**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(19) - 0703(4) - 0704(2) - 0706(1) - 0708(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(1) - 0712(2)

2008 - 0801(3) - 0802(1) - 0804(1) - 0805(1) - 0807(5) - 0810(2)

2009 - 0901(1) - 0902(3) - 0903(3) - 0907(7) - 0908(17) - 0909(28) - 0910(19) - 0911(13) - 0912(10)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(26) - 1003(26) - 1004(9) - 1005(10) - 1006(11) - 1007(9) - 1008(19) - 1009(9) - 1010(17) - 1011(23) - 1012(7)

2011 - 1101(36) - 1102(14) - 1103(35) - 1104(10) - 1105(4) - 1106(12) - 1107(15) - 1108(5) - 1109(11) - 1110(19) - 1111(23) - 1112(15)

2012 - 1201(37) - 1202(22) - 1203(18) - 1204(22) - 1205(21) - 1206(14) - 1207(16) - 1208(30) - 1209(17) - 1210(19) - 1211(17) - 1212(30)

2013 - 1301(33) - 1302(22) - 1303(42) - 1304(28) - 1305(24) - 1306(28) - 1307(21) - 1308(27) - 1309(21) - 1310(28) - 1311(21) - 1312(44)

2014 - 1401(35) - 1402(27) - 1403(32) - 1404(31) - 1405(38) - 1406(33) - 1407(45) - 1408(32) - 1409(25) - 1410(40) - 1411(30) - 1412(30)

2015 - 1501(39) - 1502(27) - 1503(24) - 1504(27) - 1505(31) - 1506(32) - 1507(24) - 1508(32) - 1509(39) - 1510(40) - 1511(51) - 1512(46)

2016 - 1601(33) - 1602(46) - 1603(39) - 1604(33) - 1605(30) - 1606(44) - 1607(21) - 1608(40) - 1609(46) - 1610(31) - 1611(46) - 1612(33)

2017 - 1701(28) - 1702(27) - 1703(43) - 1704(48) - 1705(32) - 1706(31) - 1707(28) - 1708(31) - 1709(44) - 1710(18)

Any replacements are listed further down

[2629] **viXra:1710.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 00:16:04*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A little over 4 centuries ago, Galileo concluded - and possibly confirmed by experiment - that different weights hit the ground at the same time when dropped from a height (discounting air resistance). This agrees with Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity; which proposes that gravity is the curvature of space-time pushing objects towards, say, the surface of a planet. It says this curvature acts equally on all bodies, making massive and less massive ones fall at equal rates. However, Einstein published a paper in 1919 (four years after General Relativity) asking if gravitation plays an essential role in formation of matter's particles. If it does, there would be more gravity acting on a massive body and it would fall slightly faster. The rate at which different objects fall is the subject of a French-backed space experiment called Microscope. Einstein's 1919 paper did more than suggest limitations of his general relativity. It seems to have been the launching pad for his Unified Field Theory; which occupied the last 30 years of his life, sought to unite gravitation with electromagnetism, and proposed that this unified field connected all parts of time and space. While the unified field theory is generally considered a failure, my own conviction is that it could transform into a world-changing success through the application of quantum mechanics, something Einstein didn't approve of because he regarded it as incomplete.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2628] **viXra:1710.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 03:22:03*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In order to explain the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein denied the existence of the absolute reference frame. It will be shown that all Einstein did was replace the absolute reference frame with another preferred reference frame: the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley apparatus. According to the Special Theory of Relativity (SRT ) , there is no preferred reference frame and all inertial reference frames are equivalent in predicting and analyzing the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. No reference frame, including the rest frame of the experiment, has any special significance different from other reference frames. It will be shown that the SRT analysis of the experiment violates this principle. This is because all other inertial observers moving relative to the Michelson-Morley apparatus do not know the outcome of the experiment until they get the experimental result of the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus. Only then can they use the Lorentz Transformation equations to ‘predict’ the outcome of the experiment in their own reference frames. If all inertial reference frames are really equivalent, why not first analyze the experiment in one of the reference frames moving relative to the apparatus, in which case there will be a fringe shift δ, and use Lorentz Transformation so that all other observers ( including the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus ) agree on the same fringe shift δ. The Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) is just another form of Lorentz ether theory ( LET): both depend on a preferred reference frame. In LET the ether is the preferred reference frame, while in SRT the rest frame of the experimental apparatus is the preferred reference frame. SRT only shifted the privilege of deciding the outcome of the experiment from the absolute reference frame to the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley experiment. The same hidden fallacy exists in the SRT analysis of the Trouton-Noble experiment. An alternative theory of absolute motion and the speed of light will be proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2627] **viXra:1710.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 06:26:01*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper explains some aspects of relativity and added some new inventions

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2626] **viXra:1710.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 06:53:15*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper tries a new attempt to space travel at higher speeds

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2625] **viXra:1710.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 09:28:00*

**Authors:** Mihir Kumar jha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Theory of everything (T.O.E), final theory or ultimate theory is a theoretical framework in the field of
physics, which holds an ultimate key to unify all the fundamental forces of nature in a single field. In other words
such theory can glue quantum mechanics with general relativity into a single framework. Many theories have been
postulated over the decades but the dominant one includes string theory and loop quantum gravity. In this paper I
would like to present a new framework which can unify quantum mechanics with general relativity by showing that
the change in Riemannian metric or the bend in space time is always an integral multiple of planks constant and
since gravity is the result due to bend in space-time, gravity itself is a discrete force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2624] **viXra:1710.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 02:54:20*

**Authors:** Eran sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The arrow of time is the "one-way direction" or "asymmetry" of time. The
thermodynamic arrow of time is provided by the Second Law of Thermodynamics,
which says that in an isolated system, entropy tends to increase with time
(Wikipedia).
Nevertheless, this asymmetry of time is not intuitive based on the Einstein’s field
equations that relate to space and time as one entity. Since space is symmetrical to
all directions time is also expected to be a “two way direction”.
Based on Einstein’s field equations mass curves space time and curvature of spacetime
is actually what Newtonian physics refer to as potential energy or the
gravitational field.
Two major questions can arise from this field equation interpretation:
1. Mass m, has a well-defined inherent energy based on Einstein’s special
relativity equation, =
2
.The mass curves space-time and this curvature
adds potential energy to its surrounding based on Einstein’s field equations.
What is the source of this added potential energy?
2. Since space-time is considered as a unified description and since space is
symmetric to all directions, we expect that time should flow symmetrically
both to the future and to the past. We know that this is not the case and time
flows only towards the future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2623] **viXra:1710.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 07:08:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Moving Magnet Conductor problem is the problem of 'coincidence' of the effect of magnetic field in the reference frame of the magnet and the effect of electric field in the reference frame of the conductor, the effect being a definite current flowing in the conductor, for a magnet and a conductor in relative motion. In this paper, we will show that this problem will not lead to the theory of relativity, i.e. to the conclusion that absolute motion doesn't exist. This 'coincidence' occurs only in the special case in which at least one of the two ( either the magnet or the conductor ) is at absolute rest and hence is only a special case. In general, the magnet and the conductor can have a relative motion while having a common absolute motion. This is the case, for example, of a magnet - conductor experiment carried out on Earth, which has an absolute velocity of 390 Km/s . In such cases, the motion of the magnet and the motion of the conductor will have different effects even if the relative velocities are the same. We will apply Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) to this problem. In the case of light, the effect of absolute motion for co-moving light source and observer is to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the observer. Therefore, no fringe shift will occur in the Michelson-Morley experiment due to an apparent change of source position for the same reason that no (significant ) fringe shift will occur if the position of the source was actually, physically changed relative to the detector. Intuitively, AST can be stated as: the speed of light is equal to c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction, relative to the source, for a source moving with absolute velocity Vabs. This theory readily explains the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST applies not only to light sources, but also to all electromagnetic sources: sources of electric fields ( charges ) , sources of magnetic fields ( magnets or electromagnets ) and sources of gravitational fields. Therefore, for absolutely co-moving magnet and (infinitesimal) conductor, the effect of absolute velocity is to create an apparent change in position of the magnet as seen by the conductor. The procedure of analysis is to replace the real magnet with an apparent magnet and analyze the problem as if both the apparent magnet and the conductor are at rest. There will not be any current induced in the conductor because the conductor is not moving relative to the magnet ( hence relative to the apparent magnet ). Since the conductor is at rest relative to the magnet, it is also at rest relative to the apparent magnet and hence no current will be induced in the conductor. There will be no induced current in this case for the same reason that there will be no induced current in the case of magnet and conductor both at absolute rest. An intuitive way of stating the same theory is to assume that the magnetic field is carried by the real magnet, but will be distorted due to absolute motion. Therefore, absolute motion of a magnet can be detected by a co-moving observer from the distortion of its field. The magnetic field of a magnet moving with absolute velocity will become weaker in front of the magnet and stronger behind the magnet. The electric field of a charge in absolute motion will become weaker in front of the charge and stronger behind the charge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2622] **viXra:1710.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 13:47:33*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 18 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

W artykule wyprowadzona została uogólniona transformacja Galileusza. Uzyskana transformacja jest podstawą wyprowadzenia nowej teorii fizycznej, którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru.
Uogólnioną transformację Galileusza można wyrazić od prędkości względnych (26)-(27) lub od parametru delta(v) (37)-(38). Na postawie wniosków wynikających z eksperymentu Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a wyznaczony został parametr delta(v). Dzięki temu transformacja przyjmuje szczególną postać (80)-(81), która jest zgodna z eksperymentami, w których mierzono prędkość światła.
Na podstawie otrzymanej transformacji wyznaczone zostały wzory na sumowanie prędkości oraz prędkość względną.
Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania prowadzone przez jego autorów.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2621] **viXra:1710.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 20:02:39*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Special Relativity theory postulates that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (the relativity postulate), and that the velocity of light in vacuum has the same value c in all inertial frames of reference (constancy of c postulate). We hereby show that relativity principle need not be postulated, since it follows from basic principles, without reliance on Lorentz transformations, or equivalently, reliance on the constancy of light postulate. The independency of the principle of relativity on the constancy of light postulate is featured by a different symmetry of Nature from the one constrained by the Lorentz transformations. We also show that that the same deductions apply to the relativity of simultaneity principle. Furthermore, we show that the symmetry of the laws of Nature, as being embedded in Nature itself, is a general law, which holds true for ALL systems of moving bodies, regardless of the velocity of the signal which carries information between one frame of reference to another, provided that the velocity of the information carrier is constant with respect to its source, and exceeds the relative velocities between the system's reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2620] **viXra:1710.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 20:59:13*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 17 Pages. AN ORIGINAL RESEARCH FINDING INTEGRATING SR AND GR

We examine the Lorentz factor and the Schwarzschild solution in relation to the estimation and
verification of time dilation particularly from available Global Positioning System data. We as a result
detect the possible occurrence of a proportionality between time dilation effects of special and general
relativity in free-fall motion in Keplerian orbits. This observation is then mathematically proved. The
results show that gravitational time dilation during free fall in Keplerian orbits must be exactly double
that caused in special relativity due to linear velocity. We propose that a law has to be enunciated in view
of the proof provided, and of the experimental and technological verification of time dilation effects
during the past six to seven decades. The importance of this finding as a universal phenomenon and in the
further development of stable clocks and satellite technology is highlighted.
1.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2619] **viXra:1710.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 21:43:29*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 13 Pages. TO UPLOAD A NEW PAPER

Research on human’s attachment to cosmological phenomena at least since the Neolithic Period may prove invaluable in modern scientific understanding of our ultimate realities. Of interest has been the archaeological research about the Neolithic Magic Cosmology. In more recent periods the Greek civilization and Hindu cosmological mythology amongst others engaged in various profound intellectual ways to understand and explain the cosmos. The last two millennia saw the progress of more modern civilizations in Asia and Europe resulting in the further empowerment of philosophy, religions and of astronomy. Astronomical discoveries in recent centuries have created particularly interesting philosophical and scientific reflections on the realities of the universe. But the last few decades have evolved differing scientific concepts which have made our notions of the universe and of existence more elusive to unfold thereby digging further the gaps between philosophy, religion and science. Interestingly studies on ancient human socio-religious cultures strongly suggest that human societies have an instinctive urge to unite their material experience with religious and cosmological beliefs, that is, with supernatural phenomena. This is intriguing because our own modern scientific literature clearly shows that many of even the most eminent of scientists see a supernatural character with our universe. Philosophy and religions in their theoretical ways have produced all that can be humanly interpreted on the origin and nature of the universe and existence. Since science has the objective role to explain natural phenomena including the manner the universe originated it should eventually be able to explain what the universe and existence stand from the manner scientific research on the origin of the universe develops in the decades to come. However the final decision as to whether the universe is a natural or supernatural emanation will obviously always remain a matter of personal judgment and choice.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2618] **viXra:1710.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 22:05:08*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 23 Pages. upload

The world of astronomy could be at a new and pivotal crossroad. In recent decades the controversial debate on the origin of the universe in relation to the conflict among science, philosophy and religion has reached a crescendo to the extent that humanity is quite confused on how to interpret the nature of the realities of the universe. Is science an atheistic endeavor and are philosophers and prophets of religion just scientific illiterates. Astronomy, the oldest and biggest branch of Science, has been intimately linked to human culture including philosophy and religion for millennia or even longer. Advances in cosmology and astrophysics on the one hand and the natural sciences on the other hand are now producing insights which could, in the coming decade, elucidate in quite concrete scientific details how most probably our universe originated and what could be the nature of the intriguing realities of the universe such as the nature of matter, life, energy, gravity,
2
the mind and consciousness amongst many other riddles. This paper will show a bit of the trends in relation to mindsets on the universe and its origin and will predict that in due course we will have a new way of profoundly looking at the universe, its realities and of the place of humanity in it. This new view of our ultimate realities, when it materializes and mature, would progressively bring science, philosophy and religion under a common umbrella, spearheaded by a new Scientific Cosmological Argument. Introduction

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2617] **viXra:1710.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 07:10:22*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. none

This paper is mostly philosophical in its nature thus avoiding many equations and computations, which casual readers do not necessarily understand. Paper investigates and compares side by side in detail assumptions with their logical consequences and resulting internal inconsistencies in both; the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the GRT has many such internal inconsistencies, which have to be corrected by unusual and difficult to believe assumptions that are not backed up by a typical experience one encounters in a real life, while the MTG avoids such problems. For the readers who are interested in proofs of discussed findings the paper provides internet links to papers where such proofs are available. The key differences between the GRT and MTG theories are: the gravitational mass dependence on velocity, the nature of “empty” space, the finite or infinite size of the Universe, the existence of Black Holes (BH) with their Event Horizons (EH), the creation of Universe by the Big Bang (BB), and the relation between the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature, and the Hubble constant that characterizes the velocity of receding Galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2616] **viXra:1710.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 12:16:31*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper presents a quantitative equation for Mach’s Principle that appears to satisfy the requirements of most of the qualitative expressions of Mach’s Principle, and it suggests that the universe has spatial closure and a Transactional gravitational exchange mechanism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2615] **viXra:1710.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 05:47:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The true nature of absolute motion has eluded physicists for more than a century because they presumed absolute motion to be motion relative to the hypothetical ether. This author has developed a new interpretation of absolute velocity, Apparent Source Theory (AST ), that shows the ether does not exist, but absolute motion does. AST successfully explains the hitherto apparently contradicting experiments including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. An argument against the validity of absolute motion is that if absolute motion existed, it would have been detected in the Ives-Stilwell and the fast ion beam experiments.In this paper it is proposed that, unconventionally, absolute motion does not affect experiments of Doppler effect. Therefore, such experiments cannot prove or disprove absolute motion. Doppler effect is determined only by the source-observer relative velocity, by applying Exponential Doppler Effect theory [1] already proposed by this author. Absolute velocity results only in phase delay of light, and has no effect on Doppler effect and this would be a novel nature of motion and the speed of light. This is not the case for sound waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2614] **viXra:1710.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 07:11:25*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 128 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2613] **viXra:1710.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 17:11:39*

**Authors:** Thomas Preusser

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The holographic principle concept of physics theory traces its origins to the study of black holes. In the 1970’s Hawking and Bekenstein showed that black holes carry entropy, i.e. information, that is proportional not to black hole volume (i.e. 3-Dimensions), but to the area of the black hole horizon (i.e. 2-Dimensions). Subsequently Hooft and Susskind developed the holographic principle which pairs quantum gravity (3D) with quantum field theory (2D), making the black hole horizon “contoured 2D” and enabling entanglement information across the black hole horizon. More recently (1997 arXiv:9711200) Maldacena’s Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory correspondence, provided the holographic principle with a more explicit geometric (bulk, gravity, 3D, AdS) boundary correspondence with quantum field theory (2D, CFT), where the 2D is actually related to a dual boundary and the varying entanglement of two subsystems, A and its complement B.
The most interesting part of all the foregoing is that the holographic principle, which pertains to geometry and information, brings string theory adjacent to loop quantum gravity (LQG), which also pertains to geometry and information. More recently in LQG (1994 arXiv:9411005) Rovelli and Smolin related quantization to area / volume (geometry), and graphs (information). If “conservation” of information is a law, geometry is a more malleable topological property, (i.e. networked inter-connectedness is unaffected by changes in geometry).
There are two major issues that need to be addressed for further holographic principle progress.
Issue 1:The AdS, or bulk, gravity, 3D side, needs to be more topologically explicit and generalized. Gravity in 3D is a purely topological theory. In a topological theory geometric properties and spatial relations, i.e. networked inter-connectedness, are unaffected by the continuous change of shape or size of an object. Topological consistency is a very important aspect for systems of information, being akin to adiabatic consistency for systems of energy, thus providing stability.
Issue 2:Holographic principle entanglement needs to be put in a larger context that generalizes entanglement , and development of complexity. This includes CPT symmetry breaking, Lorentz covariant bound states (spooky action at a distance), neutrino oscillation involving electron, muon, and tau neutrinos, and gluon color charge oscillation.
Holography involves projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer. This paper expounds on projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer. In particular this paper looks at Pascal’s Projection Ellipse, and in a larger sense General Projective Relativit y (GPR), as models for projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer, and in so doing addresses the prior holographic principle issues.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2612] **viXra:1710.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 04:07:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It is known that most existing cosmology models do not include rotation, with few
exceptions such as rotating Bianchi and rotating Godel metrics. Therefore in this paper
we aim to discuss four possible ways to model rotating universe, including Nurgaliev’s
Ermakov-type equation. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with
observations, in order to open new possibilities of more realistic nonlinear cosmology
models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2611] **viXra:1710.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 11:46:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Hidding et al. suggest that the emergence of intricate and pervasive weblike structure of the Universe on Megaparsec scales can be approximated by a well-known equation from fluid mechanics, the Burgers’ equation. The solution to this equation can be obtained from a geometrical formalism. The resulting Adhesion formalism provides deep insight into the dynamics and topology of the Cosmic Web. It uncovers a direct connection between the conditions in the very early Universe and the complex spatial patterns that emerged out of these under the influence of gravity. In the present paper, we describe a cellular automaton model of the Burgers’ equation, which can be investigated via a fast computer simulation. In the end, this suggests a Cellular Automata Adhesion Model of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2610] **viXra:1709.0445 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-30 13:52:55*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: If E8 symmetry prevails, only 8 cyclic universes are allowed: the collapse of the 8th universe stopped time: luckily for us the symmetry of life (also of E8 symmetry) produced a rebirth of time and started the 9th universe evolving which it is still doing today.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2609] **viXra:1709.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-29 10:48:15*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 30 Pages. French version available - Website: http://phrenocarpe.org/index.html

We lay down the fundamental hypothesis that any electromagnetic radiation
transforms progressively, evolving towards and finally reaching after an appropriate
distance the value of the cosmic microwave background radiation wavelength
at 1,873 mm or the frequency of 160,2 GHz. This way we explain the cosmic
redshift Z of far away Galaxies using only Maxwell’s equations and the energy
quantum principle for photons. This hypothesis is also true for wavelength longer
or for frequency less than that of the cosmic microwave bacground. Hubble’s
law sprouts out naturally as the consequence of this transformation. According
to this hypothesis we compute the Hubble constant using Pioneer satellite data
and doing so deciphering the enigma of its anomalous behaviour. We speculate
about a numerical composition of the Hubble constant and introduce the Hubble
surface. This hypothesis helps to solve some cases that are still enigmatic for
the standard cosmology. We discuss about the maximal observation distance of
cosmological phenomena. We give an answer to the anomalous acceleration of the
Pioneer satellite and we show that it is a universal constant common to any satellite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2608] **viXra:1709.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-29 10:53:37*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 31 Pages. English available - Site internet: http://phrenocarpe.org

Nous posons l’hypothèse fondamentale que toute radiation électromagnétique
se transforme progressivement, évoluant vers, et atteignant après une distance
appropriée, la valeur de la radiation cosmique résiduelle soit une longueur d’onde
de 1,873 mm ou la fréquence de 160,2 GHz. Ainsi nous expliquons le décalage vers
le rouge Z de la radiation provenant des galaxies éloignées moyennant les équations
classiques de Maxwell et l’énergie quantique des photons. Cette hypothèse est
aussi valable lorsque la radiation émise est de longueur d’onde plus grande, ou de
fréquence plus basse que celle de la radiation cosmique résiduelle. La loi de Hubble
émerge tout naturellement comme conséquence de cette transformation. Suivant
cette hypothèse, nous évaluons la constante de Hubble en utilisant les données
fournies par le satellite Pioneer tout en expliquant l’anomalie de comportement
attribuée à ce satellite. Nous spéculons sur une composition possible de la constante
de Hubble et introduisons la surface de Hubble. Ce modèle permet la résolution
de quelques situations inexpliquées par la cosmologie actuelle. Nous discutons de
la distance limite d’observation des phénomènes cosmologiques. Nous expliquons
l’accélération anormale du satellite Pioneer et montrons qu’elle est une constante
universelle, la même pour tout satellite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2607] **viXra:1709.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-28 19:52:23*

**Authors:** Paulo Sérgio Custódio

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The formation of Primordial Black Holes is a robust prediction of
several gravitational theories. Whereas the creation of PBHs was very
active in the remote past, such process seem to be very negligible at the
present epoch.
In this work, we estimate the effects from the radiation surrounding
PBHs due to the absorption term in the equations that describe how
their masses depend on time. The Hawking radiation contributes with
mass loss and the absorption term contributes with gain, but a interesting
competition between these terms is analysed.
These effects are included in the equations describing PBHs and its
mass density as the universe evolves in time and the model is able to
describes the evolution of the numerical density of PBHs and the mass
evolution and comparisons with cosmological constraints set upper limits
in their abundances.
We evaluate the effect of this accretion onto PBHs and we get some
corrections for the initial masses that indicates some deviations from de-
fault values for the time scale for evaporation. The scale time of the PBHs
in the early universe is modified due to the energy accretion and we can
estimate how these contributions may alter the standard model of PBHs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2606] **viXra:1709.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-28 21:28:19*

**Authors:** HyunCheol Kim

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The law of inertia has been treated as a fundamental assumption in classical physics. However in this paper, I show that the law of inertia is completely possible to be derived, from the homogeneity of the spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2605] **viXra:1709.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-28 08:55:45*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Lorentz Transformation ( LT) equations were invented to make the speed of light constant ( invariant ) in reference frames moving with constant velocity relative to each other, which was implied by Maxwell's equations. This required the counterintuitive idea of relativity of length and time. The mainstream physics community just accepts this as the way nature works, while many reject it outright. Even more confusing is that the predictions of LT have been confirmed experimentally, such as the gamma factor, the electric field of moving charges and the universal light speed limit. On the other hand, absolute motion has also been decisively detected by many experiments such as the Miller, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte and the CMBR experiments. The speed of light has also been shown to vary with observer velocity, experimentally. All these facts show that the true nature of motion and the speed of light is still a mystery. In this paper, errors in the theory of Special Relativity, the non-existence of equivalence principle of General Relativity theory, and solutions will be proposed. The source of all confusions surrounding the LT is as follows: it has been wrongly presumed that the postulate of the constancy of the speed of light applies both to the phase velocity and the group velocity. We propose that it is the phase velocity, not the group velocity, which is constant independently of source or observer velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source velocity but varies with observer velocity. The relativity of length and time required to keep the phase velocity constant should be thought as an artifact and not real. LT should be applied only to predict the outcome of light speed experiments involving phase velocity such as the Doppler effect. The counterintuitive constancy of the phase velocity of light is something we should just accept as a law of nature. It is rooted in the reality that there is no medium of propagation for light waves. It is much better to just accept the constancy of the phase velocity of light without interpreting this to mean reality of relativity of length and time, and this is supported by logic and experimental evidence. LT should be interpreted to explain why all observers see the same fringe shift, not necessarily a null fringe shift. This paper also shows that the beautiful thought experiment of the equivalence principle turns out to be wrong. The equality of inertial mass and gravitational mass has its root in two of the longstanding mysteries in physics: what inertial mass is and what gravity is. Inertial mass and electrical self inductance are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomena. The velocity of a car cannot change instantaneously for the same reason that the current inside an inductor cannot change instantaneously. Just as the magnetic field of an inductor cannot change instantaneously, so does the magnetic field of the electrons, protons and neutrons of the car material. Gravity and electrostatic force are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomenon. Gravitational force is a slight difference between electrostatic attractive and repulsive forces. It follows that both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total (not net ) amount of charge in an object.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2604] **viXra:1709.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-26 18:58:33*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger) is supported by cosmic data (without fitting). Qmoger equations consist of Einstein equations with two additional terms responsible for production/absorption of matter. In Qmoger cosmology there was no Big Bang and matter is continuously producing by the Vacuum. Particularly, production of the ultralight gravitons with possible tiny electric dipole moment was started about 284 billion years ago. Quantum effects dominate interaction of these particles and they form the quantum condensate. Under influence of gravitation, the condensate is forming galaxies and producing ordinary matter, including photons. As one important result of this activity, it recently created us, the people, and continues to support us. Particularly, our subjective experiences (qualia) are a result of an interaction between the background condensate and the neural system of the brain. The action potentials of neural system create traps and coherent dynamic patterns in the dipolar condensate. So, qualia are graviton-based, which can open new directions of research in biology and medicine. At the same time, a specialized study of qualia can open a new window into the dark sector of matter. The Qmoger theory explains why most of the ordinary particles are fermions, predicts the mass of neutrino (in accord with the experimental bound) and explained their oscillations (between three flavors) in terms of interaction with the background condensate. The achievements of the Standard Model and the Quantum Field Theory can be combined with the Qmoger theory.
Key words: cosmology with continuous production of energy, ultralight gravitons with tiny electric dipole moment, biophysics, qualia.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2603] **viXra:1709.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-27 03:43:02*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

This article provides a brief outline of Special Theory of Relativity. The physics before the relativity, the special relativity in itself, and the consequences of special relativity are discussed here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2602] **viXra:1709.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-26 07:59:53*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 128 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2601] **viXra:1709.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 06:33:23*

**Authors:** H.J. Veringa

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Small mistake in title: Gravity in stead of gravirty.

In this document an attempt is made to explain the origin of gravity. The basis for the analysis is a merger of Quantum theory and Relativity. Nowhere in the analysis there is any need to deviate from well proven and successful concepts of both theories and rules of calculation, and no exotic new particles will have to be introduced. By doing so it is demonstrated that, next to its local interactions of a multi-particle system, the Schrödinger equation leads to pairs of two and only two members. This solution is used as the invariant term in the quantized Einstein energy equation which finally leads to gravitational interactions between members of the pairs. With this particular solution for the quantum-mechanical wave function it is found that gravity is a second order effect operating over a long range. In this document it is tried to give a complete and consistent account of all steps that have been taken in the derivation of the classical Newton’s law. Further the document emphasizes precise justification of some of the basic assumptions made and how it works out on a cosmological scale. It is also found that the generator of gravity is contributing mass to particles that have gravitational interaction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2600] **viXra:1709.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 01:41:33*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 6 Pages, 2 Figures,4 Tables

Existing publications suggest that the smallest psi-lines have interesting but unquantified properties. Addressing this challenge is this paper’s objective. The following quantitative experiments demonstrate that psi-lines must be greater than a minimum length of 1.58 metres before they possess nodes. At this minimum length, the distance of the node, measured from the start of the psi-line, equals 0.79 metres i.e. at its centre. Psi-lines without nodes also have a minimum length, but this is slightly less at 0.74 m. This is approximately half the minimum length of psi-lines with a node, and hence cannot be a coincidence. An exponential equation is also discovered. All these findings are additional factors to help determine the structure of psi-lines.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2599] **viXra:1709.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-22 07:54:10*

**Authors:** T. Yarman, A. Kholmetskii, O. Yarman, M. Arik

**Comments:** 3 pages

We respond to one more attempt by Corda (vixra: 1709.0190v1) in criticizing the Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory, and show the fallacious character of his aggression.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2598] **viXra:1709.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-20 17:03:02*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The workings of Universal Topology unfolds a duality of our natural world for the following remarks: i) Dual complex manifolds and the reciprocal world planes beyond a single spacetime manifold; ii) Two pairs of scalar potentials for field entanglements; iii) A mathematical framework of the dual variances to clone the event operations; iv) Two pairs of fluxions of continuity and commutations as a hierarchy foundation of Potential Entanglements; and v) Commutation Infrastructure as an introductory to derive the empirical artifacts of Lorentz Generators, Pauli matrices, Electromagnetic Field Structures, Inertial Commutation Curvature, and General Relativity. Upon this inception, our Universal Topology is ready to give rise to the unified and universal field theory ...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2597] **viXra:1709.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 23:18:05*

**Authors:** Henry Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this article it will be shown that in the moving frame of reference according to SRT two different time scales are observed. From this it follows that the "relativity of simultaneity" does not exist. Also from this follows the infidelity of the second postulate of Einstein on the constancy of the speed of light in all IFRs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2596] **viXra:1709.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-19 00:15:24*

**Authors:** Nikitin A. P.

**Comments:** Pages.

It is explained the deviation of the light beam in the gravitational field of the Sun from energy considerations, when all the changes and interactions, including gravitational ones, are considered not as force interactions or geometric manifestations of the curvature of space-time, but as manifestations and consequences of the motion of matter, described as the motion of energy in space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2595] **viXra:1709.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 09:35:00*

**Authors:** Gary Nash

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

By maintaining the form of the Klein-Gordon equation in curved 4-dimensional spacetime, it can be symmetrized into symmetric and antisymmetric (2,0) tensors with the wave function $\Psi$ having spins $0,1,2,1/2$ and $3/2$. Using a decomposition of symmetric tensors and two fundamental principles of general relativity, a new tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy appears naturally alongside the Einstein tensor. The tensors that constitute the modified Einstein equation add to zero. General relativity and dark energy are hidden in the symmetric part of the Klein-Gordon equation for each spin. As quantum field theory in curved spacetime is built from the free field solutions of the Klein-Gordon equation, general relativity and dark energy are hidden in the formalism of quantum field theory. The metric as a field variable describing gravitons vanishes from the massless spin-2 KG equation in the low-energy long-range to particle regimes of spacetime. Massless spin-2 gravitons in those regimes do not exist. Unlike the other three known fundamental forces in nature, no particle exchange is required to explain the force of gravity in those regimes. It is shown that the cosmological constant must be zero. Dark energy effectively replaces the cosmological constant and describes a cyclic universe which developed after the Big Bang. Dark energy is interpreted to be the repulsive part of the trace of the tensor describing the energy-momentum of the gravitational field and dark energy. The dark energy density provides a natural explanation of why the vacuum energy density is so small, and why it dominates the present epoch of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2594] **viXra:1709.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 12:42:04*

**Authors:** Ziaedin Shafiei

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The theory of length contraction was initially proposed to uphold the existence of aether after the surprise null result from Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment. The theory claimed that any physical object shrinks in the direction of its movement through aether. The theory is accepted by special relativity. It is, however, redefined as the shortening of any physical object in the direction of its movement relative to an observer.
This article shows that M&M experiment, in fact, does not support length contraction as the theory was not based on all-inclusive analysis of the experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2593] **viXra:1709.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 09:21:16*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Shaw has proposed an aether explanation for gravity, publishing several papers over the current decade (see http://www.duncanshaw.ca/). These have evolved into his “Aether Concept of Gravity,” by which inflowing aether into cosmic bodies produces an accelerating “ram force” that manifests as the “attractive” gravitational force without the need to postulate “action at a distance.” While examination of the full theory is beyond the scope of this paper, it is feasible to examine three of the key aspects which lend themselves to modeling in the form of mathematical constructs. While no attempt is made to explain the physics behind Shaw’s theory, an investigation into its plausibility, at least from a mathematical perspective, is undertaken and appears to support at least this level of plausibility.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2592] **viXra:1709.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 09:29:53*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The 19th century novella “Flatland” has often inspired comparisons of inter-dimensional phenomena, particularly how phenomena in dimension n + 1 would be manifested to observers restricted to dimension n. With n = 2, a possible analogy for the phenomena of light and Coulombic repulsion and attraction is examined for its potential extension to n = 3, given the impossibility of our even physically imagining a fourth dimension, purely spatial (i.e., not-temporal, in contrast to Einstein’s time or space-time) like the three we know (length, width and height).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2591] **viXra:1709.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 10:00:47*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 1 Page. Reality with time.

Are we following the right path by applying relativity for the larger universe?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2590] **viXra:1709.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 07:02:57*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Galilean space-time transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the Galilean space-time transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the Lorentz space-time transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2589] **viXra:1709.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 14:52:53*

**Authors:** Jose Gregorio Baquero

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In 1964, Irwin Shapiro pointed out that electromagnetic waves traveling near a gravitational well of a star were delayed due to relativistic Gravitational Time Dilation (GTD). This paper proposes that traveling energy quanta (mainly vacuum energy and gravitational waves, as well as neutrinos, electromagnetic waves, cosmic rays, stellar winds, and all other kinds of waves and relativistic particles yet to be discovered) accumulate in a Density Wave like mechanism around the galactic and cosmic scale structures because of Shapiro Delay. Ultimately, the accumulative effect is a substantial increase in energy density when seen from frames of reference far from the regions where it occurs. The higher energy density is imperceptible for an observer within its own frame of reference since the proposed mechanism nature is relativistic. The higher concentration of travelling energy quanta around galaxies and galaxy clusters is creating extra gravitational distortion in spacetime with its mass equivalent.
The Relativistically Accumulated Mass Equivalent Mechanism (RAMEN), using the proposed model, matches without free parameters the tested local group galaxy rotation curves for all orbits using the same traveling energy density value. The paper proposes how all observations of “Dark Matter” can be easily explained by RAMEN. It predicts the existence of a Universe Traveling Energy Density in disagreement by several orders of magnitude with currently accepted Universe Critical Energy Density. The paper discusses how the Casimir Effect experiments directly confirm with less than 5% disagreement with Quantum Field Theory the existence of higher energy densities in the vacuum. It also discusses how we may have misunderstood the nature of the predominant form of energy in the universe and that have prevented us from understanding the gravitational anomalies attributed to “Dark Matter”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2588] **viXra:1709.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-15 01:40:11*

**Authors:** G. Stranathan

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper proposes an alternate way of thinking of 'empty' space and its interactions with matter, which may further explain certain mechanics of the universe, such as the behaviors of light, gravity and other forces. This paper will serve as a placeholder to communicate the general concepts until I am able to refine it further.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2587] **viXra:1709.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 20:42:32*

**Authors:** Francois Leyvraz

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The author attempts to give a self-contained view of various paradoxes in the theory of relativity, and provides an extensive discussion of them in hopefully elementary terms.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2586] **viXra:1709.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-14 02:40:06*

**Authors:** Christian Corda

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Invited contribution accepted for publication in the 2018 Issue of New Advances in Physics.

We ultimately show the unscientific behavior of the so-called YARK theory of gravitation (which applications have been published in both of
non-mainstream and mainstream journals) by using Einstein's equivalence principle which has today a strong, unchallengeable empiric evidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2585] **viXra:1709.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 05:29:44*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Astronomical observations show generally a redshift of electromagnetic radiation emitted by stars and galaxies that proves they move away from the observer. There are nevertheless numerous exceptions that prove the existence of a blueshift of radiation and consequently an approach of stars and galaxies. This fact together with a few important anisotropies that are present in the spectrum of the Cosmic Microwaves Background Radiation (CMBR) pose important problems for theories of the Big Bang and of the isotropic expansion of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2584] **viXra:1709.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 16:47:35*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 17 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It is known to experts, that in the nonlinear regression analysis, numerous curve fitting methods exist, which allow the statistician to cook up the data according to what he/she wants to see. Such a deep problem in nonlinear regression methods will be discussed in particular in the context of analyzing Hubble diagram from various existing data. It is our aim to distinguish the raw data and foregone conclusions, in order to arrive at a model-independent conclusion. As a preliminary remark, we deem that it remains possible that the Hubble law exhibits nonlinearity, just like proposed by Segal & Nicoll long time ago. More researches are needed to verify our proposition.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2583] **viXra:1709.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 03:54:15*

**Authors:** Laszlo A. Marosi

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The standard cosmological model rests on a never-ending array of hypotheses and assumptions (dark matter, dark energy and others) which either cannot be proved or, although theoretically possible, cannot yet be proved experimentally. This lack of secure knowledge raises legitimate doubts over the validity of the Big Bang model, which therefore cannot be seen as the ultimate answer to the question of the emergence and evolution of the universe. If the search for dark matter and dark energy turns out to be unsuccessful, the whole construction will break down and we will unavoidably face the question of which of the many different models based on Einstein’s field equations represents the real world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2582] **viXra:1709.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 07:20:36*

**Authors:** Yukihiko Hoshino

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.4. Original Japanese paper.

In previous paper "Consideration on universal gravitation premised on the existence of aether (in Japanese)", it considered the cosmic inflation,the Big Bang and the dark energy on the premise of the presence of aether to show the possibility of the neoaether theory.This time, the large-scale structure of the cosmos is structured like bubbles overlapping many layers. There is a Supermassive black hole in the center of almost all galaxies, and its mass has a certain proportional relationship with the mass of the galaxy. It focused on these two points and further deepened the consideration.As a result, the large-scale structure of the cosmos is formed by the cosmic inflation continuing to occur several times at the same time in multiple places. The dark matter is an attractive force phenomenon caused by the flow of aether in one direction. These two points were newly turned out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2581] **viXra:1709.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 20:46:04*

**Authors:** Henry Leonidovich Arutyunov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This article describes the logical error that physicists made when proving ladder paradox for 100 years.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2580] **viXra:1709.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 01:01:16*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Acceleration Coordinate Lorentz Transformation

Two inertial reference frames moving at identical velocity can be seperated if one of them
is put under acceleration for a duration. The coordinates of both inertial reference frames are
related by the acceleration and its duration. An immediate property of this coordinate transformation is the conservation of
distance and length across reference frames. Therefore, the concept of length contraction from Lorentz Transformation is impossible in reality and physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2579] **viXra:1709.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 11:53:34*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 14 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Matt Visser asked the following interesting questions: How much of modern cosmology is really cosmography? How much of modern cosmology is independent of the Einstein equations? (Independent of the Friedmann equations?) These questions are becoming increasingly germane — as the models cosmologists use for the stress-energy content of the universe become increasingly baroque. Therefore, in this paper we will discuss a novel Newtonian cosmology model with vortex, which offers wide implications from solar system, galaxy modeling up to large scale structures of the Universe. The basic starting point is very simple: It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models have singularity problem. Cosmological singularity has been a consequence of excessive symmetry of flow, such as “Hubble’s law.” More realistic one is suggested, based on Newtonian cosmology model but here we include the vortical-rotational effect of the whole Universe. We review an Ermakov-type equation obtained by Nurgaliev, and solve the equation numerically with Mathematica. A potential application is also considered, namely for understanding tornado dynamics using 3D Navier-Stokes equations. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observations, in order to open new possibilities of more realistic nonlinear cosmology models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2578] **viXra:1709.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-10 08:04:41*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper proposes a modification to Newton’s laws of motion and gravitation that would have negligible and undetectable effects at terrestrial scales, but at greater scales, it would have obvious effects that would create significant anomalies that we have already observed and that conventional theories have perhaps misinterpreted.
Newton devised his theories on the assumption that we inhabit a strictly Euclidian spacetime. Einstein showed that spacetime can have curvature. Conventional cosmology currently asserts that we inhabit an expanding universe with an overall curvature close to, or exactly equal to, zero. If however we entertain the possibility that the universe has a very small positive curvature then that small positive curvature could account for a number of apparent astronomical anomalies and remove the need to assume that it expands.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2577] **viXra:1709.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-09 10:15:41*

**Authors:** Ernst Schmutzer

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In this paper the behaviour of a matter torus under the influence of the expanding
cosmos model (according to our theory PUFT) is investigated. This task can numerically be treated for the full life time of the cosmos model (from the Urstart to the Finish). As we know from our literature cited, the graphic course of the cosmological scalaric field after the Urstart exhibits an increase , followed by a return down to the Finish.
This curious behaviour of the cosmological scalaric field leads to the suspicion that
the shape of the torus during the life time of the cosmos may be: sphere at the Urstart, transformation of the sphere to a ring with decreasing thickness, return to a sphere at the Finish. It seems that such a theoretically predicted physical effect could perhaps exist in Nature.
The torus was chosen as a test object, since the numerical calculations can be done without approximation procedures. We took this rather simple example to show this cosmological effect for further applications in astrophysics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2576] **viXra:1709.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-08 19:17:43*

**Authors:** Yukihiko Hoshino

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.3. Original Japanese paper.

The law of universal gravitation in which all objects are attracting each other, has been clarified physical laws such as how to work and how to calculate the strength of force, and it is widely used along with the three laws of motion. However, the fundamental problem of why attraction exists between substances and what conveys the power has not yet been elucidated.This time, on the premise that aether exists and attracted by gravity, it considered the universal gravitation. As a result, if since each substance attracts aether by attraction, it thinks that aether acts as a so-called rope and substances attract each other, then the strength of attraction acting between substances is not inversely proportional to the square of distance and it turned out to be contrary to the inverse-square law which is the nature of universal gravitation. Therefore, in order to consider the properties of substances as a source of attraction in detail, the properties of elementary particles considered as the smallest unit of substances were examined on the premise of the existence of aether. In quantum theory it is thought that elementary particles have both properties of particles and waves and can not determine the position. This is because elementary particles have the three phases of "gas phase", "liquid phase", and "solid phase" (to be distinguished from the three states of macroscopic substances by surrounding them with ") similar to those of macroscopic substances, and they are constantly repeating phase change,but we can think that it is only in the case of "liquid phase", "solid phase" that we can identify its position. In the case of elementary particles, the substance corresponding to the molecule of the macroscopic substance is aether, and it is assumed that elementary particles always repeat phase change at very short intervals between "solid phase" or "liquid phase" where we can specify the position and "gas phase" where we can not locate did. And, in addition to that, we examined the mechanism of attractive force generation using the concept of "aether pressure" similar to the concept of atmospheric pressure.As a result, we could explain the mechanism of attractive force generation and its properties theoretically.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2575] **viXra:1709.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 15:00:33*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 35 PAGES. PART 2 OF THE PREVIOUS VIXRA PAPER: THEORY OF EVERYTHING= PHILOSOPHY OF EVERYTHING + PHYSICS OF EVERYTHING:1605/0239

This article precedes the author’s second book: Origin of Our Universe: Theory of Everything. The Final Answers to the Mystery of Existence. It proposes that science on its own, in its traditional nature, cannot explain the ultimate nature of physical realities, and therefore the ultimate nature of quantum reality, Einstein’s relativity laws, and the integration of relativity with quantum mechanics. In principle, a Theory of Everything of our universe, according to many physicists. ought to be a possible ultimate concept of physics, capable to explain all scientific and natural realities. However, nature appears to be perpetually mysterious and elusive. Therefore, in the finality of our existence, there should exist an ultimate scientific Theory of Everything capable of explaining our laws of nature and our realities, but this is not possible due to the impossibility of integrating relativity and quantum theory, without embodying a higher level multi-dimensional Metaphysics, that would underpin quantum theory, relativity and spacetime, as the author will lay out in his next book. This is an area where String Theory’s mathematics could be useful in attempts to unite spacetime and extra-dimensions. Metaphysics, integrated with our laws of nature, could provide the final arguments and interpretations that can tell us why we have an existence, where we appear to be an impossibility in an impossible universe. Therefore, the current status quo in terms of the elucidation of what existence in our universe entails, looks like an expectation that science and metaphysics will take us to the goal of knowing why and how we are here in our extraordinary realities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2574] **viXra:1709.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-06 06:52:28*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

I spotted a fatal error in understanding of one of the basics of mathematics used in a PhD thesis titled: “A Generalized Variational Principle of Gravitation”,City University, London, 1982. There also are two types of errors, one is a typographic error and a second one is a major error. Scanned copy of part of the thesis page (131-140) where the errors occurred is attached to this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2573] **viXra:1709.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-05 23:54:48*

**Authors:** Yukihiko Hoshino

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.2. Original Japanese paper.

In the presence of aether as a medium of light, the speed of light in vacuum can be considered constant with aether. Then, the principle of constancy of light velocity does not hold, and the theory of relativity guided by this as one of the starting points also does not hold. However, delay of time and bending of light due to gravity derived from the theory of relativity are verified by various experiments and observations. Therefore, we reexamined the properties of light, time and space on the premise of the presence of aether as light medium. As a result, without using the principle of constancy of light velocity, we could explain many events that have been thought to be the result of the theory of relativity, such as delay of clock, bending and redshift of light due to gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2572] **viXra:1709.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-05 08:12:05*

**Authors:** Yukihiko Hoshino

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Paper on Neoaether theory (New Aether theory) No.1. Original Japanese paper.

The Michelson-Morley experiment denied the existence of the aether wind Therefore, various hypotheses were considered to explain the existence of the aether even if no aether wind was observed. In one of them, there was the aether drag hypothesis that the aether was dragged by the earth.But,the aether drag hypothesis was denied because it couldn't explain the aberration of light. However, this time, I paid attention to the approaching angle of the light which was seen from the moving aether and re-examined.As a result, it turned out that the aberration of light can be explained even if the aether and the earth are moving together.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2571] **viXra:1709.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-05 02:02:08*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this work, we discuss the possibility to investigate the cosmological evolution using a covariant Ricci flow. Even though we have focused on the evolution of large-scale structures, the results obtained can be applied equally to microscopic structures of quantum particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2570] **viXra:1709.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-04 12:25:38*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 32 pages. This is the French version of « THE EQUATION OF THE UNIVERSE » on viXra.org/abs/1709.0033v2.

Une nouvelle équation est trouvée dans laquelle le concept de matière-espace-temps est mathématiquement relié ; la gravitation et l’électromagnétisme sont également liés par l’espace-temps. Un mécanisme décrit comment sont corrélés la vitesse, le temps, la distance, la matière et l’énergie. Nous sommes amenés à constater que la gravité et l’électricité sont deux manifestations distinctes d’un même processus sous-jacent : l’électro-gravitation. La gravitation résulte de l’électromagnétisme – force intrinsèquement beaucoup plus forte – divisé par l’espace-temps cosmologique. Le rayon de l’espace-temps appartient à la famille des ondes électromagnétiques : la longueur d’onde est le rayon de l’univers et la période est son âge cosmologique. Pour la première fois, le temps cosmologique, considéré comme un objet physique réel, est intégré à « une équation cosmologique » qui rend cohérent ce que l’on sait du temps (son origine, son écoulement…), de la matière et de l’espace. Cette équation s’érige en modèle mathématique permettant de se représenter l’énergie noire (ou constante cosmologique) comme étant une énergie à la fois « négative » et « fatiguée ». En fait, c’est une équation de la cosmologie quantique qui opère la réconciliation entre le macrocosme et le microcosme, pour dresser une vision cohérente du comportement de la matière à travers l’espace et le temps.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2569] **viXra:1709.0034 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-03 20:12:38*

**Authors:** Arutyunov Henry

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The article shows that the paradoxes of the ladder can not be solved with the help of the relativity of simultaneity. There are no paradoxes of SRT, there is only a contradiction between SRT and nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2568] **viXra:1709.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-04 00:30:09*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A new equation is found in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electrogravitation. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated in a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter and the space. It sets up a mathematical model allowing us to interpret dark energy (or cosmological constant) as being both "negative" and "tired" energy. In fact, it is an equation of quantum cosmology that operates the reconciliation between the macrocosm and the microcosm to draw up a coherent view of the behavior of matter through space and time.
mberbag@videotron.ca

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2567] **viXra:1709.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-04 05:17:53*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract
In this new approach the total number of the photons from the Big-Bang [1] and the volume of the entire Universe at the present epoch [2], have produced the energy density of the CMB photons.
This energy density shows that the photons of the CMB have a wavelength of:
. Approximate frequency of 30 GHz with a temperature of:
.This new approach indicates that the CMB photons are the force behind the expansion of the Universe [3] or the Dark energy.
The peak at 0.2 cm, 160 mega Hertz with a temperature of 2.7 K could either be due to all the galaxies in the Universe giving a peak intensity in the microwave at 2.7 K or according to:
P.J.E. PEEBLES
Principles of physical cosmology (pages144 and145).
“The CBR energy density can be compared to that of other local fields. The luminosity of the Milky Way is so at our position near the outskirts, at distance from the centre, the energy density is . This defines an effective temperature for the starlight; the result is .
The interstellar magnetic field is .
If we again define effective temperature by the energy density, , we get .”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2566] **viXra:1708.0484 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-31 13:19:40*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The Bekenstein Bound energy limit of the universe has a value determined by the universe's radius and mc^2 energy content at a given time. The bound energy cannot be exceeded and controls the maximum size and final age of each succeeding cyclic universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2565] **viXra:1708.0472 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-30 22:14:52*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper endeavours to explain why light and elementary particles have dual wave and particle characteristics, and proposes a physical interpretation of Huygens’ principle. It also explains why the famous Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and to show that it did, in fact, detect the ether but was not correctly interpreted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2564] **viXra:1708.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-28 00:10:32*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ielkin@yandeex.ru

It is shown here that interferometers can not detect a difference in the speeds of light signals. For the proof, we assume that there is a difference in the speed of light signals. Then we get different units of length for different signals. Therefore, the time of passage of the interferometer arm by the light signal does not change. And this does not give a shift in the interference image.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2563] **viXra:1708.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-27 05:26:21*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, I endeavour to show why the Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result, and to show that their disappointment was due to a hidden error in their assumptions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2562] **viXra:1708.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-25 22:10:27*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this brief note we put forward a novel prediction of starlight bending, to be measured during Eclipse 2017. Our prediction is based on a simple, relativistic modification of Newton's physics, without allusion, whatsoever, to Einstein's concept of spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2561] **viXra:1708.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-25 22:14:38*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the present article, we propose a new model based on our recently proposed information relativity theory for explaining dark matter and dark energy and for inferring about the nature of their interactions. The model gives rise to a matter-wave duality, similar to the realistic de Broglie–Bohm model. We allude briefly to the model’s applications in predicting and explaining quantum phenomena; then we utilize it to construct a simple quantum cosmology of the universe, according to which dark matter and dark energy are, respectively, quantum matter and dual-wave energy at cosmic scales. We use the model to explain, in physical terms, the dynamic interaction among matter, dark matter, and dark energy as functions of the recession velocities and redshifts of celestial objects, such galaxies, quasars, etc. Contrary to the standard cosmological model, the predicted distributions of matter and dark energy densities, as functions of redshift, are far from being uniform, with matter reaching its maximal energy density at a point of quantum phase transition equaling the golden ratio (z ≈ 1.618). The predicted dynamics between matter and dark energy are shown to a function of the celestial’s object recession velocity (or redshift). We derive general terms for predicting the amount of matter and dark energy in any redshift range and show that our predictions confirm with recent observations-based ΛCDM cosmologies. The model predicts that, for redshift z ≤ 1 2 , corresponding to recession velocity β ≤ 1/3 , the universe is dominated by matter, while for z > 1 2 (β > 1/3 ), it is dominated by dark energy. This prediction alleviates the so-called “coincidence problem,” by providing a physical explanation as to why the density of the two components at the present time are equal.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2560] **viXra:1708.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-24 01:57:20*

**Authors:** Mr ether

**Comments:** 18 Pages. this si paradigm shift of classical physics

I successed structure the grand unified theory "new ether exist " by ether exist. ether is quatum pair charge production by space energy. various physical phenomena can explained by ether.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2559] **viXra:1708.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-23 02:31:09*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, I endeavour to show why Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result and to show that their disappointment was due to a hidden error in their assumptions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2558] **viXra:1708.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-22 07:38:16*

**Authors:** Azzam Almosallami

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I’ll propose a thought experiment proving that special relativity of Einstein is impossible to be applied in physics and the Einstein view point of simultaneity is wrong physically, and the synchronization of clocks is impossible even if the train is stationary by using the general relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2557] **viXra:1708.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-22 05:16:50*

**Authors:** Anupam Kumar

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This is a new hypothesis about time which accepts freewill and randomness and attempts to solve the Time Paradox. It assumes that the universe itself has a time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2556] **viXra:1708.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-20 19:39:10*

**Authors:** Emil Gigov

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In the article "On the Influence of Gravitation on Propagation of Light" 1911, Einstein uses as a basis a homogeneous gravitational field in which there is equal (absolute) gravitational acceleration everywhere. Consequently, in this field there must be also a homogeneous time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2555] **viXra:1708.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-19 16:25:48*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Cosmologists use equivocation, which confuses the public and even themselves. They do this to make sure they can never be wrong in any situation, by never taking a stance one way or the other. Their intent is to deceive to protect their careers and to sell books that say nothing. It is essentially a political tactic that does not belong in science, and neither does cosmology (which is a quasi-religion) as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2554] **viXra:1708.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-18 19:18:40*

**Authors:** Mohamed Abdelwhab

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This study shows that time dilation supposed by Einstein can be derived from absolute time supposed by Newton if Newtonian space is sloped with motion where space of moving frames is sloped with respect to space of the stationary frame of reference. Slope of Newtonian space creates a new kind of energy that causes moving frames to experience slight resistance while moving to forward in Newtonian space; hence, moving frames reverse slightly backward in space. With respect to observers at rest, the sum of the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the moving frame to forward and the distance that the light travels vertically during motion of the same frame to backward is equal to the distance ( ) that the light travels vertically in frame from the perspective of the observers in the same frame . The motion of light through the reversed space dilates Newtonian time of the moving frames with respect to the stationary frame of reference, like a car that moves slowly because it is climbing a hill, the time of the moving bodies moves slowly because of the slope of Newtonian space. This work does not aim to prove slope or straightness of space; rather it aims to show that time dilation can be exists in nature as a result of a reaction between Newtonian time and slope of Newtonian space, therefore testing of slope's property must be included in the interests of applied physicists in the next days.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2553] **viXra:1708.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-18 07:54:16*

**Authors:** Mohamed Haj Yousef

**Comments:** 28 Pages. The concept of the Duality of Time is based on a previous research published in The Single Monad Model of the Cosmos (www.amazon.com/dp/1499779844).

Based on the Duality of Time hypothesis, a dynamic, granular and self-contained space-time is introduced and investigated. A new time-time or complex-time Euclidean space is defined and it is shown that the non-Euclidean Minkowski space is the first global approximation of this complex-time space in which the space-time interval becomes invariant between different inertial and non-inertial frames alike. Therefore, in addition to Lorentz factor, the equivalence principle is derived directly from the resulting discrete symmetry. To support this hypothesis, it will be applied to derive the mass-energy equivalence relation directly from fundamental classical principles. It will be also shown that the resulting dynamic quintessence could diminish the cosmological constant discrepancy by 117 orders of magnitude.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2552] **viXra:1708.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-17 11:07:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper will be submitted to Open Physics J.

Many physicists and philosophers alike have debated a long standing puzzle: whether the
space is continuous or discrete. It has been known for long time that most of the existing
cosmology models rely on pseudo-Riemannian metric as the cornerstone of Einsteinian universe. But the metric itself is based on continuum model. It is known that such models have led us to too many (monster) problems, including dark matter and dark energy etc. Now what if the universe is discrete? Then perhaps we can solve these problems
naturally. Despite majority of cosmologists rely on such a Standard Model which is called Lambda CDM theory, we will explore here the redshift theory based on a few of lattice-cellular models, including Lindquist-Wheeler theory and beyond it. We will also touch briefly some peculiar models such as Voronoi tesellattice and also Conrad
Ranzan’s cellular model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2551] **viXra:1708.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-17 01:29:25*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment has been considered as a verification of the validity of Einstein’s postulate of the universal constancy of the speed of light in vacuum. However, it has been shown that the special theory of relativity can be developed by applying only the principle of relativity without the need to postulate the universal constancy of the speed of light and, as a consequence, this raises the question of what role the Michelson-Morley experiment would play in special relativity. In this work we show that the Michelson-Morley experiment can be used to verify the fact that the speed of light is not universal as postulated in Einstein’s special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2550] **viXra:1708.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-17 01:58:54*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Similar to Einstein’s method to formulate a special relativity for inertial reference systems in classical physics, we show that a special relativity can also be formulated for systems of circular reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2549] **viXra:1708.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 12:07:35*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It has been known for long time that most of the existing cosmology models have singularity problem. Cosmological singularity has been a consequence of excessive symmetry of flow, such as “Hubble’s law”. More realistic one is suggested, based on Newtonian cosmology model but here we include the vertical-rotational effect of the whole Universe. We review a Riccati-type equation obtained by Nurgaliev, and solve the equation numerically with Mathematica. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2548] **viXra:1708.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-15 18:10:58*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In recent years, many experiments proved that the fundamental constants are changing by the evolution of the universe, this paper tries to give some explanations. We have observed that the proton-to-electron mass ratio and the fine structure constant both are changing over time. Some scientists think the vacuum dielectric constant and the speed of light are changing, too. I agree them. So I finish this paper to explain those experiments and develop those guesses. The constants are changing over time. They are different from early universe. We can't understand why them change now, maybe they change because the change of the entropy because entropy is very closed with time (to know the relation between time and entropy, you can see the note under this paper), I want to prove that in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2547] **viXra:1708.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 01:51:29*

**Authors:** Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s field equations (Fig. 1), mass curves space time and curvature of
space-time dictates the gravitational field around the mass. Based on the interpretation
today of the Einstein’s field equations the curvature of space time causes a smaller
mass B to move towards a greater mass A since it is the shortest geodesic path in the
curved space-time. This article tries to analyze the Einstein field equations in a new
heuristic approach in which curvature of space-time and geodesic path is replaced by
an equivalent dynamic flow of space –time model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2546] **viXra:1708.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-13 07:36:46*

**Authors:** David L. Berkahn, James M. Chappell, Derek Abbott

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The principle of equivalence is used to argue that the known law of decreasing acceleration for high speed motion, in a low acceleration regime, produces the same result as found for a weak gravitational field, with subsequent implications for stronger fields. This result coincides with Hilbert's little explored equation of 1917, regarding the velocity dependence of acceleration under gravity. We derive this result, from first principles exploiting the principle of equivalence, without need for the full general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2545] **viXra:1708.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-13 09:06:24*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

There is fundamental misnomer about what General Relativity describes. This is why Einstein’s field equations do not explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. Dilation fields have two different shapes, spherical and flat. Stellar systems are spherical and have only one shape gradient, and events are evolved forward and accelerated sequentially as the dilation gradient deepens. Flattened spiral galaxies have two types of interacting gradients. From above and below the disk, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. Along the edge the effect is spherical and this causes the circular orbits, as in General Relativity. This paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of the continuum, how events and spaces evolve forward together and how relative velocities equate to forward evolution within the continuum rather than movement through pre-existing, static, spaces. This approach also allows the Hubble shift to be described in terms of time dilation. Since events are always being accelerated in the rate of time, older frames have progressively slower rates the older they are, creating a time dilation gradient. As we are always being accelerated in time and space, objects in older frames must appear to be accelerating away from us. This eliminates the need for Dark Energy. The theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMBR is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at C through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna, translating the force in time into “real” energy. Also, IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 14 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like, which is where the difference in the rate of time between frames, the dRt, = 1 s/s, both looking into a gravity well, and looking outward to the limits of perception.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2544] **viXra:1708.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-11 14:05:34*

**Authors:** T. Yarman, A. L. Kholmetskii, O. Yarman, M. Arik

**Comments:** 5 pages

We provide our reply to a new attempt by C. Corda where he calumniates Yarman-Arik-Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory (http://vixra.org/pdf/1705.0287v1.pdf.). It therefore becomes incumbent upon us to once more demonstrate that the origin of his criticism is based on his misunderstanding of the basic aspects of YARK theory, as well as on his misinterpretation of the outcomes of Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system. All of this came to be despite the fact that we had drawn a final point to his agitations in our recent papers published in Annals of Physics in 2015 and 2016 in response to his adverse behavior.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2543] **viXra:1708.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-11 04:27:33*

**Authors:** Corrado La Posta

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity [1], conceived in 1905 by A. Einstein and now universally applied, involves some theoretical problems as well as some difficulties in the interpretation of experimental facts. Theoretical issues have long been debated [2,4] but have not found a sufficiently good explanation, indeed many interpretations [3,24] appear forceful and prejudicial. The many paradoxes expressed and debated and never clarified are still unresolved. The consequences of adopting a radical point of view, such as the relativistic one, also appear in the Quantum Field Theory, where the Lorentz-covariance formulation of the theory results, with careful analysis, the cause of many of the problems [54, 78].
The experimental point of view, contrary to what is commonly stated, does not undoubtedly support the theory; actually several results [5,42, 78] appear of difficult interpretation and others [6, 75] even in sharp contrast to the theory itself [23, 76].
The analysis of these inconsistencies leads to the assumption that the theory is spoiled by its foundations, that is the postulates, from defective origins that can not be eliminated [40, 77]. An alternative hypothesis, based on different premises, is therefore elaborated in this paper to reach a number of conclusions [81].
Such a different theoretical context recovers certain concepts of classical, mechanical and electrodynamic physics, which are however extended in a relativistic sense. Modifications are introduced in current kinematic, dynamic, electrodynamic and Quantum field theory. The theory thus developed is devoid of paradoxical aspects, adhering to experimental facts and free of divergence problems; superluminary motions are especially possible. Electrodynamic equations are extended into a new invariant form, compatible with Newtonian mechanics. Lorentz's force law is rewritten as a force variable with speed while the mass remains constant. A generalization of the equation of the waves is introduced, from which the equations of the superluminal motion and the equations of the material waves (Schrodinger and Klein-Gordon) can be obtained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2542] **viXra:1708.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-09 01:33:39*

**Authors:** Gary Osborn

**Comments:** 4 pages, no figures

The time shown by a moving clock depends on its history. The Lorentz
transform does not distinguish between the history of an accelerated
clock and a constant velocity clock. The history of the clock can be
assimilated by integrating the first derivative of the Thomas precession
from the time t=0. A definite integral is required because the
unknown trajectory of the clock in the distant past affects its
displayed time. The coordinates are spinning in the second frame of
reference during the integration, but in the definite integral from time
t=0 to time t the spin accumulates to a specific angle. The integral is
equivalent to a Lorentz transform followed by a space rotation. A space
rotation does not affect the invariant quantity r^{2} -
c^{2} t^{2}. The
history of a jerked clock is different than that of an accelerated
clock. The solution in that order is equivalent to a Lorentz transform
followed by two consecutive space rotations in different directions.
Similarly, there are three rotations in the **ä** solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2541] **viXra:1708.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-08 07:08:51*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I applied the method of the second variations of the Calculus of Variations to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Since the Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian for a gravitational field is proportional to the Ricci curvature scalar construction of the Euler-Lagrange equations requires dealing with the tensor quantities from which the Ricci curvature scalar is composed rather than the Ricci curvature scalar itself. As the result of applying this method two Euler-Lagrange equations emerged; both equations yielded the same Einstein’s field
equations in absence of energy-momentum fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2540] **viXra:1708.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 19:00:46*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

- In given article author has summarized and corrected a theory [1 -3] which allows derivation of the unknown relations between the main parameters (energy, time, charge, distance, volume, matter) in the Universe. He finds also the quantum (minimal values) of energy, time, charge, distance, volume and matter and he applied these quantum for estimations of quantum volatility and the estimation of some values of our Universe and received both well-known and new unknown relations.
Author offers possibly valid relations between charge, time, matter, charge, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that in the Universe exists ONLY one substance – ENERGY. Charge, time, matter, volume, fields are evidence of this energy and they can be transformed one to other. Author gives the equations which allow to calculate these transformation like the famous formula E = mc2. Some assumptions about the structure of the Universe follow from these relations.
Most offered equations give results close to approximately known data of Universe, the others allow checking up by experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2539] **viXra:1708.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 04:31:53*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

By means of the Lorentz Transformation, Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity purports invariance of the standard wave equation. Counter-examples, satisfying the Lorentz Transformation, and hence Lorentz Invariance, prove that the Lorentz Transformation does not in fact produce invariance of the standard wave equation. Systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers are Galilean and necessarily transform by the Galilean Transformation. Einstein's insistence that systems of Galilean observers transform, not by the Galilean Transformation, but by the non-Galilean Lorentz Transformation, is logically inconsistent. The Special Theory of Relativity is therefore logically inconsistent. Therefore, it is false. The Lorentz Transformation is meaningless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2538] **viXra:1708.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-04 10:03:35*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 3 Pages, 3 Tables

Abstract
This paper builds on published research regarding psi-lines. Quantitative experiments that are detailed here, demonstrate that psi-lines and the mind are intrinsically connected to the Golden Ratio (1.6180). As this is a universal constant, the conclusion strongly suggests that mind created psi-lines are connected to the structure of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2537] **viXra:1708.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-02 08:33:43*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The wave-particle dual nature of light was discovered from experimental observations and from theoretical works of Max Planck and Albert Einstein during the beginning of the twentieth century. This paper reveals that wave-particle duality is just one aspect of the all dual nature of light (electromagnetic waves) and electromagnetic fields and that light and electromagnetic fields manifest dual natures in other ways also. For example, light is not only a local phenomenon as conventionally viewed, but also a non-local phenomenon. Light behaves both according to classical ether theory and emission theory. Light acts as if it travels both in a straight line and in curved path, at the same time! Electrostatic lines of force behave as if they are both straight and curved lines. Electrostatic fields behave as if they ‘propagate’ both at the speed of light and with infinite speed, at the same time! This paper is a summary of the findings reported in previous papers published by this author. An extensive theoretical research carried out by this author in an attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and other light speed experiments led to uncovering of the broader and more fundamental nature of duality in electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2536] **viXra:1708.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-01 13:31:25*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object’s mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 must be a mistake.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2535] **viXra:1708.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-01 17:13:46*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

This article discusses an electric field in complex space-time. Using an orthogonal paravector transformation that preserves the invariance of the wave equation and does not belong to the Lorentz group, the Gaussian equation has been transformed to obtain the relationships corresponding to the Maxwell equations. These equations are analysed for compliance with classic electrodynamics. Although, the Lorenz gauge condition has been abandoned and two of the modified Maxwell's equations are different from the classical ones, the obtained results are not inconsistent with the experience because they preserve the classical laws of the theory of electricity and magnetism contained therein. In conjunction with the previous papers our purpose is to show that space-time of high velocity has a complex structure that differently orders the laws of classical physics but does not change them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2534] **viXra:1707.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-31 14:29:32*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: (H-Z) x mc^2 "quanta of the universe", universe matter density and the cosmological constant are all closely related to Planck's constant of quantum mechanics save for its time dependence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2533] **viXra:1707.0379 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-29 04:04:04*

**Authors:** Xiaogang Ruan

**Comments:** 25 pages with 4 figures and supplementary information of 13 pages.

The invariance of light speed (ILS) is the mainstay of Einstein's special relativity (SR). However, to this day, we do not even know why the speed of light is invariant, why the speed of light cannot be exceeded, and why the photon has no mass. Here, we have theoretically derived the theory of observational relativity (OR) from the most basic facts and prerequisites, which reveals the truth behind the ILS. OR have unified Einstein's SR and de Broglie's theory of matter wave. More importantly, as the result of logical derivation, the light speed in the Lorenz factor has been replaced by the speed of information wave (IW) that carries and transmits the spacetime information of observed objects. OR has gotten a vital logic inference of pure rationality (rather that a hypothesis like the ILS): the invariance of IW speed. Only when light is employed as IW, can the ILS be valid, and can Einstein's SR be a special case of OR. OR suggests that: Einstein's theory of relativity is flawed and limited. Actually, all relativistic effects are observational effects rather than real natural phenomena. The theory of OR will profoundly change our view of spacetime and endow physics with a significant mission to explore superluminal IWs so that we can break though the observational limit of light and observe a more abundant and more objective natural world.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2532] **viXra:1707.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-28 09:16:38*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The expanding Universe is likened to a collapsing star in this context, where the future spacetime of the Universe is empty (justifying the vacuum solution) and the present is a 3-sphere boundary akin to the 2-sphere surface of a collapsing star. Because the present time of the Universe is the boundary, it sees the vacuum solution just as the surface of a collapsing star sees the vacuum solution. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. With a simple coordinate change we get a metric resembling the FRW metric for flat space with a time dependent scale factor. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, perhaps causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle. The consequences for an observer in freefall in a local gravitational field are then examined in the context of this model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2531] **viXra:1707.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-26 14:00:13*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

My purpose with this paper is to show that the theory of special relativity is derivable from algorithmic information theory (AIT). Specifically, I construct a partition function of Omega such that the program-runtime and the program-size are observables of a prefix free universal Turing machine. This partition function implies a maximum speed in bits per iterations of the UTM, which has a similar interpretation as the speed of light does in special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2530] **viXra:1707.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-25 16:14:38*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is partially an excerpt from a third chapter of author's in July 2017 newly published book titled "Einstein's destruction of physics". Book is distributed directly by author's link www.createspace.com/7339672 or by Amazon.com or .de or co.uk.
In this paper Einstein’s destruction of physics and scientific principles is documented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1748] **viXra:1710.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-14 03:33:17*

**Authors:** Mihir Kumar jha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Theory of everything (T.O.E), final theory or ultimate theory is a theoretical framework in the field of
physics, which holds an ultimate key to unify all the fundamental forces of nature in a single field. In other words
such theory can glue quantum mechanics with general relativity into a single framework. Many theories have been
postulated over the decades but the dominant one includes string theory and loop quantum gravity. In this paper I
would like to present a new framework which can unify quantum mechanics with general relativity by showing that
the change in Riemannian metric or the bend in space time is always an integral multiple of planks constant and
since gravity is the result due to bend in space-time, gravity itself is a discrete force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1747] **viXra:1710.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-02 22:03:50*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Hidding et al. suggest that the emergence of intricate and pervasive weblike structure of the Universe on Megaparsec scales can be approximated by a well-known equation from fluid mechanics, the Burgers’ equation. The solution to this equation can be obtained from a geometrical formalism. The resulting Adhesion formalism provides deep insight into the dynamics and topology of the Cosmic Web. It uncovers a direct connection between the conditions in the very early Universe and the complex spatial patterns that emerged out of these under the influence of gravity. In the present paper, we describe a cellular automaton model of the Burgers’ equation, which can be investigated via a fast computer simulation. In the end, this suggests a Cellular Automata Adhesion Model of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1746] **viXra:1709.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-11 20:22:22*

**Authors:** HyunCheol Kim

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Feel free to mail me, if you are interested in my article.

The law of inertia has been treated as a fundamental assumption in classical physics. However in this article, I show that the law of inertia is completely possible to be derived, from the homogeneity of the spacetime, by using the time slice as a tool for dealing with the spacetime symmetries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1745] **viXra:1709.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-06 03:37:17*

**Authors:** HyunCheol Kim

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Feel free to mail me, if you are interested in my article.

The law of inertia has been treated as a fundamental assumption in classical physics. However in this article, I show that the law of inertia is completely possible to be derived, from the homogeneity of the spacetime, by using the time slice as a tool for dealing with the spacetime symmetries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1744] **viXra:1709.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-29 10:04:29*

**Authors:** HyunCheol Kim

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The law of inertia has been treated as a fundamental assumption in classical physics. However in this paper, I show that the law of inertia is completely possible to be derived, from the homogeneity of the spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1743] **viXra:1709.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-06 05:41:44*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The origin of all Lorentz's ether theory and Einstein's relativity theory is the constant c in Maxwell's equations and the null result of ether drift experiments. In this paper, it will be shown that it is the phase velocity of light that is constant c independent of source and observer velocity. The group velocity of light behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source absolute velocity, but depends on observer absolute velocity. Relativity theory has already been disproved because absolute motion has been decisively detected by many experiments such as the Miller, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte and the CMBR experiments. The group velocity of light has also been shown experimentally to vary with observer velocity. The counterintuitive constancy of the phase velocity of light is something that should be just accepted as a law of nature. It is rooted in the reality that there is no medium of propagation for light waves. This paper also shows that the beautiful thought experiment of the equivalence principle turns out to be wrong. The equality of inertial mass and gravitational mass has its root in two of the longstanding mysteries in physics: what inertial mass is and what gravity is.Inertial mass and electrical self inductance are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomena. The velocity of a car cannot change instantaneously for the same reason that the current inside an inductor cannot change instantaneously. Just as the magnetic field of an inductor cannot change instantaneously, so does the magnetic field of the electrons, protons and neutrons of the car material. Gravity and electrostatic force are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomenon. Gravitational force is a slight difference between electrostatic attractive and repulsive forces. It follows that both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total(not net ) amount of charge in an object.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1742] **viXra:1709.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-29 04:41:05*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Lorentz Transformation ( LT) equations were invented to make the speed of light constant ( invariant ) in reference frames moving with constant velocity relative to each other, which was implied by Maxwell's equations. This required the counterintuitive idea of relativity of length and time. The mainstream physics community just accepts this as the way nature works, while many reject it outright. Even more confusing is that the predictions of LT have been confirmed experimentally, such as the gamma factor, the electric field of moving charges and the universal light speed limit. On the other hand, absolute motion has also been decisively detected by many experiments such as the Miller, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte and the CMBR experiments. The speed of light has also been shown experimentally to vary with observer velocity. All these facts show that the true nature of motion and the speed of light is still a mystery. In this paper, errors in the theory of Special Relativity, the non-existence of equivalence principle of General Relativity theory, and solutions will be proposed. The source of all confusions surrounding the LT is as follows: it has been wrongly presumed that the postulate of the constancy of the speed of light applies both to the phase velocity and the group velocity. We propose that it is the phase velocity, not the group velocity, which is constant independently of source or observer absolute or relative velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source absolute velocity but varies with observer absolute velocity. The relativity of length and time required to keep the phase velocity constant should be thought as an artifact and not real. LT should be applied only to predict the outcome of light speed experiments involving phase velocity such as the Doppler effect. The counterintuitive constancy of the phase velocity of light is something that should be just accepted as a law of nature. It is rooted in the reality that there is no medium of propagation for light waves. It is much better to just accept the constancy of the phase velocity of light without interpreting this to mean reality of relativity of length and time, and this view is supported by logic and experimental evidence. This paper also shows that the beautiful thought experiment of the equivalence principle turns out to be wrong. The equality of inertial mass and gravitational mass has its root in two of the longstanding mysteries in physics: what inertial mass is and what gravity is. Inertial mass and electrical self inductance are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomena. The velocity of a car cannot change instantaneously for the same reason that the current inside an inductor cannot change instantaneously. Just as the magnetic field of an inductor cannot change instantaneously, so does the magnetic field of the electrons, protons and neutrons of the car material. Gravity and electrostatic force are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomenon. Gravitational force is a slight difference between electrostatic attractive and repulsive forces. It follows that both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total (not net ) amount of charge in an object.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1741] **viXra:1709.0261 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-23 06:11:49*

**Authors:** Ziaedin Shafiei

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Version 2 - 23 Sep 2017

The theory of length contraction was initially proposed to uphold the existence of aether after the surprise null result from Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment. The theory claimed that any physical object shrinks in the direction of its movement through aether. The theory is accepted by special relativity. It is, however, redefined as the shortening of any physical object in the direction of its movement relative to an observer.
This article shows that M&M experiment, in fact, does not support length contraction, and time dilation, as the theory was not based on all-inclusive analysis of the experiment. Subsequently, the constancy of the speed of light becomes uncorroborated by the experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1740] **viXra:1709.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-14 17:21:26*

**Authors:** Steven Kauffmann

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The space-time Galilean transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the space-time Galilean transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the space-time Lorentz transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1739] **viXra:1709.0226 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-12 04:47:52*

**Authors:** Steven Kauffmann

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The space-time Galilean transformation is predicated on a salient theme of Galilean/Newtonian physics: relative motion at constant velocity has no physical consequences beyond the minimum which is required by that motion's existence. Therefore, since the electric field produced by a point charge at rest is spherically symmetric around the charge's location, and since a point charge at rest produces zero magnetic field, Galilean physics implies that a point charge moving at constant velocity produces an electric field which is spherically symmetric around that charge's instantaneous location and that it produces zero magnetic field. But the Biot-Savart-Maxwell Law has it that a point charge moving at nonzero constant velocity produces nonzero magnetic field, and Faraday's Law has it that this time-varying magnetic field, which has zero component along the line of the charge's motion, produces an electric field which isn't spherically symmetric around the charge's instantaneous location. Thus the space-time Galilean transformation is violated by electromagnetic phenomena in a definite way, and must be modified. The needed modification produces the space-time Lorentz transformation, which can straightforwardly be shown to never change the speed of electromagnetic radiation. The fate of the Galilean/Newtonian constant-velocity relative-motion paradigm was actually already sealed when it was observed that the presence of direct current in a wire deflects an adjacent compass needle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1738] **viXra:1709.0207 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-18 23:28:20*

**Authors:** Francois Leyvraz

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The author attempts to give a self-contained view of various paradoxes in the theory of relativity, and provides an extensive discussion of them in hopefully elementary terms.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1737] **viXra:1709.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-11 18:58:03*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 36 Pages. MINOR CORRECTIIONS

Scientific and philosophical knowledge and concepts, about our universe, have reached a practically saturated bloated condition, where science and mathematics, on their own, cannot fully explain physical realities: the ultimate nature of quantum theory, Einstein’s relativity laws, and their integration into a Theory of Everything, unless we resort to new ideas and concepts of physical realities. There are important physics aspects which have varied interpretations like for instance mass, gravitation, particles and forces, the Higgs boson, symmetry, dimensions and others. A Theory of Everything of our universe, according to many physicists, might be the ultimate concept of physics, capable of elucidating all scientific and natural realities, but nature appears to be perpetually mysterious and elusive. A natural concept of the origin of our universe is simply speculative and unbelievable. This article explains that we require new physics, including multi-dimensional physics, as the only approach that can take us towards understanding aspects of Metaphysics, the higher science that potentially underpins quantum theory, relativity, consciousness and spacetime. This is an area where String Theory’s mathematics, but not their philosophy and science, could perhaps be applied in abstruse attempts to find new ways to unite spacetime and extra-dimensions. Why we have an existence, where we appear to be an impossibility in an impossible universe, seems to unconditionally require inputs from a higher-level quantum concept connected to metaphysics. This option is the only one capable to unravel the Theory of Everything, from which the integration of quantum theory with Einstein’s relativity and consciousness, has a strong potential to surface. These new physics are within our reach and are imperative to lead to the ultimate explanation of the universe, which will clearly show that there must have been a supernatural act of creation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1736] **viXra:1709.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-08 20:04:12*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 35 Pages. REPLACEMENT DUE TO MINOR REVISION

This article precedes the author’s second book: Origin of Our Universe: Theory of Everything. The Final Answers to the Mystery of Existence. It proposes that science on its own, in its traditional nature, cannot explain the ultimate nature of physical realities, and therefore the ultimate nature of quantum reality, Einstein’s relativity laws, and the integration of relativity with quantum mechanics. In principle, a Theory of Everything of our universe, according to many physicists. ought to be a possible ultimate concept of physics, capable to explain all scientific and natural realities, but nature appears to be perpetually mysterious and elusive. However, in the finality of our existence, there should exist an ultimate scientific Theory of Everything capable of explaining our laws of nature and our realities, which requires integrating relativity and quantum theory, embodying a higher level multi-dimensional Metaphysics, that would underpin quantum theory, relativity and spacetime, as the author will lay out in his next book. This is an area where String Theory’s expertise in mathematics could be useful in attempts to unite spacetime and extra-dimensions. Metaphysics, integrated with our laws of nature, could provide the final arguments and interpretations that can tell us why we have an existence, where we appear to be an impossibility in an impossible universe. Therefore, the current status quo in terms of the elucidation of what existence in our universe entails, looks like an expectation that science and metaphysics could soon lead us to the goal of knowing why and how we are here in our extraordinary realities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1735] **viXra:1709.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-11 05:47:35*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this work, we discuss the possibility to investigate the cosmological evolution using a covariant Ricci flow, in particular spacetime manifolds with constant curvature. Even though we have focused on the evolution of large-scale structures, the results obtained can be applied equally to microscopic structures of quantum particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1734] **viXra:1709.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-06 06:56:10*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A new equation is found in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter, and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electro-gravitation. The force of gravitation arises of electromagnetism – inherently much stronger – divided by the cosmological space-time. The radius of space-time belongs to the family of electromagnetic waves: the wavelength is the radius of the universe and the period is its cosmological age. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated into a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter, and space. It sets up a mathematical model allowing us to interpret dark energy (or cosmological constant) as being both "negative" and "tired" energy. In fact, it is an equation of quantum cosmology that operates the reconciliation between the macrocosm and the microcosm to draw up a coherent view of the behavior of matter through space and time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1733] **viXra:1709.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-04 08:47:07*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A new equation is found in which the concept of matter-space-time is mathematically connected; gravitation and electromagnetism are also bound by space-time. A mechanism is described showing how velocity, time, distance, matter, and energy, are correlated. We are led to ascertain that gravity and electricity are two distinct manifestations of a single underlying process: electro-gravitation. For the first time, the cosmological time, considered as a real physical object, is integrated into a "cosmological equation" which makes coherent what we know regarding the time (its origin, its flow…), the matter and space. It sets up a mathematical model allowing us to interpret dark energy (or cosmological constant) as being both "negative" and "tired" energy. In fact, it is an equation of quantum cosmology that operates the reconciliation between the macrocosm and the microcosm to draw up a coherent view of the behavior of matter through space and time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1732] **viXra:1708.0265 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-23 07:46:44*

**Authors:** Cyrus Master-Khodabakhsh

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, I endeavour to show why Michelson and Morley experiment did not give the expected result and to show that their disappointment was due to a hidden error in their assumptions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1731] **viXra:1708.0142 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-14 13:45:02*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

There is fundamental misnomer about what General Relativity describes. This is why Einstein’s field equations do not explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. Dilation fields have two different shapes, spherical and flat. Stellar systems are spherical and have only one shape gradient, and events are evolved forward and accelerated sequentially as the dilation gradient deepens. Flattened spiral galaxies have two types of interacting gradients. From above and below the disk, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk, evolving objects forward at the same rate and hence the same velocity. Along the edge the effect is spherical and this causes the circular orbits, as in General Relativity. This paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of the continuum, how events and spaces evolve forward together and how relative velocities equate to forward evolution within the continuum rather than movement through pre-existing, static, spaces. This approach also allows the Hubble shift to be described in terms of time dilation. Since events are always being accelerated in the rate of time, older frames have progressively slower rates the older they are, creating a time dilation gradient. As we are always being accelerated in time and space, objects in older frames must appear to be accelerating away from us. This eliminates the need for Dark Energy. The theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMBR is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at C through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna, translating the force in time into “real” energy. Also, IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 14 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like, which is where the difference in the rate of time between frames, the dRt, = 1 s/s, both looking into a gravity well, and looking outward to the limits of perception.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1730] **viXra:1708.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-14 05:49:26*

**Authors:** Faisal Amin Yassein Abdelmohssin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I applied the method of the second variations of the Calculus of Variations to the Einstein-Hilbert action. Since the Einstein-Hilbert’s Lagrangian for a gravitational field is proportional to the Ricci curvature scalar construction of the Euler-Lagrange equations requires dealing with the tensor quantities from which the Ricci curvature scalar is composed rather than the Ricci curvature scalar itself. As the result of applying this method two Euler-Lagrange equations emerged; both equations yielded the same Einstein’s field
equations in absence of energy-momentum fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1729] **viXra:1708.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-15 17:07:22*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. v.2 corrects a typo in one of the eqs. 5

By means of the Lorentz Transformation, Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity purports invariance of the standard wave equation. Counter-examples, satisfying the Lorentz Transformation, and hence Lorentz Invariance, prove that the Lorentz Transformation does not in fact produce invariance of the standard wave equation. Systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers are Galilean and necessarily transform by the Galilean Transformation. Einstein's insistence that systems of Galilean observers transform, not by the Galilean Transformation, but by the non-Galilean Lorentz Transformation, is logically inconsistent. The Special Theory of Relativity is therefore logically inconsistent. Therefore, it is false. The Lorentz Transformation is meaningless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1728] **viXra:1708.0013 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-31 04:48:39*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The wave-particle dual nature of light was discovered from experimental observations and from theoretical works of Max Planck and Albert Einstein during the beginning of the twentieth century. This paper reveals that wave-particle duality is just one aspect of the all dual nature of light (electromagnetic waves) and electromagnetic fields and that light and electromagnetic fields manifest dual natures in other ways also. For example, light is not only a local phenomenon as conventionally viewed, but also a non-local phenomenon. Light behaves both according to ether theory and emission theory. The speed of light is both constant (c) and variable ( c ± V). The phase velocity of light is independent of source and observer velocity and is always constant c, while the group velocity of light varies with observer velocity but is independent of source velocity. Light acts as if it travels both in a straight line and in curved path, at the same time! Electrostatic lines of force behave as if they are both straight and curved lines. Electrostatic fields behave as if they ‘propagate’ both at the speed of light and with infinite speed, at the same time! This paper is a summary of the findings reported in previous papers published by this author. An extensive theoretical research carried out by this author in an attempt to explain the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and other light speed experiments led to uncovering of the broader and more fundamental nature of duality in electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1727] **viXra:1708.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-12 12:15:20*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object's mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 is a mistake and I can explain why.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1726] **viXra:1708.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-05 17:03:46*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object's mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 is a mistake and I can explain why.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1725] **viXra:1708.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-02 18:00:30*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The formula E=mc2, which states that the energy content of a massive object is equal to that object’s mass times the speed of light squared, is incorrect. Why?, because that formula implies that a mass requires an infinite amount of energy to reach the speed of light. The term "infinite" is often used by physicists but they don't seem to realize that it's unrealistic/unnatural, it tells us that E=mc2 must be a mistake.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1724] **viXra:1707.0376 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-04 15:37:38*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. An examination of the Hubble parameter and redshift is made and it is shown that the model agrees with cosmological data in predicting the transition redshift when the expansion of the Universe changes from deceleration to acceleration. Distance modulus is plotted against redshift and compared to cosmological data. The consequences for an observer in freefall in a local gravitational field are then examined in the context of this model. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1723] **viXra:1707.0376 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-17 12:54:51*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The expanding Universe is likened to a collapsing star in this context, where the future spacetime of the Universe is empty (justifying the vacuum solution) and the present is a 3-sphere boundary akin to the 2-sphere surface of a collapsing star. Because the present time of the Universe is the boundary, it sees the vacuum solution just as the surface of a collapsing star sees the vacuum solution. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, perhaps causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle. An examination of the Hubble parameter and redshift is made and it is shown that the model agrees with cosmological data in predicting the transition redshift when the expansion of the Universe changes from deceleration to acceleration. Distance modulus is plotted against redshift and compared to cosmological data. The consequences for an observer in freefall in a local gravitational field are then examined in the context of this model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1722] **viXra:1707.0376 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-29 11:26:03*

**Authors:** C. A. Laforet

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the current paper, the internal Schwarzschild solution is examined in the context of a cosmological model. The expanding Universe is likened to a collapsing star in this context, where the future spacetime of the Universe is empty (justifying the vacuum solution) and the present is a 3-sphere boundary akin to the 2-sphere surface of a collapsing star. Because the present time of the Universe is the boundary, it sees the vacuum solution just as the surface of a collapsing star sees the vacuum solution. It is shown that the model predicts an accelerated expansion that agrees with current observations of the expansion history of our Universe, namely that the initial expansion is infinitely fast, and then the expansion slows for some time followed by an accelerated expansion. With a simple coordinate change we get a metric resembling the FRW metric for flat space with a time dependent scale factor. It is shown that the singularity at r=0 can be interpreted as a point in time where the geodesics reverse sharply, perhaps causing the expansion and collapse of the Universe to cycle. The consequences for an observer in freefall in a local gravitational field are then examined in the context of this model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1721] **viXra:1707.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-14 14:28:25*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

My purpose with this paper is to show that the theory of special relativity is derivable from universal Turing machines. Specifically, I construct a partition function of Ω such that the program-runtime and the program-size are observables of a prefix free universal Turing machine. This partition function implies a maximum speed in bits per iterations of the UTM, which has a similar interpretation as the speed of light does in special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1720] **viXra:1707.0356 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-14 10:11:29*

**Authors:** Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

My purpose with this paper is to show that the theory of special relativity is derivable from universal Turing machines. Specifically, I construct a partition function of Ω such that the program-runtime and the program-size are observables of a prefix free universal Turing machine. This partition function implies a maximum speed in bits per iterations of the UTM, which has a similar interpretation as the speed of light does in special relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology