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2019 - 1901(24)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3206] **viXra:1901.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-17 23:47:45*

**Authors:** Henrich Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This article shows that clocks in a moving reference frame cannot be slowed down, as this leads to double the time in a moving frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3205] **viXra:1901.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-17 13:35:26*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A proper derivation of the FLRW metric shows the Ricci curvature scalar to be embedded in the metric's constant k (0, -1 or +1) that largely determines the fate of the universe. But in general R is not a constant, and the consequence of this issue is briefly presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3204] **viXra:1901.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-16 06:13:59*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The muon paradox and the twin paradox are the result of time dilation, but time itself doesn't dilate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3203] **viXra:1901.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-16 10:14:59*

**Authors:** R. I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. International Journal of Electronics and Communication Engineering Vol:12, No:8, 2018

As is known, the role of the energy-momentum pseudotensors of the gravitational field is to extend the conservation law to the gravitational interaction by taking into account the energy and momentum of the gravitational field. We calculated the contribution of the Einstein pseudotensor to the total mass of a stationary material body and its gravitational field. It turned out that this contribution is positive, despite the fact that the mass-energy of a stationary gravitational field is negative. We concluded that the pseudotensor incorrectly describes the energy of the gravitational field. Nevertheless this pseudotensor has been used in a large number of scientific works for 100 years. We explain this by the fact that the covariant component of the pseudotensor was regarded as the mass-energy. Besides, we prove the advantage of the covariant energy-momentum conservation law for matter in the Minkowski space-time

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3202] **viXra:1901.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-15 16:43:30*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: An increase of 10 million years for the very hot period of the universe and increasing the universe's radius to be exactly c/ fine-structure constant alpha produce full 3-digit agreement with Planck Collaboration critical density data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3201] **viXra:1901.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-14 14:00:49*

**Authors:** Bryn.s.Cat

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Charge,Parity,Time Symmetry

How special relativity can be reinterpreted
with Charge,Parity,Time Symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3200] **viXra:1901.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-14 05:57:21*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, we find electro-magnetic wave functions of Cosmic Microwave Background and Schwarzschild space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equations are treated by gauge fixing equations in RobertsonWalker space-time and Schwarzschild space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3199] **viXra:1901.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-12 11:14:27*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The flexibility of time in the theory of relativity is achieved by unnatural behavior of the clock. Einstein assumes the existence of such a clock, which indicates more time than would have passed according to its speed. In nature there is no such clock. Therefore his assumptions should be reconsidered anew.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3198] **viXra:1901.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-11 18:08:02*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The application of reflection symmetry to two inertial reference frames shows that
the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. The conservation of the
elapsed time indicates that the reflection of light between a pair of stationary mirrors should take the same elapsed time
in all inertial reference frames. In one reference frame, both mirrors are stationary. In other reference
frames, both mirrors are moving. The distance traveled by the light between the moving mirrors
depends on the direction. The conservation law
shows that the light travels at a different speed upon reflection by a moving mirror.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3197] **viXra:1901.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-11 23:49:00*

**Authors:** Jebin larosh

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This theoretical framework shows an entropy model of FRW universe and describes the behaviour of Lambda-CDM. The possibility that the Dark photon in a hidden sector is a Maxwell demon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3196] **viXra:1901.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-11 09:49:04*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The FLRW metric is derived for a constant curvature scalar, showing that pressure and density obey two distinct equations of state.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3195] **viXra:1901.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-10 09:23:48*

**Authors:** Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis

**Comments:** 3 pages

The article discusses the circumstances before the Big Bang. Only a photon can exist in such conditions. This article discloses a variant how the Universe can emerge from “nothing”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3194] **viXra:1901.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-09 11:23:26*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

The c constant is as we know the speed of light and when large masses move at a speed near the speed of light its known that time should dilate till time passing actually ends up being zero now if we look at photons moving at the speed of light we could say that it has a c constant however there should be more to that because photons should time dilate too now when we look at the photons that should time dilate and it doesn't we could say that its because it’s the smallest mass or maybe even because its massless now when we look at bigger masses we find that the masses actually time dilate maybe because the masses have larger mass than photons so assuming that the photon is the base of all masses we could assume that particles having mass are the only ones that time dilate but the photon being the base of all masses we could say that a photon moves 1 m/s if the time increases to c or 3*10^8 s now when we look again we find that photons never change the distance it takes in one sec that is c more over time never dilates for photons because again it has a c constant meaning that if you dilate time you would end up increasing the distance by which the photon moves in one sec so if we look again we could say that photons do not experience time dilation but then this effects larger masses than the base of a photon now lets see the photon equations:
C=3*10^8/1=3*10^8 m/s and c=3*10^8/3*10^8=1 m/s if time dilates for photons and if we take the c=1 or the second equation we could throw it onto the masses as we say that as the 1 kg mass moves at a distance of 1 m/s we would find that it takes the force that pushed the photon now imagine we give 3*10^8 the force that pushed the photon we get to the 1 kg moving at the speed of light and maximum time dilation now suppose we look at the largest mass in the universe at the middle of the universe it could be estimated to be of c*c*c=(3*10^8)^3 where the first c is the force and the second c the inertia the the last c the time dilation refutation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3193] **viXra:1901.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-10 02:14:53*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Whitehead's description of the gravitational field of a static point mass source is equivalent to Schwarzshild's solution of Einstein's equations. Conveniently generalized in the framework of Special relativity, I proved that it leads to a new description of the linear approximation of General relativity with a color gage group symmetry. Here I introduce a new line of thought to discuss the problem of spacecrafts orbiting a planet taking into account its motion around the Sun or its proper rotation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3192] **viXra:1901.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-08 08:19:13*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We consider a system of a gravitational wave coming from infinity that collides with a mass M. The metric of the system approaches the metric of a gravitational plane wave pulse as the mass of M goes to zero. The metric of the gravitational plane wave pulse having a specific form. We show there is a limiting curve of M, as mass and size of M go to zero, that is not a geodesic curve. We show conservation of energy-momentum does not hold and there is no solution to the Einstein field equations for this system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3191] **viXra:1901.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-07 06:56:49*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

in this paper we will propose two laser experiments the first is to spin the laser at the speed of light and see whether the photons coming out of it still have the speed of light and the second experiment to make photons coming out of laser go for a long distance hitting mirrors for a very long distance probably good to do in cern and see whether the photons move at the speed of light while
measuring with time the photons take to reach a distance of c or the speed of light

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3190] **viXra:1901.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-07 17:38:49*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

In this work, we aim to unify statistical physics with relativity. As such, we construct a system of statistical physics under an appropriate equilibrium condition such that its Lagrange multipliers imply, instead of the usual uniform constant temperature, a uniform constant speed: the speed of light. With it, both special and general relativity are emergent from its equation of state and the system describes the statistical physics of space-time events as measured by observers. We show, as the main result, that the entropy dynamics of the system admits a plausible mechanism for the notoriously stubborn quantum measurement problem by proving that light traces a surface in space-time along which all observers agree on the results of all random measurements within the system. Finally, we make the case that the role normally taken by the uniform temperature is, in a statistical system of space-time events, replaced by the uniform speed of light, and we re-formulate the three laws of thermodynamics within this optic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3189] **viXra:1901.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-07 23:15:06*

**Authors:** David Colasante

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The particle aspects of light are accommodated so well by the photon model that alternative models are rarely considered. Interval-time coordinates provide a Euclidean lens, through which light quanta are seen to exchange by direct, physical contact. The ALPHA collaboration at CERN is uniquely positioned to experimentally distinguish between the models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3188] **viXra:1901.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-08 01:43:04*

**Authors:** Francesco Ferrara

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The document presents a model for the electron, different from the conventional one. The electron is represented as a current loop of 19.79 A. The document also explains the electrical nature of the inertia of a physical body

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3187] **viXra:1901.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-06 22:37:07*

**Authors:** J Foukzon, E R Men’kova, A A Potapov

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

The cosmological constant problem arises because the magnitude of
vacuum energy density predicted by quantum field theory is about 120 orders of
magnitude larger than the value implied by cosmological observations of accelerating
cosmic expansion. We pointed out that the fractal nature of the quantum space-time
with negative Hausdorff- Colombeau dimensions can resolve this tension. The canonical
Quantum Field Theory is widely believed to break down at some fundamental
high-energy cutoff and therefore the quantum fluctuations in the vacuum can be
treated classically seriously only up to this high-energy cutoff. In this paper we argue that
Quantum Field Theory in fractal space-time with negative Hausdorff-Colombeau
dimensions gives high-energy cutoff on natural way. In order to obtain disered physical
result we apply the canonical Pauli-Villars regularization up to . It means that there exist
the ghost-driven acceleration of the univers hidden in cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3186] **viXra:1901.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-04 13:46:40*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

The clockwise spin in electrons and protons is probably the reason why they have attracting charges because when we look at a bigger scale we find that electrons spin around the protons in clockwise direction too and when we look at a bigger scale we find that planets spin clockwise too around themselves also when we look at a bigger scale we find that moons spin around planets in clockwise direction probably the reason this happens is because there are two interacting masses here namely the electrons and protons or the planet and moons those two masses spinning in the clockwise direction while one is spinning in clockwise direction around the other only and the bigger mass is not meaning that the bigger one is not spinning around the other while the smaller mass is spinning for example if we look at two masses that are equal in mass as two neutron stars we would find that both of them is spinning around the other leading to higher spin velocity around the other but with distance or radius around each other loss but in other systems where the two masses are not equal we find that the radius is kept under time easily
i actually have the ability to write better physics paper now and sine i do not remember my last account password i will not delete papers anymore so all papers from now are not garbage except ofcourse for the method to find pi paper

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3185] **viXra:1901.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-05 04:31:26*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 2 pages

Existence of a Cosmic String, going vertically upwards from the north pole, can be verified by flying around it in circles and measuring the associated Aharonov-Bohm effect \cite{Belluci 2014}. The cosmic string plays a pivotal role in rotation of universe around/over the stationary earth \cite{Modgil 2018 c}. Anthropogenic thermal up currents over the north pole, would interact with the cosmic string - winding around it and effecting its rotational state. Such up currents can be generated by the heat from the nuclear reactors on north pole \cite{Modgil 2002, Modgil 2008, Modgil 2011}. This gives an anthropic engineering control over the cosmological rotation reversals. Nuclear submarines surfacing by breaking through the polar ice cap, - heating sea water, - converting it into steam - and releasing it into the polar atmosphere - are a possible way to achieve this.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3184] **viXra:1901.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-03 12:10:02*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show how one can measure the speed of gravity only using gravitational phenomena. Our approach offers several ways to measure the speed of gravity (light) and checks existing assumptions about light in new types of experiments. The speed of light is included in several well-known gravitational formulas. However, if we can measure this speed from gravitational phenomena alone, then is it then the speed of light or the speed of gravity we are measuring? We think it is more than a mere coincidence that they are the same. In addition, even if it is not possible to draw strong conclusions now, our formulations support the view that there is a link between electromagnetism and gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3183] **viXra:1901.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2019-01-01 02:09:00*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The application of symmetry to physics leads to conservation law and conserved quantity.
For inertial reference frames, the reflection symmetry generates not only conservation but also transformation.
Under reflection symmetry, the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. The displacement in space is also conserved in all inertial reference frames.
From the conservation of the elapsed time and the displacement, the coordinate transformation between inertial reference frame is derived.
Based on the coordinate transformation, both the time transformation and the velocity transformation are also derived.
The derivation shows that all three transformations are dependent exclusively on the relative motion
between inertial reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3182] **viXra:1812.0491 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-30 09:23:35*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We find that the force of inertia acting on an accelerated body is the result of the action of the gravitational induction force produced by the relative movement of the Universe as a whole, which fully confirms the Mach's Principle. The calculations are developed with the linearized theory of General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3181] **viXra:1812.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-30 12:48:10*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: A MHCE8S theory value for the critical fermion density of the universe is found in better agreement with that published thanks to holography

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3180] **viXra:1812.0475 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-29 12:49:24*

**Authors:** Francesco Ferrara

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

pdf document

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3179] **viXra:1812.0461 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-28 15:37:25*

**Authors:** Ramon Isasi

**Comments:** 16 Pages. None

In the present essay, we consider the origin of the dark energy, cosmological constant and the dark matter. The dark energy, is consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. This dark energy was the origin and cause of the cosmological expansion and the past and present creation of the whole space. We consider the presence of the call “dark" matter as consequence of highly exited hydrogen and helium Ridberg's atoms in perfect equilibrium with the CMB radiation. The cosmological constant is considered as an arbitrary ad hoc anti gravitational entity. Finally, we consider the Casimir effect, as a suitable and truly efficient physical method and a reliable resource in the experimental determination of the dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3178] **viXra:1812.0456 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-28 21:40:42*

**Authors:** Yaseen Ali Mohamed Al Azzam

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper is to show how wrong derivations were used to conclude the formulas for time dilation, length contraction and relativistic mass .
When dealing with such a theory which is never proved experimentally, its mathematical origin and compliance with fundamentals of physics should be checked before starting to struggle in imagining what observers observe from different frames of reference or how behaviors change at this speed of that.
If the mathematical failure which will be discussed in this paper is added to the failure in proving this theory experimentally for decades, we conclude only one result which is that this theory is wrong.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3177] **viXra:1812.0442 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-27 10:48:39*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

It is shown that Schwarzschild's 2nd exact solution to the General Relativity Theory is not physically plausible due to the violation of energy conservation in the 5th dimension interpreted as mass. A physically plausible realistic solution of Fluid is given according to the Total Relativity Theory where density and pressure are directly proportional to the gravitational force within the fluid distribution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3176] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-26 18:48:16*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we will propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3175] **viXra:1812.0425 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-25 14:36:31*

**Authors:** Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A new theory is proposed here a cosmological gamma ray bursts. In black holes, the matter annihilates with the formation of virtual photons (bosons), due to the lag of the gravitational field effect. The effect of the lag of the gravitational field leads to an increase in the speed of rotation of the black hole. But, since the rotation speed cannot exceed the speed of light in a vacuum, then at a certain “deformation” of the space-time continuum, inevitably begins the annihilation of matter with the formation of virtual photons (at the first stage). After complete annihilation, all virtual photons are one-momentally radiated and a become a real photons, therefore, we see a cosmological gamma-ray burst, early radiation did not occur due to the slowing down (actually stopping) of time in a black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3174] **viXra:1812.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-25 16:17:28*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

The special theory of relativity has confused physicists for over a century, demolishing our intuitive understanding of time. Its success depends on two facts: 1) Einstein hid his false premise in the definition of inertial reference frame and then based all axioms on this, and 2) the proofs of time dilation, from muon to Hafele-Keating time differentials. Unlike quantum mechanics – with its Bohr, Bohm, Everett, and other interpretations – special relativity has only one interpretation: that of space-time symmetry. Herein I develop an energy-time conjugation interpretation offering a new way to interpret time dilation proofs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3173] **viXra:1812.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-24 09:15:40*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This paper has been accepted by Asia Mathematika journal. To appear next year, 2019. Comments are welcome

Questions regarding the formation of the Universe and what was there before the existence of Early Universe have been great interest to mankind of all times. In recent decades, the Big Bang as described by the Lambda CDM Standard Model Cosmology has become widely accepted by majority of physics and cosmology communities. Among other things, we can cite A.A. Grib & Pavlov who pointed out some problems of heavy particles creation out of vacuum and also other proposal of Creatio ex nihilo theory (CET). But the philosophical problems remain, as Vaas pointed out: Did the universe have a beginning or does it exist forever, i.e. is it eternal at least in relation to the past? This fundamental question was a main topic in ancient philosophy of nature and the Middle Ages, and still has its revival in modern physical cosmology both in the controversy between the big bang and steady state models some decades ago and in the contemporary attempts to explain the big bang within a quantum cosmological (vacuum ﬂuctuation) framework. In this paper we argue that Neutrosophic Logic oﬀers a resolution to the long standing disputes between beginning and eternity of the Universe. In other words, in this respect we agree with Vaas, i.e. it can be shown: “how a conceptual and perhaps physical solution of the temporal aspect of Immanuel Kant’s ” ﬁrst antinomy of pure reason“ is possible, i.e. how our universe in some respect could have both a beginning and an eternal existence. Therefore, paradoxically, there might have been a time before time or a beginning of time in time.” By the help of computational simulation, we also show how a model of early Universe with rotation can ﬁt this new picture. Further observations are recommended.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3172] **viXra:1812.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-24 09:29:47*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The FLRW metric is derived for a pure de Sitter universe, showing that the cosmological constant is proportional to the Ricci scalar. As in the standard FLRW model, the fate of such a universe depends on whether the cosmological constant is positive, negative or zero.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3171] **viXra:1812.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-24 15:53:20*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

how the geometric phenomenon of Lense-Thirring relates to time and temporal elasticity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3170] **viXra:1812.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-23 21:43:27*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

4 associated essays combined: attribute spaces, temporal elasticity, causality and antigravity, and flat space scalar field gravitation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3169] **viXra:1812.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-21 23:56:16*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The reflection symmetry is a physical property for inertial reference frames.
It shows that the elapsed time in one inertial reference frame is identical to the elapsed time
in another inertial reference frame. The same symmetry also leads to the conservation of
the wavelength across inertial reference frames. The velocity of a wave is proportional to its
frequency. Doppler effect shows that both the velocity and the frequency depend on the reference frame. The higher the detected frequency is, the faster the wave travels toward the detector.
One example is the radar gun used by the traffic police. The reflected radio wave travels faster
than the emitted radio wave. This results in frequency difference between two waves. This
difference is used to calculate the velocity of a vehicle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3168] **viXra:1812.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-22 01:14:03*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Aksaray University Journal of Science and Engineering, Vol. 2, Issue 2, pp. 0-0 (2018). doi: 10.29002/asujse.433947

Relations for the relativistic energy and metric are analyzed inside and outside the body in the framework of the covariant theory of gravitation. The methods of optimal energy gauging and equations for the metric are chosen. It is shown that for the matter inside the body a procedure is required to average the physical quantities, including the cosmological constant and the scalar curvature. For the case of the relativistic uniform system, the cosmological constant and the scalar curvature are explicitly calculated, which turn out to be constant values inside the body and are assumed to be equal to zero outside the body. Comparison of the cosmological constants inside a proton, a neutron star and in the observable Universe allows us to explain the cosmological constant problem arising in the Lambda-CDM model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3167] **viXra:1812.0372 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-20 06:04:56*

**Authors:** Ragil Brand Ndongmo Tsafack, Saleh Mahamat, Thomas Bouetou Bouetou, Timoleon Crepin Kofane

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is the next work of our first paper viXra:1811.0097

Here we will determine the numerical values of 'a' and 'alpha' in order to determine with more
precisions the impact of dark energy in the vicinity of a black hole

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3166] **viXra:1812.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-20 20:31:02*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

As an application of *Universal and Unified Physics**, the *Natural Cosmology* is harvested as a new theory prevailing over the current “*Physical Cosmology”* by transcending both *Einstein's* field equations and *Friedmann* equations with the *ontological field equations* and *horizon field equations. *Positioned at the third horizon of spacetime manifold*, *our *cosmological field equation has not only *substituted “general relativity”*, *but also extended the cosmological constant to the matrices of superphase modulations, dark energy waves and blackhole emissions.

Consequently, we are presented the *Christmas Gifs of 2018*, revealing exceptionally secrets of the *Natural Cosmology* with horizon infrastructure, superphase modulation, entropy of dark energy, and lightwave or gravitation fields in the forms of dispersive or non-dispersive wave-packets, which orchestrate all types of life events essential to the operations and processes of creation, annihilations, reproduction and communication for natural formations and evolutions.

-----

* Principles of《Universal and Unified Physics》 vixra:1811.0261

[3165] **viXra:1812.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-19 23:57:10*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In Newtonian particle dynamics, time is invariant under inertial transformations, and speed has no upper bound. In special relativity, it is the observed particle's proper time, rather than the arbitrary observer's time, which is inertial-transformation invariant, and it is the particle's proper speed which has no upper bound. It is thus perhaps not surprising the Newton's Second Law is also valid in relativistic particle dynamics presented in terms of the particle's proper time. This follows from the special-relativistic dynamical principle that the time derivative of special relativistic momentum is equal to the applied force, provided proper force is defined to have an additional factor of gamma. The four-vector fully Lorentz-covariant completion of proper force is obliged to have zero contraction with the particle's proper four-velocity. A special-relativistic particle in either a scalar or a four-vector (electromagnetic) potential is verified to adhere to the proper-time Newton's Second Law, and when it is consistently taken into account that a metric (gravitational) potential's observed effect on a particle is to alter the rate of change of its proper time with observer time, that adherence is verified to hold for metric potentials as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3164] **viXra:1812.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-17 12:02:35*

**Authors:** Mavriche Adrian

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The present document starts from the relative existence of the electromagnetic field,
reaching through mental experiments to its connection with the gravitational field, without the
necessity to resort to other space - time dimensions or supplementary "exotic" particles.
The main idea is: Generalized Relativity says, through the Equivalence Principle, that local we cannot distinguish between the effects of an accelerated movement (effects of an acceleration field) and the effects of a gravitational field. Knowing that an electron located in a field of acceleration (accelerated) will radiate in report to an observer outside of the acceleration field effect, then through the aforementioned equivalence, and an electron being at rest in a gravitational field, has to radiate in reference to an observer who is outside of that gravitational field.
In conclusion, it explain why we have expansion "super-accelerated" of the universe, without the necessity of dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3163] **viXra:1812.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-18 02:58:57*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

an intuitive investigation of conventional GR and TET, temporal elasticity theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3162] **viXra:1812.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-16 06:48:09*

**Authors:** Sai suman sutar

**Comments:** 1 Page. Its all about time

Its my assumption that time is abssolute

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3161] **viXra:1812.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-15 10:51:20*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: I have (October, 2017) first described a superfast photon, called the cosmophoton, which can traverse the maximum expanse of our holographic universe in 2000 seconds.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3160] **viXra:1812.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-15 12:34:44*

**Authors:** Jorma Jormakka

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

All elements of special relativity, like the Lorentz transform, time dilation, space contraction, moving mass and E=mc^2 are said to be verified empirically beyond any doubt. While checking a discrete model of space I was surprised to notice that these experiments cannot distinguish between the Lorentz transform and the coordinate transform in my discrete model. There were also a lack of clarity in what frame of reference the formula for moving mass is differentiated to give E=mc^2. In the discrete model E=mc^2 follows easily from basic concepts. My conclusion is that the special relativity theory is not tested well enough and the principle that there is no preferred frame of reference should be revised.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3159] **viXra:1812.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-15 00:40:09*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The relative reflection symmetry exists for an isolated system of two stationary persons. The first person sees the second person in a distance away.
The second person sees the first person in the same distance away but in the opposite direction.
Such symmetry also exists for two mobile persons. Both persons see each other moving at the same speed but in opposite direction in their own rest frames.
From the definition of velocity, the time in the rest frame of the first person can be compared to the time in the rest frame of the second person.
The result shows that the time in the rest frame of the first person differs from the time in the rest frame of the second person by a constant.
Two simultaneous events in one inertial reference frame are also simultaneous in another inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3158] **viXra:1812.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-14 04:53:44*

**Authors:** Milan D. Nešić

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

It is understandable that in 1916 Einstein was unable to explain his postulate c=const, that in the case of the lightning and the train that moves on the railway embankment he still tacitly implied that the inertial coordinate system which is at rest has advantage over the one in motion. In serious scientific journals, there are no tries of explanations of this postulate, but it is strange that even today, at popular lectures, Einstein's explanation is taken as valid. It isn't difficult to show that his explanation is not valid; it is difficult to find the right explanation without trying to form an alternative theory. The article is dedicated to this goal. The found explanation will also serve to explain, for example, the EPR-paradox without any “spooky action at a distance” or “hidden variables” (Einstein’s expressions). And this is not the only example where it can serve.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3157] **viXra:1812.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-12 07:46:37*

**Authors:** Peter H. Michalicka

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A time scale of the Universe will be shown in all details. It starts with the existence of the first information (0/1) Bit and the probability of God or the Creator of the Universe. Step by step are comming dimensions within the Universe until the 4-dimensionsal Universe of General Relativity Theory (GRT) is created.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3156] **viXra:1812.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-12 21:36:30*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 76 Pages.

The aim of this work is, first, to set the basis for a formal model of science, then, it is to show that the laws of physics are its theorems. Necessarily, all theories that are the logical product of science are theorems of our model. As this includes physics, our model is, therefore, its logical foundation.
Our model is an axiomatic realization of the participatory universe envisioned by John Archibald Wheeler, in which the observer's practice of science is associated with proving reality. As our model is constructive of the mathematical structure isomorphic to nature, it deprecates Karl Popper's definition of science based on falsifiability.
The formal practice of science consists of constructing a message (in the sense of Shannon's theory of information) of experiments (the elements of the message) constrained by the requirement that the elements are verifiable by the statistical priors of the message. In this context, we define the priors as Nature and we qualify the message as scientific. Nature is thus understood as a general proof checker for experiments.
We show that the construction of a scientific message bounds nature (the priors) to a cosmology entirely emergent from the entropy of the scientific message. Finally, we conclude that the participatory-universe is emergent from the ideal practice of science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3155] **viXra:1812.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-10 03:30:41*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

why science hates time travel and antigravity, why they're impossible, and what the implications are for antimatter

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3154] **viXra:1812.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-08 09:23:12*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The model based on subjective idealism, enabling to derive a space-time with a Minkowsky space metrics on Euclidean space with no time and dynamics is suggested. This model also allows deriving the curved space-time with a metrics of the general theory of relativity. It was demonstrated that the principle of causality and the anthropic principle arise from the model. It was demonstrated that the strong principle of equivalence of gravitation and acceleration arises from the model. All principles and postulates on which special and general theories of relativity are based are being derived. Article offers entirely new model for creation of physical theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3153] **viXra:1812.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-08 10:20:47*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper presents core the equations and physical principles of Hypersphere Cosmology drawn together in summary from a number of the authors previous papers. It presents an alternative interpretation of observed cosmological data to that currently used in the Standard Model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3152] **viXra:1812.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-07 22:43:34*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

the ways antimatter can interact with time are explored and the consequences of the only viable option are enumerated, theory detailed, test proposed, and casual finale

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3151] **viXra:1812.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-06 10:55:12*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

a concise treatment of gravitation and antimatter using temporal elasticity as mediator

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3150] **viXra:1812.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-06 11:18:58*

**Authors:** Francois Ritter

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Based on an intuitive generalization of the Lorentz Transformations to non-inertial frames, this study presents new coordinates for a hyperbolically accelerated reference frame. These coordinates are equivalent to the Rindler coordinates exclusively at small times due to the loss of the clock hypothesis. This hypothesis is considered an excellent but fundamentally incorrect approximation for longitudinal motion. The proper acceleration of a hyperbolically accelerated particle is no longer constant and its proper time progressively slows down until becoming constant at the speed of light. This is in agreement with the timeless nature of photons. An event horizon beyond which any information cannot reach the particle is still present and is identical to the Rindler horizon. More importantly, a time dependent factor appears in the metric that could profoundly change our understanding of the space-time dynamic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3149] **viXra:1812.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-04 08:44:17*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A particle solution is obtained, interpreted as
being the Photon, with mass and electric charge, using the Null Quantum tensor in 5th dimension according to Theory of Total Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3148] **viXra:1812.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-04 15:44:36*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Light also has inertia and variable speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3147] **viXra:1812.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-02 12:02:48*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

temporal elasticity theory is detailed and established on firm foundation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3146] **viXra:1812.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-03 03:45:52*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We show that the forces of inertia acting on the accelerated bodies are forces of
gravitational induction exerted by the whole of the Universe. Therefore, the phenomenon of
inertia and the inertial mass of a body have a cosmic origin, as demanded by the Mach's principle.
The calculations will be applied to a vector gravitational field theory. In a second part of this research we will apply these results to the General Theory of Relativity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3145] **viXra:1812.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-01 13:50:16*

**Authors:** Alan T Kelly

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Based on a quantitative assessment of the fundamental forces and constants, we demonstrate
a solution to the Constant Speed of Light V’s Variable Speed of Light question. The solution
provides that all physical constants begin at a point of fundamental perfection, where their values
can be described in the absolute simplest terms, requiring only the numbers 1; 2; 3; and 5 to do so.
We subsequently demonstrate that by inserting a Mass Variable into the model, to account for the
quantity of mass interacting with our locale of space, we can transform these perfect prime based
constants, to attain predictive results that are on average 99.94% in agreement with CODATA
values. We conclude that the speed of light is indeed variable, as is every other physical constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3144] **viXra:1812.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-01 18:30:43*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In gravity theory, there is a well-known trans-Planckian problem, which is that general relativity theory leads to a shorter than Planck length and shorter than Planck time in relation to so-called black holes. However, there has been little focus on the fact that special relativity also leads to a trans-Planckian problem, something we will demonstrate here. According to special relativity, an object with mass must move slower than light, but special relativity has no limits on how close to the speed of light something with mass can move. This leads to a scenario where objects can undergo so much length contraction that they will become shorter than the Planck length as measured from another frame, and we can also have shorter time intervals than the Planck time.
The trans-Planckian problem is easily solved by a small modification that assumes Haug’s maximum velocity for matter is the ultimate speed limit for something with mass. This speed limit depends on the Planck length, which can be measured without any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant or the Planck constant. After a long period of slow progress in theoretical physics, we are now in a Klondike “gold rush” period where many of the essential pieces are falling in place.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3143] **viXra:1812.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-12-02 01:18:44*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

n this paper, we consider the relationship between the wave function and the holographic principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3142] **viXra:1811.0520 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-30 10:06:59*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The Y(4140) tetraquark plus 40 MeV added energy = 4180 MeV = 4.180 GeV = signal by E8 Symmetry that the top quark/bottom quark ratio is of great importance in connection with the possibility of superfast communication

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3141] **viXra:1811.0514 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-29 06:22:32*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We will see how Michelson's original error in calculation of the expected fringe shift in the 1881 experiment and its subsequent correction by Potier and Lorentz led to hastening of the abandonment of the ether. In an effort to increase the sensitivity of the experiment, Michelson and Morley considerably increased the arm length of light in the 1887 experiment, and by doing so, they ended up in building an instrument that ruled out the ether even more decisively than the 1881 Michelson experiment. All their efforts to detect the ether unexpectedly played out against the ether, not in favor of it. The reason why the 1887 experiment was much less sensitive than the 1881 experiment, despite the fact that the 1887 experiment used a considerably longer arm length, has always remained a mystery that no one has ever viewed it as such. By continuously increasing the arm length in subsequent experiments, physicists unknowingly ended up in setting up and repeating experiments that were much less sensitive to absolute motion than the 1881 Michelson experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3140] **viXra:1811.0512 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-29 08:42:25*

**Authors:** Royan Rosche

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An equation which uses Pi and Light Speed to find measurements of the Earth and Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3139] **viXra:1811.0497 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-30 05:17:37*

**Authors:** Milan D. Nešić

**Comments:** 19 Pages. According also to the book: Milan D. Nesic: WAS GIORDANO BRUNO BURNED IN VAIN? (2018, Belgrade, ISBN 978-86-900622-0-1

It's about philosophy of cosmology, based finally on the right understanding of the postulate c=const as the inertia of the whole universe. Not even all the photons of the same frequency from the same light source are the same; each of them will be such, so that it arrives to its receiver with the c=const speed, what is possible precisely because of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. That's why the Big Bang as the start of cosmos and the world in general is an illusion, though an objective one. Only with comprehensive inertia and relativity without mass limitations can one begin to understand how come the World exists. Not how it came to be, but how it has existed since forever and how it exists always and again. Inertia: not so related to the material world which the man can specifically ascertain with how ever perspicacious an experiment, but inertia without anything concrete, logically most abstract: if something is already something, whatever it is, even an uncertain possibility, why would it be different, it has no reason, whilst if it is nothing, why would it be something, it remains nothing. Relativity: not the homocentrically insufficient one from the theory of relativity, but an all-encompassing relativity, which must refer to itself as well precisely because it is infinite, it must make itself relative, i.e. it cannot avoid exploding into its otherness, into universal symmetry, by which nothing is possible only in symmetry with something. Absolute nothing is only possible with absolute everything, again only relativity. And all together still the same, inertia: indefinite duration of omnipotence in symmetrical balance with its nothing-cause in itself, without start and without end – like the universe from the title.
The paper specifically shows how this logic fits into scientific achievements related to the hypothesis of the Big Bang and which new explanations follow that.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3138] **viXra:1811.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-28 07:05:45*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Crothers and Robitaille have recently pointed out that the Hawking temperature and the Unruh temperature are not intensive, which suggests that the theory around the temperature of black holes is flawed, incomplete, or at least not fully understood. Here we offer a modified Newtonian type acceleration field linked to the Planck scale that leads to a new modified intensive Schwarzschild surface temperature for so-called black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3137] **viXra:1811.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-28 09:30:47*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The talk at the IWARA2018, Sacred Valley, Peru, Sept. 8-15, 2018. To be published in "Astron.Nachr.".

We discuss relations between Dirac and Majorana-like field operators with self/anti-self charge conjugate states. The connections with recent models of several authors have been found.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3136] **viXra:1811.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-28 12:10:51*

**Authors:** Mohammad Sharifi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We apply some aspects of Mach’s principle to the theory of gravitation. we manage
to drive the observed rotation galaxy curve without introduction of dark matters or
dark energies. we also propose a solution for cosmological constant problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3135] **viXra:1811.0467 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-27 08:45:58*

**Authors:** Savior F. Eason

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Quantum experimentation methods self-funded/Auto-sourced, and NSA approved

Explores a new theory of the nature of time building on the theories of Einstein and Schrodinger, proposing a concept of "Temporal entanglement" and quantum informational processing through infinite improbability, and how this ties into Quantum Matrix Theory and The hypothesis of Weirdness. It additionally describes how proof of this would indisputably prove a vibrational multiverse. It also briefly investigates the philosophical implications of an infinite, eternal multiverse, and how a multiverse could actually "Fix physics", making short work of it's biggest questions. And finally, it presents several applications for such a theory, and how, with the right technology, resources, and people on the job, a civilization once eons away could be achieved in decades.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3134] **viXra:1811.0462 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-27 09:54:14*

**Authors:** Ozan Yarman, Metin Arik, Ricardo Gobato, Tolga Yarman

**Comments:** 10 Pages. https://sites.google.com/site/pjsciencea/issue-current , Ozan Yarman, Metin Arik, Ricardo Gobato, Tolga Yarman. Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.4, n.8, (1-10), November 5, 2018.

In this essay, we will attempt to clarify the concept of “overall relativistic energy” according to Yarman’s Approach; which
happens to be the underlying framework of Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory. The reformed meaning of this key concept is, in juxtaposition to the general theory of relativity (GTR), shown to subtly differ from particularly the Newtonian understanding of the “total energy of a system” as just being the “sum of constituent kinetic and potential energies”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3133] **viXra:1811.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-27 02:38:57*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It has been shown previously that when for two inertial observers A and B in relative motion, the value of the distance between A and B measured by observer B in a frame where B is stationary is the same as that obtained by observer A in a frame where A is stationary. The present study will show that the time interval for observer A to meet observer B measured by observer B in a frame where B is stationary is the same as that for observer B to meet observer A obtained by observer A in a frame where A is stationary. The proof is based on two fundamental conditions of special relativity: 1) the space time interval between two events in the Minkowski space is independent of the inertial reference frame chosen; and 2) there is no privileged reference frame and all inertial reference frames are equal.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3132] **viXra:1811.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-27 04:11:17*

**Authors:** Dariusz Dudało

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modified Newtonian Dynamics with time dilation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3131] **viXra:1811.0407 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-27 04:48:52*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. ty

Today we know that light or any other electromagnetic wave is fixed in its wavelength at any distance covered by the electromagnetic wave no matter of the time passing rate as in einstein's light-distance clock however we might hypothesize that two waves do interfere if they pass through each other for example imagine if you increase the distance that the two interfering wavelengths go through as the universe expands we end up with either more oscillations or lager wavelengths needed but in the very end when the electromagnetic wave reaches a particle it makes it less hot than if the universe didn't expand the electromagnetic wave would have been much hotter now if we look again we see that an electromagnetic wave should have either increased its wavelength and decreased the number of oscillations(gives less time for the electromagnetic wave) now what happens if you make two equal in wavelength and frequency electromagnetic waves hit each other? The answer could probably be that more time is produced but for what? I mean the two electromagnetic waves have killed each other so the complete answer is that space is produced or dark energy now if photons go through space they go at a constant time rate meaning that the photons aren't effected by the dark matter and they go at the same speed or same velocity now what happens if bigger masses go through space or dark matter(assuming ofcourse that they act like electromagnetic waves)? They would go at less velocities than light and if they reached the speed of light they would stop this is probably due to the bigger masses havig much more oscillations than light but they never give their oscillations to space or dark energy unless ofcourse if they hit a similar planet with the same velocity directly at each other

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3130] **viXra:1811.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-25 05:57:09*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd

**Comments:** 36 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime journal. Comments are welcome

In the present paper, these authors argue on actual reasons why Hilbert’s axiomatic program to unify gravitation theory and electromagnetism failed completely. An outline of plausible resolution of this problem is given here, based on: a) Gödel’s incompleteness theorem, b) Newton’s aether stream model. And in another paper we will present our calculation of receding Moon from Earth based on such a matter creation hypothesis. More experiments and observations are called to verify this new hypothesis, albeit it is inspired from Newton’s theory himself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3129] **viXra:1811.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-26 05:26:32*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

what physicists should accept vs what they can accept is explored

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3128] **viXra:1811.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-22 22:44:10*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The radio wave changes direction upon reflection. It also changes frequency if it is reflected by
a moving surface. In the standing wave formed by the incident wave and the reflected wave,
the formation of the nodes requires both waves to have the same wavelength. The nodes exist in all reference frames. This requires both the incident wave and the reflected wave to have the same wavelength in all reference frames. However, these two waves have different frequencies due to Doppler effect Therefore, these two waves travel at different speeds. Doppler radar is a good example. With two moving surfaces to reflect the radio wave between them, the radio wave can be accelerated if the distance between two reflective surfaces decreases with time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3127] **viXra:1811.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-21 13:54:49*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Is shown that according to the Theory of Total Relativity point particles with rest mass change the measure of time relative to the observer. Also is shown that the Photon have quantized rest as a limit value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3126] **viXra:1811.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-21 19:18:28*

**Authors:** Robert Yusupov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Answer to Mr. Terra NOV 22 2018

В настоящей статье речь идёт о кванте материи. Квант материи, как представляется автору, является материальным «первокирпичиком» природы.
++++++++++++++++++
This article deals with a quantum of matter. The quantum of matter, as it seems to the author, is the material “primary brick” of nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3125] **viXra:1811.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-21 22:14:02*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 28 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

The solution to a Schrodinger equation is the basis of a broad theory. The Dirac equation superseded the Schrodinger equation because it is relativistic and has 4 components that accurately represent half spin particles like the electron and quarks. This paper presents a way of making the Schrodinger equation relativistic. It has many components and is complex enough to represent the neutron, proton and electron but is general enough to help us understand nature. Our goal is to find clues related to creation.
The Schrodinger equation described by MIT as unitary evolution [20] has a simple solution: Probability P=1 in the left hand side (LHS) of the Schrodinger equation is equal to the multiple of complex conjugate terms exp(iEt/H)*exp(-iEt/H) in the right hand side (RHS) where i is the imaginary number, H=Planck’s constant, E is field energy and time t is the time around a quantum circle at velocity C. (exp(iEt/H) stands for the natural number e to power iEt/H).
Observation is fundamental to quantum mechanics and the Copenhagen interpretation indicates that we can only describe the probability of an event within certain limits. Shannon’s definition [9] of information (information = -natural logarithm(probability) will be used to explore the relationship between information and energy.
Has something been separated in the multiple exp(iEt/H)*exp(-iEt/H)=1? The number 1 has been separated into two expressions that represent waves, but it is a dynamic separation; it repeatedly comes back to 1 as time moves forward. The idea that nature originates as a series of separations is an old idea, for example, recall that Genesis contains the words “So God made the expanse and separated the water under the expanse from the ... as Genesis 1:7 ends with the phrase 'from the water above it [the expanse]'. Another phrase from Genesis is “in the beginning was the word”.
Consider a beginning with zero energy. This avoids the endless argument that things are made of other things, ad infinitum. Meaningful equal and opposite energy pairs come into existence at the same time but represent zero overall. Also consider probability one as a beginning condition. It simply means the universe exists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3124] **viXra:1811.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-20 12:47:36*

**Authors:** Victor Paromov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This letter attempts to show that the Kaluza hypothesis of five-dimensional (5D) spacetime is sufficient to explain the quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is a short version of the article “Fractal Structure of the Spacetime, the Fundamentally Broken Symmetry” (http://vixra.org/abs/1806.0181) written as an attempt to start a discussion in the physics community. To author’s regret, it has been rejected by Nature Physics on 9/24/2018 and by arxiv.org (gr-qc) on 10/23/18 in despite of the endorsement from Dr. Sergei M. Kopeikin.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3123] **viXra:1811.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-20 21:36:07*

**Authors:** Stanley L. Robertson

**Comments:** 36 pages, 1 Figure

Huseyin Yilmaz proposed the form of a theory of
gravitation (Yilmaz 1958, 1971) that has later been shown to present only minor conceptual change for Einstein's General Relativity. The primary effect of the change is to modify terms of second order in the gravitational potential or its derivatives.
Since most of the weak field tests that have been taken as confirmation of General Relativity are of first order, the Yilmaz theory continues to pass all of these tests, but there are some interesting effects of the higher order terms that arise in the Yilmaz theory. These corrections move the metric singularity back to the location of a point particle source. This eliminates the black hole event horizon and permits the existence of intrinsic magnetic moments for stellar mass black hole candidates and supermassive AGN. It is shown here that the same second order corrections also eliminate the need for cosmological ``dark energy". Additional considerations dicussed here show that the Yilmaz theory correctly encompasses all of the major observational tests that must be satisfied by an acceptable relativistic gravity
theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3122] **viXra:1811.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-19 11:44:38*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

a brief discussion about the unification of forces in theoretical physics from Relativity based on engineering concepts

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3121] **viXra:1811.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-18 18:11:17*

**Authors:** James Conor O'Brien

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

It is suggested that in the neighbourhood of the Big Bang at point P(0) a matter-antimatter differential forms due to reflection of antimatter off the wall of an infinite, spatially shifting, potential well. Firstly the width of the potential well of a scalar field (Phi) undergoes oscillation due to Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle ranging from zero to infinity; secondly, that there is a probability also due to quantum uncertainty for an infinite sea matter and antimatter particle-pairs to spontaneously arise in the neighbourhood of the wall; and thirdly due to the Feynman-Stueckelberg Interpretation of the direction of Time being in the positive direction from P(0), that matter will move along the axis of Time away from P(0) and antimatter will move the axis of Time towards P(0). This leads to the suggestion that antimatter will reflect off P(0) to return in the positive time direction - thus turning the antimatter of the universe into matter in a process akin to the Dynamical Casimir Effect. It is then suggested that this instantiation of matter inflates the volume of the universe around P(0) and decreases the energy density of the universe, which in turn conflates another generation of matter and antimatter on the surface of that volume. Thus there should exist an epoch in the formation of the universe where purely matter is ejected from P(0) and the energy density of the universe diminishes. Furthermore since the reflected fermionic antimatter collides with its matter partner under Lorentz covariance the ejected matter must be On-Mass Shell. This "inflation through conflation" continues until the overall energy density of matter of the Universe diminishes to the level where matter and antimatter is no longer conflated, and the Universe stabilizes into present era Physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3120] **viXra:1811.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-17 07:28:31*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article makes it highly likely that the question mark in the title has to be an exclamation mark.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3119] **viXra:1811.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-17 08:03:44*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

categories of evidence for Dark Matter & Energy, Higgs' Function, and Temporal Elasticity are provided and discussed

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3118] **viXra:1811.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-17 08:13:54*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

One result of the Gravity Probe B experiment cannot be correct, they claimed that they measured the size of the very small angle by which our Earth warps its local spacetime (the geodetic effect) but that is impossible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3117] **viXra:1811.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-17 16:44:21*

**Authors:** Royan Roshce

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I outline why you will never see what is called "Matter".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3116] **viXra:1811.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-16 02:51:18*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

the so-called Cosmic Dark Ages is currently misunderstood and under-rated in terms of cosmological significance; the role of antimatter is identified and illuminated

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3115] **viXra:1811.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-14 10:37:42*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The surprising capability to be able to use the mass of the recently-discovered 4430 MeV neutrino together with MHCE8S theory as a way of signaling the length of time the universe includes E8 unbroken symmetry is shown.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3114] **viXra:1811.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-13 08:20:37*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

in a balanced curvature creation event, there are very few possibilities about the question: "what happened to all the antimatter?"; very specific lines of research are proposed to help answer it

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3113] **viXra:1811.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-13 21:50:17*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Lorentz contraction and Lense-Thirring are dealt with appropriately

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3112] **viXra:1811.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-12 05:48:52*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Time is a fundamental quantity in physics and its definition has generated many problems starting from Newton’s philosophical absolute time. Einstein searched for giving an operative definition of time through the use of unreal ideal clocks and of rays of light. In this paper we will search for giving a physical definition of time pointing out the necessity of avoiding in physics mistakes connected whether with Newton’s exclusively philosophical definition, taken out of the scientific context, or with Einstein’s operative definition through unreal clocks. We will prove nevertheless also the use of real clocks raises generally problems because of their real working and of the inadequacy of measuring instruments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3111] **viXra:1811.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-11 21:52:36*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 5 Pages. subcategory: Nuclear Physics

the strong points and reasoning of the Standard Model are presented, the useless artifices of it are explored, and a simpler more comprehensive model is presented

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3110] **viXra:1811.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-10 07:58:10*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

Stephen Hawking's final book suggests time travel may one day be possible – here's what to make of it. [26]
The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
“We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3109] **viXra:1811.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-10 10:52:51*

**Authors:** William Q. Sumner

**Comments:** Pages.

Understanding the “acceleration” of modern Hubble redshift measurements begins with Schr ̈odinger. In 1939 he proved that all quantum wave functions coevolve with the curved spacetime of a closed Friedmann universe. While both photon wavelengths and atomic radii are proportional to the Fried- mann radius, the wavelengths of photons that an atom emits are proportional to the square of the radius. This larger shift in atomic emissions changes the current paradigm that redshift implies ex- pansion. Instead, redshift implies the contraction of a closed Friedmann universe. Hubble redshifts are observed only when old blueshifted photons are compared to current atomic emissions that have blueshifted even more. This theoretical prediction is confirmed by modern Hubble redshift measure- ments. The Pantheon redshift data set of 1048 supernovas was analyzed assuming that atoms change like Schro ̈dinger predicted. The Hubble constant and deceleration parameter are the only variables. The fit, Ho = −72.03 ± 0.25 km s−1Mpc−1 and 1/2 < qo < 0.501, has a standard deviation 0.1516 compared to the average data error 0.1418. No modifications to general relativity or to Friedmann’s 1922 solution are necessary to explain accelerating Hubble redshifts. A nearly flat Friedmann universe accelerating in collapse is enough.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3108] **viXra:1811.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-11 03:59:33*

**Authors:** Friedhelm Jöge

**Comments:** 1 Page. Please add this additional file.

Development of Dark Energy on a cosmic time. Additional diagram to the article :
http://viXra.org/abs/1807.0115?ref=10028904

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3107] **viXra:1811.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-11-11 05:13:57*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers, Pierre-Marie Robitaille

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Presented at the 2018 Annual Meeting of the APS Mid-Atlantic Section, November 9-10,

This is a copy of the poster which was presented at the Mid-Atlantic Section of the American Physical Society in College Park, Maryland on November 9-10, 2018: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/MAS18/Session/B01.18

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2270] **viXra:1901.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-06 12:17:18*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show how one can measure the speed of gravity only using gravitational phenomena. Our approach offers several ways to measure the speed of gravity (light) and checks existing assumptions about light in new types of experiments. The speed of light is included in several well-known gravitational formulas. However, if we can measure this speed from gravitational phenomena alone, then is it the speed of light or the speed of gravity we are measuring? We think it is more than a mere coincidence that they are the same. In addition, even if it is not possible to draw strong conclusions now, our formulations support the view that there is a link between electromagnetism and gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2269] **viXra:1812.0475 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-04 02:41:56*

**Authors:** Francesco Ferrara

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The document assumes a model for the electron as a current loop and qualitatively demonstrates that the inertia of matter has an essentially electrical nature

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2268] **viXra:1812.0461 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-09 18:02:18*

**Authors:** Ramon Isasi

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Some typing errors were corrected

In the present essay, we consider the origin of the dark energy, cosmological constant and the dark matter. The dark energy, is consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. This dark energy was the origin and cause of the cosmological expansion and the past and present creation of the whole space. We consider the presence of the call “dark” matter as consequence of highly excited hydrogen and helium Ridberg’s atoms in perfect equilibrium with the CMB radiation. The cosmological constant is considered as an arbitrary ad hoc anti gravitational entity. Finally, we consider the Casimir effect, as a suitable and truly efficient physical method and a reliable resource in the experimental determination of the dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2267] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-13 16:59:33*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

\abstract{ We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM, in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2266] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-12 06:14:53*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and possibly better QM. Better in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2265] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-10 17:24:56*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM. Better in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2264] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-08 04:33:00*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM. Better in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2263] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-01 18:28:51*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation and a new and likely better QM. Better in terms of being much more consistent and simpler to understand from a logical perspective.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2262] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-31 09:02:12*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2261] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-29 17:43:18*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2260] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-28 17:44:17*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum. This leads directly to a simpler relativistic energy momentum relation. As we point out, it is the Compton wavelength that is the true wavelength for matter; the de Broglie wavelength is mostly a mathematical artifact. This observation also leads us to a new relativistic wave equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2259] **viXra:1812.0430 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-28 02:07:03*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We suggest that momentum should be redefined in order to help make physics more consistent and more logical. In this paper, we will propose that there is a rest-mass momentum, a kinetic momentum, and a total momentum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2258] **viXra:1812.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-05 11:57:28*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

As an application of *Universal and Unified Physics**, the *Natural Cosmology* is harvested as a new theory prevailing over the current “*Physical Cosmology”* by transcending both *Einstein's* field equations and *Friedmann* equations with the *ontological field equations* and *horizon field equations. *Positioned at the third horizon of spacetime manifold*, *our *cosmological field equation has not only *substituted “general relativity”*, *but also extended the cosmological constant to the matrices of superphase modulations, dark energy waves and blackhole emissions.

Consequently, we are presented the *Christmas Gifts of 2018*, revealing exceptionally secrets of the *Natural Cosmology* with horizon infrastructure, superphase modulation, entropy of dark energy, and lightwave or gravitation fields in the forms of dispersive or non-dispersive wave-packets, which orchestrate all types of life events essential to the operations and processes of creation, annihilations, reproduction and communication for natural formations and evolutions.

____

* Principles of《Universal and Unified Physics》 vixra:1811.0261

[2257] **viXra:1812.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-23 11:54:13*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

As an application of *Universal and Unified Physics**, the *Natural Cosmology* is harvested as a new theory prevailing over the current “*Physical Cosmology”* by transcending both *Einstein's* field equations and *Friedmann* equations with the *ontological field equations* and *horizon field equations. *Positioned at the third horizon of spacetime manifold*, *our *cosmological field equation has not only *substituted “general relativity”*, *but also extended the cosmological constant to the matrices of superphase modulations, dark energy waves and blackhole emissions.

Consequently, we are presented the *Christmas Gifts of 2018*, revealing exceptionally secrets of the *Natural Cosmology* with horizon infrastructure, superphase modulation, entropy of dark energy, and lightwave or gravitation fields in the forms of dispersive or non-dispersive wave-packets, which orchestrate all types of life events essential to the operations and processes of creation, annihilations, reproduction and communication for natural formations and evolutions.

____

* Principles of《Universal and Unified Physics》 vixra:1811.0261

[2256] **viXra:1812.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-29 15:21:59*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In Newtonian particle dynamics, time is invariant under inertial transformations, and speed has no upper bound. In special relativity, it is the observed particle's proper time, rather than the arbitrary observer's time, which is inertial-transformation invariant, and it is the particle's proper-time speed which has no upper bound. It is thus perhaps not surprising the Newton's Second Law is also valid in relativistic particle dynamics presented in terms of the particle's proper time. This follows from the special-relativistic dynamical principle that the time derivative of special-relativistic momentum is equal to the applied force, provided proper force is defined to have an additional factor of gamma. The four-vector fully Lorentz-covariant completion of proper force is obliged to have zero contraction with the particle's proper four-velocity. A special-relativistic particle in either a scalar or a four-vector (electromagnetic) potential is shown to adhere to the proper-time Newton's Second Law, and when it is consistently taken into account that a metric (gravitational) potential modifies the rate of change of a particle's proper time with observer time, that adherence is shown to hold for metric potentials as well.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2255] **viXra:1812.0294 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-18 10:52:05*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

an intuitive investigation of conventional GR and TET, temporal elasticity theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2254] **viXra:1812.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-19 03:02:31*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Hypothesis, allowing deriving a space-time with a Minkowski space metrics on Euclidean space with no time and dynamics is suggested. This hypothesis also allows deriving the curved space-time with a metrics of the general theory of relativity. It was demonstrated that the principle of causality and the anthropic principle arise from the hypothesis. It was demonstrated that the strong principle of equivalence of gravitation and acceleration arises from the hypothesis. All principles and postulates on which special and general theories of relativity are based are being derived, Lorentz transformations were derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2253] **viXra:1812.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-08 11:16:17*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The model based on subjective idealism, enabling to derive a space-time with a Minkowsky space metrics on Euclidean space with no time and dynamics is suggested. This model also allows deriving the curved space-time with a metrics of the general theory of relativity. It was demonstrated that the principle of causality and the anthropic principle arise from the model. It was demonstrated that the strong principle of equivalence of gravitation and acceleration arises from the model. All principles and postulates on which special and general theories of relativity are based are being derived. Article offers entirely new model for creation of physical theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2252] **viXra:1812.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-07 08:16:52*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The model based on subjective idealism, enabling to derive a space-time with a Minkowsky space metrics on Euclidean space with no time and dynamics is suggested. This model also allows deriving the curved space-time with a metrics of the general theory of relativity. It was demonstrated that the principle of causality and the anthropic principle arise from the model. It was demonstrated that the strong principle of equivalence of gravitation and acceleration arises from the model. All principles and postulates on which special and general theories of relativity are based are being derived. Article offers entirely new model for creation of physical theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2251] **viXra:1812.0105 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-11 09:59:51*

**Authors:** Gary Nash

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A modified Einstein equation of general relativity is obtained by using the principle of least action, a decomposition of symmetric tensors on a time oriented Lorentzian manifold, and a fundamental postulate of general relativity. The decomposition introduces a new symmetric tensor $ \varPhi_{\alpha\beta} $ which describes the energy-momentum of the gravitational field itself. It completes Einstein's equation and addresses the energy localization problem. The positive part of $ \Phi $, the trace of the new tensor with respect to the metric, describes dark energy. The cosmological constant must vanish and is dynamically replaced by $ \Phi $. A cyclic universe which developed after the Big Bang is described. The dark energy density provides a natural explanation of why the vacuum energy density is so small, and why it dominates the present epoch of the universe. The negative part of $ \Phi $ describes the attractive self-gravitating energy of the gravitational field. $\varPhi_{\alpha\beta} $ introduces two additional terms into the Newtonian radial force equation: the force due to dark energy and the $\frac{1}{r}$ "dark matter" force. When the dark energy force balances the Newtonian force, the flat rotation curves and the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation are obtained. The Newtonian rotation curves for galaxies with no flat orbital curves, and those with rising rotation curves for large radii are described as examples of the flexibility of the orbital rotation curve equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2250] **viXra:1812.0046 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-10 02:34:57*

**Authors:** Yansha Yu-Sandstrom

**Comments:** 73 Pages.

中国“前沿科学”杂志受篇幅限制，于2014年02期发表了本人所著“宇宙生命复合立体同步划分整合相生演进原理”前几部章节；随后，中国线装书局于2015年五月出版了这一原理更为丰富的内容，书名《宇宙学 人类文明智慧交叉整合共通共识理论原理》。美国网络期刊“数学前沿（JOURNAL OF ADVANCES IN MATHEMATICS）”在2015年12月18日发表了该原理的部分简化内容，标题为《The principle of natural law》 build in “Complete Scientific Modeling" with its internet could inclusive of all human faith, knowledge and experience. The world peace come from all the personality together blooming and complement each other。由于本人英文水平非常有限，相信不会有人看懂它。
兹寻求“完满的科学信仰及其《自然规律原理》”不同语言翻译者，以利世界不同文明文化信仰学科通过沟通交流达成人类的和解共识，谨此向翻译者们致以衷心的感谢！！
何谓包容完满的信仰？理性全方位融会贯通也*注1；换言之，从全体“个性规律”中求得它们共同具有的“共性原则”即为包容完满的信仰。何谓《自然规律原理》？即为“共性原则”也为“个性规律”的“共性原则个性规律共通共识”三大相辅相成法则，在不排斥全体人类认知认证基础上，结合数理化，包容全面地阐明万事万物各自自身及其彼此相互的存在方式和存在关系，方式方法异曲同工地翻译、互补和建立人类不同文明文化信仰学科共同具有的存在道理，为科学时代的科学人类，从各自立场属性出发走向和解共识，共建健康安全发展的“科学社会PUZZLE有机互补公共道德秩序制度”，奠定理论沟通基础。
《自然规律原理》也称“三位一体”*注2原理。鉴于科学只有量子学说接触到了“三位一体”一些皮毛，但量子学说尚未归纳总结出“三位一体”的任何概念和法则，科学实验室更未接触到“三位一体”的任何皮毛。因此，本文“引文索引”只能从世界古老文明文化信仰们方式方法异曲同工的“三位一体”法则中取得佐证。竟如，《圣经》和“本体论”的“上帝”及其“三位一体”符号“十字架”的“上帝法则”；《古兰经》“阿拉”及其“阿拉之星月”法则（其中，“星”也由“男性白色传统长袍”代表，“月”也由“女性从头到脚覆盖的黑色传统长袍”代表）；《佛经》“佛”及其“三身佛”法；《易经》“大恒”及其“阴阳球”之宇宙法理；《道德经》“道”及其“一阴一阳之谓道”的“三一之道”法自然；……。为有助相应科学期刊的理解、支持和发表，兹将《自然规律原理》解决当下科学理论困局的四篇演绎文章做为本文概要，为即将入住正文追本寻源科学和跨学科真理的仁人志士们，热身。

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2249] **viXra:1812.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-10 13:13:36*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In gravity theory, there is a well-known trans-Planckian problem, which is that general relativity theory leads to a shorter than Planck length and shorter than Planck time in relation to so-called black holes. However, there has been little focus on the fact that special relativity also leads to a trans-Planckian problem, something we will demonstrate here. According to special relativity, an object with mass must move slower than light, but special relativity has no limits on how close to the speed of light something with mass can move. This leads to a scenario where objects can undergo so much length contraction that they will become shorter than the Planck length as measured from another frame, and we can also have shorter time intervals than the Planck time.
The trans-Planckian problem is easily solved by a small modification that assumes Haug’s maximum velocity for matter is the ultimate speed limit for something with mass. This speed limit depends on the Planck length, which can be measured without any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant or the Planck constant. After a long period of slow progress in theoretical physics, we are now in a Klondike “gold rush” period where many of the essential pieces are falling in place.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2248] **viXra:1811.0495 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-29 13:42:14*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Crothers and Robitaille have recently pointed out that the Hawking temperature and the Unruh temperature are not intensive and how this is inconsistent with thermodynamics, which suggests that the theory around the temperature of black holes is flawed, incomplete, or at least not fully understood. Here we offer a modified Newtonian type acceleration field linked to the Planck scale that leads to a new modified intensive Schwarzschild surface temperature for so-called black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2247] **viXra:1811.0438 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-19 02:59:44*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Hypothesis, allowing deriving a space-time with a Minkowski space metrics on Euclidean space with no time and dynamics is suggested. This hypothesis also allows deriving the curved space-time with a metrics of the general theory of relativity. It was demonstrated that the principle of causality and the anthropic principle arise from the hypothesis. It was demonstrated that the strong principle of equivalence of gravitation and acceleration arises from the hypothesis. All principles and postulates on which special and general theories of relativity are based are being derived, Lorentz transformations were derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2246] **viXra:1811.0438 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-08 11:19:05*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2245] **viXra:1811.0438 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-07 08:14:36*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2244] **viXra:1811.0438 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-07 01:57:51*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2243] **viXra:1811.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-07 23:04:20*

**Authors:** Jody A Geiger

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

A physical description of the orbital dynamics of stars around a galactic core has proved difficult. Notably, there is insufficient mass to account for the observed star velocities. The missing-mass mystery is one of few in modern science that defy the known laws of physics. It has been conjectured that there exists a new form of matter that interacts gravitationally while otherwise remaining undetectable. In this paper, we offer an alternative resolution of this mystery. Its expression does not modify the known laws of physics, contains no free variables or fittings, and is entirely classical in nature. Using the notion of counts of the fundamental measures—length, mass, and time—it is shown that measure is bounded. Accounting for this bound and the expansion of space reveals that the dark matter conjecture is unnecessary while resolving the missing-mass mystery.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2242] **viXra:1811.0353 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-10 00:27:31*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The radio wave changes direction upon reflection. It also changes frequency if it is reflected by
a moving surface. In the standing wave formed by the incident wave and the reflected wave,
the formation of the nodes requires both waves to have the same wavelength. The nodes exist in all reference frames. This requires both the incident wave and the reflected wave to have the same wavelength in all reference frames. However, these two waves have different frequencies due to Doppler effect Therefore, these two waves travel at different speeds. Doppler radar is a good example. With two moving surfaces to reflect the radio wave between them, the radio wave can be accelerated if the distance between two reflective surfaces decreases with time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2241] **viXra:1811.0353 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-30 23:40:52*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The radio wave changes direction upon reflection. It also changes frequency if it is reflected by
a moving surface. In the standing wave formed by the incident wave and the reflected wave,
the formation of the nodes requires both waves to have the same wavelength. The nodes exist in all reference frames. This requires both the incident wave and the reflected wave to have the same wavelength in all reference frames. However, these two waves have different frequencies due to Doppler effect Therefore, these two waves travel at different speeds. Doppler radar is a good example. With two moving surfaces to reflect the radio wave between them, the radio wave can be accelerated if the distance between two reflective surfaces decreases with time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2240] **viXra:1811.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-26 15:33:13*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Is shown that according to the Theory of Total Relativity point particles with rest mass change the measure of time relative to the observer. Also is shown that the Photon have quantized rest mass as a limit value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2239] **viXra:1811.0277 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-10 15:00:03*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Version 6 is much easier to read and to understand. It also clarifies an apparent incorrectness.

This article makes it highly likely that the question mark in the title has to be an exclamation mark.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2238] **viXra:1811.0277 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-02 07:52:27*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This article makes it highly likely that the question mark in the title has to be an exclamation mark.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2237] **viXra:1811.0273 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-14 23:55:25*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The results of the Gravity Probe B experiment cannot be correct, they have wasted a lot of time and money on an unnecessary/useless experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology