be postulated for this purpose, but comes rather as one of the results. The results suggest also that the speed of light (in “vacuum”) is not a natural constant. One can also conclude that the “action at a distance” – property of Newton’s law of gravity is not in contradiction to the non-local character of the theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3244] **viXra:1902.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-28 10:12:43*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Reviewing my recent work concerning the mass of the neutron, it is becoming evident that both the up and the down quark of the neutron have been revised: both have been slightly altered in mass to accurately produce the observed mass of the neutron. This means that 8 quark types exist instead of 6, as expected for E8 symmetry

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3243] **viXra:1902.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-26 21:51:47*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The parity symmetry in physics connects the motions in two different reference frames.
By examining the displacements in both reference frames, the length of the displacement can be shown to
be conserved in both reference frames. For two frames in relative inertial motion, the displacement is
conserved in all inertial reference frames. For two frames free
to accelerate, the displacement is conserved in all
non-inertial reference frames. The length of a displacement is conserved in all reference frames.
The wavelength of a wave is conserved in all reference frames.
The frequency varies with reference frame in Doppler effect.
Therefore, the speed of light varies with reference frame.
Light travels at different speed in different reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3242] **viXra:1902.0435 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-25 15:55:34*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

We studied only about Rindler space-time in long time. This knowledge lead that we can combine Schwarzschild solution and an accelerated frame. Our article’s aim is that we find the general Schwarzschild solution include an uniformly accelerated frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3241] **viXra:1902.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-24 16:44:56*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Discussion about the basics of the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish).

W artykule pokazane zostało, że istnieje nieskończenie wiele kinematyk, w których jednokierunkowa prędkość światła jest zawsze równa c. Kinematyka Szczególnej Teoria Względności (STW) jest tylko jedną z tych nieskończenie wielu kinematyk.
W artykule pokazane zostało, że matematykę, na której oparta jest kinematyka STW można inaczej interpretować i prowadzi to do innych wniosków na temat własności tej kinematyki.
W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa liniowych transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje zostały wyprowadzone przy założeniu, że dla obserwatora z każdego inercjalnego układu odniesienia spełnione są wnioski z eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea, czyli, że średnia prędkość światła w próżni przepływającego po drodze tam i z powrotem jest stała. Założone zostało także, że istnieje przynajmniej jeden inercjalny układ odniesienia, w którym prędkość światła w próżni w każdym kierunku ma tą samą wartość c oraz dla obserwatorów z tego wyróżnionego inercjalnego układu odniesienia przestrzeń jest izotropowa.
Wyprowadzone transformacje pozwalają na zbudowania wielu różnych kinematyk zgodnych z eksperymentami Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea.
Wyprowadzona w artykule klasa transformacji jest uogólnieniem transformacji wyprowadzonych w pracy [10] polegającym na dopuszczeniu innych metod synchronizacji zegarów niż synchronizacja zewnętrzna. Pomysł takiego uogólnienia pochodzi od osoby, która przekazała mi tą rozszerzoną klasę transformacji do analizy i publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3240] **viXra:1902.0361 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-21 18:01:27*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article shows that using the Poincaré concept of time dilation, the Poincaré Principle of Relativity cannot be proved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3239] **viXra:1902.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-20 15:06:16*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

The existence of the electromagnetic aether is argued from two standpoints. Conceptual, based on the nature of physical waves. And practical: the various experiments that demonstrate it. Possible explanations for the strange nullific¬ation of the 1887 Michelson-Morley aether-wind result are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3238] **viXra:1902.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-20 15:10:36*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

Einstein's Special Relativity is based on two fundamental assumptions, the so-called Einstein postulates. The 'constant speed of light' postulate predicts that two inertial observers – for instance twins in spaceships free-floating in outer space – will each see the other's clock running slower than his own. The 'no absolute at-rest' postulate says that both perceptions are equally valid. The logical incoherence of this makes a nonsense of the postulates, and by exten¬sion of Special Relativity itself. The positive 1887 Michelson-Morley result confirms this, falsifying both postulates. In spite of which, more than a century later Special Relativity is still an official scientific doctrine, and its creator Albert Einstein is a scientific genius. The first part of the article looks at the technical aspects of Relativity. The second discusses the historical, political, social and per¬sonal factors that led up to the present situation. The approach is conceptual and 98% non-mathematical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3237] **viXra:1902.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-20 15:14:25*

**Authors:** Jeremy Fiennes

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The first part of the article looks at the concepts of 'space' and 'time' in general, suggesting workable definitions. The second develops diagrammatic representations for 1-, 2- and 3-d static and expanding universes. It ends with a discussion of the related topics of gravity and time travel.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3236] **viXra:1902.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-21 00:02:51*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The critical analysis of the foundations of cosmology is proposed. The unity of formal logic and rational dialectics is the correct methodological basis for the analysis. The main results of the analysis are as follows: (1) the Hubble law represents the formal-logical error because the Hubble formula contradicts to the correct definition of the speed of motion of the material object; (2) the Doppler effect represents the physical error because the speed of motion of the photon does not depend on the speed of motion of the radiating atom. The correct explanation of the red shift is that the frequency shift of the radiation is the result of a shift in the energy spectrum of the radiating atom; (3) the theory of “hot” Universe represents the physical error because the Universe is the “cold” Universe at any point of time. The correct explanation is that the background radiation is described by the Planck function (Planck's formula). The Planck function (Planck's formula) characterizes the equilibrium state of the isolated and closed macroscopic system “photon gas + gas of radiating atoms” (where temperature is the statistical temperature of the radiating atom). Consequently: (a) the Universe represents the isolated and closed system at any point of time; (b) the total energy of the Universe is a conserved quantity at any point of time; (c) the low temperature of substance in the Universe is a conserved quantity at any point of time.
These results signify that the correct physical theory of the Universe cannot be created.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3235] **viXra:1902.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-19 05:13:11*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We expound the gradient of Vorticity tensor formula in general coordinates as treated in relativistic mechanics .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3234] **viXra:1902.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-18 03:33:11*

**Authors:** Ragil Brand Ndongmo Tsafack, Saleh Mahamat, Thomas Bouetou Bouetou, Timoleon Crepin Kofane

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 1 figure, comments welcome

We purpose a new approach of black hole mass decreasing, which takes into account thermodynamics and hydrodynamics processes, in the presence of quintessence and phantom dark energies. Accordingly, we insert some terms into the Schwarzschild metric in order to obtain a new expression of the black hole mass. Further, we show that by the thermodynamics process, the second-order phase transition does not occur when we take into account phantom energy, except for complex entropies or relativistic time. At the end, we show a new principle to analyze black holes coalescence into a space-time, dilated by dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3233] **viXra:1902.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-16 11:34:11*

**Authors:** Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Using gravitational field lag effect we can explain why the Milky Way galaxy has a curved shape of a “Chair”. Galaxies what having the form of a flat disk due to the effect of the field lag have an increased energy of gravitational interaction, to reduce this energy, galaxies take a curved shape of the “Galaxy-Chair”. This phenomenon resembles a decrease in energy in the cyclohexane molecule, where the most stable conformation is also the “Chair” conformation, which is almost identical in shape to the curved Milky Way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3232] **viXra:1902.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-16 14:08:54*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

Michelson and Morley carried out an experiment in 1887 to determine if the theory of ether is correct. The experiment shows that the speed of light is constant
in all directions. However, an error in this experiment was introduced by the calculation of the elapsed time for light to travel between two moving mirrors
in the rest frame of ether. Both Michelson and Morley assumed that the speed of light is not altered upon
reflection by a moving mirror. This critical error produced a small variation in the distance traveled by
the light between mirrors in the rest frame of ether. As a result, Lorentz transformation was proposed to explain the concept of length contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3231] **viXra:1902.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-14 11:04:26*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I may not have much more to add to MHCE8S theory: others need to carry on!

Abstract: A forward- time, reverse-time cycle of the 4th cycle of an MHCE8S universe emphasizing peculiar Z-boson dating phenomena and one new quark making 7 in all.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3230] **viXra:1902.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-14 11:53:23*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The meaning of the 5th Dimension is demonstrated as a variable of measure exclusive of the continuous medium for Stress and its relation with the conservation of Energy of the internal forces of matter. The Stress tensor of the continuum medium is obtained using the properties of the Quantum tensor according to the Theory of Total Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3229] **viXra:1902.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-14 01:46:18*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This article begins with “vector-tensor-scalar geometry” interacting photons and gravitons to produce the quantum spins of matter particles, the Higgs boson, plus the particles of the weak and strong nuclear forces. It then proposes the universe uses base-2 mathematics (a.k.a. electronics’ binary digits), the topology of Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles, plus the geometry mentioned before, to produce photons and still hypothetical gravitons and non-hypothetical mass. It’s then proposed that the three-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles composing the universe possess space-time's four dimensions (3 of space + 1 of time) when Wick rotation is programmed into them. This programming is adaptive, depending on the strength of gravity and electromagnetism (in Special Relativity, time slows in intense gravity and on approaching c, the speed of light). Because of the rotating between the x- and y-axes in Wick rotation, there’s a space-time we call imaginary or higher dimensional that is just as real as ordinary space-time. Gravity also leads to mass here - “dark” matter – and that matter’s associated “dark” energy. Back in this dimension, the Big Bang is regarded as dispensable due to the quantum-mechanical entanglement of microwave photons. And the speed of light becomes a duality – simultaneously having the two velocities of approx. 300 000, and approx. zero, km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3228] **viXra:1902.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 15:09:13*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modern physics is built and based on the concept of time, developed by Poincare.
This article shows what Poincare’s concept of time is. And as based on the Poincaré concept of time, the The theory of relativity of Poincaré was built.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3227] **viXra:1902.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 18:30:41*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Yunita Umniyati, Daniel Chandra

**Comments:** 208 Pages. This book is distributed freely. Published by Divine Publishing, see also: www.sci4God.com

This book took an unconventional theme because we submit an unorthodox theme too. Karl Popper’s epistemology suggests that when the theory is refuted by observation, then it is time to look for a set of new approaches. In the first chapter, it is shown that Hilbert’s axiomatic program has failed not only by experiment (Mie theory does not agree with experiment) but also in terms of logic (Gödel theorem). Therefore we set out a new approach, starting from an old theory of Isaac Newton. Dilbert cartoon series often offer surprising for old problems, especially in this era of corporatocracy. Now we would call such an out-of-the-box solution to the old Hilbert axiomatic program as Dilbert way (or Dilbertian, if you wish). Readers may ask : but what can physicists learn from Dilbert cartoons? While it seems not obvious at first glance, yes we believe there is a great character of Dilbert cartoon, i.e. to put it in one phrase: “out-of-the box and brutally honest.”
We do think that such a brutal honesty is also needed in many fields of physics: from theoretical physics to applied physics, as will be discussed throughout this book.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3226] **viXra:1902.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 08:15:25*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Reconsideration of overlooked considerations about the Equivalence Principle leads to Covariant Energy-Momentum conservation law in General Theory of Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3225] **viXra:1902.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 13:32:12*

**Authors:** Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article shows how Poincare solved the problem of the crisis in physics. And it is shown what the Poincare principle of relativity is.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3224] **viXra:1902.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-12 03:29:39*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Recent discussions about the need for a successor of the Large Hadron Collider called the FCC Future Circular Collider (Cern), is reason to search for “Tweaks” or extensions of the current paradigms about Wimps (Weak Interacting Massive Particles) and Super Symmetric particles.
Example: Nima Arkani-Hamed: “where in the world are SuSy and Wimps?
Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form) seems to be able to fill in those questions by an adapted paradigm about special relativity, the SuSy multiverse based on instant entangled super symmetric particles and the suggestion for monopole photon based microscopic Wimps and Dark Matter Black Holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3223] **viXra:1902.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-09 11:51:31*

**Authors:** M. U. E. Pohl

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Althougth the concept of time was discussed intensively by authors over centuries the „problem of time“ is prominent today again in quantum gravity. As quantum physicists believe a more detailed understanding of the entaglement of time could lead to a unification of quantum-mechanics with general relativity, the author solves the „problem of time“ final in a deductive approach. Upon the solution of the problem of time, unified principles of nature are then postulated to integrate Newtonian laws, general relativity and quantum mechanics into one framework, offering a perspective to a new world model and a framework for the TOE.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3222] **viXra:1902.0156 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-09 02:15:11*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 5 pages, 3 figures

This paper discloses a hypothesis how four Universes can emerge from one photon. Two of them contain ordinary matter and antimatter. The other two contain matter of magnetic monopoles and antimonopoles. In magnetic matter atoms are bound together by magnetic forces, the electric field can be only solenoidal and electric charges cannot be separated from one another.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3221] **viXra:1902.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-06 08:17:34*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 20 Pages. This paper has been submitted to SciGod journal. Comments are welcome

It is known that the Big Bang theory was based on the concept of creation ex nihilo, after ancient Greek philosophers. In this paper, we will make few remark on the concept of creatio ex nihilo (as a commentary to a recent paper by Kalachanis, Athanasios Anastasiou, Ioannis Kostikas, Efstratios Theodossious and Мilan S. Dimitrijevi), as well as two other approaches, i.e. Intelligent Design and Emergence Theory by Clayton/Yong. As continuation of our recent paper to appear in forthcoming issue of J. Asia Mathematika, we argue that beside the above three approaches, a new concept called creatio ex-rotatione offers a resolution to the long standing disputes between beginning and eternity of the Universe. In other words, in this respect we agree with Vaas, i.e. it can be shown: “how a conceptual and perhaps physical solution of the temporal aspect of Immanuel Kant’s „first antinomy of pure reason“ is possible, i.e. how our universe in some respect could have both a beginning and an eternal existence. Therefore, paradoxically, there might have been a time before time or a beginning of time in time.” By the help of computational simulation, we also show how a model of early Universe with rotation can fit this new picture.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3220] **viXra:1902.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-05 14:47:45*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The article compiles the existing information on complex space-time, from which a sketch of its mathematical structure can be outlined. We divided space-time into geometric and physical layers. The elements of the geometric layer are any four-vectors because, although it is an orthogonal space, it does not have a metrics. The physical layer is created by objects having energy, whose state coordinates are proper or singular paravectors, therefore it is posible to define a metrics for these objects. However, this metrics has no classic properties and it is not a pseudometric of the Minkowski space-time either, so we called it para-metrics. In the physical complex space-time the triangle inequality and the Cauchy inequality have been proved but, however, they have the opposite directions as their equivalents known from Euclidean geometry. At the end, we give a few tips on how to simplify the idea of a complex space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3219] **viXra:1902.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-04 07:29:19*

**Authors:** Alexander L. Kholmetskii, Tolga Yarman, Ozan Yarman, Metin Arik

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show that the attempt by Corda to explain the results of the Mössbauer rotor experiments via introducing the effect of synchronization of clock in the origin of a rotating system and a laboratory clock contains mathematical error and must be rejected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3218] **viXra:1902.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-04 07:32:12*

**Authors:** Alexander Kholmetskii, Tolga Yarman2, Ozan Yarman, Metin Arik

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We argue in favor of the physical basis of YARK theory of gravity and show that the major part of recent criticism by Corda (Corda, C. Symmetry 2018, 10, 558-559) is based on either irrelevant or erroneous claims. We highlight a perfect agreement of YARK theory with the results of the Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system and demonstrate that the so-called “synchronization effect” proposed by Corda to account for the outcome of these experiments stems from an elementary mathematical error and must be rejected. Finally, we show that YARK theory provides a consistent alternative explanation of the origin of the LIGO signals beyond the hypothesis about gravitational waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3217] **viXra:1902.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-04 07:49:43*

**Authors:** J.Foukzon, S.A.Podosenov, A.A.Potapov, E.Menkova

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Mössbauer experiment in a rotating system and the extraenergy shift between emission and absorption lines using Bimetric theory of gravitational-inertial field in Riemannian approximation explained.Bimetric theory of gravitational-inertial field is considered for the case when the gravitational-Inertial field is governed by either a perfect magnetic fluid.In a series of papers published during the past decade with respect to Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system [71]-[75],it has been experimentally shown that the relative energy shift ΔE/E between the source of resonant radiation (situated at the center of the rotating system) and the resonant absorber (located on the rotor rim) is described by the relationship ΔE/E=−ku 2 /c 2 , where u is the tangential velocity of the absorber, c the velocity of light in vacuum, and k some coefficient, which -- contrary to what had been classically predicted equal 1/2 (see for example [35]) -- turns out to be substantially larger than 1/2. It cannot be stressed enough that the equality k=1/2 had been predicted by general theory of relativity (GTR) on account of the special relativistic time dilation effect delineated by the tangential displacement of the rotating absorber, where the "clock hypothesis" by Einstein (i.e., the non-reliance of the time rate of any clock on its acceleration [35]) was straightly adopted. Hence, the revealed inequality k>1/2 indicates the presence of some additional energy shift (next to the usual time dilation effect arising from tangential displacement alone) between the emitted and absorbed resonant radiation. By using Bimetric Theory of Gravitational-Inertial Field [76] we obtain k=0.75 in a good agreement with experimental result k=0.69+(-)0.03 [75].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3216] **viXra:1902.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-04 11:49:09*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

In this paper we will attempt to make a calculation model for the paper
http://vixra.org/abs/1901.0357 The Universes Components Effects in Space Time now when we look at a star that is effected by the expanding universe we find that the star becomes smaller to the viewer now when we look at the star after c seconds or 299729458 seconds we find that the star should become 299792458 smaller but this model says that the star should produce the rest mass as an electromagnetic radiation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3215] **viXra:1902.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-02-01 01:19:51*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The parity symmetry in physics shows that the motions in two different reference frames are related to each other.
By comparing the displacement and the velocity from two reference frames, the elapsed time can be shown to
be conserved in both reference frames. For two frames in relative inertial motion, the elapsed time is
conserved in all inertial reference frames. If both frames are in circular motion, then the
elapsed time is conserved in all local reference frames on the same circle. If both frames are free
to move in any direction at any speed, then the elapsed time is conserved in all
non-inertial reference frames. Two simultaneous events are simultaneous in all reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3214] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-31 15:56:59*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The force you feel as you accelerate otherwise known as inertia, is “time” - temporal energy. As you accelerate, your mass increases and subsequently your gravitational field and the amount of time dilation you experience. Because of this your clock and the field around you exists further in the future relative to any outside non-moving clocks which are now in the past. As a result, these past clocks are attracted to you, due to the 2nd law of thermal dynamics and pull on you like a drag. Thus in this paper, we will show how and why inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent, what gravity is, and how temporal energy - time, is the underlining mechanism which links and governs them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3213] **viXra:1901.0466 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-31 10:20:09*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Agreement with Planck Collaboration critical density data and assumption of 10^27 galaxy count verifies the importance of holography in MHCE8S theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3212] **viXra:1901.0454 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-30 07:14:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

Dark matter, which is thought to account for nearly a quarter of matter in the universe (but has yet to be observed), has perplexed physicists for decades. [28]
Almost 20 years ago, the DAMA/LIBRA experiment at Italy's Gran Sasso National Laboratory—LNGS began publishing data showing that it had detected a signal modulation produced by an interaction with the Milky Way's dark matter halo. [27]
This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/detector/" detector . [26]
If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3211] **viXra:1901.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-30 09:21:29*

**Authors:** Lindsay Forbes

**Comments:** 10 Pages. lforbes174@gmail.com

The accepted view is that the universe is totally self-contained. All of its dynamics are governed purely by its interior contents. In this hypothesis I challenge this view and offer a simple explanation for Dark Energy and provide a model of the cosmos which may simplify much more.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3210] **viXra:1901.0437 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-29 09:56:43*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 25 pages

This work presents an indisputable mathematical demonstration revealing the Special Relativity equations are fudged. It also shows that the actual equations resulting from Einstein’s assumptions are inconsistent, and lead to mathematical contradictions, falsifying the special relativity predictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3209] **viXra:1901.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-29 02:43:37*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The human perspective is incomplete, we see only outward from a point and cannot resolve the sequence of quantum action because Euclidean geometry is used to define relativity. A geometry indicated by special relativity defining separation not by distance but as separation in the constant proper time of the observer, allows distinction between electrical and quantum action. The proper time of the observer then has a natural complex conjugate when multiplied by the subjects relative velocity as a proportion of the velocity of light and a single equation describes relativity between charges without assuming geometry for empty space. Time dilation and divergence between charges then constitute a mechanism for all interaction, providing a common explanation for gravity, inertia and electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3208] **viXra:1901.0419 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-28 10:24:29*

**Authors:** Friedhelm Jöge

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The rudiments of a theory of dark energy. The theoretical result is confronted with the numerical value calculated from the available data. Excellent matching of the numerical values resulting in three independent paths makes the approach plausible. The work at hand is analogous to Kepler's laws of planetary orbits. Only Isaac Newton put Kepler's laws on a theoretical basis, which is provided here by Thomas Görnitz [1]. The empirical Balmer formula for the frequencies of the spectral lines in the arc spectrum of hydrogen was also theoretically justified by Niels Bohr, who calculated the energy levels of the hydrogen atom and the frequencies of spectral lines.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3207] **viXra:1901.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-26 15:37:43*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A new experiment for registration of variable speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3206] **viXra:1901.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-26 05:35:32*

**Authors:** Thomas Heiko Günther

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Recently, anti-de Sitter spaces are used in promising theories of quantum gravity like the anti-de Sitter/conformal field theory correspondence. The latter provides an approach to string theorie, which includes more than four dimensions. Unfortunately, the anti-de Sitter model contains no mass and is not able to describe our universe adequately. Nevertheless, the rising interest in higherdimensional theories motivates to take a deeper look at the n-dimensional AdS Spacetime. In this paper, a solution of Einstein's field equations is constructed from a modified anti-de Sitter metric in n dimensions. The idea is based on the connection between Schwarzschild- and McVittie metric: McVittie's model, which interpolates between a Schwarzschild Black Hole and an expanding global Friedmann–Lemaître–Robertson–Walker spacetime, can be constructed by a simple coordinate replacement in Schwarzschild's isotropic intervall, where radial coordinate and it's differential is multiplied by a time dependent scale factor a(t). In a previous work I showed, that an exact solution of Einstein's equations can analogously be generated from a static transformation of de Sitter's metric. The present article is concerned with the application of this method on an AdS (Anti de Sitter) related spacetime in n dimensions. It is shown that the resulting isotropic intervall is a solution of the n-dimensional Einstein equations. Further, it is transformed into a spherical symmetric but anisotropic form, analogously to the transformtion found by Kaloper, Kleban and Martin for McVittie's metric.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3205] **viXra:1901.0357 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-24 06:47:25*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty this is my best paper ever and hopefully the best paper ever

The universe has a volume and we can say it has other three components the universe has masses space and time now since we denote space as nothing then if we say that the universe is composed of two things masses and time then we should say that the universe is split up into two stuff masses and time and if so we can say that mass and time occupy the volume of the universe fully now if we actually look at the night sky we could see that the stars are less than half the volume of the universe and that is because masses consumed themselves to move and consume themselves as time pass in other words time didn't want its half of the volume of the universe only it also zombied(from the word zombie) up the masses half or turned the masses into moving masses that consumed their mass as time passed by now we have the c constant we have cosmology we can look at the sky and know how much volume of the stars compared to half the volume of the universe is still existent and we can calculate everything till the pi value of mathematical circles now I don't know how to do it but it seems other people can take time and calculate everything with mathematics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3204] **viXra:1901.0345 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-23 09:19:20*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An approach to Total Relativity Theory as a comparative between scalar and tensorial equations of Fluid Dynamics Theory, pointing to the failure of interpretation in General Relativity Theory, which does not contemplate the energy conservation of the observables of nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3203] **viXra:1901.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-23 01:08:16*

**Authors:** Harvey Scribner

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Abstract—In [1] an observer at rest and perpendicular to moving source will detect a difference in the time of arrival of the initial τ0 and final τ' waves as τ' > τ0 a transverse relative time shift. The position of the observer in [1] for source velocities near the speed of light has the disadvantage of having to wait a long time to detect τ'. The observer cannot detect τ' for velocities equal to or greater than the speed of light. This work shows that moving the observer to a strategic position downstream from the τ' signal has the advantage of introducing observability of τ'. The transverse relative time shift formulas are derived for the stationary observer perpendicular to and also on the path axis for velocities less than and much greater than c. Also, a method to calculate transverse relative length is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3202] **viXra:1901.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-17 23:47:45*

**Authors:** Henrich Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This article shows that clocks in a moving reference frame cannot be slowed down, as this leads to double the time in a moving frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3201] **viXra:1901.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-17 13:35:26*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A proper derivation of the FLRW metric shows the Ricci curvature scalar to be embedded in the metric's constant k (0, -1 or +1) that largely determines the fate of the universe. But in general R is not a constant, and the consequence of this issue is briefly presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3200] **viXra:1901.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-16 06:13:59*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The muon paradox and the twin paradox are the result of time dilation, but time itself doesn't dilate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3199] **viXra:1901.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-16 10:14:59*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Vol:12, No:8, 2018

As is known, the role of the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field is to extend the conservation law to the gravitational interaction by taking into account the energy and momentum of the gravitational field. We calculated the contribution of the Einstein pseudotensor to the total mass of a stationary material body and its gravitational field. It turned out that this contribution is positive, despite the fact that the mass-energy of a stationary gravitational field is negative. We concluded that the pseudotensor incorrectly describes the energy of the gravitational field. Nevertheless this pseudotensor has been used in a large number of scientific works for 100 years. We explain this by the fact that the covariant component of the pseudotensor was regarded as the mass-energy. Besides, we prove the advantage of the covariant energy-momentum conservation law for matter in the Minkowski space-time

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3198] **viXra:1901.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-15 16:43:30*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: An increase of 10 million years for the very hot period of the universe and increasing the universe's radius to be exactly c/ fine-structure constant alpha produce full 3-digit agreement with Planck Collaboration critical density data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3197] **viXra:1901.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-14 14:00:49*

**Authors:** Bryn.s.Cat

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Charge,Parity,Time Symmetry

How special relativity can be reinterpreted
with Charge,Parity,Time Symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3196] **viXra:1901.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-14 05:57:21*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, we find electro-magnetic wave functions of Cosmic Microwave Background and Schwarzschild space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equations are treated by gauge fixing equations in RobertsonWalker space-time and Schwarzschild space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2311] **viXra:1903.0312 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-17 19:06:59*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Cosmology Fundamental Theorem is established based on Total Relativity and the total energy conservation of nature, using the testable consequences of the cosmological principle of isotropy and homogeneity and incorporating a new testable consequence, the redshift temporal on a large scale. It is shown that Cosmology must be cyclical.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2310] **viXra:1902.0435 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-04 12:28:25*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We studied only about Rindler space-time in long time. This knowledge lead that we can combine Schwarzschild solution and an accelerated frame. Our article’s aim is that we find the general Schwarzschild solution include an uniformly accelerated frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2309] **viXra:1902.0412 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-18 14:26:55*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 27 Pages. Discussion about the basics of the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish).

W artykule pokazane zostało, że istnieje nieskończenie wiele kinematyk, w których jednokierunkowa prędkość światła jest zawsze równa c. Kinematyka Szczególnej Teoria Względności (STW) jest tylko jedną z tych nieskończenie wielu kinematyk.
W artykule pokazane zostało, że matematykę, na której oparta jest kinematyka STW można inaczej interpretować i prowadzi to do innych wniosków na temat własności tej kinematyki.
W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa liniowych transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje zostały wyprowadzone przy założeniu, że dla obserwatora z każdego inercjalnego układu odniesienia spełnione są wnioski wynikające z eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea czyli, że średnia prędkość światła w próżni przepływającego po drodze tam i z powrotem jest stała. Założone zostało także, że istnieje przynajmniej jeden inercjalny układ odniesienia, w którym prędkość światła w próżni w każdym kierunku ma tą samą wartość c oraz dla obserwatorów z tego wyróżnionego inercjalnego układu odniesienia przestrzeń jest izotropowa.
Wyprowadzone transformacje pozwalają na zbudowania wielu różnych kinematyk zgodnych z eksperymentami Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea.
Wyprowadzona w artykule klasa transformacji jest uogólnieniem transformacji wyprowadzonych w pracy [10] polegającym na dopuszczeniu niezerowych wartości parametru e(v). Pomysł takiego uogólnienia pochodzi od osoby, która przekazała mi tą rozszerzoną klasę transformacji do analizy i publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2308] **viXra:1902.0412 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-28 20:27:49*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Discussion about the basics of the Special Theory of Relativity (in Polish).

W artykule pokazane zostało, że istnieje nieskończenie wiele kinematyk, w których jednokierunkowa prędkość światła jest zawsze równa c. Kinematyka Szczególnej Teoria Względności (STW) jest tylko jedną z tych nieskończenie wielu kinematyk.
W artykule pokazane zostało, że matematykę, na której oparta jest kinematyka STW można inaczej interpretować i prowadzi to do innych wniosków na temat własności tej kinematyki.
W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa liniowych transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje zostały wyprowadzone przy założeniu, że dla obserwatora z każdego inercjalnego układu odniesienia spełnione są wnioski wynikające z eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea czyli, że średnia prędkość światła w próżni przepływającego po drodze tam i z powrotem jest stała. Założone zostało także, że istnieje przynajmniej jeden inercjalny układ odniesienia, w którym prędkość światła w próżni w każdym kierunku ma tą samą wartość c oraz dla obserwatorów z tego wyróżnionego inercjalnego układu odniesienia przestrzeń jest izotropowa.
Wyprowadzone transformacje pozwalają na zbudowania wielu różnych kinematyk zgodnych z eksperymentami Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea.
Wyprowadzona w artykule klasa transformacji jest uogólnieniem transformacji wyprowadzonych w pracy [10] polegającym na dopuszczeniu niezerowych wartości parametru e(v). Pomysł takiego uogólnienia pochodzi od osoby, która przekazała mi tą rozszerzoną klasę transformacji do analizy i publikacji.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2307] **viXra:1902.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-18 06:31:53*

**Authors:** Sandro Antonelli

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We expound the gradient of Vorticity tensor formula in general coordinates as treated in relativistic mechanics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2306] **viXra:1902.0252 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-16 09:18:45*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The significance of the 5th Dimension is demonstrated as a variable related to the Stress material medium and its relation with the conservation of energy of the internal forces of
matter. The Stress tensor of the continuous medium is obtained using the properties of the Quantum tensor according to Total Relativity Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2305] **viXra:1902.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-15 01:05:58*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract
This article begins with “vector-tensor-scalar geometry” interacting photons and gravitons to produce the quantum spins of matter particles, the Higgs boson, plus the particles of the weak and strong nuclear forces. It then proposes the universe uses base-2 mathematics (a.k.a. electronics’ binary digits), the topology of Mobius strips and figure-8 Klein bottles, plus the geometry mentioned before, to produce photons and still hypothetical gravitons and non-hypothetical mass. It’s then proposed that the three-dimensional figure-8 Klein bottles composing the universe possess space-time's four dimensions (3 of space + 1 of time) when Wick rotation is programmed into them. This programming is adaptive, depending on the strength of gravity and electromagnetism (in Special Relativity, time slows in intense gravity and on approaching c, the speed of light). Because of the rotating between the x- and y-axes in Wick rotation, there’s a space-time we call imaginary or higher dimensional that is just as real as ordinary space-time. Gravity also leads to mass here - “dark” matter – and that matter’s associated “dark” energy. Back in this dimension, the Big Bang is regarded as dispensable due to the quantum-mechanical entanglement of microwave photons. And the speed of light becomes a duality – simultaneously having the two velocities of approx. 300 000, and approx. zero, km/s.
Introduction -
The abstract of a review article in the journal “Science” states, “Both dark matter and dark energy require extensions to our current understanding of particle physics or point toward a breakdown of general relativity on cosmological scales.” Could it be that understanding dark matter and dark energy doesn’t require modification of general relativity, but needs Einstein’s 1905 masterpiece of special relativity? Nevertheless, modification of general relativity – and its unification with quantum mechanics – might be accomplished with the hidden variables of base 2 mathematics, Mobius strips, figure-8 Klein bottles, and Wick rotation. The greatest obstacle to understanding the dark universe, and beginning the journey to quantum gravity, will be the human reluctance to accept a paradigm shift to determinism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2304] **viXra:1902.0002 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-02 13:30:33*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The parity symmetry in physics shows that the motions in two different reference frames are related to each other.
By comparing the displacement and the velocity from two reference frames, the elapsed time can be shown to
be conserved in both reference frames. For two frames in relative inertial motion, the elapsed time is
conserved in all inertial reference frames. If both frames are in circular motion, then the
elapsed time is conserved in all local reference frames on the same circle. If both frames are free
to move in any direction at any speed, then the elapsed time is conserved in all
non-inertial reference frames. Two simultaneous events are simultaneous in all reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2303] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-05 14:01:29*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Inertia, the force you feel pulling on you as you accelerate and gravity - the force that attracts all objects with mass. Are two separate and distinct phenomena and yet they share an equivalence which has yet to be explained. In this paper, we will show how and why inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent and how time is the underlining mechanism which links and governs them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2302] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-04 05:57:29*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Inertia, the force you feel pulling on you as you accelerate and gravity - the force that attracts all objects with mass. Are two separate and distinct phenomena and yet they share an equivalence which cannot be explained. In this paper we will show how and why inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent and how temporal energy – time is the underlining mechanism which links and governs them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2301] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-03 07:56:50*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Inertia, the force you feel pulling on you as you accelerate and gravity - the force that attracts all objects with mass. Are two separate and distinct phenomena and yet they share an equivalence which cannot be explained. In this paper we will show how and why inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent and how temporal energy – time, is the underlining mechanism which links and governs them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2300] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-02 07:28:13*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The force you feel as you accelerate otherwise known as inertia is “time” – temporal energy. As you accelerate, your mass increases and subsequently your gravitational field and the amount of time dilation you experience. Because of this your clock and the field around you exists further in the future relative to any outside non-moving clocks which are now in the past. As a result, these past clocks are attracted to you, due to the 2nd law of thermal dynamics and pull on you like a drag. Thus in this paper, we will show how and why inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent, what gravity is, and how temporal energy – “time”, is the underlining mechanism which links and governs them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2299] **viXra:1901.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-01 06:01:05*

**Authors:** Tony Collins

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The force you feel as you accelerate otherwise known as inertia is “time” – temporal energy. As you accelerate, your mass increases and subsequently your gravitational field and the amount of time dilation you experience. Because of this your clock and the field around you exists further in the future relative to any outside non-moving clocks which are now in the past. As a result, these past clocks are attracted to you, due to the 2nd law of thermal dynamics and pull on you like a drag. Thus in this paper, we will show how and why inertial and gravitational masses are equivalent, what gravity is, and how temporal energy – “time”, is the underlining mechanism which links and governs them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2298] **viXra:1901.0437 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-31 04:24:44*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 24 pages

This work presents an indisputable mathematical demonstration revealing that the Special Relativity equations are fudged. It also shows that the actual equations resulting from Einstein’s assumptions are inconsistent, and lead to mathematical inconsistency, falsifying the special relativity predictions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2297] **viXra:1901.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-09 09:07:26*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A didactic approach to the foundations of Total Relativity Theory as an extension of General Relativity Theory to n dimensions, with a comparison between scalar and tensorial equations of Fluid Dynamics theory. The Conservative Principle is established, pointing the problem of Total Energy Conservation of Nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2296] **viXra:1901.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-03-07 15:00:43*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A didactic approach to the foundations of Total Relativity Theory as an extension of General Relativity Theory to n dimensions, with a comparison between scalar and tensorial equations of Fluid Dynamics Theory, pointing to the problem of Total Energy Conservation of Nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2295] **viXra:1901.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-27 10:30:05*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An approach to the foundations of Total Relativity Theory in a didactic approach as a comparative between scalar and tensorial equations of the Fluid Dynamics Theory, pointing the failure of interpretation in General Relativity theory and
solving the problem of Total Energy Conservation, resulting in the Nature as a continuous generator of Energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2294] **viXra:1901.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-24 14:10:03*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

An approach to Total Relativity Theory as a comparative between scalar and tensorial equations of Fluid Dynamics Theory, pointing to the failure of interpretation in General Relativity Theory, which does not contemplate the energy conservation law of nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2293] **viXra:1901.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-31 08:46:02*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An approach to Total Relativity Theory as a comparative between scalar and tensorial equations of Fluid Dynamics Theory, pointing to the failure of interpretation in General Relativity Theory, which does not contemplate the energy conservation of the observables of nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2292] **viXra:1901.0339 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-02-10 19:49:31*

**Authors:** Harvey Scribner

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Version 2 includes Section IX - "The Meaning of Area K3"

Abstract—In [1] an observer at rest and perpendicular to moving source will detect a difference in the time of arrival of the initial τ0 and final τ' waves as τ' > τ0 a transverse relative time shift. The position of the observer in [1] for source velocities near the speed of light has the disadvantage of having to wait a long time to detect τ'. The observer cannot detect τ' for velocities equal to or greater than the speed of light. This work shows that moving the observer to a strategic position downstream from the τ' signal has the advantage of introducing observability of τ'. The transverse relative time shift formulas are derived for the stationary observer perpendicular to and also on the path axis for velocities less than and much greater than c. Also, a method to calculate transverse relative length is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology