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2017 - 1701(30) - 1702(21)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2369] **viXra:1702.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-19 10:42:32*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Sergey Ershkov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Your comments are welcome.

In this paper, we will solve 2Riccati ODEs using Maxima computer algebra package with applications in: (a) generalized Gross-Pitaevskii equation, (b) cosmology problem. The results presented below deserve further investigations in particular for comparison with existing analytical solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2368] **viXra:1702.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 15:18:24*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here we examine maximum proper velocity (sometimes referred to as celerity), based on the recently suggested maximum velocity for anything with rest mass, as given by Haug. Proper velocity, is a quantity that has been suggested for use in a series of calculations in relativity theory. Current standard theory imposes no limit on how close to infinity the proper velocity for an object with mass can be. Under our extended theory, by contrast, there is a strict upper limit on the proper velocity for anything with rest mass, which again is directly related to our newly suggested maximum velocity for anything with rest mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2367] **viXra:1702.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:31:57*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Like Maxwell has shown, the idea of an intrinsic gravitational energy surrounding masses is not viable to explain gravity, because that would lead to incredibly large energies. This falsifies the need for a non-linear general gravity theory such as the general relativity theory, and confirms the validity of Heaviside’s linear gravity theory, gravitomagnetism, known as the “weak-field approximation”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2366] **viXra:1702.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:51:18*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, we analyze the validity of the common belief in modern science that an intrinsic time dilatation would exist, i.e. that time effectively dilates with speed and not just the ticking rate of the clocks that measure it. I start from the Special Relativity theory and I analyze if it is theoretically possible to obtain an intrinsic time dilatation. Furthermore, I analyze the context of the Hafele–Keating experiment, which used atomic clocks and the Special Relativity theory to calculate the time rates. Finally, I analyze what is at the origin of the time dilatations that are measured in atomic clocks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2365] **viXra:1702.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 05:12:21*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Einstein's method of synchronising clocks in his Special Theory of Relativity is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2364] **viXra:1702.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 07:22:32*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this very elementary article, we try to show that the universe would be static, flat and infinite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2363] **viXra:1702.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 16:12:01*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

I have been working for a long time about basic laws which direct existence, and some mathematical problems which are waited for a solution. I can count myself lucky that I could did some important inferences during this time, and I published them in a few papers partially as some propositions. This work aimed to explain and discuss these inferences all together by relating them one another being physical phenomenons are prior.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2362] **viXra:1702.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 11:20:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fibre (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2361] **viXra:1702.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 03:02:44*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Relativity Theories are based on the concept of spacetime, which has no physical meaning. The theories are partial, applicable only to limited areas, and remain a stumbling block for the unification of physics. Here I show that an alternate concept, 'energy is motion, and force is reaction to motion', can explain all phenomena that are now being explained using Relativity Theories. This renders the tests for Relativity theories irrelevant. The alternate concept is physically meaningful and is applicable to all areas from particle level to cosmic level. So I conclude that the Relativity theories, which were in vogue for a century, can now be discarded.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2360] **viXra:1702.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-13 15:23:55*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In his paper entitled A New Perspective on Advanced Space Travel, the author dealt briefly with the so called gravitational ‘constant’ in the range , 0 ≤G ≤Go where G represents a variable gravitational ‘constant’, and Go represents the usual Newtonian gravitational ‘constant’ value. The scale dealt with was the sub-nuclear level regarding the weak interaction: hardly a range at which gravity can be measured, yet a close approximation to the Fermi constant was derived based upon a variable G in the weak interaction. It is, however, the belief of the author that the universe operates quite differently in the range of 0 ≤G ≤Go as opposed to the range G ≥0 .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2359] **viXra:1702.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 16:48:55*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Some aspects of the future of humankind are considered based on applications of the quantum modification of general relativity. Particularly, the energy supply from the vacuum and a new form of communication are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2358] **viXra:1702.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 04:47:46*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a previous paper of the author’s, a paradox resulted from the relativistic mass increase with speed was presented and analyzed. To avoid this contradiction while leaving relativity intact, the assumption that the strength of a substance will increase with its speed was introduced. Here in this article, one more paradox of relativistic mass increase with speed is presented which is conflict with the principle of relativity. There are no solutions for this contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2357] **viXra:1702.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 04:23:59*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Why do objects possess inertia at all ? What is gravity ? Why are inertial and gravitational masses equal ? These are some of the greatest puzzles and mysteries in physics that have not been solved to date. This paper reveals these mysteries. Inertia and electrical inductance are not only analogous, but they are the same phenomena: electromagnetism ! Electrostatic force and gravitational force are not only analogous, but they are the same phenomena: electrostatics ! Both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total number of electrons, protons and neutrons in an object, i.e. the total (NOT net ) charge in the object. This is the fundamental reason why inertial mass and gravitational mass are equal. Universal speed limit is due to non-linear law of electrical self inductance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2356] **viXra:1702.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 07:00:12*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 86 Pages. this paper links the Broeck developments for the Alcubierre warp drive to the Natario warp drive

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory.Some years ago in $1999$ Chris Van Den Broeck appeared with
a very interesting idea.Broeck proposed a warp bubble with a large
internal radius able to accommodate a ship inside while having a
submicroscopic outer radius and a submicroscopic contact external
surface in order to better avoid the collisions against the
interstellar matter.The Broeck spacetime distortion have the shape
of a bottle with $200$ meters of inner diameter able to
accommodate a spaceship inside the bottle but the bottleneck
possesses a very small outer radius with only $10^{-15}$ meters
$100$ billion time smaller than a millimeter therefore reducing
the probabilities of collisions against large objects in
interstellar space.In this work we apply the Broeck idea to the
Natario warp drive spacetime but out bottle have $200$ kilometers
of inner size $1000$ times the size of the original Broeck bottle
and we use the original Alcubierre shape function to generate our
version of the Broeck bottle with very low energy density
requirements.The Broeck idea is more than welcome and solves
definitively the problem of the collisions against large objects.
Any future development for the Natario warp drive must encompass
the Broeck bottle and this approach must be named as the
Natario-Broeck warp drive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2355] **viXra:1702.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 09:53:39*

**Authors:** Paul E. Loehr

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The concepts of modern physics concerning light, gravitation and particles seem to be precisely confirmed by observation and are well founded in complex and sophisticated theories - the more experiments the more confirmation. But, as unbelievable as it may sound for every scientist, two simple experiments are able to shatter the basics of modern physics. These decisive tests are aberration experiments using laser beams whereof the most important doesn't need any other means than a blank sheet, a pencil and pure logic. The conclusions to be drawn disprove fundamental theories and force us to rethink our concepts of light, gravitation, and particles. The acceptance of the implications presented here poses less a logical but far more a psychological challenge. This issue, if managed successfully, will lead to realistic physics that probably opens the path to quantum gravity too.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2354] **viXra:1702.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 04:54:58*

**Authors:** Victor D, Krasnov

**Comments:** 8 Pages. in Russia

Attempts to create the theory of the Moon's motion take place since the time of Isaac Newton. The Theory of the Moon's Motion, which considers the impact of the Earth, the Sun and other planets, is proved to be one of the most difficult issues in astronomy. The Article describes the physical model of the Moon’s motion based on the provisions of "the full law of motion for the objects of planetary systems".
It is shown that the Moon’s motion is formed by the complex combination of gravitational attraction components of the Earth and the Sun, having an impact on the Moon in accordance with the motion of the planetary system. The calculation of the Moon's motion is made in view of represented physical model. The results related to the calculation of the Moon’s motion, in case of the interaction of the Earth, the Sun and the Moon, are in keeping with the observed motion, and also confirm the Theory of the Moon's Motion. The calculation can include any number of objects (planets) that have an impact on the Moon’s motion. All calculation results verify "the full law of motion for the objects of planetary systems".
//Попытки создания теории движения Луны не прекращаются со времён И. Ньютона. Теория движения Луны, учитывающая влияние Земли, Солнца и других планет оказалась одной из самых сложных задач астрономии. В статье представлена физическая модель движения Луны, построенная на положениях «Полного закона движения объектов в составе систем планетарного типа».
Показано, что движение Луны формируется сложным сочетанием действия гравитационных составляющих притяжения Земли и Солнца, действующих на Луну в направлении движения планетарной системы. Выполнен расчёт движения Луны в соответствии с представленной физической моделью. Результаты расчёта движения Луны при взаимодействии Земли, Солнца и Луны, согласуются с наблюдаемым движением и подтверждают представленную теорию движения Луны. В расчёт может быть включено любое количество объектов (планет), оказывающих влияние на движение Луны. Результаты расчёта верифицируют «Полный закон движения объектов в составе систем планетарного типа».

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2353] **viXra:1702.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 01:20:56*

**Authors:** Anamitra Palit

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The article seeks to define and analyze work in the context of General Relativity. The definition of work in General Relativity as considered with this article is an extrapolation of what we have in Special Relativity.This definition as brought out in this paper takes into account the involvement of the curvature effects into the definition of work. The paper also considers the weak field limit of work in relation to Schwarzschild’s Geometry. In the classical limit of weak space time curvature our definition produces the classical energy conservation formula: the sum of potential and kinetic energy as defined classically is conserved when Schwarzschild geometry is treated in the weak field limit with our definition of work.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2352] **viXra:1702.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-02 02:01:35*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus has been one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . This is the very reason that gravity has eluded the attention of physicists as a possible explanation of nuclear force. Nature has hidden its mystery for almost a century by looking ridiculous. We know gravitation as introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory also successfully explains the phenomenon of cosmological acceleration and the Pioneer Anomaly. Gravity is a force that behaves differently at vastly different distance scales: nuclear and atomic scale, macroscopic scale and astronomical scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2351] **viXra:1702.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-02 02:03:22*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 89 Pages. The original ideas published in reputable journals

We derive the Poincar´e model of the Lobachevsky geometry from the Fermat
principle. The Lobachevsky geometry is interpreted as the
Lobachevsky-Beltrami-Fok velocity space geometry of moving particles. The relation
of this geometry to the decay of the neutral π-meson is considered. The
generalization of the Lobachevsky geometry is performed and the new angle of
parallelism is derived. Then, we determine nonlinear transformations between coordinate
systems which are mutually in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion.
The maximal acceleration limit follows from the kinematic origin. Maximal acceleration
is an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity. We derive the
dependence of mass, length, time, Doppler effect, on acceleration as an analogue
phenomena in special theory of relativity. We apply the derived nonlinear
Lorentz group to the so called Thomas precession. The total quantum energy loss
of binary is caused by the production of gravitons emitted by the rotation motion of
binary. We have calculated it in the framework of the Schwinger theory of gravity
for the situation where the gravitational propagator involves radiative corrections.
We also derive the finite-temperature gravitational Cherenkov radiation involving
radiative corrections. The graviton action in vacuum is generalized for the medium
with the constant gravitational index of refraction. From this generalized action
the power spectral formula of the Cherenkov radiation of gravitons is derived in
the framework of the Schwinger theory at zero and nonzero temperature. The next
text deals with non-relativistic quantum energy shift of H-atom electrons due to Gibbons-Hawking thermal bath. The seventh chapter deals with gravity as the
deformation of the space time and it involves the light deflection by the screw dislocation.
In conclusion, we consider the scientific and technological meaning and the
perspectives of the results derived. Some parts of the complex are published in the
reputable journals.
1

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2350] **viXra:1702.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-01 11:27:44*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Dark energy -mc^2 relative mass closely matches the relative mass of 6 top quarks: this indicates complete annihilation of the top quarks negative mass to dark radiation which we call dark energy had occurred before the big bang: this left Briggs fermions as the only possible source of matter to our new universe after the big bang, and this source, transferring matter from the previous universe only, had no antimatter to give either.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2349] **viXra:1702.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-01 01:57:32*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Galaxies (or anything) cannot be repelled.

What is actually happening is there is more pull / gravity coming from a normal area region NA

NA ~~~~~~~~ MG ~~~~~~~~ VOID

Milky Way Galaxy MG is NOT repelled by the Void -- it is pulled towards the Normal amount of galaxies NA. That is the way gravity works even at large scales -- stuff pulls together

MG will be drawn towards NA because the VOID has no large masses in it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2348] **viXra:1701.0689 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 12:19:59*

**Authors:** Martin Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 63 Pages. accepted to be published in "Foundations of Physics"

The main foundations of the standard $\Lambda $CDM model of cosmology are that: 1) The redshifts of the galaxies are due to the expansion of the Universe plus peculiar motions; 2) The cosmic microwave background radiation and its anisotropies derive from the high energy
primordial Universe when matter and radiation became decoupled; 3) The abundance pattern of the light elements is explained in terms of primordial nucleosynthesis; and 4) The formation and evolution of galaxies can be explained only in terms of gravitation within a inflation+dark matter+dark energy scenario. Numerous tests have been carried out on these ideas and, although the standard model works pretty well in fitting many observations, there are also many data that present apparent caveats to be understood with it. In this paper, I offer a review of these tests and problems, as well as some examples of alternative models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2347] **viXra:1701.0688 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 12:42:41*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G that are contemporaneous with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. Preliminary research has determined that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years). In this paper, the oscillations are shown to be concomitant with the Earth's radial distance from the Sun and the angular frequency of its orbit. Implications for space exploration and dark matter are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2346] **viXra:1701.0678 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 01:22:05*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 20 Pages. This paper has been submitted to BAOJ Physics journal

It has been known for long time that the cosmic sound wave was there since the early epoch of the Universe. Signatures of its existence is abound. However, such an acoustic model of cosmology is rarely developed fully into a complete framework from the notion of space, cancer therapy up to the sky. This paper may be the first attempt towards such a complete description of the Universe based on classical wave equation of sound. It is argued that one can arrived a consistent description of space, elementary particles, Sachs-Wolfe acoustic theorem, up to a novel approach for cancer therapy, starting from this simple classical wave equation of sound. We also discuss a plausible extension of Acoustic Sachs-Wolfe theorem based on its analogue with Klein-Gordon equation to become Acoustic Sachs-Wolfe-Christianto-Smarandache-Umniyati (ASWoCSU) equation. It is our hope that the new proposed equation can be verified with observation data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2345] **viXra:1701.0673 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 04:47:19*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version 1 in Spanish & Version 2 in English.

This article presents an invariant formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2344] **viXra:1701.0667 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-30 09:49:39*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Singularity problem is a long-standing weak point in the theory of general relativity. Most scholars assume that the solution for this singularity consists in quantum mechanics. However, waiting for quantum gravity theory to be completed to solve the singularity problem in a black hole is wrong. Hear we show that gravitational self-energy has a negative value can solve singularity problem and rescue general relativity. Black hole does not have a singularity and there exists a zone that has a uniform energy density within the black hole. Also, gravitational self-energy and R_{gs} guarantee uniform density due to repulsive gravity effect and this can be grounds for the expansion in the early universe and the uniform universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2343] **viXra:1701.0643 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-28 06:12:43*

**Authors:** Victor D. Krasnov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The existing laws that describe planetary motion fail to predict and explain the presence of rotational plane inclination and the angle of inclination of this plane. These laws also fail to explain planetary rotation in one plane and how planetary motion in the direction of planetary system movement affects orbital parameters. It has been found that planetary motion in the direction of planetary system motion under the effect of the star's attraction gravitational component occurs as cyclic oscillations (motion with cyclically changing speed). A planet's cyclic oscillations form the visible declination observed in the system of coordinates of the planetary system, the rotational plane inclination and the inclination angle. The results obtained demonstrate the new understanding of the mechanisms that form the orbits of planets, and show the decisive role in this process of the star's attraction gravitational component, which acts in the direction of planetary system motion. The results are new and are the complete law of motion of objects within planetary type systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2342] **viXra:1701.0641 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-28 06:41:02*

**Authors:** Victor D, Krasnov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. in Russia

The existing laws that describe planetary motion fail to predict and explain the presence of rotational plane inclination and the angle of inclination of this plane. These laws also fail to explain planetary rotation in one plane and how planetary motion in the direction of planetary system movement affects orbital parameters. It has been found that planetary motion in the direction of planetary system motion under the effect of the star's attraction gravitational component occurs as cyclic oscillations (motion with cyclically changing speed). A planet's cyclic oscillations form the visible declination observed in the system of coordinates of the planetary system, the rotational plane inclination and the inclination angle. The results obtained demonstrate the new understanding of the mechanisms that form the orbits of planets, and show the decisive role in this process of the star's attraction gravitational component, which acts in the direction of planetary system motion. The results are new and are the complete law of motion of objects within planetary type systems.//
Существующие законы, описывающие движение планет, не предсказывают и не объясняют наличие наклона плоскости вращения и величину угла наклона этой плоскости. Не объясняют вращение планет в одной плоскости. Не объясняют, какое влияние на параметры орбит оказывает движение планет в направлении движения планетарной системы.
В процессе исследования установлено, что движение планет в направлении движения планетарной системы (в направлении движения звезды), происходит в виде циклических колебаний, формируемых под воздействием гравитационной составляющей притяжения звезды.
Показано, что циклические колебания планеты в направлении движения планетарной системы формируют наблюдаемое склонение и наблюдаемый в системе координат планетарной системы наклон плоскости вращения.
Выполнены расчёты, подтверждающие физическую модель формирования орбит.
Полученные результаты углубляют знания о механизмах формирующих орбиты планет, показывают решающую роль в этом процессе гравитационной составляющей притяжения звезды, действующей в направлении движения планетарной системы. Полученные результаты не противоречат законам И. Кеплера и И. Ньютона, являются их дальнейшим развитием.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2341] **viXra:1701.0640 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-28 06:44:22*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Can we apply Kepler’s Laws to the motion of stars of a galaxy?
Is it true that luminous matter contains the total galaxy’s mass?
When we observe galaxies, we see interstellar gas, dust and stars which is called luminous matter.
In 1922, a German astronomer, Jacobus Kapteyn was the first who suggested that dark matter exists.
In 1933, A Bulgarian-American astronomer, Fritz Zwicky, explained the reason for existence of dark matter. He realized that gravitational lensing would provide the means for the most direct determination of the mass of very large galactic clusters of galaxies, including dark matter. [1].
Gravitational lensing is the consequence of Einstein’s general relativity. It was first observed in 1919, when an apparent angular shift of the Mercury close to the solar limb was measured during a solar eclipse and it was a strong proof for Einstein’s theory.
Astronomers measure the total mass of a galaxy by Kepler’s laws (especially the law of periods) [2].
〖 T〗^2=(4π^2)/GM a^3 (1)
α: per Astronomical Unit
M: per Solar Mass
First of all, luminous matter is not equally distributed in galaxy because astronomers while evaluating the spectrums of stars of galaxy, found that stars of galaxy have different masses.
Also based on Kepler’s law of areas, stars located closer to the center of black hole should have more orbital velocity than stars located further from center of galaxy but based on the Doppler Effect, when astronomers found out the orbital velocity of both stars by analyzing the absorption lines in spectrum of them, both were the same in orbital velocity [3].
We come to this conclusion that there should be a matter which is not luminous (because it doesn’t have any electromagnetic interaction) that let this phenomenon take place.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2340] **viXra:1701.0636 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-27 07:50:44*

**Authors:** Allen Graycek

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Very recent studies of halos around galaxies found them to be much more extensive than previous studies indicated, and that they have enormous mass consisting of gas and dust from supernovas, SNs. The results of these studies and a recent study of SN rate of occurrence can be used to determine age, and for the Milky Way the result is roughly six trillion years with a conservative preliminary calculation. Other strong evidence exists as well which indicates a great age, yet it is truly a wonder any of this will shake up or change current beliefs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2339] **viXra:1701.0631 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-26 19:11:25*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A new cosmological model is proposed for the dynamics of the Universe and the formation and evolution of galaxies. It is shown that the matter of the Universe contracts and expands in cycles, and that galaxies in a particular cycle have imprints from the previous cycle. It is proposed that RHIC’s liquid gets trapped in the cores of galaxies in the beginning of each cycle and is liberated with time and is, thus, the power engine of AGNs. It is also shown that the large-scale structure is a permanent property of the Universe, and thus, it is not created. It is proposed that spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies are formed by mergers of nucleon vortices (vorteons) at the time of the big squeeze and immediately afterwards and that the merging process, in general, lasts an extremely long time, of many billion years. It is concluded then that the Universe is eternal and that space should be infinite or almost.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2338] **viXra:1701.0629 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-27 00:13:53*

**Authors:** Ryan C. Rankin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Using the Friedman-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) universe as a background metric, purely
General relativistic (classical) scalar metric perturbations are investigated for small bodies. For the
approximation of a point-like perturbing mass in the closed FLRW universe, the scalar perturbation
may be written in a form obeying precisely the Dirac equation up to a factor playing the role
of Planck’s constant. A physical interpretation suggests the scalar perturbation in this form is the
wavefunction of quantum mechanics. Such an interpretation indicates the nonlocality of gravitational energy/momentum in General relativity leads naturally to the indeterminacy of quantum
mechanics. Some physical consequences and predictions are discussed and briefly explored.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2337] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-25 14:24:48*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the merger of Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2336] **viXra:1701.0589 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-24 19:51:57*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In space-matter model both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. Time is
the result of the action-reaction of space and matter. The action-reaction motions of space and
matter must be synchronized. The synchronization of these motions needs algorithms of both
sides; matter and space must have algorithms. Space cannot be defined without matter. Space is
what matter uses as space. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. The relation of space and matter cannot be created if the amount of information of space and matter cannot
maintain the relationship of space and matter.
In space-matter model solely through the use of space waves, we can express spatial distance,
time and energy. It is possible to express all these phenomena in eVolt, so meters can be
converted into seconds or into kgs and vice versa. Saying this, we must realize that there is a surprising gateway between space and matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2335] **viXra:1701.0575 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-23 09:09:10*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Following some earlier work by Antoci and Abrams, Crothers has spent at least the past decade arguing the mathematical impossibility of the black hole. Following a brief review of the mathematical argument, a physical one is presented, based on analysis of the ‘irresistible force’ of increasing gravity allegedly collapsing a neutron star with an even greater ‘immovable object’ of increasing density into a black hole. This physical argument supports Crothers’, et al., contention that a black hole is both a mathematical as well as physical impossibility.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2334] **viXra:1701.0565 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-22 02:59:14*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmossin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We have modified the standard Einstein field equations by introducing a general function that depends on Ricci’s scalar without prior assumption of the mathematical form of the function. By demanding that the covariant derivative of the energy-momentum tensor should vanish and with application of Bianchi identity a first order ordinary differential equation in the Ricci’s scalar has emerged. By integrating the resulting equation a constant of integration resulting from solving the equation is interpreted as the cosmological constant introduced by Einstein.
The form of function on Ricci’s scalar and on the cosmological constant corresponds to the form of Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian appearing in the action integral.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2333] **viXra:1701.0561 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-21 14:30:05*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: As part of the production of 8-fold composite particles of life in the epoch before the big bang, top quarks and their anti-quarks were produced in large numbers. After disruption of the composite entities (Briggs fermibosons) the freed top quark particles met and annihilated (in active quasars) early in the present epoch. This annihilation was not complete, due to CP violation,however, resulting in the universe without antimatter we see today

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2332] **viXra:1701.0557 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-21 05:17:20*

**Authors:** Ulrich Berger

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Abstract
Based on the NCU concept presented earlier, this article describes and calculates a historical scenario for the development of the universe without “Dark Energy” but caused by an average excess of unneutralized protons (pn). This historical scenario consists of the following steps:
Starting with one initial quantum fluctuation, a “Primordial Nucleus” is formed from protons generated by further quantum fluctuations. Based on Mach’s principle, the nucleus is held together due to the very high gravitational constant which is given because of the tiny mass the nucleus contains in the beginning.
The more pn are condensed in the nucleus, the lower G becomes according to Mach’s principle. So, a turning point is reached, and beyond that point the nucleus explodes at a speedof almost c. This event plays the role of the “Big Bang” in the NCU scenario.
Caused by the extremely high acceleration experienced by the pn, they form an expanding hollow sphere and thereby generate our known 3D space. During the expansion, additional pn are steadily imported from fluctuations at the horizon.
Because of the steadily impacting Coulomb acceleration, all pn collect more and more
energy, which is converted into relativistic mass growth, and finally that mass is transformed into stable particles, i.e. protons and electrons - the known neutral matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2331] **viXra:1701.0551 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-20 04:29:57*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Since 1905, when Einstein introduced the Special Relativity Theory, various researchers independently observed that his theory contains at least one more postulate besides the two postulates stated by him explicitly. Putting together all those observations about the different additional postulates, we will describe here how the Special Relativity Theory was unfortunately based on nineteen postulates, and how most of them were implied and used in Einstein's 1905 article, later in his article of 1910, and also further in his manuscript written between 1912 and 1914.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2330] **viXra:1701.0544 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-19 12:56:31*

**Authors:** Thomas Görnitz

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Based on the simplest possible quantum structures, that is, the abstract free-of-meaning quan-tum information (AQI) bits establishing the fundamental substance referred to as protyposis, it is shown, using just three plausible postulates, how a cosmological model can be derived that describes the observation data better than the „flat ΛCDM“ standard model. The postulates are the Planck relation, E = hc/λ, the existence of a distinguished velocity, i.e. the velocity of light in vacuum, and the first law of thermodynamics. Assumptions concerning inexplicable fictitious entities, such as „inflation“ or „dark energy“ can be dispensed with. The model solves „cosmolog-ical problems“.
Einstein’s equations result by requiring that the cosmic relation between the radius of curvature and the energy density can be transferred to local density variations within the cosmos. General Relativity is shown up as a classical approximation of the quantum cosmology. Therefore the relations are clarified in principle that happen between quantum theory and gravity theory.
The AQI concept allows for a simple derivation of black hole entropies and, moreover, establish-es a rationalization of the gauge groups associated with the three fundamental forces. Relati-vistic particles with and without rest mass can be constructed from the AQI bits, and, thus, all objects described in natural sciences. In living beings, the AQI can manifest both in the material body and in meaningful quantum information of the psyche, eventually closing the „explanatory gap“ between „body and mind“.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2329] **viXra:1701.0528 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-17 23:40:30*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Concerning the paradox of magnetic interaction between two parallel moving charged particle beams, there are a lot of discussions. Here in this paper, an experimental design is proposed, by which we can verify if there is really a magnetic interaction between the two charged particle beams.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2328] **viXra:1701.0503 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-15 10:10:27*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 32 Pages. Please contact Gene Barbee genebarbee@msn.com

Abstract:
The cosmic web is a filament like structure that connects galaxies. It has been imaged by gravitational lensing and is thought to be composed mainly of dark matter since it is not visible in the electromagnetic spectrum. There are computer simulations of the web showing that galaxies are often nodes for multiple branches. View the simulations at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivymdduulFU. WMAP, PLANCK and other background radiation anisotropy teams have concluded that dark matter is 5 times more prevalent than normal matter. Scientists are trying to identify dark matter and the unexpected web like structure adds to the list of cosmology unknowns.
This document proposes that dark matter consists of neutron waves or neutrons (wave/particle duality) contained by a gravitational field. Dark matter density would be the same as normal matter density but neutron waves might have a radius of only 1.53e-15 meters (the wavelength of a neutron). This means it could be very elongated (e.g. 5e16 meters). It may coil into a small volume unless stretched by gravity. The neutron/waves location in the long filament is probabilistic but it contains 939 MeV/filament (1.675e-27 Kg). A diffuse structure and the absence of electromagnetic features will make it difficult to detect. Originally dark and normal matter is mixed and both fall into massive structures like galaxies over time. The residual dark matter probably forms aligned stretched filaments we see as the cosmic web. It would attract some normal matter and be gravitationally stretched between galaxies. Dark matter has only gravitational interactions. As it moves into galaxies it forms halos and explains anomalous galactic velocity observations.
The author will present a re-analysis of the baryon/photon ratio (critical to residual deuterium abundance data) and will review that WMAP data that lead scientists to conclude that dark matter was 5 times more prevalent than normal matter. A detailed model from matter equality to decoupling will be presented. The features of interest are the waves that cause temperature variations in the background radiation. A model that predicts the temperature of the hot spots will be presented. Based on re-analysis of limiting considerations it will be shown that half of all matter is baryons and the other half is dark matter.
Most scientists use a time ratio to predict expansion; i.e. R=R0*(time/time0)^(2/3). The author developed fundamental equations that allow expansion to be modeled with forces and energy. Surprisingly, very little energy is required to produce late stage expansion of free protons. A proposal for dark energy was proposed based on this understanding.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2327] **viXra:1701.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-13 09:07:07*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Mistakes are found in the theoretical derivation process, during which the magnetic force is explained to be the relativistic side effect of Coulomb force. As a result, some serious paradoxes will be inevitable if we accept the notion that Magnetism is a Relativistic side eﬀect of Electrostatics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2326] **viXra:1701.0472 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-12 07:47:17*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 15 Pages, 17 Figures, 3 Tables

This paper was presented at the 2016 SSE European conference in Sweden, and addresses two fundamental areas of physics and cosmology that involve a “universal consciousness”. (a) It shows where Einstein was incorrect: it is not only possible to communicate information faster than the speed of light, but this can be instantaneous. (b) The main challenge in physics today is unifying quantum theory with gravity: it is demonstrated that the extended mind is involved in solving this problem.
The author has spent over 30 years researching the mind’s interaction with the laws of physics, subtle fields, and the cosmos. This has been achieved by quantifying sensed data and discovering formulae and universal constants. A technique, developed by the author, involving a singularity is explained for noetically studying subtle fields and abstract geometry. This has produced some ground-breaking and fundamental findings, demonstrating that the mind is very sensitive to geometry and both local and astronomical forces.
The most exciting aspects are the quantified results and graphs that have been obtained from a specified subtle energy beam length (L) measured over the last eight years. For example, during the course of a day a sinusoidal curve is obtained with maxima at sunset and minima at sunrise, even if measurements are made in a darkened room on a cloudy day.
Another example is that the mind can detect a lower gravitational force on Earth, when the sun and moon’s gravity are pulling in opposite directions at full moon, resulting in a peak in L. Likewise, a higher gravitational force, when the sun and moon’s gravity are pulling in the same direction at new moon, results in counter-intuitive shorter lengths of L.
The mind also detects changes in the Newtonian gravitational force, Fg, as the earth orbits the sun. Over the course of a year, a plot of L produces an equation L=6E+105*Fg -δ which has a very high correlation coefficient R2 = 0.9745. The power index is Feigenbaum’s constant within 0.013% error. This is another example of the mind’s ability to interact with gravity and produce a universal constant, suggesting that consciousness is intimately connected to the fabric of the universe and chaos theory.
Any three objects in alignment, be they 3 grains of sand, three trees, 3 coins, 3 stones, three abstract circles drawn on paper, or even three objects in the solar system all form a strong subtle energy beam that experimentally has been perceived to extend endlessly. In particular, this beam has been measured during alignments across the solar system. These have included eclipses of the sun and moon, to a transit of Neptune by the moon. The data was analysed weeks after the events. In all cases L peaked before the predicted time of the occlusion. This time was always identical to the time it takes light to reach an observer on earth from the furthest of the 3 planets in alignment, on the day of the experiment This demonstrates that the mind can communicate not only faster than light, but instantaneously across the solar system, and the structure of the universe is such to enable this to happen. It also suggests that macro entanglement is possible.
The findings in this paper significantly impact cosmology, and in particular show that Inflation Theory just after the big bang is unnecessary to explain the current structure of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2325] **viXra:1701.0330 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-08 16:08:20*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 70 Pages.

We propose a simple, axiom-free modification of Galileo-Newton's dynamics of moving bodies, termed Information Relativity theory. We claim that the theory is capable of unifying physics. The claimed unification is supported by the fact that the same derived set of simple and beautiful transformations, apply successfully to predicting and explaining many phenomena and findings in cosmology, quantum mechanics, and more. Our modification of classical physics is done simply by accounting for the time travel of information about a physical measurement, from the reference frame at which the measurement was taken, to an observer in another reference frame, which is in motion relative to the first frame. This minor modification of classical physics turns out to be sufficient for unifying all the dynamics of moving bodies, regardless of their size and mass. Since the theory's transformations and predictions are expressed only in terms of observable physical entities, its testing should be simple and straightforward.
For quantum mechanics the special version of the theory for translational inertial motion predicts and explains matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, entanglement, the diffraction of single particles in the double slit experiment, the quantum nature of the hydrogen atom. For cosmology, the theory constructs a relativistic quantum cosmology, which provides plausible and testable explanations of dark matter and dark energy, as well as predictions of the mass of the Higgs boson, the GZK cutoff phenomena, the Schwarzschild radius of black holes (without interior singularity), and the timeline of ionization of chemical elements along the history of the universe.
The general version of the theory for gravitational and electrostatic fields, also detailed in the paper, is shown to be successful in predicting and explaining the strong force, quantum confinement, and asymptotic freedom.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2324] **viXra:1701.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-07 04:17:29*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we look at the ultimate limits of a photon propulsion rocket. The maximum velocity for a photon propulsion rocket is just below the speed of light and is a function of the reduced Compton wavelength of the heaviest subatomic particles in the rocket. We are basically combining the relativistic rocket equation with Haug’s new insight in the maximum velocity for anything with rest mass; see [1, 2, 3].
An interesting new finding is that in order to accelerate any sub-atomic “fundamental” particle to its maximum velocity, the particle rocket basically needs two Planck masses of initial load. This might sound illogical until one understands that subatomic particles with different masses have different maximum velocities. This can be generalized to large rockets and gives us the maximum theoretical velocity of a fully-efficient and ideal rocket. Further, no additional fuel is needed to accelerate a Planck mass particle to its maximum velocity; this also might sound absurd, but it has a very simple and logical solution that is explained in this paper.
This paper is Classified!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2323] **viXra:1701.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-05 08:58:59*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper discusses the similarities between Einstein’s length contraction and the FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length contraction. The FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length contraction was originally derived for only the case of a frame moving relative to the ether frame, and not for two moving frames. When extending the FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length transformation to any two frames, we will clearly see that it is different than the Einstein length contraction. Under the FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length transformation we get both length contraction and length expansion, and non-reciprocality, while under Einstein’s special relativity theory we have only length contraction and reciprocality. However, we show that there is a mathematical and logical link between the two methods of measuring length.
This paper shows that the Einstein length contraction can be derived from assuming an anisotropic one-way speed of light. Further, we show that that the reciprocality for length contraction under special relativity is an apparent reciprocality due to Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronization. The Einstein length contraction is real in the sense that the predictions are correct when measured with Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronized clocks. Still we will claim that there likely is a deeper and more fundamental reality that is better described with the extended FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor framework, which, in the special case of using Einstein-Poincar ́e synchonized clocks gives Einstein’s length contraction. The extended FitzGerald, Lorentz, and Larmor length contraction is also about length expansion, and it is not recipro- cal between frames. Still, when using Einstein synchronized clocks the length contraction is apparently reciprocal. An enduring, open question concerns whether or not it is possible to measure the one-way speed of light without relying on Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronization or slow clock transportation synchronization, and if the one-way speed of light then is anisotropic or isotropic. Several experiments performed and published claim to have found an anisotropic one-way speed of light. These experiments have been ignored or ridiculed, but in our view they should be repeated and investigated further.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2322] **viXra:1701.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-04 20:44:19*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 53 Pages. relevant also to quantum mechanics

We propose a simple, axiom-free modification of Galileo-Newton's dynamics of moving bodies, termed Information Relativity theory. We claim that the theory is capable of unifying physics. The claimed unification is supported by the fact that the same derived set of simple and beautiful transformations, apply successfully to predicting and explaining many phenomena and findings in cosmology, quantum mechanics, and more. Our modification of classical physics is done simply by accounting for the time travel of information about a physical measurement, from the reference frame at which the measurement was taken, to an observer in another reference frame, which is in motion relative to the first frame. This minor modification of classical physics turns out to be sufficient for unifying all the dynamics of moving bodies, regardless of their size and mass. Since the theory's transformations and predictions are expressed only in terms of observable physical entities, its testing should be simple and straightforward. For quantum mechanics the theory predicts and explains matter-wave duality, quantum phase transition, quantum criticality, entanglement, the diffraction of single particles in the double slit experiment, the quantum nature of the hydrogen atom, the strong force, quantum confinement, and asymptotic freedom. For cosmology, the theory constructs a relativistic quantum cosmology, which provides plausible and testable explanations of dark matter and dark energy, as well as predictions of the mass of the Higgs boson, the GZK cutoff phenomena, the Schwarzschild radius of black holes (without interior singularity), and the timeline of ionization of chemical elements along the history of the universe. Extensions of the theory to accounting for the gravitational and electrostatic fields are briefly discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2321] **viXra:1701.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-05 01:09:15*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Space is a three-dimensional extent; matter also has three spatial dimensions. Time is the result of the action-reaction of space and matter.
Space is what matter uses as space. Space is not dependent on its texture; it can be made out of matter or non-matter. Time is one characteristic of the given space used by a given matter. Using this new approach called space-matter theory, we can find that there are different spaces in the tunneling, where the same matter has different velocities. These velocities can be greater than c; their value depends on the amount of information that the given space contains.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2320] **viXra:1701.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-04 08:37:24*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

From Einstein's theory of relativistic we obtain a formula relating the acceleration and the time derivative of the momentum. The formula includes the speed of light. The metric, according to general relativity, and changes in the gravitational field and with time. Since changing the metric, changing the way the distance measurement. Since changing a method of measuring distances in various small local areas, then in every such local area of the speed of light is negligible differs from the speed of light in a different local area, if this speed is measured in units of certain third local area (eg, the area with the observer). Therefore, the interaction will be different on the attraction and repulsion. From this is derived the inertia of a body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2319] **viXra:1701.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-03 21:17:15*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Galactic black holes were created during the Big Bang. As such, they were available for clustering in the early Universe. This paper describes the
role these clusters could play in explaining dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2318] **viXra:1612.0384 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-28 23:59:57*

**Authors:** Mugur B. Răuţ

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper shows that the variation of certain fundamental constants is practically impossible in a physical time frame of reference. We can have as many time frames of reference we want but when we transform them all into physical time frames of reference, with time as a measure of movement, physical equations retain their form and meaning and values of certain physical quantities and fundamental constants are the same. Therefore the question of variation of certain fundamental constants is only possible for those frames of reference other than physical time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2317] **viXra:1612.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-28 11:53:11*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Supermassive black holes were utilized in the early universe to eliminate redundant -H bosons after their use in transferring +mass fermions from the previous universe. The large initial masses of the holes later decreased as some of the +mass transferred was captured by the negative intrinsic mass H bosons, leaving previously active galaxies with smaller or no central black holes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2316] **viXra:1612.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-28 08:52:58*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Polarized Fermions (Nuclear Quarks) are supposed to be the origin of non accelerated motion through the resistive oscillating vacuum (Axion) Higgs field.
Recent observations in the LHC do support the idea of Fermion polarization into a constant specific space based direction, which could support the idea of a constant battle between a resistive vacuum and polarized spinning propeller shaped Fermions pushed forward by the same vacuum at the same time to compensate the resistance.
Even a so called Lorentz Fitzgerald contraction seem to be the logic result, which was described by John Bell in his essay: “How to Teach Special Relativity”

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2315] **viXra:1612.0358 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-27 15:53:21*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here we will assume that there is a Planck length limit on the maximum length contraction that is related to the reduced Compton wavelength. Our focus will be on the maximum velocity of subatomic particles, which “have” what is known as a reduced Compton wavelength. We assume that the reduced Compton wavelength of a moving particle as measured from the laboratory frame (“rest” frame) cannot be shorter than the Planck length as measured with Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2314] **viXra:1612.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-26 16:23:43*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is currently accepted in Physics that General Relativity can explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing but Classical Physics cannot. The Newtonian calculation for the deflection angle of light, treating light as a gravitating mass, gives only half of the observed amount, whereas General Relativity gives the correct amount. However, in Energy Field Theory space is modelled as being an aether type field that determines the local speed of light and rate of time (due to both light and matter waves being slowed in the space around a mass) then this Classical Physics approach can fully explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing, in agreement with General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2313] **viXra:1612.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-25 14:29:00*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Motivated by the benefits of improving our knowledge of Newton's constant *G*, Feldman *et al* have recently proposed a new measurement involving a gravitational clock launched into deep space. The clock's mechanism is supposed to be the linear oscillation of a test mass falling back and forth along the length of a hole through the center of a spherical source mass. Similar devices — ones that would have remained in orbit around Earth — were proposed about 50 years ago for the same purpose. None of these proposals were ever carried out.

Further back, in 1632 Galileo proposed the thought experiment of a cannonball falling into a hole through the center of Earth. Curiously, *no one has yet observed the gravity-induced radial motion of a test object through the center of a massive body.* Also known as a *gravity-train*, not a one has yet reached its antipodal destination. From this kind of gravitational clock, humans have not yet recorded a single tick.

The well known reliability of Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravity may give confidence that the device will work as planned. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a less expensive apparatus — Small Low-Energy Non-Collider — ought to be built first, simply to prove that the operating principle is sound. Certain peculiar facts about Schwarzschild's interior solution are discussed here; and a novel way of interpreting gravitational effects will be presented in Part II, together adding support for the cautious advice to more thoroughly look before we leap to the outskirts of the Solar System.

[2312] **viXra:1612.0334 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-24 13:05:30*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan

**Comments:** 88 Pages. Armenian Theory of General Relativity Is a New and Solid Mathematical Theory, Because it Satisfies the Conditions to be Called a New Theory.

In this new - second volume of the visual crash course of "Armenian Theory of Relativity", which is organic sequel of the first volume, we discuss the case (Case B) where observing coordinate systems moving against each other with arbitrary acceleration. We also used the most general considerations and only a pure mathematical approach, and in so doing, we build a theory of general relativity (kinematics) and received Armenian direct and inverse transformation equations for observed test particle coordinates differentials.
Our visual book, which is also made for broad audiences of physicists, does not generalize legacy theory of general relativity, but using totally new approach and without limitations, in one dimensional physical space, building more logical and correct theory of general relativity (for now kinematics only), which has one additional new universal constant (s).
Our received Armenian direct and inverse transformation equations for moving test particle coordinates differentials we can also obtain in a very easy way from the Armenian Theory of Special Relativity (Volume A) transformation equations, by just taking test particle coordinates two infinitesimal points, where reciprocal relative velocities between observing systems are instantaneous variable velocities.
But we prefer to go hard way to show the fact that Armenian Theory of Relativity is a solid mathematical theory. In this volume we also faced contradictions and our next volumes we will solve those "contradictions".
We also advise readers to be very cautious when comparing legacy theory relativity with the Armenian Theory of Relativity, especially when instead of trying to understand the new theory, they use their whole energy trying to find “mistakes” or “paradoxes” in Armenian Theory of Relativity. Please just try to remember that legacy theories of relativity are symmetric theories, but Armenian Theory of Relativity is asymmetric theory of relativity.
Proofs in this volume are also very brief and therefore readers need to put sufficient effort to prove all providing formulas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2311] **viXra:1612.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-24 12:51:08*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Hayk Nazaryan

**Comments:** 80 Pages. This book is dedicated to the 25-th anniversary of independence of Armenia

In this visual book we showed that the «Armenian Theory of Special Relativity» is full of fine and difficult ideas to understand, which in many cases seems to conflict with our everyday experiences and legacy conceptions. This new crash course book is the simplified version for broad audiences. This book is not just generalizing transformation equations and all relativistic formulas; It is also without limitations and uses a pure mathematical approach to bring forth new revolutionary ideas in the theory of relativity. It also paves the way to build general theory of relativity and finally for the construction of the unified field theory – the ultimate dream of every truth seeking physicist.
Armenian Theory of Relativity is such a mathematically solid and perfect theory that it cannot be wrong. Therefore, our derived transformation equations and all relativistic formulas have the potential to not just replace legacy relativity formulas, but also rewrite all modern physics. Lorentz transformation equations and other relativistic formulas is a very special case of the Armenian Theory of Relativity when we put s = 0 and g = -1 .
The proofs in this book are very brief, therefore with just a little effort, the readers themselves can prove all the provided formulas in detail. You can find the more detailed proofs of the formulas in our main research book «Armenian Theory of Special Relativity», published in Armenia of June 2013.
In this visual book, you will set your eyes on many new and beautiful formulas which the world has never seen before, especially the crown jewel of the Armenian Theory of Relativity - Armenian energy and Armenian momentum formulas, which can change the future of the human species.
The time has come to reincarnate the ether as a universal reference medium which does not contradict relativity theory. Our theory explains all these facts and peacefully brings together followers of absolute ether theory, relativistic ether theory and dark matter theory. We just need to mention that the absolute ether medium has a very complex geometric character, which has never been seen before.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2310] **viXra:1612.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-24 06:06:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Physicists have found the strongest evidence yet for no violation of Lorentz symmetry, one of the fundamental symmetries of relativity. [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2309] **viXra:1612.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-23 09:41:20*

**Authors:** John Freidenfelds. PhD

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

It is well-known that, according to special relativity, there is an absolute “speed limit” on objects traveling in space-time: nothing can travel faster than light. It turns out that an object’s acceleration is also limited by the geometry of space-time, but in a more complex manner.
For objects viewed as points (negligible spatial extent), special relativity imposes no particular constraints on the magnitude of their acceleration. For objects that have spatial extent, however, it turns out that the geometry of space-time does impose limits.
The case we are considering here is what has been defined as “rigid motion” (Born [1], Franklin [2]). This is motion in which an object’s speed is changed in such a way that it is neither stretched nor compressed. All of our discussion is limited to a single spatial dimension plus time (a moving rod). We assume that acceleration is applied all along the rod’s length with no assumptions required about its rigidity. Nor do we include such dynamic physical effects as momentum or elasticity.
It turns out that speed changes cannot be uniform along the length of the rod if it is to remain in rigid motion. Franklin [2] derived a formula relating the required accelerations of various points along the rod. His derivation was for the special case in which acceleration is constant over time. Here we show that Franklin’s key formula (Equation 14 in [2]) applies to acceleration that is non-constant as well.
Franklin’s formula reveals an interesting property of space-time: If the rod’s acceleration exceeds a fixed, finite bound the rod must experience distortion -- stretching or compressing in the direction of the acceleration. Furthermore, if a rod is accelerated at this bound, in order to maintain rigid motion, its trailing end must accelerate instantaneously (infinite acceleration), while its leading end accelerates at a finite constant rate. The rod’s trailing end will acquire its new speed in zero time, while the leading end takes a finite time. That is, the leading end ages, during this acceleration, over the trailing end.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2308] **viXra:1612.0320 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-22 14:16:00*

**Authors:** Gocho V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

To upload a manuscript to the e-print archive of Cornell University, you need endorsement (recommendation), which you will never get if the content of the manuscript contradicts the theory of relativity. Of course, physics journals with the highest impact factor in the world directly refuse the publication of evidence, which can discredit the theory of relativity. Nobody can assume that a professor of physics at world-renowned university does not know what a coordinate reference system means. It is unclear, why the physical society is not standing decidedly behind the strong evidence that the measured velocity of light is not the same in all frames of reference. This fact was proven not only in the past century, but also by the last experiments carried out by means of modern technologies. In fact, the only remaining argument of the dominant orthodox part of the scientific community for more than one century is that “if the theory of relativity is mathematically proven – then this theory is correct…”, but… “not everyone can understand the theory of relativity”. The inaccessibility distance is actually silently supported to all, who “do not understand” the theory of relativity. We all know the anecdote concerning Ludwik Silberstein and Arthur Eddington about – “who are the three men who actually understood the theory of relativity?”… Actually, the main reason for the fact that this theory is incomprehensible is not that the mathematical apparatus is complex, but that the people do not accept illusory claims. The real statement can always be explained in a simple and comprehensible way for everyone. That is why, the book “THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY = THE BIGGEST DELUSION IN PHYSICS FOR 20TH CENTURY” (in 3 parts) was published at Amazon. This book is understandable for everyone who studied mathematics in secondary school.
Note: At the end of this paper are listed the most famous physics journals and magazines in the world with a high impact factor, which have rejected without admission to the expert evaluation (peer review and discussion) manuscripts relating to the reality about “constancy” of the speed of light or the theory of relativity. In this regard, if there are worthy scientists belonging to the editorial boards of these journals - they can stand up for their scientific claims giving request for participation in a special event of the Annual International Conference on physics organized by ATINER in Athens, Greece, on 17-20 July 2017: “The last reading of the theory of relativity”. Thus, they will give their gratitude to universities and organizations, which have handed them diplomas, doctorates and awards. The most important is, however, the participation of all scientists, which care about the future of the physics science and wish to participate in the opening of the new page of physics (see: http://www.atiner.gr/phyrel).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2307] **viXra:1612.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-22 03:31:44*

**Authors:** Gou Nakano

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

When we consider the beginning of the universe, the Big Bang theory is currently the mainstream. And it is said that the universe was born out of nothing. Inflation started immediately after the start of the universe, the universe expanded at a speed exceeding the speed of light, the universe became huge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2306] **viXra:1612.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-21 02:06:26*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 4 Pages. In Russian

Implications from Milankovitch cycles and changes of „torsion” field of the Earth to near Earth
object orbit prediction quality are discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2305] **viXra:1612.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-19 18:15:08*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to Frontiers in Science

Several aspects of the dark matter proposal are discussed. It is shown that the existing baryonic mass in galaxies is sufficient for closing the Universe. It is concluded, then, that dark matter does not exist at all in the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2304] **viXra:1612.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-16 17:15:00*

**Authors:** H. J. Spencer

**Comments:** 198 Pages. This is a key paper in our new EM program as it replaces Maxwell's field forces.

This is the fifth report on a new research programme investigating the fundamental electromagnetic (EM) interaction. This paper completes the analysis of the interaction between two electrons described in the two previous papers. Each of these electron papers imposed a new, discrete restriction on the EM interaction. This paper now adds two new restrictions to the asynchronous interaction between two electrons. A pair-wise ray-like form of the EM impulse is proposed whose magnitude diminishes linearly with temporal separation to a finite, fixed value. Additionally, the discrete EM interaction is universalized by proposing a simple, new form for quantizing both the dynamical and kinematical activity between interacting pairs of electrons. This constrains both the linear momentum and kinetic energy of the two electrons to be exchanged across each interaction in fixed quanta. This dynamical exchange of quantized action (h/2) replaces Coulomb’s unproven spherical, continuous and instantaneous ‘law’ of electrostatics with a new, unified, discrete and dynamical basis for electromagnetism.
This fulfills Maxwell’s quest for extending Newtonian (particle) mechanics to the phenomena of electricity and magnetism but now for all relative distances and speeds: unifying both EM and classical and relativistic mechanics. This new EM model replaces Planck’s arbitrary (mathematical) quantum of action ‘rule’ (first injected mathematically into EM radiation theory and then later into atomic physics) and thereby providing a universal physical explanation for all atomic phenomena. This paper provides the first complete analytical solution of the isolated two-electron interaction – both attraction and repulsion.
The present theory shows that negative and positive electrons are two complementary manifestations of the same type of entity, phase-shifted from one another in the timing of their interactions. It is proposed that both forms of the electron execute a four-step transverse, cyclic trajectory across space (in opposite directions). This new physical and mathematical EM model provides a simple, discrete mechanical explanation for the foundational (but mysterious) two-valued quantum phenomenon of electron ‘spin’. Since this motion is sub-microscopic, this may be viewed as the ‘hidden quantum degree of freedom’ that characterizes this most mysterious behavior of the electron. The intrinsic (‘clicking’) motion of the electron is proposed here as the spatial component (where) of the fundamental interaction between pairs of electrons. The other new component is now intimately associated with when and how an electron interacts with other electrons. These ideas result in electrons stepping cyclically through four interaction states (the positron goes through the same four states but in the opposite sequence). This provides novel insights into Dirac’s Equation of the Relativistic Electron while avoiding all taint of negative energy states.
This new two-time theory unifies an asynchronous version of Newton’s physics of point particle motion (at all velocities) with all of the experimental phenomena of classical and quantum EM while avoiding use of single-time field theories and their necessary relativistic transformations of space and time. The new theory now forms the foundation for a new quantum theory of atoms, nuclei and elementary particles that is easier to visualize (geometric) while its finite algebraic basis (rather than continuous calculus) make it much easier to calculate and extend than prior continuum theories; the new results of these further extensive investigations will be presented in a series of subsequent papers.
* Surrey B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299spsi99@telus.net
© H. J. Spencer Version 1.250 16-12-2016 Begun 23-06-2008 (675 KB, 196pp)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2303] **viXra:1612.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-15 11:53:12*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibanez Fernandez

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Abstract
The paper presents a deep theoretical analysis of the special theory of relativity. Unfortunately, the special theory of relativity was violated the basic principle of relativity. According to this principle all the laws of nature are the same in all inertial motion systems.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2302] **viXra:1612.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-14 15:46:32*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This note discusses an absurdity that is rooted in the modern physics interpretation of Einstein’s relativistic mass formula when v is very close to c. Modern physics (and Einstein himself) claimed that the speed of a mass can never reach the speed of light. Yet at the same time they claim that it can approach the speed of light without any upper limit on how close it could get to that special speed. As we will see, this leads to some absurd predictions. Because even if a material system cannot reach the speed of light, an important question is then, How close can it get to the speed of light? Is there really no clear-cut bound on the exact speed limit for an electron, as an example?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2301] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-14 05:56:12*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Time meaning and particle mechanics

The starting point for the concept is the idea that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. Based on this idea, we can the define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is what I think is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock and it seems clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. Following this idea we can construct a whole theory closely following the empirical evidence we already have. Things seem to be coherent. This concept is only intended to be a starting point for a proper theory of space. It only contains few principles that are intended to give a better and more natural explanation how the universe works. It will not cover the observed quantum behaviour of particles. I will try to explain simple ideas about time, space and fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2300] **viXra:1612.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-12 13:17:54*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Relativistics equations are derived using concepts of Newton, Lewis, Doppler and non-instantaneos forces. And the theory is in agreement with particle collision, mass variation, time dilation, transversal Doppler effect, kinetic energy, etc.
We propose a mass spectroscopy experiment to test the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2299] **viXra:1612.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-11 11:04:25*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Reitze lectured high school science teachers at a conference at UQ: http://www.staq.qld.edu.au/pd-events/steeagmm/?

On Tuesday the 6th of December 2016, professor David Reitze, the Director of LIGO, delivered a 'keynote' conference lecture to high school science teachers at the University of Queensland. He reiterated claims that the LIGO-Virgo Collaboration detected gravitational waves produced by two merging black holes some 1.3 billion light years from Earth. By and large the school teachers sat passively, thoughtlessly absorbing his claims without criticism. Big bang cosmology is now taught to students as young as twelve in Queensland, as a matter of official curriculum. Yet this cosmology is demonstrably false on many levels. When scientific facts were put to him professor Reitze retreated to 'hand waving'. That LIGO did not detect gravitational waves or black holes is easily proven. The letter herein was sent to professor Reitze, inviting his arguments in defence of LIGO.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2298] **viXra:1612.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 14:28:50*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: -H and -Z particles were plentiful in the very early universe in form of Briggs fermibosons with negative matter bosonic components. After these components did their job of transferring matter from the dying universe to the new universe, the redundant -H particles came together to quickly form super massive black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2297] **viXra:1612.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 09:11:56*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Public Lecture: The dark Side of the Universe, Professor Manfred Lindner: http://sydney.edu.au/sydney_ideas/lectures/2016/professor_manfred_lindner.shtml

On the evening of the 29th of November 2016, Professor Manfred Lindner from the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics, gave a public lecture at the University of Sydney, on dark matter and cosmology, and the Xenon1T project searching for dark matter particles by means of neutrino collisions and recoils in a 1 tonne vat of liquid xenon. At the conclusion of his lecture I questioned him on his presentation of an all-sky 'CMB' anisotropy map. He confirmed that the map was from the Planck satellite. The Planck satellite's 4 K 'blackbody' reference loads failed. This failing, ironically, proved that there is no monopole signal at L2, and hence no 'CMB'. Without its 'CMB', big bang cosmology is dead.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2296] **viXra:1612.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 09:21:28*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based on classical electromagnetic theory and special theory of relativity, three thought experiments are conducted and analyzed here. In all these cases, the Lorenz force law clashes with special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2295] **viXra:1612.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-08 06:41:02*

**Authors:** Blair D. Macdonald

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

Continuing the debate on whether the universe is fractal by nature: an experiment was undertaken on the ‘simple’ Koch Snowflake fractal to test whether it matches observations and conjectures. The snowflake was inverted to model observations from a static or ‘measured’ position – within an iterating fractal set. Converse to the classical fractal snowflake emergence, new triangles sizes were held constant and earlier triangles in the set expanded as the set iterated. Kinematic velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area of the total fractal, and the distance between points within the fractal set. The inverted fractal was also tested for the Hubble's Law. It was discovered that the area(s) expanded exponentially; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. The model was consistent with the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology and demonstrated a singularity ‘Big Bang’ beginning; homogeneous isotropic expansion consistent with the CMB; Hubble's Law expansion – with a Hubble diagram and Hubble's constant; and accelerating expansion with a ‘cosmological’ constant an expansion rate consistent with, and capable of explaining the conjecture of early inflation epoch of the universe. The model predicts and matches current galaxy distribution observation – clustered nearby and smooth on large scales – and thus is inconsistence with the cosmological principle. The mechanism of expansion is consistent with quantum mechanical descriptions: the vacuum catastrophe is addressed. It was concluded that the universe behaves as a general as a fractal object, where we are observing inside it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2294] **viXra:1612.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-08 03:22:08*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A short time ago, I published an article about deceleration of the universe. It was especially based on entropy, and it explains how does matter work, produce free energy by using its own creation motion without external energy; also is about instant communication and jumping interstellar by imitating starting condition of matter called as big-bang as a side effect on itself that the same with faster than light expansion as creation motion and outer space motion are accepted together. In this work, it was performed some analysis of the some specific subjects such as deceleration, uncertainty, particle formation, black hole, gravitation, energy, mass and light speed for identical simulation computations of the entire universe as the most sensitive as possible being related that article. There are some informations about escaping from black holes, event horizon lengths, viscosity of free space, re-derivation of Planck constants and infrastructure of some basic laws of existence mathematically as matter is directly dependent of geometric rules. Also, some elements were given for the readers to solve some required constants as the most sensitive manner. As the constants are not enough in the name of engineering, also finally I found a working algorithm which reduces process number of the power series to process number of the quadratic equations like calculating a root of an integer as an irrational number by solving equation; so also it can be used to calculate trigonometric values in the best manner for simulations of the entire universe besides physical constants as irrational values. Also there are new informations about the pioneer anomaly, gamma ray burst and unobservational universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2293] **viXra:1612.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 14:21:42*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 84 pages

In this dissertation, we will describe the phenomenon of anti-gravity in the framework of general relativity, and we will give examples of its use, such as black holes and a new model of the universe. Gravity and anti-gravity has layer-like nature. Our Universe can be treated as a gigantic homogeneous black hole. It is isolated from the rest of universe by an area of spacetime where anti-gravity occurs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2292] **viXra:1612.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 08:39:43*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In order to prove if the magnetism is a relativistic side effect of the electrostatics, an experiment was designed and performed. The experimental result does not support the notion that the magnetism is a relativistic side effect of Electrostatics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2291] **viXra:1612.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 05:04:49*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, the slowdown mechanism of the moving mechanical clock is derived. The whole deductive process is based on velocity transformation and length contraction of the special relativity. The result shows that when in moving the mechanical clock runs slower in the exactly same proportion as the light clock does.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2290] **viXra:1612.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 06:05:58*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, a paradox resulted from the mass increasing with speed is presented. In this paradox, the same system appears two different conflict states. The system is stay in good order for an observer who is moving together with the system, but it is damaged for an observer who is at rest. To avoid this contradiction while leaving relativity intact, we have to introduce the assumption that the strength of a substance will increase with its speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2289] **viXra:1612.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-04 07:47:50*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Nowadays black holes in physics are considered real objects; supermassive black holes exist in the centers of most (all?) galaxies. The creation of black holes is a theory based on space-time. A new theory called space-matter theory has another explanation. The action-reaction phenomenon between space and matter causes that space waves. Masses decrease the energy of the space wave increasing its wavelengths. Lots of masses set up this effect causing very long waves. Black hole is made in a galaxy if the masses of celestial bodies are big "enough". Space regions can be depleted, where the density of the space wave is so small that space as space ceases to exist. This "lack of space" is replaced with space we don't know or with matter we can't find in our physics books.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2288] **viXra:1612.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-03 07:44:56*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. -

With the help of the general theory of relativity and the principle of least action, we get the formula of interaction of two charged particles. The strength of the interaction on the particle repulsion (Identically charged) is less than the force attracted exactly the same particles (Charged differently). The bodies are made up of such particles and, therefore, are always attracted, according to the theory of relativity and the principle of least action.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2287] **viXra:1612.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 14:59:01*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

How can interfering light waves transport particle characteristics? Up to now it was supposed that wave-particle duality was a quantum mechanical phenomenon which was not accessible to any classical explanation. The present article is disproving this assumption, by showing o n e single case which is entirely subject to a classical explanation: Photons in vacuum.
The suggested classical explanation of wave-particle duality is simple, and it is deriving directly from special relativity: The particle characteristics are transported directly from A to B, without any intermediate of spacetime, because the interval is zero. The observed wave is a sort of placeholder in our spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2286] **viXra:1612.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 18:07:05*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

It is commonly thought that the Michelson-Morley experiment from 1887 and Kennedy-Thorndike experiment from 1932 demonstrated that the ether does not exist and that the velocity of light in vacuum is absolutely constant. The analysis of this experiment led to the creation of the Special Theory of Relativity (STR).
In this article, a different transformation of time and position than the Lorentz transformation is derived on the basis of the geometric analysis of the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments. The transformation is derived based on the assumption that the universal frame of reference, called the ether, exists. Our concept states that the ether is not a substance with physical properties, as it was understood in the past, but a frame of reference in which the velocity of light is constant in every direction. In inertial frames of reference moving in the ether, the velocity of light may be different. The obtained transformations are transformations from the ether to the inertial frame and from the inertial frame to the ether.
The article explains why Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether.
Based on the new transformation, the Special Theory of Ether (STE) was created [3], [4], [5], [6].

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1499] **viXra:1702.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-14 03:47:06*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Why do objects possess inertia at all ? What is gravity ? Why are inertial and gravitational masses equal ? These are some of the greatest puzzles and mysteries in physics that have not been really solved to date. This paper reveals these mysteries. Inertia and electrical self- inductance are not only analogous, but they are the same phenomena: electromagnetism ! Inertia is 'self-inductance' or electromagnetic radiation reaction. Electrostatic force and gravitational force are not only analogous, but they are basically the same phenomena: electrostatics. Both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total number of electrons, protons and neutrons in an object, i.e. the total (NOT net ) charge in the object. This is the fundamental reason why inertial mass and gravitational mass are equal. Universal speed limit is due to non-linear law of self- inductance or radiation resistance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1498] **viXra:1702.0016 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-08 02:55:39*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The origin of the force holding protons and neutrons together in the nucleus has been one of the daunting puzzles of physics, regardless of the Standard Model explanation. One possible consideration is the force of gravity as responsible for the stability of the nucleus. However, this idea will be immediately dismissed because gravitational force as we know it is weaker than electromagnetic force by a factor of about 8 x 10-37 . This is the very reason that gravity has eluded the attention of physicists as a possible explanation of nuclear force. Nature has hidden its mystery for almost a century by looking ridiculous. We know gravitation as introduced by Newton and have been stuck with that for centuries. This paper reveals a drastically different law of gravitation that ultimately resolves the mystery of nuclear force. This theory also has the potential to explain the phenomenon of cosmological acceleration and the Pioneer anomaly. Gravity is a force that behaves differently at vastly different distance scales: nuclear and atomic scale, macroscopic scale and astronomical scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1497] **viXra:1701.0688 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-03 22:45:38*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G that are contemporaneous with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. Preliminary research has determined that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years). In this paper, the oscillations are shown to be concomitant with the Earth's distance from the Sun and the angular frequency of its orbit. Implications for space exploration and dark matter are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1496] **viXra:1701.0688 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-02 08:10:32*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G that are contemporaneous with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. Preliminary research has determined that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years). In this paper, the oscillations are shown to be concomitant with the Earth's distance from the Sun and the angular frequency of its orbit. Implications for space exploration and dark matter are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1495] **viXra:1701.0688 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-02 06:22:04*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Periodic oscillations are observed in Newton's gravitational constant G that are contemporaneous with length of day data obtained from the International Earth Rotation and Reference System. Preliminary research has determined that the oscillatory period of G is ≈ 5.9 years (5.899 ± 0.062 years). In this paper, the oscillations are shown to be concomitant with the Earth's distance from the Sun and the angular frequency of its orbit. Implications for space exploration and dark matter are also discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1494] **viXra:1701.0688 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-01 18:13:37*

**Authors:** Brent Jarvis

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1493] **viXra:1701.0673 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-31 05:45:02*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Version 2 in English.

This article presents an invariant formulation of special relativity which can be applied in any inertial reference frame. In addition, a new universal force is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1492] **viXra:1701.0636 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-28 08:51:07*

**Authors:** Allen Graycek

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Very recent studies of halos around galaxies found them to be much more extensive than previous studies indicated, and that they have enormous mass consisting of gas and dust from supernovas, SNs. The results of these studies and a recent study of SN rate of occurrence can be used to determine age, and for the Milky Way the result is roughly six trillion years with a conservative preliminary calculation. Other strong evidence exists as well which indicates a great age, yet it is truly a wonder any of this will shake up or change current beliefs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1491] **viXra:1701.0631 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-09 18:53:49*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A new cosmological model is proposed for the dynamics of the Universe and the formation and evolution of galaxies. It is shown that the matter of the Universe contracts and expands in cycles, and that galaxies in a particular cycle have imprints from the previous cycle. It is proposed that RHIC’s liquid gets trapped in the cores of galaxies in the beginning of each cycle and is liberated with time and is, thus, the power engine of AGNs. It is also shown that the large-scale structure is a permanent property of the Universe, and thus, it is not created. It is proposed that spiral galaxies and elliptical galaxies are formed by mergers of nucleon vortices (vorteons) at the time of the big squeeze and immediately afterwards and that the merging process, in general, lasts an extremely long time, of many billion years. The origin of quasars is explained and the evaporation rate of RHIC’s liquid is calculated. It is concluded that the Universe is eternal and that space should be infinite or almost.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1490] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-14 10:24:26*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild black holes.
An analytical solution is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1489] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-08 09:10:26*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1488] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-07 15:54:02*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1487] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-07 11:12:37*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1486] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-04 13:51:14*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1485] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-04 11:54:45*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Using Metaballs to Model the Pre-Ringdown Phase of the Merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild Black Holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1484] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-03 13:14:10*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Using Metaballs to Model the Pre-Ringdown Phase of the Merger of $n = 2$ Schwarzschild Black Holes

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1483] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-01 14:45:40*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1482] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-30 15:46:03*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1481] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-29 16:31:00*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1480] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-28 09:09:36*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1479] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-27 14:38:55*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper, Blinn's metaballs are used to model the pre-ringdown phase of the merger of Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1478] **viXra:1701.0614 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-25 18:25:57*

**Authors:** S Halayka

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1477] **viXra:1701.0589 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-25 14:51:55*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In space-matter model both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. Time is the result of the action-reaction of space and matter. The action-reaction motions of space and matter must be synchronized. The synchronization of these motions needs algorithms of both sides; matter and space must have algorithms. Space cannot be defined without matter. Space is what matter uses as space. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space. The relation of space and matter cannot be created if the amount of information of space and matter cannot maintain the relationship of space and matter.
In space-matter model solely through the use of space waves, we can express spatial distance, time and energy. It is possible to express all these phenomena in eVolt, so meters can be converted into seconds or into kgs and vice versa. Saying this, we must realize that there is a surprising gateway between space and matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1476] **viXra:1701.0551 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-09 23:03:27*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Version 2

Since 1905, when Einstein introduced the Special Relativity Theory, various researchers independently observed that his theory contains at least one more postulate besides the two postulates stated by him explicitly. Putting together all those observations about the different additional postulates, we will describe here how the Special Relativity Theory was unfortunately based on nineteen postulates, and how most of them were implied and used in Einstein's 1905 article, later in his article of 1910, and also further in his manuscript written between 1912 and 1914.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1475] **viXra:1701.0503 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-06 21:33:19*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 36 Pages. Please contact gene at genebarbee@msn.com

The cosmic web is a filament like structure that connects galaxies. It has been imaged by gravitational lensing and is thought to be composed mainly of dark matter since it is not visible in the electromagnetic spectrum. There are computer simulations of the web showing that galaxies are often nodes for multiple branches. View the simulations at https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ivymdduulFU. WMAP, PLANCK and other background radiation anisotropy teams have concluded that dark matter is 5 times more prevalent than normal matter. Scientists are trying to identify dark matter and the unexpected web like structure adds to the list of cosmology unknowns.
This document proposes that dark matter consists of neutron waves or neutrons (wave/particle duality) contained by a gravitational field. Dark matter density would be the same as normal matter density but neutron waves might have a radius of only 1.53e-15 meters (the wavelength of a neutron). This means it could be very elongated (e.g. 5e16 meters). It may coil into a small volume unless stretched by gravity. The neutron/waves location in the long filament is probabilistic but it contains 939 MeV/filament (1.675e-27 Kg). A diffuse structure and the absence of electromagnetic features will make it difficult to detect. Originally dark and normal matter is mixed and both fall into massive structures like galaxies over time. The residual dark matter probably forms aligned filaments we see as the cosmic web. It would attract some normal matter and be gravitationally stretched between galaxies. Dark matter has only gravitational interactions. As it moves into galaxies it forms halos and explains anomalous galactic velocity observations.
The author will present a re-analysis of the baryon/photon ratio (critical to residual deuterium abundance data) and will review that WMAP data that lead scientists to conclude that dark matter was 5 times more prevalent than normal matter. A detailed model from matter equality to decoupling will be presented. The features of interest are the waves that cause temperature variations in the background radiation. A model that predicts the temperature of the hot spots will be presented. Based on re-analysis of limiting considerations it will be shown that half of all matter is baryons and the other half is dark matter.
Most

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1474] **viXra:1701.0319 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-11 05:41:16*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we look at the ultimate limits of a photon propulsion rocket. The maximum velocity for a photon propulsion rocket is just below the speed of light and is a function of the reduced Compton wavelength of the heaviest subatomic particles in the rocket. We are basically combining the relativistic rocket equation with Haug’s new insight in the maximum velocity for anything with rest mass; see [1, 2, 3]. An interesting new finding is that in order to accelerate any sub-atomic “fundamental” particle to its maximum velocity, the particle rocket basically needs two Planck masses of initial load. This might sound illogical until one understands that subatomic particles with different masses have different maximum velocities. This can be generalized to large rockets and gives us the maximum theoretical velocity of a fully-efficient and ideal rocket. Further, no additional fuel is needed to accelerate a Planck mass particle to its maximum velocity; this also might sound absurd, but it has a very simple and logical solution that is explained in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1473] **viXra:1701.0319 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-10 17:28:19*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we look at the ultimate limits of a photon propulsion rocket. The maximum velocity for a photon propulsion rocket is just below the speed of light and is a function of the reduced Compton wavelength of the heaviest subatomic particles in the rocket. We are basically combining the relativistic rocket equation with Haug’s new insight in the maximum velocity for anything with rest mass; see [1, 2, 3]. An interesting new finding is that in order to accelerate any sub-atomic “fundamental” particle to its maximum velocity, the particle rocket basically needs two Planck masses of initial load. This might sound illogical until one understands that subatomic particles with different masses have different maximum velocities. This can be generalized to large rockets and gives us the maximum theoretical velocity of a fully-efficient and ideal rocket. Further, no additional fuel is needed to accelerate a Planck mass particle to its maximum velocity; this also might sound absurd, but it has a very simple and logical solution that is explained in this paper. This paper is Classified!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1472] **viXra:1701.0289 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-14 03:42:17*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Space is a three-dimensional extent; matter also has three spatial dimensions. Time is the
result of the action-reaction of space and matter.
Space is what matter uses as space. Space is not dependent on its texture; it can be made out
of matter or non-matter. Time is one characteristic of the given space used by a given matter.
Using this new approach called space-matter theory, we can find that there are different
spaces (cp. tunneling), where the same matter has different velocities. These velocities can be
greater than c; their value depends on the amount of information that the given space contains.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1471] **viXra:1612.0365 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-15 06:44:00*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Polarized Fermions (Nuclear Quarks) are supposed to be the origin of non accelerated motion through the resistive oscillating vacuum (Axion) Higgs field.
Recent observations in the LHC do support the idea of Fermion polarization into a constant specific space based direction, which could support the idea of a constant battle between a resistive vacuum and polarized spinning propeller shaped Fermions pushed forward by the same vacuum at the same time to compensate the resistance.
Even a so called Lorentz Fitzgerald contraction seem to be the logic result, which was described by John Bell in his essay: “How to Teach Special Relativity”
The recently observed Axial symmetric pear shaped atom nuclei ( LHC) are an extra support for the atomic interaction with a new massless oscillating Axion-Higgs vacuum reference frame postulated by Quantum FFF Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1470] **viXra:1612.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-30 14:40:02*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is currently accepted in Physics that General Relativity can explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing but Classical Physics cannot. The Newtonian calculation for the deflection angle of light, treating light as a gravitating mass, gives only half of the observed amount, whereas General Relativity gives the correct amount. However, in Energy Field Theory space is modeled as being an aether type field that determines the local speed of light and rate of time (due to both light and matter waves being slowed in the space around a mass) so this Classical Physics approach can fully explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing, in agreement with General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1469] **viXra:1612.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-27 16:50:15*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is currently accepted in Physics that General Relativity can explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing but Classical Physics cannot. The Newtonian calculation for the deflection angle of light, treating light as a gravitating mass, gives only half of the observed amount, whereas General Relativity gives the correct amount. However, in Energy Field Theory space is modeled as being an aether type field that determines the local speed of light and rate of time (due to both light and matter waves being slowed in the space around a mass) so this Classical Physics approach can fully explain the observed amount of Gravitational Lensing, in agreement with General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1468] **viXra:1612.0341 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-11 01:48:26*

**Authors:** Richard Benish

**Comments:** Typo fixed in penultimate paragraph of page 6. Os changed to phis in Uggerhoj's name.

Motivated by the benefits of improving our knowledge of Newton's constant G, Feldman et al have recently proposed a new measurement involving a gravitational clock launched into deep space. The clock's mechanism is supposed to be the linear oscillation of a test mass falling back and forth along the length of a hole through the center of a spherical source mass. Similar devices — ones that would have remained in orbit around Earth — were proposed about 50 years ago for the same purpose. None of these proposals were ever carried out.
Further back, in 1632 Galileo proposed the thought experiment of a cannonball falling into a hole through the center of Earth. Curiously, no one has yet observed the gravity-induced radial motion of a test object through the center of a massive body. Also known as a gravity-train, not a one has yet reached its antipodal destination. From this kind of gravitational clock, humans have not yet recorded a single tick.
The well known reliability of Newton's and Einstein's theories of gravity may give confidence that the device will work as planned. Nevertheless, it is argued here that a less expensive apparatus — Small Low-Energy Non-Collider — ought to be built first, simply to prove that the operating principle is sound. Certain peculiar facts about Schwarzschild's interior solution are discussed here; and a novel way of interpreting gravitational effects will be presented in Part II, together adding support for the cautious advice to more thoroughly look before we leap to the outskirts of the Solar System.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1467] **viXra:1612.0330 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-03 21:57:45*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article is prompted by realization that the demonstration of the vanishing of the GR d'Alembertian of the space-time coordinates when the contracted affine connection vanishes requires those coordinates to be treated as GR scalars; there is no such demonstration when the space-time coordinates are treated as a GR four-vector. That the "harmonic coordinate condition", namely the vanishing of the contracted affine connection, thus fails to live up to its "harmonic coordinate" appellation removes its qualification to be the description of the coordinates routinely used by observational/empirical physical scientists. It is suggested instead that the GR coordinate condition which corresponds to those coordinates is that a Lorentz-scalar attribute of the metric is fixed to its Minkowski-limit value; Lorentz-scalar attributes of the metric include its determinant and its contraction with the Minkowski tensor. Examination of the corresponding two Minkowski-limit GR coordinate conditions in the case of the Schwarzschild solution shows that Minkowski-limit fixing of the value of the metric's determinant permits the Schwarzschild radius to be made arbitrarily small but not zero, whereas Minkowski-limit fixing of the value of the metric's contraction with the Minkowski tensor permits the Schwarzschild radius to be made zero. The latter GR coordinate condition thus seems a viable hypothesis for the routinely used observational/empirical coordinates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1466] **viXra:1612.0320 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-03 04:39:02*

**Authors:** Gocho V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

To upload a manuscript to the e-print archive of Cornell University, you need endorsement (recommendation), which you will never get if the content of the manuscript contradicts the theory of relativity. Of course, physics journals with the highest impact factor in the world directly refuse the publication of evidence, which can discredit the theory of relativity. Nobody can assume that a professor of physics at world-renowned university does not know what a coordinate reference system means. It is unclear, why the physical society is not standing decidedly behind the strong evidence that the measured velocity of light is not the same in all frames of reference. This fact was proven not only in the past century, but also by the last experiments carried out by means of modern technologies. In fact, the only remaining argument of the dominant orthodox part of the scientific community for more than one century is that “if the theory of relativity is mathematically proven – then this theory is correct…”, but… “not everyone can understand the theory of relativity”. The inaccessibility distance is actually silently supported to all, who “do not understand” the theory of relativity. We all know the anecdote concerning Ludwik Silberstein and Arthur Eddington about – “who are the three men who actually understood the theory of relativity?”… Actually, the main reason for the fact that this theory is incomprehensible is not that the mathematical apparatus is complex, but that the people do not accept illusory claims. The real statement can always be explained in a simple and comprehensible way for everyone. That is why, the book “THE SPECIAL THEORY OF RELATIVITY = THE BIGGEST DELUSION IN PHYSICS FOR 20TH CENTURY” (in 3 parts) was published at Amazon. This book is understandable for everyone who studied mathematics in secondary school.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1465] **viXra:1612.0304 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-20 11:31:52*

**Authors:** Mario Everaldo de Souza

**Comments:** 5 Pages. I only made a small correction without changing any significance.

Several aspects of the dark matter proposal are discussed. It is shown that the existing baryonic mass in galaxies is sufficient for closing the Universe. It is concluded, then, that dark matter does not exist at all in the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1464] **viXra:1612.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-01 11:18:56*

**Authors:** Paolo Bolzoni

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

n this study we want to propose a heuristic model to compute and to interpret the dark energy content of our universe. To this purpose we include the mass-energy of the static gravitational field and compute its effect at very small distances. From its analysis, we obtain for the smallest surface scale for the empty space $\tau=2h\gamma/5c^3$. After that we show, how this result can be used to compute a natural energy cutoff $k_c$ for all quantum fields and study its utility in computing the dark energy density and its implications on the content of fermionic and bosonic elementary fields. Indeed for the vacuum equation of state w=p_{vac}/\rho_{vac} we obtain w=}-128\pi^2/(15\Delta N), where \Delta N\= N_f - N_b$ represents the difference between the number of species of fermions and bosons. Finally comparing our result with the measured cosmological parameters, we discus general constraints on the field content beyond the Standard Model of the elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1463] **viXra:1612.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-19 07:16:24*

**Authors:** Paolo Bolzoni

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this study we want to propose a heuristic model to compute and to
interpret the dark energy content of our
universe.
To this purpose we include
the mass-energy of the static gravitational field and
compute its effect at very small
distances. From its analysis, we obtain for the smallest surface
scale for the empty space $\tau=2h\gamma/5c^3$.
After that we show, how this result can be used to compute a
natural energy cutoff $k_c$ for all quantum fields and
study its utility in computing the dark energy density and its
implications on the content of fermionic
and bosonic elementary fields. Indeed for the vacuum equation of
state w=p_{vac}/\rho_{vac} we obtain w=}-128\pi^2/15\Delta N and
\Omega_{vac}\approx 21\Delta N/256\pi^2, where
\Delta N\= N_f - N_b$ represents the difference between the number of
species of fermions and bosons.
Finally comparing our
result with the measured cosmological parameters,
we discus general constraints on the field content
beyond the Standard Model of the elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1462] **viXra:1612.0256 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-02 11:43:43*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibanez Fernandez

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Abstract
The paper presents a deep theoretical analysis of the special theory of relativity. Unfortunately, the special theory of relativity was violated the basic principle of relativity. According to this principle all the laws of nature are the same in all inertial motion systems

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1461] **viXra:1612.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-23 09:53:14*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This note discusses an absurdity that is rooted in the modern physics interpretation of Einstein’s relativistic mass formula when v is very close to c. Modern physics (and Einstein himself) claimed that the speed of a mass can never reach the speed of light. Yet at the same time they claim that it can approach the speed of light without any upper limit on how close it could get to that special speed. As we will see, this leads to some absurd predictions. Because even if a material system cannot reach the speed of light, an important question is then, “How close can it get to the speed of light?” Is there really no clear-cut bound on the exact speed limit for an electron, as an example?
Key words: Relativistic mass, maximum velocity of subatomic particles, boundary condition, Haug maximum velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1460] **viXra:1612.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-22 16:36:07*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This note discusses an absurdity that is rooted in the modern physics interpretation of Einstein's relativistic mass formula when v is very close to c. Modern physics (and Einstein himself) claimed that the speed of a mass can never reach the speed of light. Yet at the same time they claim that it can approach the speed of light without any upper limit on how close it could get to that special speed. As we will see, this leads to some absurd predictions. Because even if a material system cannot reach the speed of light, an important question is then, “How close can it get to the speed of light?” Is there really no clear-cut bound on the exact speed limit for an electron, as an example?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1459] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-22 08:19:38*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

The starting point for the concept is the idea that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. Based on this idea, we can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is what I think is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. Following this idea we can construct a whole theory closely following the empirical evidence we already have. This model suggests that space doesn't have a variable geometry, instead complex particles inner geometry changes what we call time and space.
The strong point of this concept is that it predicts a particle / wave construct model that perfectly matches the behaviour of internal OAM light beams.
This concept is only intended to be a starting point for a proper theory. It only contains few principles that are intended to give a better and more natural explanation how the universe works.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1458] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-07 09:29:19*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

The starting point for the concept is the idea that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. Based on this idea, we can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is what I think is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. Following this idea we can construct a whole theory closely following the empirical evidence we already have. This model suggests that space doesn't have a variable geometry, instead complex particles inner geometry changes what we call time and space.
This concept is only intended to be a starting point for a proper theory of space. It only contains few principles that are intended to give a better and more natural explanation how the universe works.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1457] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-05 08:29:56*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The starting point for the concept is the idea that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. Based on this idea, we can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is what I think is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. Following this idea we can construct a whole theory closely following the empirical evidence we already have. This model suggests that space doesn't have a variable geometry, instead complex particles inner geometry changes what we call time and space. This concept is only intended to be a starting point for a proper theory of space.
Usually theories start from simple concepts. If the concept is wrong, then mathematics can't do anything to fix it, unless you accept the mathematical predictions are irrational. Mathematics can be used to further develop the theory and to make sophisticated predictions. My opinion is, both Quantum Mechanics and General Relativity theories, at some point, apparently make irrational predictions.
This paper, only contains few principles that are intended to give a better and more natural explanation how the universe works.
I will try to explain simple ideas about time, space and fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1456] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-17 06:18:01*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The starting point for the concept is the idea that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. Based on this idea, we can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is what I think is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. Following this idea we can construct a whole theory closely following the empirical evidence we already have. This model suggests that space doesn't have a variable geometry, instead complex particles inner geometry changes what we call time and space. This concept is only intended to be a starting point for a proper theory of space. It only contains few principles that are intended to give a better and more natural explanation how the universe works. I will try to explain simple ideas about time, space and fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1455] **viXra:1612.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-19 11:16:09*

**Authors:** Silas Sacheli Santos

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Relativistics equations are derived using concepts of Newton, Lewis, Doppler and non-instantaneos forces. And the theory is in agreement with particle collision, mass variation, time dilation, transversal Doppler effect, kinetic energy, etc.
We propose a mass spectroscopy experiment to test the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1454] **viXra:1612.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-10 09:12:33*

**Authors:** Blair D Macdonald

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

Continuing the debate on whether the universe is fractal by nature: an experiment was undertaken on the ‘simple’ Koch Snowflake fractal to test whether it matches observations and conjectures. The snowflake was inverted to model observations from a static or ‘measured’ position – within an iterating fractal set. Converse to the classical fractal snowflake emergence, new triangles sizes were held constant and earlier triangles in the set expanded as the set iterated. Kinematic velocities and accelerations were calculated for both the area of the total fractal, and the distance between points within the fractal set. The inverted fractal was also tested for the Hubble's Law. It was discovered that the area(s) expanded exponentially; and as a consequence, the distances between points – from any location within the set – receded away from the ‘observer’ at increasing velocities and accelerations. The model was consistent with the standard ΛCDM model of cosmology and demonstrated a singularity ‘Big Bang’ beginning; homogeneous isotropic expansion consistent with the CMB; Hubble's Law expansion – with a Hubble diagram and Hubble's constant; and accelerating expansion with a ‘cosmological’ constant an expansion rate consistent with, and capable of explaining the conjecture of early inflation epoch of the universe. The model predicts and matches current galaxy distribution observation – clustered nearby and smooth on large scales – and thus is inconsistence with the cosmological principle. The mechanism of expansion is consistent with quantum mechanical descriptions: the vacuum catastrophe is addressed. It was concluded that the universe behaves as a general as a fractal object, where we are observing inside it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1453] **viXra:1612.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-08 04:52:05*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

A short time ago, I published an article about deceleration of the universe. It was especially based on entropy, and it explains how does matter work, produce free energy by using its own creation motion without external energy; also is about instant communication and jumping interstellar by imitating starting condition of matter called as big-bang as a side effect on itself that the same with faster than light expansion as creation motion and outer space motion are accepted together. In this work, it was performed some analysis of the some specific subjects such as deceleration, uncertainty, particle formation, black hole, gravitation, energy, mass and light speed for identical simulation computations of the entire universe as the most sensitive as possible being related that article. There are some informations about escaping from black holes, event horizon lengths, viscosity of free space, re-derivation of Planck constants and infrastructure of some basic laws of existence mathematically as matter is directly dependent of geometric rules. Also, some elements were given for the readers to solve some required constants as the most sensitive manner. As the constants are not enough in the name of engineering, also finally I found a working algorithm which reduces process number of the power series to process number of the quadratic equations like calculating a root of an integer as an irrational number by solving equation; so also it can be used to calculate trigonometric values in the best manner for simulations of the entire universe besides physical constants as irrational values. Also there are new informations about the pioneer anomaly, gamma ray burst and non-observational universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1452] **viXra:1612.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-07 19:40:36*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, a paradox resulted from the mass increasing with speed is presented. In this paradox, the same system appears two conflict states. The system is stay in good order for an observer who is moving together with the system, but it is damaged for an observer who is at rest. To avoid this contradiction while leaving relativity intact, we have to introduce the assumption that the strength of a substance will increase with its speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology