Relativity and Cosmology

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3360] viXra:1905.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 18:07:48

The Accelerating Universe, Dark Energy and the Alpha Variation

Authors: Tony Bermanseder
Comments: 40 Pages.

The experimental data collected by the various supernova observers, and under utility of the Hubble Space Telescope to track the brightness variations of discovered supernovae type Ia, now converged in 1998 to the conclusion, that distant supernovae are between 20% and 30% dimmer than expected and as a consequence of their measured redshift they appear to be further away than theory permits. An interpretation of this discovery implies, that the universe's expansion is accelerating; the measured redshift depicting a distance further away for a dimmer brightness than anticipated by theory. Closer analysis of the redshift data shows an expected distribution of luminosity, calibrated to their distances in the Chilean Cala-Tololo data, up to a redshift of about 0.11 and with a redshift-gap until a redshift of 0.3; after which the 'High-Z's' begin to show the 'curving away' from a predicted decelerating expansion rate in concordance with an Euclidean flat universe of Einsteinian General Relativity. The highest redshift recorded in 1998 was that of 'supernova Iae' at (z=1.1) by the 'High-Z-Team'. Why is there a redshift gap between z=0.11 and z=0.30 approximately? Does this imply a scarcity of supernovas in this redshift interval or is there a cosmological reason for this gap? Is this cosmological reason at the core of the Dark Energy implication and the 'factuality' of an accelerating universe? This treatise shall elucidate the cosmological nature of Dark Energy and the inferred accelerating cosmology of an accelerating universe, stipulated to begin some 5-6 Billion years ago and as a change from a measured deceleration from light speed in the early universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3359] viXra:1905.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 10:35:29

New Concept of Gravity

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 8 pages, 6 figures

For more than a hundred years, discussion has been going on in physics: is gravity a force or a curvature of space? This article shows that gravity is both a force and a curvature of space simultaneously. The forcefield of gravity and space are synonyms. Gravity, like other potential forcefields, has allowed different energy levels.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3358] viXra:1905.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 12:56:08

The Heavy Majorana Neutrino Has Been Overlooked Leading to a Falsely Low Value of Hubble's Constant

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Because of misidentity, the heavy Majorana neutrino has been mistaken for the tetraquark, resulting in a falsely low value of Hubble's constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3357] viXra:1905.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 19:40:27

Machine Systematics in Dayton Miller’s “Ether Drift” Interferometer Revealed by Analysis of Variance

Authors: Simon WW Manley
Comments: 16 Pages.

The copious data records from Dayton Miller’s heroic experiments have been analyzed and re-analyzed for nearly a century by authors wishing to reinstate some version of an ether theory with a preferred frame of reference. These authors claim that a small but significant signal at the period of half a rotation in the Miller data represents anisotropy in the propagation of light, the “ether drift” effect sought in Michelson and Morley’s 19th century experiment. The analysis of variance presented in this paper, however, shows a component at the period of a full rotation, which can only be a systematic in the machine or the observer. The magnitude of the systematic matches that of the component at the half-rotation period. The remarkable aspect of the story is that the implications of the full rotation systematic, which comprehensively invalidates the claim that the data reveals an “ether drift,” or any other meaningful physics, has gone virtually unnoticed for nearly 100 years.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3356] viXra:1905.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 21:33:19

Temporal Curvature, Murphy’s Law, etc

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

a brief discussion why temporal curvature is not accepted by convention as an explanation for gravitation
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3355] viXra:1905.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 11:34:21

On Einsteins Equivalence Princple

Authors: Nikhil Karth, Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

this paper talks about the mass energy equivalence theorythis is how we derived some aspects of the equivalence its known that work is the force*distance or w=fd and that energy is work multiplied by time or E=wt now E=fdt which is equal to E=madt which is equal to E=m(d^2)/t which looks like E=m (x^2)/t which is equal to the equivalence principle E=mc^2
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3354] viXra:1905.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 19:12:17

The Relativity of Lost Energies

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 14 Pages.

When a physical system loses energy instead of gaining it, another kind of relativity holds, that of lost energies and, as we will see, the atom will give us a numerical proof of all that.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3353] viXra:1905.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 04:26:12

Quanton Based Model of Space Fabric Interactions

Authors: Ayman Kassem
Comments: 178 Pages.

The mechanism of the universe’s inflation is variation of energy in space and in time , the relationship between space and time varying energy fields is governed by energy constraining inside a Planck scale entity : the quanton as energy varies in space or in time, it creates associated fields and through their interactions, inflationary momentum and the fundamental forces are generated this model comes in three parts : energy constraining , the evolution of the quanton and its different transitions are discussed until the stable state is reached the second part , electromagnetic waves in terms of space and time varying energy fields and role of Maxwell equations in the evolution of the quanton the third part , energy fields and their interactions , while using basic physics concepts , it shows that the origin many of the physical phenomena can be traced back to the Planck scale world
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3352] viXra:1905.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 11:07:00

The sixth Dimension

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 13 Pages.

Assume mass and electric current are Fifth and sixth dimensions in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3351] viXra:1905.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 19:24:48

Why Charge is Lorentz Invariant But Relativistic Mass and a Charge-Current Density is Not?

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Conclusion of (1)Relativistic transformation of electrical current. (2) Charge is constant from frame to frame (3) Lorentz transformation of a charge-current density
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3350] viXra:1905.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 12:06:17

Can a Page and Wootters’ Mechanism (Paw) Inspired Particle Model Fulfill Mach’s Principle?

Authors: eva K deli
Comments: 11 Pages.

Page and Wootters’ mechanism (PaW) predicts that quantum entanglement leaves the state of the universe static. We satisfy the principle by dividing the cosmos into compact and non-compact dimensions, by insulating the wave function from space and gravity. In this scenario, entangled sister particles satisfy conservation principles independently of distance but modify the local volume. Either pressure or vacuum generates an orthogonal transformation (interaction) to restore symmetry. Over time space contracts or expands to develop curvature. The universe degenerates into poles, two-dimensional black holes, and four-dimensional white holes, connected by a smooth topology. Dimensional anisotropy turns gravity into a bipolar force. The verifiable and elegant hypothesis supersedes general relativity by satisfying Mach’s principle; it also offers a possible path for unification with quantum mechanics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3349] viXra:1905.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 20:52:11

Infinite Virtual Superpositions Forming the Fundamental Particles, Radical Proposals Requiring Neither Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Nor Inflation for the Evolution of the Universe.

Authors: Julian Williams.
Comments: 127 Pages. This paper specifically addresses Milgrom's galaxy rotation laws without dark matter and no change to Newton's laws.

Dark matter and dark energy are auxilliary hypotheses added to the standard cosmology model to explain both Milgrom's galaxy rotation laws and accelerating expansion. This paper looks at a different mechanism to Einstein that explains the warping of spacetime as a direct consequence of forming fundamental particles from blue, green and red spin zero virtual preons in groups of eight. At solar system scale it obeys Einstein, at galaxy scale it obeys Milgrom, at cosmic scale it accelerates expansion. Space has to be flat on average with no need of inflation or a critical density. It does this in a manner that also fits closely with key observational phenomena.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3348] viXra:1905.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 00:38:42

Speed Of Light From Motion Of Light Source

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The relative motion between a pair of observers represents a reflection symmetry. In the rest frame of first observer, the second observer moves at a distance away. In the rest frame of the second observer, the first observer moves with the same speed at an identical distance away but in the opposite direction. The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time in each observer's rest frame is conserved in both rest frames. The light takes the same elapsed time to move between two observers in both rest frames. However, the distance traveled by the light is different in different rest frame. With identical elapsed time but different distance, the speed of light is proved to be different in different reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3347] viXra:1905.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 19:27:47

The Finite Speed of Gravity and Heat from the Big Bang Era can Explain Dark Energy

Authors: Michael C Dickerson, Charles Dickerson
Comments: 8 Pages. American Mathematical Society Presentation 2013

The standard cosmological model calculates the gravitational mass-energy contribution of the Cosmic Background Radiation (CBR) to the mass of the Universe from the single energy density currently observed. The model assumes a homogeneous energy distribution at zero red shift and applies the energy density across the Universe. After reviewing the Friedmann equations for a matter dominated universe and Lematre extension of the space time metric to relativistic energy, we offer an alternative mathematical calculation of the gravitational mass-energy of the CBR component. A complete propagation history of the photons comprising the CBR is used rather than only the current energy density. Because the effects of gravity travel at the speed of light (according to general relativity), and using hot big bang cosmology, we suggest that the higher energy states of the CBR photons in the past also contribute to the currently observed gravitational effects. In our alternative calculation, the CBR energy density is integrated over a range of red shifts in order to account for the gravitational effects of the radiation energy density as it was in the past. By accounting for propagation effects, the resultant gravitational mass-energy calculated for the CBR radiation component almost exactly equals the amount attributed to dark energy. The calculation suggests an extension of the standard cosmological model in which co-moving distance at higher red shift increases with red shift more slowly than it does in the standard model. When compared with Type 1A Supernova data (in an available range of red shift from z = 0.4 to z = 1.5), distance predictions from the extended model have reasonable agreement with observation. The predictions also compare closely with the standard model (up to z = 1.0). Further observations are needed for z > 1.5 to make a final comparison between the standard model and the proposed extended model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3346] viXra:1905.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 18:40:00

Blackholes and Gravity .

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 1 Page.

This is an article that I made , I wish to read your reactions too.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3345] viXra:1905.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 18:54:27

Newtonian Origin of Relativity

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity has got a Newtonian origin.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3344] viXra:1905.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 05:25:54

An Experiment for Lorentz-Fitzgerald Contraction

Authors: Özgen Ersan
Comments: 4 Pages. S. Hawking had said that “Philosophers have not kept up with modern developments in science. Particularly physics.” However/in my opinion, nature scientists also miss the inferences of philosophy and cognitive evolution, At first the concept of “managin

If length contraction is real, the electrical resistance value of a conductive cable must change in accordance with its different directions because of the Earth’s universal motion. Trouton-Rankine experiment was replicated and reinterpreted by managing of precision in accordance with current methodology and cosmological knowledge. Our electrical resistance based experiment did not indicate an evidence for the length contraction; all measured values are isotropic.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3343] viXra:1905.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 10:25:05

Расширение Вселенной-величайшее заблуждение в истории науки

Authors: Акованцев Пётр Иванович
Comments: 11 Pages.

В статье изложена связь космологического красного смещения с температурой среды распространения излучения. На сплошной спектр видимого излучения далѐких галактик накладываются фраунгоферовы линии поглощения определѐнной частоты водородом-средой распространения. Эти линии смещаются в длинноволновую сторону, что говорит об изменении свойств водорода, как среды распространения, а не свойств самого излучения (изменении длины волны) и связаны эти изменения, прежде всего с температурой. А это, в свою очередь говорит о том, что Вселенная в своѐм эволюционном развитии нагревается.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3342] viXra:1905.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 19:53:34

Constants Theory

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 176 Pages.

The basic idea is to write the special relativity theory in 11 dimension Using basic physical quantities as a dimensions And the conclusion of transfers of basic physical quantities And constants that change from frame to frame With a change in the speed of light in different dimensions With proof that all quantities become constant at the speed of light Basic physical quantities
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3341] viXra:1905.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 20:35:22

Questioning the Conclusion of Michelson-Morley's Experiment

Authors: Simon Zhou
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment is a test of light, a representation of reality, there is no right and wrong in it. And people will get different conclusions under different assumptions: under the assumption that the speed of light is affected by inertia, the experimental results are completely consistent with the expectation; on the contrary, under the assumption that the speed of light is not affected by inertia, the assumptions and experimental results Inconsistent, for this reason people have made Lorentz-style accommodation, making this assumption seem more satisfactory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3340] viXra:1905.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 10:53:38

The Theory of Relativity and the Origin of the Cosmos

Authors: Enrico Cavallo
Comments: 2 Pages. translation of the article in english, the original one is in Italian

Big bang or long bang? What the theory of relativity says about it
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3339] viXra:1905.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 17:02:10

خطأ النظرية النسبية لآينشتاين وبديلها الشامل

Authors: سامي عمر محمود
Comments: 232 Pages. البحث وافق عليه العديد من المتخصيين في السودان واليمن

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم ملخص كتاب خطأ النسبية وبديلها الشامل نهدف من هذا الكتاب إلى إثبات خطأ النظرية النسبية، ومن ثم تقديم تفسير جديد لظاهرة ثبات سرعة الضوء المحيرة التي لوحظت أواخر القرن التاسع عشر، وهو تفسير سيؤدي إلى بناء فيزياء جديدة متكاملة تحل محل فيزياء النسبية. أولاً: إثبات خطأ النسبية الخاصة: كان برهان النسبية على ثبات سرعة الضوء هو قدرة تحويل لورنتز على الانتقال من معادلة كرة ضوئية منتفخة بسرعة الضوء بالنسبة لنظام إحداثيات إلى معادلة كرة منتفخة بسرعة الضوء في نظام إحداثيات آخر. وكان يبدو ألا وجود لأي إشكال من الناحية الرياضية في هذا البرهان؛ فالمعادلة الأولى معادلة كرة، والمعادلة النهائية التي وصلنا إليها بعد التعويض بالتحويل وخلط وترتيب الحدود هي معادلة كرة، ولكن يظهر الإشكال من الناحية الفيزيائية، إذ كيف يمكن لراصدين في نظامي إحداثيين أن يريا نفسيهما في مركز نفس النبضة الضوئية رغم وجود سرعة نسبية بينهما؟! ذاك هو المستحيل الذي لا يمكن أن يجيزه أي تصور علمي صحيح! فكيف أجازت الرياضيات النسبوية ذلك المستحيل؟! ثانياً: التفسير الجديد لظاهرة ثبات سرعة الضوء: يرجع سبب ثبات سرعة الضوء عند قيمة بالنسبة لسطح الأرض، وكذلك ثبات سرعة الضوء القادم إلينا من الأجرام الفلكية المختلفة من الاتجاهات المختلفة عند قيمة ، إلى وجود ذلك الوسط الذي تتطلبه الطبيعة الموجية للضوء، وهذا الوسط لابد أن يكون ملتصقاً بالأرض ومحيطاً بها ومتحركاً معها في حركتها الكونية تماماً كما يحيط المجال المغناطيسي بمغناطيس ويتحرك متنقلاً معه من مكان إلى آخر، وهذا الوسط بهذا الوصف لن ينطبق إلا على المجال الجاذبي للأجرام الفلكية، والذي ثبت أن له تأثير على أمواج الضوء يوازي تأثير أي وسط على أمواجه التي تنتشر فيه، من حيث إجباره لأمواج الضوء على أن تعبره دائماً بنفس السرعة بغض النظر عن حركة المصدر، وهذا ما أثبته الدكتور الفرنسي ساديه في تجربته التي أجراها عام 1963، ففيها انطلقت فوتونات جاما بسرعة بالنسبة لسطح الأرض غير متأثرة بسرعة المصدر المنطلقة منه والتي بلغت نصف سرعة الضوء، والذي جعلنا نستنتج أن المجال الجاذبي هو الوسط المرجح لانتشار الضوء وجود تأثير ملموس للمجال الجاذبي على أمواج الضوء، والأدلة على هذا التأثير هي تلك التي اعتُبِرت من أدلـة النسبيّـة العامّـة؛ مثل انحراف صور الأجرام الفلكية عن مواقعها الحقيقية، والزحزحـة التثاقليّة الحمراء، وظاهرة شابيرو .. إن الانحراف في أشعة الضوء القادم من النجوم عند مرورها بالقرب من قرص الشمس دليل جلي على أن الضوء تأثر بالمجال الجاذبي للشمس، لا كمجال قوة، بل كوسط انتشار، أثرت شدته المتغيرة تدريجياً على سرعته فحرفته عن مساره تماماً كما يحدث في ظاهرة السراب أو انكسار الضوء، أما تأخر إشارات الرادار في ظاهرة شابيرو فدليل أن العلاقة بين سرعة الضوء وشدة المجال الجاذبي هي علاقة عكسية؛ كلما زادت شدة المجال الجاذبي قلت سرعة الضوء فيه، وعليه فهي بالقرب من سطح الأرض، وأكبر من عند القمر، وأقل من عند الشمس . بهذا الشكل سيكون المجال الجاذبي للأجرام الفلكية مجال قوة بالنسبة للكتلة يؤثر عليها بتسارع ثابت تعتمد قيمته على شدة المجال، ووسط انتشار بالنسبة للأمواج الكهرومغناطيسية يؤثر عليها بسرعة ثابتة تعتمد قيمتها أيضاً على شدة المجال .. إن ثبات سرعة الضوء التي أسفرت عنها تجربة مايكلسون ومورلي يرجع إلى أن الضوء انتشر في وسطه المحيط بسطح الأرض والساكن بالنسبة لها، وهذا التفسير لا يتناقض مع نتيجة تجربة الدكتور الفرنسي ساديه، فالضوء فيها انتشر في وسطه الساكن بالنسبة لسطح الأرض، وثبات سرعته الدائم عند قيمة رغم حركة المصدر دليل على الطبيعة الموجية للضوء، فالأمواج وحدها من يحتفظ بسرعة ثابتة لا تتأثر بحركة المصدر .. أما ثبات سرعة الضوء القادم من الأجرام الفلكية عند قيمة فيرجع إلى أن وسط انتشاره الساكن والملاصق للأرض كان يفرض عليه دائماً تلك السرعة، سواء كان الضوء قادماً من جرم ساكن بالنسبة للأرض أو متحركاً بالنسبة لها، وهذا التفسير الأخير يفرض علينا اشتقاق صيغة مختلفة عن صيغة دوبلر لحساب مقدار الانزياح نحو الأحمر لتلك الأجرام المتباعدة، حيث ستكون أوساط انتشار الضوء (المجالات الجاذبية) متداخلة ومنسحبة من بعضها البعض،
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3338] viXra:1905.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 22:31:11

An Another One

Authors: Bhaskar Yadav
Comments: 42 Pages. 918288915996

it unifies classical, relativistic as well as quantum physics
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3337] viXra:1905.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 22:34:57

An Another One (Abstract Paper)

Authors: Bhaskar Yadav
Comments: 7 Pages. 918288915996

contains some of the simple explanations of the of the concepts of the paper(an another one)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3336] viXra:1905.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 17:53:30

النسبية العامة و الكم

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 14 Pages.

فكرة لتوحيد النسبية العامة وميكانيكا الكم
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3335] viXra:1905.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 02:26:01

Multiverse Shrinkage

Authors: Dan Ivan
Comments: 2 Pages.

Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm. Confirmation of the image is not confirmation of reality. We evaluate reality, dividing the universe into macrocosm and microcosm and establishing absolute results for distance and masse relative .The multiverse is composed of forces that are not the quantities that measure an action that produce to a object : a change in speed, direction, shape or pressure. The forces being in fact the change of speed, direction, shape, the pressure. Objects and particles, and their characteristics, such as mass, volume and density, are only images of these changes, not representing reality.The shrinkage velocity of the multiverse is C =299 792 458 m / s. Our image for multiverse shrinkage is radiation. The speed of light, c, is in fact the shrinkage speed of the multiverse, C. The fact that this velocity is the same for all observers and can not be exceeded, was the basis of the theories of modern phisics . But also the shrinkage of the C-speed multiverse lead to the mathematical and experimental results of these theories. Moreover, gravity is the effect of the accelerate motion of the shrinking three-dimensional multiverse, imagined so far as a curvature of the four-dimensional space.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3334] viXra:1905.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 15:04:20

Photons Red Shift

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

photons redshift because they lose energy as they cover larger volumes with thier volume their wavelength covers larger volumes of space and so thry have not less energu than other photons
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3333] viXra:1905.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-03 01:08:01

Why the Field Equation of General Relativity is Compatible with the Aether

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 3 Pages.

I demonstrate that the centre piece of General Relativity, the Einstein Field Equation, is completely compatible with the concept of an Aether type field, and that a simple rearrangement of the terms in that equation changes the meaning such that variable geometry space-time is removed and an energy field filling flat Euclidean space is described by the equation. Such a field will, by the very definition of the Field Equation, have the same observed (and verified) properties as that used by General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3332] viXra:1905.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 01:29:06

An Invitation to Research Einstein’s Cosmos: Comparing the Success/failure System with the Theory of Planetary Evolution

Authors: Dong-Yih Bau
Comments: 6 Pages.

Einstein is one among a select few in humanity. Einstein’s cosmos is the main subject of the modern science of the twenty-first century. Herein, we discuss Einstein’s scientific thoughts on the cosmos and principle theory. We also present a comparison of two theories of the mesocosmos: the success/failure system as part of Einstein’s principle theory, and the theory of planetary evolution based on the ideas of Feynman, Polanyi, and Weinberg. The aim of this paper is to exalt Einstein by urging the general public, scientists, and philosophers to participate in researching Einstein’s cosmos, either directly or indirectly. We believe that Einstein’s scientific teachings represent a blessing to humanity and comprise one of humanity’s highest sources of intellectual wisdom. Our work on Einstein’s scientific thoughts includes principle theory, the success/failure system, and the cosmos. These concepts deserve widespread attention, investigation, and experience, and should be the focus of scientific discovery and credit.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3331] viXra:1905.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 05:38:52

Vacuum Energy.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 8 Pages. GRAVITOETHERTON SUPERFLUID.

vacuum energy catastrophe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3330] viXra:1904.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 14:06:07

The Factor 1.0000055 Used to Accurately Calculate the Mass of the Neutron or Proton ls Needed for Hadronization

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Three times the factor 1.0000055 used to accurately calculate the mass of the proton or neutron in MHCE8S theory also yields 165 MeV partial energy needed for the 3-quark-gluon hadronization process
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3329] viXra:1904.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 14:00:20

Stoe Explaination for the ``ether Wind''

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley, the Miller, and other experiments have detected an ``ether wind'' and have stirred a long--standing controversy. The Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) is applied to the measurements of the Miller experiment. The STOE's plenum is comparable to the ether. The result is the divergence of the plenum caused by the Sun and Moon and the measured direction of the ``ether wind'' are at an angle of $ 91^\circ \pm 8^\circ$ with a confidence of $1 \sigma$. This suggests that these experiments are measuring the degree of tilt relative to the plenum divergence. That is, the measurements are not detecting the changing light path that results in the real Lorentz matter contraction hypothesis, but rather the measurements are detecting the changing light speed and direction caused by the divergence of the plenum. The support for the Lorentz matter contraction hypothesis as a real contraction is removed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3328] viXra:1904.0579 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 08:19:49

The Covariant Operator

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 2 Pages.

The writing delineates some peculiar aspects of the covariant operator. It appears that the metric coefficients have to disappear.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3327] viXra:1904.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 22:44:56

Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Kenneth Dalton
Comments: 14 Pages.

It has now been proved that, in general relativity, gravitational energy, momentum, stress, force and power do not exist. A new theory of gravitation is required. In the new theory, gravitational dynamics is expressed in terms of a field strength tensor. This tensor arises from the scalar, three-vector structure of time and space. The theory predicts that longitudinal waves are responsible for the flux of gravitational energy. It is time to launch a dedicated search for longitudinal gravitational waves.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3326] viXra:1904.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 09:09:39

Measuring the Complexity of Simpiicity

Authors: T H Ray
Comments: 11 Pages.

Yaneer Bar-Yam1 based his theory of multi-scale variety on the law of requisite variety 2 that underlies information science. Once we have accepted requisite variety as a theorem for complex systems science, we are compelled to ask: How deep is the structure of complexity? In complex systems science, it has to be deep enough to include gravity, because there can be no coherent system, simple or complex, without negative feedback—and gravity, even though we don’t understand it as a unitary theory, is demonstrably such a universal control (negative feedback) mechanism. We will introduce a mathematical framework by which irreducibly complex spacetime—as the only independent cosmological variable—has the potential to create and interact with matter, and mediate feedback. What is the “ ... Many which allows itself to be thought of by us as a One”, in the words of Georg Cantor, 3 such that gravity is contained in the Many that manifests in our rational judgments as a One? The question begs a set-theoretic construction, and thus we present our result in a set-theoretic context.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3325] viXra:1904.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 09:13:21

Do the Planck Length, Time and Mass Follow the Lorentz Contraction?

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Planck length, time and mass follow the Lorentz contraction. The speed of light is different in higher dimensions. The Gravitational Constant not Really Constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3324] viXra:1904.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-26 17:10:47

Revised Ether Theory and Its Confirmatory Experiment—— Refractive Test of Relativity

Authors: Ji Xueshi, Ji Yuan
Comments: 6 Pages.

The planet drags the ether around it to move together, and the ether has mass. The density of the ether is distributed according to the size of gravity. The closer to a certain planet, the greater the density of the ether. The higher the density of the ether, the slower the speed of light, and the lower the density of the ether, the faster the speed of light. The higher the density of the ether, the slower the chemical reaction rate and the slower the nuclear physical reaction speed. The T-CUP camera developed by the California Institute of Technology has a shooting speed of 10 trillion frames per second. The camera is placed on an airplane and is flying at a supersonic speed. The camera is used on an airplane to measure the speed of light all directions. If the speed of light does not change, indicates that Einstein's hypothesis is correct, and the revised etheric theory is wrong. If there is an etheric wind, the speed of light that is moving forward is slow, and the speed of light that is backward is faster. Explain that the revised etheric theory is correct and the theory of relativity is wrong.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3323] viXra:1904.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 09:03:23

Vacuum in and around horizons

Authors: Igor Hrnčić
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper puts forward the idea that vacuum is a collection of un-localized quantum oscillators inside a horizon. The characteristics of such vacuum are studied inside the black hole and Hubble horizons. The results suggest that energy is quantized, with the minimal energy depending on the size of the horizon. This suggests that vacuum is more dense in black holes than in the surrounding universe, demanding by continuity the existence of a vacuum halo around every black hole. This vacuum halo could act exactly like dark matter if it exerted no pressure on matter, thus not interacting with matter in any way other than gravitationally. A suitable cosmological model presented here suggests that such vacuum could accelerate the universal expansion. This suggests that the vacuum studied in this paper could successfully stand instead of dark matter, cosmological vacuum and quantum vacuum of quantum theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3322] viXra:1904.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 17:44:51

A New Hypothetical Solution to Gravitational Singularities

Authors: Manuel Urueña
Comments: 5 Pages.

An expected behaviour of space-time and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3321] viXra:1904.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 09:15:12

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory3

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

why dont masses cover space instantly?because for every new volume of space discovered the masses need to cover the whole space again but why the limit of the speed of light and the slowing of time?because if you want to push forward you need to wait till other masses cover the forward space and there is the need to wait for other masses to cover backwards space
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3320] viXra:1904.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 11:31:41

Complex-Dynamic Origin of Quantised Relativity and Its Manifestations at Higher Complexity Levels

Authors: Andrei P. Kirilyuk
Comments: 11 Pages. Published as section 8.3 of the book: A. P. Kirilyuk, Theory of Everything, Ultimate Reality and the End of Humanity: Extended Sustainability by the Universal Science of Complexity (LAP LAMBERT Academic Publishing, Beau Bassin, 2017), viXra:1802.0168

Unified and causal complex-dynamic origin of standard (special and general) relativistic and quantum effects revealed previously at the lowest levels of world interaction dynamics is explicitly generalised to all higher levels of unreduced interaction processes, thus additionally confirming the causally complete character of complex-dynamical, naturally quantised relativity, which does not contain any artificially added, abstract postulates. We demonstrate some elementary applications of this generalised quantum relativity at higher levels of complex brain and social interaction dynamics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3319] viXra:1904.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 22:26:15

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory4

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

could we push a photon? no we cant because ots at the speed of light or c constant for speed that is why we end up time dilating when we go at the speed of light
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3318] viXra:1904.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 02:09:56

Conservation of Wavelength In Reference Frame

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

Parity symmetry maps one object to another object as inverse image. It shows that a displacement and its inverse image are of the same length. The length of a displacement is conserved in all reference frames. The wavelength of a wave is the length of the displacement between two adjacent crests. Therefore, the wavelength is conserved in all reference frames. However, Doppler effect shows that the frequency of light is not conserved in all inertial reference frames. As a result, the speed of light is not conserved in all inertial reference frames.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3317] viXra:1904.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 03:17:26

Explaining Fleming's Hand Rules By Relativity

Authors: Nabin Timalsina
Comments: 8 Pages. This is continuation of my previous paper " Explaining Magnetism by Relativity"

Fleming's Right Hand Rule and Left Hand Rule for Motors can be explained in very simple way as just 'Relativistic Interaction of Moving Charged particles' which cannot explained by classical electrodynamics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3316] viXra:1904.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 09:45:27

Explaining Magnetism By Relativity

Authors: Nabin Timalsina
Comments: 27 Pages. copyrighted © to author .

In this paper , equations of Magnetism are rediscovered by using Special Relativity and Coulomb's law with different method and various cases are studied . Magnetic field near a current carrying conductor is redefined as ratio of relativistic electric field experienced by reference frame of a moving charge near the conductor to velocity of that reference frame with respect to the conductor. Mathematically, it is found that the existing formulas of magnetism given by Biot- Savart Law are valid only for normal velocities and completely fail for higher or microscopic velocities of moving charge. 'Fleming's Right/Left Hand Rules' can easily be explained by Relativity as just interaction between charges. Unlike existing idea, a magnet or current carrying conductor can exert some force even on charges at rest. Magnetic field due to a current carrying conductor is nothing but ratio of approximate relativistic electric field to the velocity of reference frame. Lorentz force can be calculated as 'Just Electric Force' rather as 'Sum of Electric and Magnetic Force' by using Relativity. Magnetic force is just an electric force in Relativistic Electrodynamics that could not be explained by Classical Electrodynamics. The values of speed of light in vacuum and absolute permittivity are fundamental and value of permittivity is depends upon them. It is claimed that "As Maxwell's Equations are based upon existing equations of Magnetism which are only approximation for lower velocities and fail in higher velocities, they are likely to be useless now". It is suggested that, "As Magnetic Force is nothing but Electric Force in Relativistic Electrodynamics, the name of one of the four fundamental forces ; 'Electromagnetic Force' should be changed into just 'Electric Force'." It is claimed that radiations are just non-mechanical waves that can propagate at velocity of light and are not necessarily electromagnetic in nature. Moreover, the writer suggests that electromagnetic waves may not exist at all.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3315] viXra:1904.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 14:56:28

Change Constant of Gravity When Mass is the Fifth Dimension

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 10 Pages.

Assume mass is the fifth dimension in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity and transformation of gravity constant between them.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3314] viXra:1904.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 21:10:40

Derivation of All Linear Transformations that Meet the Results of Michelson-Morley’s Experiment and Discussion of the Relativity Basics

Authors: Szostek Roman
Comments: 27 Pages. Discussion about the basics of the Special Theory of Relativity.

The article shows that there are infinitely many kinematics in which one-way speed of light is always equal to c. The kinematics of Special Theory of Relativity (STR) is only one of those infinitely many kinematics. It presents that mathematics on which STR kinematics is based can be interpreted differently and this leads to other conclusions on the properties of this kinematics. In this article, the whole class of linear coordinate and time transformations was derived. Transformations were derived on the assumption that conclusions from Michelson-Morley’s and Kennedy-Thorndikea’s experiments are met for the observer from each inertial frame of reference, i.e. that the mean velocity of light in the vacuum flowing along the way back and forth is constant. It was also assumed that there is at least one inertial frame of reference, in which the velocity of light in a vacuum in each direction has the same value c, and the space is isotropic for observers from this distinguished inertial frame of reference (universal frame of reference). Derived transformations allow for building many different kinematics according to Michelson-Morley’s and Kennedy-Thorndikea’s experiments. The class of transformations derived in the study is a generalization of transformations derived in the paper [10], which consists in enabling non-zero values of parameter e(v). The idea of such a generalization derives from the person, who gave me this extended transformations class for analysis and publication.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3313] viXra:1904.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 23:26:26

Einstein’s Notational Equation of Electro-Magnetic Field Equation in Rindler Spacetime

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

We find Einstein’s notational equation of the electro-magnetic field equation and the electro-magnetic field in Rindler space-time. Because, electromagnetic fields of the accelerated frame include in general relativity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3312] viXra:1904.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 07:31:44

Gravity Doesn’t Exist at Infinite Distances: Mathematical Equation

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

The article aims to provide a mathematical equation for my new discovery . Link to my new discovery : http://vixra.org/abs/1904.0013
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3311] viXra:1904.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 10:03:58

Discovery of the Fundamental Particle and Theory of the Universal Temporality

Authors: Marc J. Meurens
Comments: 9 Pages.

The fundamental particle is the elementary particle of which the active mass corresponds to the fundamental quantum of action and to the fundamental time unit equal to the number 1. The universal temporality is the relation between the unit, the course and the duration of the Universe expansion time. The identification of the fundamental particle in the Planck’s constant and its integration in the Newton’s constant reveal that its interaction simultaneously causes the expansion and the gravitation. The mechanical modelling of this primordial interaction with the Newton’s cradle completes the general relativity with the cosmological relativity and the quantum mechanics with the primordial mechanics. In relating the notions of mass, space and time, the discovery of the fundamental particle and its primordial interaction links the mechanics with the relativity. In relating the unit, the course and the duration of the universal time, the theory of the universal temporality demystifies the black energy as well as the black matter. The spectral time signature is the gravitation weakening hidden behind the expansion acceleration in the spectrum of the universal temporality. The Moon distancing measured since 50 years in the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment is a spectral time signature which allows calculate the Universe age with the Newton’s constant more easily and precisely than with the Hubble’s constant. Together the theory of the universal temporality and the Lunar Laser Ranging experiment unveil the time nature and demonstrates that in its unit, its course and its duration the universal time is an energy ratio between the Universe and the fundamental particle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3310] viXra:1904.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 15:28:51

The Fifth Dimension

Authors: Mohamed Ahmed Abouzeid
Comments: 10 Pages.

Assume mass is the fifth dimension in Special Relativity and Redefinition of the point as a circle. According to Einstein's first hypothesis only, it can be reached to transfer formats between reference frames in the special theory of relativity and find the mass limit for any body is moves
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3309] viXra:1904.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 08:28:04

Discrete Time Inside Continuous Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Scientists believe that time is continuous, not discrete—roughly speaking, they believe that it does not progress in "chunks," but rather "flows," smoothly and continuously. [27] Physicists theorize that this time-reversal violation is the key ingredient needed to unravel the cosmic mystery of the missing antimatter. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3308] viXra:1904.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 14:58:20

Is This a Black Hole?

Authors: Mohamed Ababou
Comments: 02 Pages.

the news about capturing a black hole are spreading quickly all over the globe, but it is clear and according to physical and Mathematical evidences that it can't be a black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3307] viXra:1904.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 11:27:30

An MHCE8S Flow Diagram Emphasizing the Existence of Two New Quarks and Older Holography

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time cycle of the 4th cycle of an MHCE8S universe emphasizing 2 new neutron quarks and holography extending back to at least the 3rd cyclic universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3306] viXra:1904.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 13:09:32

Causality

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 16 Pages.

Causality and Information are linked variables characterizing atomic matter, bridging the conceptual gap between Quantum Mechanics and Relativity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3305] viXra:1904.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-13 17:27:15

The Universe is a Perfect Sphere-Theoretical Calculation of the TCMBR

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper I show that the universe is a perfect sphere and provide a theoretical calculation of the TCMBR.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3304] viXra:1904.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-14 03:28:58

The Spinorial Einstein Equations

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 3 pages, written in french

We define Einstein spinors and Einstein equations for spin geometry.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3303] viXra:1904.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 09:09:45

On the C Constant0

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

1.the distance at 3*10^8 m is independent of time 2.any amount of time is independent of the distance 3*10^8 m 1.this means that the distance 3*10^8 m is the distance that you cant add more time more than 1 second 2.this means that no matter how much time you add or take the distance 3*10^8 is the same in all casesv
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3302] viXra:1904.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 18:22:15

Ether and Einstein

Authors: Genrih Leonidovich Arutyunov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Einstein's theory of relativity is based on Ether. Einstein's statements that there is no Ether and that all systems are equal are just an attempt to hide the fact that Einstein's Theory of Relativity and the Poincare Principle are one and the same.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3301] viXra:1904.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 17:12:55

The Wrong ‘EHT Black Hole Image’ and Money; the Ferent Image. Einstein and All the Scientists Did not Understand Gravitation

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 343 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The Wrong ‘EHT Black Hole image’ and money; the Ferent image. Einstein and all the scientists did not understand Gravitation “Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black; Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity the supermassive Black Hole image is white because around it there are a lot of collisions between stars and planets. The large luminosity is the result of gas and matter being accreted by the supermassive Black Hole.” Adrian Ferent “Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity the Event Horizon doesn’t exist, at the Event Horizon there are Gravitons” Adrian Ferent The first Black Hole image of the Event Horizon Telescope (EHT) is Wrong, it is a Fraud. The image of the supermassive Black Hole that lies at the centre of the huge Messier 87 galaxy is Einstein Black Hole image, it is Einstein description of gravity! EHT image is Einstein Black Hole image: Galaxy image and Ferent Black Hole image: “Black holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent 85% of the matter in the universe is Dark Matter. More accurate: “Black Holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent Ferent Matter is high density Dark Matter: Ferent density ≥ Ferent matter density > Planck density “Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass: md = m × c^2 / vp^2” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who calculated the mass and the energy of a Black Hole” Adrian Ferent “Everything what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Dark Matter and Black Holes is wrong” Adrian Ferent We do not need to look for Black Holes in another galaxy. Sagittarius A* is the location of the supermassive Black Hole in the center of the Milky Way galaxy. Milky Way galaxy has a supermassive Black Hole, 4.1 million solar masses, at its center, 26000 light-years from the Solar System. Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity! Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume! The Planck density = 5.155 × 10^96 kg/m^3 At Planck wall the volume of the Black Hole: V = 1.59 × 10^(-60) m^3 “The volume of this supermassive Black Hole is much smaller than V = 1.59 × 10^(-60) m^3” Adrian Ferent “Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume” Adrian Ferent “Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space” Adrian Ferent Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black! Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White! “In Ferent Quantum Gravity the supermassive Black Hole image is white because around it there are a lot of collisions between stars and planets. The large luminosity is the result of gas and matter being accreted by the supermassive Black Hole.” Adrian Ferent “Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black; Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White” Adrian Ferent “Because inside the Black Holes, the Gravitational force is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force, nobody was able to explain Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “The energy of the Gravitons inside a Black Hole, is much higher than the energy of the gluons” Adrian Ferent That is why: “Gravitational radiation is the most penetrating type of radiation” Adrian Ferent “Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole” Adrian Ferent “Gravitons emitted by Black Holes kill people” Adrian Ferent But you see on TV, YouTube wrong things about Wormholes, how scientists like Michio Kaku, Kip Thorne… can travel trough a Black Hole! “Newton and Einstein did not understand Gravitation, they calculated Gravitation” Adrian Ferent Money and Fraud! Living in Romania, the most corrupt country, I understand very well the corruption in science. Like LIGO and the discovery of Higgs boson, the ‘EHT Black Hole image’ is another Fraud! LIGO: “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?” Adrian Ferent “The reaction of the Swedish Academy to Higgs boson discovery appears to be a result of being beguiled by CERN’s attempts to justify the billions of dollars of public money being spent.“ This is another proof that Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right and Einstein Gravitation theory, String theory, LQG… are wrong theories. “Scientists who are not capable to work with Planck units, they can work with atoms in chemistry, medicine, biology, technology, they can work in mathematics to build wrong models, they can work in economics, they can work in AI…” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity the Event Horizon doesn’t exist, at the Event Horizon there are Gravitons” Adrian Ferent 198. I am the first who explained why Einstein supermassive Black Hole image is Black; Ferent supermassive Black Hole image is White 199. I am the first who explained why Einstein supermassive Black Hole is a Singularity; Ferent supermassive Black Hole has very small volume 200. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity the Event Horizon doesn’t exist, at the Event Horizon there are Gravitons
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3300] viXra:1904.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 00:40:17

Considerations and Calculations on the Fraction of Helium in Neutral Matter of the Net Charged Universe NCU [1,2,3]

Authors: Ulrich Berger
Comments: 9 Pages.

Abstract: As described previously, the concept of a “Net Charged Universe” (NCU) assumes that the expansion of the universe is driven by a slight excess of positive charge in the universe’s matter. This excess charge comes into being by means of quantum fluctuations at the universe’s horizon. Excess protons experience electrostatic acceleration and therefore gain high relativistic mass, which is the source of the creation of neutral matter at the universe’s horizon. Based on the NCU model, the present article aims to explain the observed fraction of Helium (approximately 7%) in the universe’s baryonic matter. For this purpose, calculations on collision rates of excess protons are performed and applied to determine the Helium fraction in the universe’s matter. The results of these calculations correspond very well to the observations and thus, they further support the NCU model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3299] viXra:1904.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 12:50:06

On the Accelerating Universal Expansion (Revised)

Authors: R. Wayte
Comments: 25 Pages.

Repulsive gravity at large distances has been included in the universal solution of Einstein’s equations by introducing a cosmological constant, excluding the dark energy interpretation. For a new cosmological model, the big-bang singularity has been replaced by a granular primeval particle and expansion is controlled by the velocity of light. Subsequently, well known problems inherent in the standard model of cosmology do not arise.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3298] viXra:1904.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 16:25:47

Kinematyka w Szczególnej Teorii Eteru (in Polish)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 16 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

Celem artykułu jest pokazanie, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie są wystarczające do uzasadnienia Szczególnej Teorii Względności. Możliwe jest bowiem wyjaśnienie tych eksperymentów przy pomocy innej teorii, w której występuje uniwersalny układ odniesienia. W artykule wyprowadzamy nową teorię kinematyki ciał z uniwersalnym układem odniesienia, którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru (STE). W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalnego układu odniesienia. W artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Wyprowadzona została także transformacja prędkości, wzór na sumowanie prędkości dla prędkości bezwzględnej, wzór na skrócenie długości oraz wzór na dylatację czasu. Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania autorów publikacji.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3297] viXra:1904.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 01:33:29

The Dark Side of Gravity (Living Review)

Authors: Henry-Couannier Frederic
Comments: 64 Pages.

Dark Gravity (DG) is a background dependent bimetric and semi-classical extension of General Relativity with an anti-gravitational sector. The foundations of the theory are reviewed. The main theoretical achievement of DG is the avoidance of any singularities (both black hole horizon and cosmic initial singularity) and an ideal framework to understand the cancellation of vacuum energy contributions to gravity and hopefully solve the old cosmological constant problem. The main testable predictions of DG against GR are on large scales as it provides an acceleration mechanism alternative to the cosmological constant. The detailed confrontation of the theory to SN-Cepheids, CMB and BAO data is presented. The Pioneer effect, MOND phenomenology and Dark Matter are also investigated in the context of this new framework.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3296] viXra:1904.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 11:32:13

A Simple Spin on Gravity

Authors: David Colasante
Comments: 8 Pages.

Euclidean interval-time coordinates reveal a surprisingly simple explanation of gravity. From this, gravitational mass, inertial mass and energy inextricably arise with inherent duality.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3295] viXra:1904.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 17:28:04

The Error in the 1st Schwarzschild Exact Solution. Total Relativity and the Atom in the Generalization of the Schwarzschild and Reissner Nordström Solutions for Point Particle Energy.

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 7 Pages.

Is shown the field and energy momentum tensor solutions of the Total Relativity equations for a discretized distribution of point-particle energy with a shell in spherical symmetry. A generalization of the Schwarzschild and Reissner Nordström solutions with an equivalent of the spherical atomic model with shell, mass and electric charge in radial static distribution is obtained. An equivalence between mass, radial distance and electric charge is observed. The solution is vacuum with no singularities and points to incompleteness and error in the Schwarzschild Vacuum Solution due to the problem of total energy conservation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3294] viXra:1904.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 05:58:06

The Concept of Basic Clocks and Simultaneity in TSR

Authors: Per Hokstad
Comments: 13 Pages.

Abstract. The concept of ‘basic clocks’ was introduced in Hokstad (2018b). These are moving clocks to be applied in the theory of special relativity (TSR). They experience an initial synchronization at a common location, and provide the basis for defining time and simultaneity. Here we elaborate and motivate the concept somewhat further, also utilizing symmetry. We further allow having a successive chain of initial synchronizations. This is required in the ‘travelling twin’ example, in order to handle the turning of the twin. Finally, the approach is used to discuss the interpretation of the case of the µ-mesons.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3293] viXra:1904.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 10:46:02

Bekenstein Bound Action on the 3rd Cyclic Universe Produced MHCE8S Starting Energy for the 4th Universe

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The starting energy for the 4th cyclic universe came from Bekenstein collapse energy produced by the 3rd cyclic universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3292] viXra:1904.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 22:57:13

Solving the Black Hole Information Paradox

Authors: Tom Fuchs
Comments: 2 Pages.

I show an issue with an experiment involving the event horizon of a black hole, and use it to solve the black hole information paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3291] viXra:1904.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 09:10:07

Hoаw Can You Calculate the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe?

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 2 Pages. -

Space is quantized. The Hubble extension makes all these areas non-inertial. Limit speeds in these areas will be different. Because of this, there is some extra force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3290] viXra:1904.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 08:34:40

Masses in Spacetime

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

in our previous paper we noted that space is the envelope of masses and that time is the effects done till the rupture of time now we will study how masses interact with space time lets study first why masses accelerate in space now imagine having three types of masses in the universe a mass that is sprinkled in the universe in the form of electromagnetic waves and masses that are agglomerated together in groups and masses that are in blackholes now when we look at the first case we find that electromagnetic waves are taking the whole volume of the universes space and that means that they cover the whole space and so the effect of time of space time is not much and cannot make it accelerate now in masses agglomerated together in groups we find that masses do not take the whole space and so time of spacetime effects starts to happen much intensively and so the agglomerated mass start to escape its own domain shared with other masses and thus they accelerate away from each other now in blackholes the effect of time of spacetime on black holes is left to conclude that they only happen because of the expansion of the agglomerated masses
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3289] viXra:1904.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 05:52:10

Pioneer 10 Anomaly, the Surprising Final Explanation

Authors: Fabien Sabinet
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Pioneer 10 anomaly, discovered at the end of the 70's by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory, is a supplemental acceleration, in addition to the normal gravity from the solar system, acting on the probe with a magnitude of 8.7×10-10 m/s². I calculated here that the value of this anomaly is surprisingly exactly equal to the difference between the result given by the Doppler relativistic formula based on the Einstein's second postulate (used by JPL), and the result given by the Doppler classic Galilean velocity addition formula.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3288] viXra:1904.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 09:22:14

Black Body Radiation in Moving Frames

Authors: Kamran Derakhshani
Comments: 40 Pages.

The problem of black body radiation when measured by a moving observer has a pivotal role in relativistic thermodynamics. Mutually, it depends on the thermodynamical definition of the thermal equilibrium and temperature of moving bodies, i.e. under a Lorentz transformation, and also in a gravitational field. Surprisingly, even after more than a century, relativistic thermodynamics is not a mature theory and is still an open problem without a consensus. This article is a brief review of the evolution of this theory with a special focus on the black body radiation in moving frames. As an application, we use the results in the most interesting topics of the quantum field theory in curved space: Hawking radiation, and Unruh effect.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3287] viXra:1904.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 12:08:38

Time Dilatation: Real or Apparent?

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 5 pages, 2 figures

In contemporary physics the relativity theory states that the length of moving bodies contracts and the local time of a moving system dilates. This paper discloses an analysis of basic relativity equations which show that length contraction and time dilatation are apparent.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3286] viXra:1904.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 17:38:09

A Neoclassical Model of Nature

Authors: J Mark Morris
Comments: 3 Pages.

A neoclassical model of nature is proposed, based upon two equal and opposite fundamental particles. These particles may also be considered as conserved excitations. This model is derived from thought experiment and re-interpretation of modern physics and cosmology. A parsimonious neoclassical model of nature is proposed where the electrino ε- and positrino ε+ are the basis of all matter, the carriers of all energy, and form a superfluid gas which permeates most of the universe. At high energies matter and gas change phase to plasma wherein general relativity does not apply. Neither general relativity nor quantum mechanics include the electrino, positrino, nor graviton particles. The neoclassical model informs solutions to many open problems in physics and cosmology. A new narrative emerges that requires recasting and reframing the interpretations of experimental results and theory from physics, cosmology, and astronomy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3285] viXra:1904.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 20:54:25

On Olbers Paradox

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this work we discuss a possibility to resolve Olbers paradox that states that if the universe is static, infinite and distributed over with an infinite number of stars then the sky should always be brightly illuminated, and obviously, this contradicts with the observed darkness of the night. Our discussion is based on the observation that matter seems to be distributed mainly on the boundaries of geometric and topological structures in the spatiotemporal continuum, which can be formulated in terms of a CW complex composed of n-cells. And in the case of the three-dimensional observable universe the observation can be justified from our work on the spacetime transcription of physical fields that shows that massive matter can only be formed as three-dimensional objects and all four-dimensional physical fields must have the structure of a static electromagnetic field. From the analysis of the possibility of physical creation from spacetime through the process of transcription we may conclude that most of the observable massive matter are formed and distributed on the boundary, which may be composed of 3D balls, of a 3-sphere and therefore the Oblers paradox can be resolved.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3284] viXra:1904.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 07:00:53

On Einsteins Time Dilation

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

in einsteins theory of relativity there is the concept of time dilation its an effect that happens when you tend to reach the speed of light in this paper we will study why does time dilation happens in our previoud paper on einsteins spacetime we have seen how mass inside space acts up now when we move a mass that means that we are moving it from one space domain to the other and since we are moving it from one domain to the other we could assume that space is excluding the mass and accepting new masses which is perfectly normal but then the time part of spacetime starts to act up when you add mass from space domain to the other at high speeds you end up having masses that are passing through lots of space and when you pass through much space thtough much speeds(near the speed of light) you end up passing through lots of time pressing effects and then time starts to increase and then time dilates
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3283] viXra:1904.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-04 17:05:21

Special Relativity: the Old and the New Theory

Authors: Lahcen Aderras
Comments: 11 Pages.

By adjoining the local time to the Newtonian mechanics together with the constancy of the speed of light;a new unprecedented and insightful derivation of the Lorentz transformation (LT) is proposed. The procedure consist of elementary arguments and simple but rigorous mathematical techniques. The usually assumptions concerning the linearity and homogeneity in the standard derivations of the LT are obtained as results. Moreover, an other, entirely new, transformation is established. As expected, a new special relativity theory ensue from this new transformation. Unlike the special relativity theory (SRT), with this new theory we can tame superluminal velocities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3282] viXra:1904.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 14:15:19

The Nature of Singularity

Authors: Sunil Thakur
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, we have examined some important proposals of the big bang theory. We have also examined a few important interpretations of the quantum mechanics. We have shown that these proposals are not correct but not too far from the reality. We have explained the mechanism of the quantum jump and quantum tunneling. We have also analyzed the peculiar motion of the galaxies. We have shown that the singularity did appear everywhere and that the space emerged from the singularity has been expanding ever since the big bang. However, we have explained that the physical world is only a projection. The concept of multiverse or the principle of holographic universe are not correct, because the fact is that the universe is still being projected from each of the singularity. Every singularity projects the same universe because every singularity is a hologram, but this hologram is changing constantly because the information is being created continuously in the universe. We have also explained the mechanism that ensures that the hologram is updated constantly to ensure that at any given time, all the singularities project the same universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3281] viXra:1904.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 17:24:44

Matter and Antimatter

Authors: Leonardo Rubino
Comments: 1 Page.

Matter and antimatter are in a perfect balance in the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3280] viXra:1904.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 11:50:56

Gravity Doesn’t Exist at Infinite Distances: Relativistic Mass Equation

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages.

The article aims to prove gravity spread out with the speed of light c using relativistic mass equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3279] viXra:1904.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 15:27:24

On the Ricci Scalar, the Ricci Tensor and the Riemannian Curvature Tensor

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 8 Pages.

The article in the first two sections proves decisively that the Ricci scalar and the norm of the Ricci tensor are constants on the manifold. In the subsequent sections Ricci tensor and Riemannian curvature tensor turn out to be null tensors. The Ricci scalar works out to zero.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3278] viXra:1904.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 11:42:01

Gravity Doesn’t Exist at Infinite Distances

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 2 Pages.

The article aims to prove the non-existence of gravity at infinite distances and prove gravity has a limited range this range is extendable by the speed of light c.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3277] viXra:1904.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 18:01:18

An Argument Against the Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Thanh Nguyen
Comments: 7 Pages.

This argument is a section in my book, Beyond the World of Relativity to the World of Invariance. In this argument, we are going to analyze the light aberration to show that the special theory of relativity is inconsistent with the constancy of the speed of light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3276] viXra:1904.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 04:47:18

A New Light Estimation of Dark Matter, Dark Energy and the Ternary Space-Times, Based on the Special Theory of Relativity and Space Genesis

Authors: Fumitaka Inuyama
Comments: 10 Pages.

Published studies in the literature have stated that the mass of dark matter and the mass of dark energy are approximately five times and 14 times greater in mass, respectively, than ordinary substances such as atoms. However, the detection and thus proof of the existence of dark matter and dark energy have not been successfully realized to date. I believe that there are some fundamental problems that must be addressed and that the universal space-time itself has its own hidden characteristics. In this work, I have estimated the universal space-time based on the special theory of relativity i.e. the combined velocity and the increasing mass. Based on this estimate, it can be concluded that “the ternary space-times” exist in the modern universe and that each of these space-times has its own specific light velocity. And the ternary space-times were created in inflationary epoch of the immediate early universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3275] viXra:1903.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 08:32:46

Speed of Light in Slow Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

In the resulting footage, photons clearly streak through the milk in a blue blur as the laser travels across the screen from left to right. [30] Light-by-light scattering is a very rare phenomenon in which two photons interact, producing another pair of photons. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3274] viXra:1903.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 15:00:17

On Einsteins Spacetime

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

Einstein discovered the theory of relativity with the notion of space and time or spacetime he said that masses where making a curvature in spacetime its time to understand more about how space works and much importantly how time works space is the envelope of messages the larger the envelope the more messages you can put and the more the envelope can withstand rupture the more time it offers now this means that space is taking a limit of masses inside of it that it cant take more than without any more effects but if you add more masses inside space the spacetime effects start to appear spacetime starts to press on masses and they get compressed as in the form of the blackholes through gravity in other words there is much more mass than there is space and time acts up and gravity occurs because and so forget about dark matter and dark energy and that’s simply how the big bang started simply by existence of masses than the ability of universes space to contain and so the masses started to compress through time and so the curvature of spacetime is not towards the mass but enveloping the mass in a ball and since space is not simply a volume its space then I could assume this theory to be true
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3273] viXra:1903.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-30 10:07:47

Super Accelerated Motion in Rindler Spacetime

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover formulas that the super accelerated matter moves with the acceleration a' about Rindler space-time. We can represent the super accelerated motion about coordinates x,ct.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3272] viXra:1903.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-30 14:18:47

The Digit Count of a Particle's Mass Identifies the Cyclic Universe in Which the Particle Arose

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: If the digit count of a particle's mass is four or less the count indicates in which of the 4 cyclic universes the particie first appeared
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3271] viXra:1903.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-29 10:17:55

Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

The GRAVITY Collaboration, a team of researchers at several renowned institutes including the Max Planck Institute, LESIA Paris Observatory and the European Southern Observatory, has recently tested part of the Einstein Equivalence Principle, namely the local positon invariance (LPI), near the galactic center supermassive black hole. [12] A key aspect of Einstein’s general theory of relativity (GR) has been tested using the strongest gravitational field so far. The measurement was made by observing changes in optical absorption lines of a star orbiting close to Sagittarius A* – the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. [11]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3270] viXra:1903.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-28 15:38:22

A Timelapse of the Universe

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 30 Pages.

An examination of our universe's history and future, based on the theory of eternal infinity, and an examination of the evidence of this theory of cosmology. Additionally, also examining the new data from SIAII labs that adds now unquestionable support for the theory of "Quantum Pixels".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3269] viXra:1903.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 08:38:01

A Neoclassical Framework That Reunifies Modern Physics

Authors: Alan M. Kadin
Comments: 36 Pages. Poster presented at American Physical Society meeting, Boston, Mass., Mar. 7, 2019

The unity of classical physics was broken by quantum uncertainty on the micro level and curved spacetime on the cosmic level. In contrast, a novel neoclassical picture is presented*, which incorporates key aspects of quantum and relativistic physics, while maintaining deterministic local reality at all levels. This is based on the following principles: 1) Real rotating vector fields self-organize into soliton-like wave packets with quantized spin; these represent elementary particles. 2) Characteristic frequency and wavelength of these wave packets define time and space, and are modulated by gravity. 3) Wave packets maintain constant frequency for both massive and massless particles, reproducing relativistic trajectories. 4) Transitions are due to continuous interactions between wave packets that conserve total frequency, wavevector, and spin. This approach maintains quantum discreteness without Hilbert space, and reproduces curved light without spacetime. But this also predicts sharp deviations from some simple predictions of orthodox quantum theory, such as the two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment. *A.M. Kadin, “Fundamental Waves and the Reunification of Physics”, Foundational Questions Institute Essay Contest, 2017, available online at https://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2972.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3268] viXra:1903.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 14:06:22

THe Space

Authors: Sunil Thakur
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this article, we have analyzed the structure of ice and the behavior of electromagnetic and sound waves in the ice to show that the apparent emptiness is not really empty. The matter exists in imperceptible form as part of all the physical entities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3267] viXra:1903.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 16:17:14

Quantized Space-Time and Dark Matter

Authors: Eran Sinbar
Comments: 3 Pages.

Planck’s length is the scale in which the classical ideas of gravity and space-time cease to be valid and where uncertainty dictates the rules. This is the size of the information bits on the black holes event horizon and there is a good reason to assume that it is the size of the basic building blocks of the fabric of space. This article assumes three leading assumptions: 1. the quantization of space into a lattice (grid) of unit cells, which I will refer to as 3D voxels of space (voxels) in the size of Planck’s length in each dimension. 2. The quantization of time into Planck’s time sequences (pulses). 3. Light travels one space voxel for each time pulse. Based on these three assumptions, this article will show that the Newton gravitational constant (G) increases as the universe expands. This increase in the gravitational constant can illuminate some light on the mysterious dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3266] viXra:1903.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 19:42:42

Modeling Cosmic Expansion, and Possible Inflation, As a Thermodynamic Heat Engine

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 29 Pages. already published 26.Pilot, C, 2017, Modeling Cosmic Expansion, and Possible Inflation, as a Thermodynamic Heat Engine, https://arxiv.org/abs/1705.04743 Zeitschrift fuer Naturforschung A (ZNA) ZNA Vol:74 (2019) iss:01

If we assume a closed universe with slight positive curvature, cosmic expansion can modeled as a heat engine where we define the “system”, collectively, as those regions of space within the observable universe, which will later evolve into voids/ empty space. We identify the “surroundings”, collectively, as those pockets of space, which will eventually develop into matter-filled galaxies, clusters, super-clusters and filament walls. Using this model, we can find the energy needed for cosmic expansion using basic thermodynamic principles, and prove that cosmic expansion had as its origin, a finite initial energy density, pressure, volume, and temperature. Inflation in the traditional sense, with the inflaton field, may also not be required. We will argue that homogeneities and in-homogeneities in the WMAP temperature profile is attributable to quantum mechanical fluctuations about a fixed background temperature in the initial isothermal expansion phase. Fluctuations in temperature can cause certain regions of space to lose heat. Other regions will absorb that heat. The voids are those regions which absorb the heat forcing, i.e., fueling expansion of the latter and creating slightly cooler temperatures in the former, where matter will later congregate. Upon freeze-out, 2 this could produce the observed WMAP signature with its associated CBR fluctuation in magnitude. Finally, we estimate that the freeze-out temperature and the freeze-out time for WMAP in-homogeneities, occurred at roughly 3.02 * 1027 K and 2.54 * 10-35 s, respectively, after first initiation of volume expansion. This is in line with current estimates for the end of the inflationary epoch. The heat input in the inflationary phase is estimated to be Q = 1.81 * 1094 J, and the void volume increases by a factor of only 5.65. The bubble voids in the observable universe increase, collectively, in size from about .046 m3 to .262 m3 within this inflationary period.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3265] viXra:1903.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 19:47:48

Is Quintessence an Indication of a Time-Varying Gravitational Constant?

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 38 Pages. already published;Pilot, C, 2018, Is Quintessence an Indication of a Time-Varying Gravitational Constant?, https://arxiv.org/abs/1803.06431 , Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) JHEPGC Vol 5 No 1 (2019)

A model is presented where the quintessence parameter, w, is related to a time-varying gravitational constant. Assuming a present value of w = -.98, we predict a current variation of Ġ/G = - .06 H0, a value within current observational bounds. H0 is Hubble’s parameter, G is Newton’s constant and Ġ is the derivative of G with respect to time. Thus, G has a cosmic origin, is decreasing with respect to cosmological time, and is proportional to H0, as originally proposed by the Dirac-Jordan hypothesis, albeit at a much slower rate. Within our model, we can explain the cosmological constant fine-tuning problem, the discrepancy between the present very weak value of the cosmological constant, and the much greater vacuum energy found in earlier epochs (we assume a connection exists). To formalize and solidify our model, we give two distinct parametrizations of G with respect to “a”, the cosmic scale parameter. We treat G-1 as an order parameter, which vanishes at high energies; at low temperatures, it reaches a saturation value, a value we are close to today. Our first parametrization for G-1 is motivated by a charging capacitor; the second treats G-1(a) by analogy to a magnetic response, i.e., as a Langevin function. Both parametrizations, even though very distinct, give a remarkably similar tracking behavior for w(a), but not of the conventional form, w(a) = w0 + wa (1-a), which can be thought of as only holding over a limited range in “a”. Interestingly, both parametrizations indicate the onset of G formation at a temperature of approximately 7 *1021 degrees Kelvin, in contrast to the ΛCDM model where G is taken as a constant all the way back to the Planck temperature, 1.42 * 1032 degrees Kelvin. At the temperature of formation, we find that G has increased to roughly 4*1020 times its present value. For most of cosmic evolution, however, our variable G model gives results similar to the predictions of the ΛCDM model, except in the very early universe, as we shall demonstrate. In fact, in the limit where w approaches -1, Ġ/G vanishes, and we are left with the concordance model. Within our framework, the emergence of dark energy over matter at a scale of a ≈ .5 is that point where G-1 increases noticeably to its current value G0-1. This weakening of G to its current value G0 is speculated as the true cause for the observed unanticipated acceleration of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3264] viXra:1903.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 22:04:54

Solving the Mystery of Dark Energy

Authors: Tom Fuchs
Comments: 2 Pages.

I show how stars can accelerate away from us in the absence of dark energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3263] viXra:1903.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-25 11:55:19

General Relativity Supermassive Test

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A key aspect of Einstein’s general theory of relativity (GR) has been tested using the strongest gravitational field so far. The measurement was made by observing changes in optical absorption lines of a star orbiting close to Sagittarius A* – the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. [11] Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3262] viXra:1903.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-25 13:04:26

Is the Recession of Galaxies Phenomenon a Proof that the Structure of Reality Differs from the Currently Accepted One?

Authors: Witold Nawrot
Comments: 4 Pages.

A new, incredibly simple justification of the Hubble’s law, which results from the recently published alternative model of reality, suggests that the shape of reality can be different than it has been assumed until now.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3261] viXra:1903.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 04:07:54

The History of the Universe in 1000 Words or Less

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 25 Pages.

The universe is made of stories, not of atoms.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3260] viXra:1903.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-22 13:21:21

Gravitational Index of Refraction

Authors: D.H.W. Reffer
Comments: 4 Pages. The General Theory of Relativity now retires to history.

Henceforth the fact is admitted as an axiom that all bodies in the universe set up gravitationally the universe’s optical medium, named gravitational ether, whose strength is the sum of all relative-velocity dependent gravitational potentials, from which we derive its index of refraction, that therefore is both nonuniform in space and changes in time as bodies move. Keywords: gravitational ether; ether refraction index.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3259] viXra:1903.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-21 22:01:37

Solving Incompatibility Between GR and QM re Black Holes

Authors: Tom Fuchs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Herein I derive a new metric for Schwarzschild geometry that doesn't predict black holes, thus is compatible with quantum mechanics re black holes and their singularities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3258] viXra:1903.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-21 23:24:17

Violation of Conservation of Momentum by Lorentz Transformation

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical objects is chosen to verify the conservation of momentum in two inertial reference frames. In the first reference frame, the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, the center of mass moves at a constant velocity. By applying Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and during the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold when both objects move together at the same velocity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3257] viXra:1903.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-20 17:13:08

Mass and the Fifth Dimension

Authors: Hristu Culetu
Comments: 6 Pages.

A correlation between mass and a compact 5th dimension is proposed. The 5th coordinate appears to represent the gravitational radius of the black hole. The source of curvature of the spacetime turns out to be an anisotropic null fluid with no energy density and isotropic pressure but nonzero energy flux and anisotropic pressures.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3256] viXra:1903.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-19 10:55:21

Thanks to the Heavy Majoranic Neutrino Collapse of the Universe is Avoided

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page. See recent paper by Bruce Wallman in ViXra cosmology and relativety

Abstract: The problem of the Hubble constant being so large that the universe is seemingly in danger of collapse is solved by the heavy Majorana neutrino proposed in MHCE8S theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3255] viXra:1903.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-19 10:44:34

A Mechanism for Gravitational Force and Observed Rotation in Spiral Galaxies

Authors: Nathaniel Julian
Comments: 2 Pages.

While general relativity provides an accurate description of spacetime and gravitational forces and effects, it does not provide a mechanism for gravity itself. By explaining the mechanism of gravitational force as a resistance of massive and high energy objects to the observed accelerating expansion of the universe, we simplify and provide a model that does not rely on unobserved particles or other hypothetical factors while staying in agreement with general relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

Replacements of recent Submissions

[2368] viXra:1905.0152 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-13 23:52:05

Infinite Virtual Superpositions Forming the Fundamental Particles, Radical Proposals Requiring Neither Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Nor Inflation for the Evolution of the Universe.

Authors: Julian Williams
Comments: 127 Pages. This paper specifically addresses Milgrom's galaxy rotation laws without dark matter

Dark matter and dark energy are auxilliary hypotheses added to the standard cosmology model to explain both Milgrom's galaxy rotation laws and accelerating expansion. This paper looks at a different mechanism to Einstein's general relativity (GR) that explains the warping of spacetime as a direct consequence of the forming of fundamental particles from blue, green and red spin zero virtual preons in groups of eight. At solar system scale it obeys GR, at galaxy scale it obeys Milgrom, and at cosmic scale it accelerates expansion. Space has to be flat on average with no need of inflation or a critical density. It does this in a manner that fits closely with key observational phenomena.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2367] viXra:1905.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-05 22:47:11

Why the Field Equation of General Relativity is Compatible with the Aether

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 3 Pages.

I demonstrate that the centre piece of General Relativity, the Einstein Field Equation, is completely compatible with the concept of an Aether type field, and that a simple rearrangement of the terms in that equation changes the meaning such that variable geometry space-time is removed and an energy field filling flat Euclidean space is described by the equation. Such a field will, by the very definition of the Field Equation, have the same observed (and verified) properties as that used by General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2366] viXra:1904.0579 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-14 08:40:23

The Covariant Derivative Operator and Scalars

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 8 Pages.

The writing delineates some peculiar aspects of the covariant operator. It appears that the metric coefficients have to disappear.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2365] viXra:1904.0579 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-06 23:21:57

The Covariant Derivative and Scalars

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 8 Pages.

The writing delineates some peculiar aspects of the covariant operator. It appears that the metric coefficients have to disappear
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2364] viXra:1904.0463 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-17 05:12:33

A New Hypothetical Solution to Gravitational Singularities

Authors: Manuel Urueña Palomo
Comments: 7 Pages.

An expected behaviour of space-time and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, and solving the mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2363] viXra:1904.0463 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-12 10:47:52

A New Hypothetical Solution to Gravitational Singularities

Authors: Manuel Urueña Palomo
Comments: 6 Pages. Thank you

An expected behaviour of space-time and matter within a black hole is postulated regarding a model based on the mathematical indications of other well-known and empirically confirmed theories, without invalidating such theories when applied where they correspond, and solving the mathematical problems such as the gravitational singularity and the information paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2362] viXra:1904.0400 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-24 07:40:05

Explaining Magnetism by Relativity

Authors: Nabin Timalsina
Comments: 27 Pages. copyright to writer .

In this paper , equations of Magnetism are rediscovered by using Special Relativity and Coulomb's law with different method and various cases are studied . Magnetic field near a current carrying conductor is redefined as ratio of relativistic electric field experienced by reference frame of a moving charge near the conductor to velocity of that reference frame with respect to the conductor. Mathematically, it is found that the existing formulas of magnetism given by Biot- Savart Law are valid only for normal velocities and completely fail for higher or microscopic velocities of moving charge. 'Fleming's Right/Left Hand Rules' can easily be explained by Relativity as just interaction between charges. Unlike existing idea, a magnet or current carrying conductor can exert some force even on charges at rest. Magnetic field due to a current carrying conductor is nothing but ratio of approximate relativistic electric field to the velocity of reference frame. Lorentz force can be calculated as 'Just Electric Force' rather as 'Sum of Electric and Magnetic Force' by using Relativity. Magnetic force is just an electric force in Relativistic Electrodynamics that could not be explained by Classical Electrodynamics. The values of speed of light in vacuum and permittivity of free space are fundamental and permeability depends upon them given by formula µ = 1/εc^2. It is claimed that "As Maxwell's Equations are based upon existing equations of Magnetism which are only approximation for lower velocities and fail in higher velocities, they are likely to be useless now". It is suggested that, "As Magnetic Force is nothing but Electric Force in Relativistic Electrodynamics, the name of one of the four fundamental forces ; 'Electromagnetic Force' should be changed into just 'Electric Force'." It is claimed that radiations are just non-mechanical waves that can propagate at velocity of light and are not necessarily electromagnetic in nature. Moreover, the writer suggests that electromagnetic waves may not exist at all.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2361] viXra:1904.0251 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-16 17:33:32

Causality

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 16 Pages.

Causality and Information are linked variables characterizing atomic matter, bridging the conceptual gap between Quantum Mechanics and Relativity theory. A brief summary of a Unified Field Theory is included.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2360] viXra:1904.0217 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-13 09:42:13

Considerations and Calculations on the Fraction of Helium in Neutral Matter of the Net Charged Universe NCU [1,2,3]

Authors: Ulrich Berger
Comments: 9 Pages.

Abstract: As described previously, the concept of a “Net Charged Universe” (NCU) assumes that the expansion of the universe is driven by a slight excess of positive charge in the universe’s matter. This excess charge comes into being by means of quantum fluctuations at the universe’s horizon. Excess protons experience electrostatic acceleration and therefore gain high relativistic mass, which is the source of the creation of neutral matter at the universe’s horizon. Based on the NCU model, the present article aims to explain the observed fraction of Helium (approximately 7%) in the universe’s baryonic matter. For this purpose, calculations on collision rates of excess protons are performed and applied to determine the Helium fraction in the universe’s matter. The results of these calculations correspond very well to the observations and thus, they further support the NCU model.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2359] viXra:1904.0195 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-04 18:01:06

Kinematyka w Szczególnej Teorii Eteru (in Polish)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 16 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

Celem artykułu jest pokazanie, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie są wystarczające do uzasadnienia Szczególnej Teorii Względności. Możliwe jest bowiem wyjaśnienie tych eksperymentów przy pomocy innej teorii, w której występuje uniwersalny układ odniesienia. W artykule wyprowadzamy nową teorię kinematyki ciał z uniwersalnym układem odniesienia, którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru (STE). W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalnego układu odniesienia. W artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Wyprowadzona została także transformacja prędkości, wzór na sumowanie prędkości dla prędkości bezwzględnej, wzór na skrócenie długości oraz wzór na dylatację czasu. Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania autorów publikacji.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2358] viXra:1904.0143 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-17 13:05:03

Time - The Equivalence of Inertial & Gravitational Mass

Authors: Tony Collins
Comments: 6 Pages.

Inertia, the force you feel pulling on you as you accelerate, and gravity – the force that attracts all. Are two separate and distinct phenomena, yet they share an equivalence which has yet to be explained. In this paper, we will show how and why inertial and gravitational mass are equivalent, and how time is the underlining mechanism that links and governs them. To accomplish this, we took a step back and reanalyzed the nature of time, which subsequently led us to an undeniable conclusion. One that finally reconciles gravity with quantum mechanics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2357] viXra:1904.0109 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-09 12:13:38

A Neoclassical Model of Nature

Authors: J Mark Morris
Comments: 3 Pages.

A neoclassical model of nature is proposed, based upon two equal and opposite fundamental particles. These particles may also be considered as conserved excitations. This model is derived from thought experiment and re-interpretation of modern physics and cosmology. A parsimonious neoclassical model of nature is proposed where the electrino ε- and positrino ε+ are the basis of all matter, the carriers of all energy, and form a superfluid gas which permeates most of the universe. At high energies matter and gas change phase to plasma wherein general relativity does not apply. Neither general relativity nor quantum mechanics include the electrino, positrino, nor graviton particles. The neoclassical model informs solutions to many open problems in physics and cosmology. A new narrative emerges that requires recasting and reframing the interpretations of experimental results and theory from physics, cosmology, and astronomy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2356] viXra:1904.0080 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-23 11:37:18

Special Relativity: the Old and the New Theory

Authors: Lahcen Aderras
Comments: 11 Pages.

By adjoining the local time to the Newtonian mechanics together with the constancy of the speed of light;a new unprecedented and insightful derivation of the Lorentz transformation (LT) is proposed. The procedure consist of elementary arguments and simple but rigorous mathematical techniques. The usually assumptions concerning the linearity and homogeneity in the standard derivations of the LT are obtained as results. Moreover, an other, entirely new, transformation is established. As expected, a new special relativity theory ensue from this new transformation. Unlike the special relativity theory (SRT), with this new theory we can tame superluminal velocities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2355] viXra:1904.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-27 00:46:50

On the Ricci Scalar, Ricci Tensor and the Riemannian Curvature Tensor

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 17 Pages.

The article in the first two sections proves decisively that the Ricci scalar and the norm of the Ricci tensor are constants on the manifold. In the subsequent sections Ricci tensor and Riemannian curvature tensor turn out to be null tensors. The Ricci scalar works out to zero.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2354] viXra:1904.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-18 17:54:54

On the Ricci Scalar, Ricci Tensor and the Riemannian Curvature Tensor

Authors: Anamitra Palit
Comments: 17 Pages.

The article in the first two sections proves decisively that the Ricci scalar and the norm of the Ricci tensor are constants on the manifold. In the subsequent sections Ricci tensor and Riemannian curvature tensor turn out to be null tensors. The Ricci scalar works out to zero.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2353] viXra:1903.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-23 14:55:13

Violation of Conservation of Momentum by Lorentz Transformation

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical objects is chosen to verify the conservation of momentum in two inertial reference frames. In the first reference frame, the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, the center of mass moves at a constant velocity. By applying Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and during the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold when both objects move together at the same velocity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology