Relativity and Cosmology

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[3487] viXra:1909.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-22 14:30:26

Nature Works from the Inside Out; an Illustration

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper I show you the fallacy of external logic based on accidental motion and guide you through various situations that show that there exists a power or force that resides inside all Matter as to cause its alterations, modifications, and movements within a defined sphere of activity and that this force within Matter does not impart its force or powers unto other bodies beyond itself or its sphere. I show by sound logical arguments that material motions caused by an external force is impossible insomuch as it pertains to the natural workings of Nature. I show you that all Winds, Waves, Orbits, Clouds and other natural motions and natural phenomena stem from a inward activity as opposed to a external activity that causes their alterations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3486] viXra:1909.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-23 02:16:47

Was the Light Speed Problem Really Solved by Einstein in 1905 ?

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 9 Pages.

I will try to invalidate the theory of relativity by presenting a compelling alternative theory. I hope that criticism of Einstein's theories will not be seen as offense.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3485] viXra:1909.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 13:45:29

I am Very Interested in Whether or not You Are Related to the Physical Chemist Josiah Willard Gibbs of Yale University

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page. JW Gibbs was a very important man to my father especially.

Abstract: If you were, the answer to this question determines why I was able to publish my 105 short notes in ViXra without being ridiculed. Thank you very much.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3484] viXra:1909.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 17:57:36

CMB, A. Einstein's STR, “Nothing” and Big Ben.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: Pages.

It is shown that the CMB actually refutes the Big Bang theory, since it is an absolute coordinate system, and this is impossible according to A. Einstein's STR. Moreover, a prediction is made about the change in the CMB map over time, since the CMB depends on the gravitational potential at a given point, and taking into account the movement of our galaxy in the Universe, it (potential) will change. Similarly, the concept of “nothing” is analyzed, which is used to explain the expansion of the Universe. The existence of “nothing” is also in insurmountable contradiction with Einstein's STR.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3483] viXra:1909.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-19 22:37:10

Liquid Universe and Gravitational Wave

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 32 Pages. 4 Figure; 1 Table; Including Russian abstract and Chinese Version

According to the universe model based on virtual space-time physics, the universe has two states, liquid and gaseous. The current universe is in a state of liquid universe. This can be supported by some important observational evidence. The liquid universe theory predicts that microwave background radiation and cosmic rays are gases that the liquid universe naturally evaporates, the temperatures of the two should be equal. At present, there are many research results of hydroacoustic theories in related disciplines, so we can use some hydroacoustic theories to deal with the propagation of gravitational waves in the liquid universe, and we can get some inspiring conclusions. This provides a broader theoretical support for us to study and discuss some important laws of gravitational waves in more detail. This paper gives a rough estimate of the gravitational wave data generated by the huge mass of the center of the Milky Way. It is found that the radiation of the gravitational wave in the center of the Milky Way can be used to explain the periodic variation of sunspots.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3482] viXra:1909.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-20 03:08:41

Relativistic Quantum Bridge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Quantum mechanics and the general theory of relativity form the bedrock of the current understanding of physics-yet the two theories don't seem to work together. [48] Physicists from Professor Johannes Fink's research group at the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) have found a way to use a mechanical oscillator to produce entangled radiation. [47] The key to ghost imaging is to use two or more correlated beams of particles. [46] Physicists at the University of Alberta in Canada have developed a new way to build quantum memories, a method for storing delicate quantum information encoded into pulses of light. [45] Now, an Australian research team has experimentally realised a crucial combination of these capabilities on a silicon chip, bringing the dream of a universal quantum computer closer to reality. [44] A theoretical concept to realize quantum information processing has been developed by Professor Guido Burkard and his team of physicists at the University of Konstanz. [43] As the number of hacks and security breaches rapidly climbs, scientists say there may be a way to make a truly unhackable network by using the laws of quantum physics. [42] This world-first nanophotonic device, just unveiled in Nature Communications, encodes more data and processes it much faster than conventional fiber optics by using a special form of 'twisted' light. [41] Purdue University researchers created a new technique that would increase the secret bit rate 100-fold, to over 35 million photons per second. [40] Physicists at The City College of New York have used atomically thin two-dimensional materials to realize an array of quantum emitters operating at room temperature that can be integrated into next generation quantum communication systems. [39]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3481] viXra:1909.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-17 11:07:43

Dark Energy and the Time Dependence of Fundamental Particle Constants

Authors: Bodo Lampe
Comments: 17 Pages.

The cosmic time dependencies of $G$, $\alpha$, $h$ and of SM parameters like the Higgs vev and elementary particle masses are studied in the framework of a new dark energy interpretation. Due to the associated time variation of rulers, many effects turn out to be invisible. However, a rather large time dependence is claimed to arise in association with dark energy measurements, and smaller ones in connection with the SM.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3480] viXra:1909.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-15 12:00:10

A Strange Connection Exists Between Middlebush NJ and the Sunken Locomotives Off Long Branch NJ

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The 44.6 mile distance between Middlebush NJ and the 2 sunken early type locomotives found 5 miles off the coast of NJ near Long Branch NJ indicate an important connection between Middlebush and the MHCE8S theory of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3479] viXra:1909.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 09:25:47

The Demise of Gravity Mystery

Authors: Ahmet Yalcin
Comments: 10 Pages. This is the first article of the "Field relative model of the Universe". This article will be followed by other articles including the mathematics and applications of theory.

Gravity is everywhere in our life but still the oldest unsolved phenomena scientists faced so far. This article gives an extremely simple explanation about it with an example from our daily life. The solution also defines what the tiniest element of entity in the universe should be. The work investigates, if this tiniest element contributes to the solutions of many of the other mysteries in Nature both in micro and macrocosms or creates additional new problems. The article almost uses no mathematics and the mathematics of the theory and many of the fundamental applications are subjects of other articles.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3478] viXra:1909.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-12 14:06:07

Dark Matter Cosmology and Astrophysics

Authors: Vladimir S. Netchitailo
Comments: 50 Pages.

Hypersphere World-Universe Model (WUM) envisions Matter carried from Universe into World from fourth spatial dimension by Dark Matter Particles (DMPs). Luminous Matter is byproduct of Dark Matter (DM) annihilation. WUM introduces Dark Epoch (spanning from Beginning of World for 0.4 billion years) when only DMPs existed, and Luminous Epoch (ever since for 13.8 billion years). Big Bang discussed in standard cosmological model is, in our view, transition from Dark Epoch to Luminous Epoch due to Rotational Fission of Overspinning DM Supercluster’s Cores and annihilation of DMPs. WUM solves a number of physical problems in contemporary Cosmology and Astrophysics through DMPs and their interactions: Angular Momentum problem in birth and subsequent evolution of Galaxies and Extrasolar systems – how do they obtain it; Fermi Bubbles – two large structures in gamma-rays and X-rays above and below Galactic center; Mysterious Star KIC 8462852 with irregular dimmings; Coronal Heating problem in solar physics – temperature of Sun's corona exceeding that of photosphere by millions of degrees; Cores of Sun and Earth rotating faster than their surfaces; Diversity of Gravitationally-Rounded Objects in Solar system and their Internal Heat; Lightning Initiation problem – electric fields observed inside thunderstorms are not sufficient to initiate sparks; Terrestrial Gamma-Ray Flashes – bursts of high energy X-rays and gamma rays emanating from Earth. Model makes predictions pertaining to Masses of DMPs, proposes New Types of their Interactions. WUM reveals Inter-Connectivity of Primary Cosmological Parameters and calculates their values, which are in good agreement with the latest results of their measurements.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3477] viXra:1909.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-10 14:30:56

Interpretation of Pre-Relativistic Transformations of Coordinates and Tensors

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: 7 Pages. Russian

The properties of the pre-relativistic space-time are completely determined by the properties of the propagation of the information signal, in particular-the speed of propagation of electromagnetic waves. The speed of propagation of the information signal is constant and does not depend on the state of motion of the observer and the direction of propagation. The scale of the coordinate axes in pre-relativistic coordinate transformations does not change.The Galilean space is not a model of the physical space of classical mechanics, despite the fact that the space of classical mechanics is defined in it, but Newton's laws and conservation laws are formulated through ordinary tensors in pre-relativistic space. The domain of pre-relativistic mechanics is limited by very small (precisely - infi-nitely small) velocities with respect to the velocity of the information signal propagation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3476] viXra:1909.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-10 14:40:29

The Psychological Conflict from the General Theory of Relativity (1916) and the Proton Rafius Puzzle

Authors: Piscedda Giampaolo
Comments: 2 Pages.

In developing the general theory of relativity, Albert Einstein assert: My main purpose, is to develop this theory, so that the reader is aware that the way we set out, is psychologically the only natural one ( book title: La teoria della relatività, by Albert Einstein, Cap. 1 paragraph 4 ). Then we can deduced, that any solution of a physical problem attributable to the general theory of relativity, is psychologically the only natural one. After a brief introduction we solves the following problem: What will be the effect of muon, when it is inside the proton of density Jp = Vp/Mp for an infinitely small time? After to solve the problem we conclude that, experiments conducted with electrons and muon to measure the proton radius that will give the same result, come into contradiction with the general theory of relativity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3475] viXra:1909.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-10 17:04:39

Pre-Relativistic Vector Transformations

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: 6 Pages. Russian

Pre-relativistic vector transformations are transformations of 4-dimensional material vectors of classical mechanics Formulas of transformations of contravariant and covariant vectors of pre – relativistic space-intermediate space between Galilean and relativistic (Minkowski) spaces are given. The domain of definition is the transformation of coordinates and vectors at infinitesimal velocities of material objects. Such vectors are spatial coordinates, velocities, accelerations and many other material 4-vector parameters – for example, 4-dimensional energy-momentum. The form of metric tensor of pre-relativistic space, scalar product, formula for conjugation of vectors is also given.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3474] viXra:1909.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-10 17:07:58

Pre-Relativistic Tensor Transformations

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: 8 Pages. Russian

Pre-relativistic tensor transformations are transformations of 4-dimensional material tensors of classical mechanics Formulas for transformations of contravariant, covariant, and mixed rank 2 tensors of a pre – relativistic space-the intermediate space between Galilean and relativistic (Minkowski) spaces-are given. The domain of definition is the transformation of coordinates and vectors at infinitesimal velocities of material objects. Such tensors are metric tensors of 4-dimensional space.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3473] viXra:1909.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-08 14:12:19

Microwave Resonance and Doppler Effect

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

A standing wave can be formed in a microwave resonator if the length of the resonator is equal to one half of the wavelength multiplied by an integer. Two observers moving at the same speed will observe the resonator of the same length. They will also observe the same wavelength as the wavelength is proportional to the length of the resonator. If one observer moves in the opposite direction, they will observe an identical wavelength but two different frequencies due to the Doppler effect. Therefore, the apparent speed of the microwave appears to be different for these two observers.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3472] viXra:1909.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-09 06:17:13

Gravity Expansions

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 1 Page. Author's Email : yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

This article aims to present gravity expansions concept.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3471] viXra:1909.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-08 01:21:21

Energy Pairs and Energy Conservation Issues

Authors: ‪Moshe Segal‬‏
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Energy Pairs Theory is related to the assumption presented in previous articles, that charge might also be considered as a form of energy, as mass turned to be. This assumption was based on important similarities between mass and charge, and on analyzing the energy density equations of electric and magnetic fields And, since charge comes in two forms, a positive charge and a negative charge, the energies embedded in charges, if this concept is found viable, and supported by additional findings, also must have two forms which the article grouped as one set of Energy Pair. This Energy Pairs Theory was used to supply an explanation to the issue of charge disappearance in electron positron collisions. In this article the Energy Pairs Theory is used to explain Energy Conservation Issues related to Electric and Magnetic Fields.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3470] viXra:1909.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 10:01:09

About Tests of Special Relativity

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 4 pages

Now the Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is the cornerstone of contemporary physics. The proof of SRT is based on three basic experiments. The analysis of them shows that ordinary physics is sufficient for the interpretation of experimental results and there is no need for SRT. Therefore the above-mentioned experiments are not proof of SRT.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3469] viXra:1909.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 19:29:06

Calculating the Hawking Temperature in a Variant of the Near Horizon Metric

Authors: Tristan Anthony Dobrian
Comments: 12 Pages.

A modied version of the near horizon metric is introduced, that puts the near horizon metric in the same form as one of the most commonly-used metric variants of Rindler space. The metric is then used to calculate the Hawking temperature, using the WKB tunneling approximation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3468] viXra:1909.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-06 01:56:51

Electric Charges as Energy Pairs

Authors: ‪Moshe Segal‬‏
Comments: 11 Pages.

The kinetic energy of a moving mass is attributed to the mass increase because of its velocity. Thus, mass is recognized as a special form of energy. As will be shown in this article, there are similarities between mass and charge which might lead us to conclude that charge should also be considered as a special form of energy. Thus, this article does claim that Charge might also be recognized as another form of Energy, as mass turned to be. This claim, if found viable, and supported by additional findings, will make Energy as the only distinct entity (in addition to time and space), a simpler and cleaner view of nature. Also, this article suggests the following: 1. Analogeous to the equation: E = m c ^ 2 where E is energy, m is mass c is the speed of light and ^ stands for power of. derived by the special theory of relativity, which describes the relation between the energy embedded in mass and mass magnitude, this article suggests the equation : E = K q where K is a constant factor and q is the charge magnitude. This equation might describe the relation between the energy and charge magnitude. 2. Since charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then the energy embedded in charge also comes in two energy types. This might be one of the crucial reasons why it was difficult to recognize charge as another form of energy. However, the article provides a logical explanation to this issue. The article also assigns these energy types to one set of Energy Pairs. This Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain why in the electron and positron collisions the charges completely disappear.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3467] viXra:1909.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-04 15:50:48

Calculating Gravitational Time Dilation Using Length Contraction

Authors: Tom Fuchs
Comments: 3 Pages.

I show that gravitational time dilation is a twin paradox scenario that can be calculated using length contraction.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3466] viXra:1909.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-03 13:03:09

The Length and Mass Scales of Cosmology and Astrophysics from Quantum Scales

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 11 pages

The length and mass scales of cosmology and astrophysics are shown to derive from quantum scales. The Quantum/Classical connection maps the Bohr radius, the reduced Compton wavelength and the classical electron radius – three ‘quantum’ length scales that lie in geometric progression with common ratio α, the fine structure constant – onto three ‘classical’ length scales: the radius of the observable universe; the radius of the stellar halo of the geometric-mean-sized galaxy that is typified by the Milky Way; and the radius of the planetary system of the geometric-mean-sized star that is typified by the sun. By way of the Quantum/Classical connection, the three classical length scales lie in geometric progression with common ratio equal to alpha^5/2 (=4.55E-6). This observation has opened up a framework of multiplicative relationships between cosmological and astrophysical scales based on powers of alpha^5/2. The astrophysical scales of the model refer to the geometric mean values of distributions of scales. ‘Local’ scales take very nearly ideal (geometric mean) values. The baryonic mass of the Milky Way and the mass of the sun approximate very closely to the baryonic mass of the Hubble sphere multiplied by alpha^5 and alpha^10, respectively. The total mass of the Milky Way, the mass of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the centre of the Milky Way and the geometric mean mass of black hole-black hole gravitational wave event progenitors approximate very closely to the total mass/energy of the Hubble sphere multiplied by alpha^5, alpha^15/2 and alpha^10, respectively. The results indicate that the total mass/energy of the Hubble sphere increases with time and that black holes grow at Hubble rate. The Schwarzschild radius of the ‘ideal’ star equals the radius of the star multiplied by alpha^5/2. By way of the Quantum/Classical connection, the radius and mass of the ‘ideal’ star map onto the mass and atomic radius, respectively, of the stable nuclide iron-56. The nearly-ideal sun is the counterpart of the stable nuclide chromium-53.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3465] viXra:1909.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-02 07:58:03

Dark Energy or just Energy?

Authors: Nick Markov
Comments: 3 Pages.

This research note hypothesizes new physics without dark energy, dark matter, extra dimensions, and deviation from proven mathematical models. The main idea is that matter expands proportionally with space, and that the proposed discrete step-expansion of elementary particles may provide a platform for unification of the four fundamental interactions. This note also proposes several ways to validate the hypothesis at the macro- and micro-scale.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3464] viXra:1909.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-02 08:10:56

Time Dilation and Space-Time Curvature

Authors: Nick Markov
Comments: 10 Pages.

Correlation between relativistic time dilation and space-time curvature is presented aiming to explain the observed galactic rotational curves without introducing hidden parameters, such as dark matter. The relation is supported with measured data from five spiral galaxies of various sizes and rotational velocities. Correlations are also provided for a galaxy cluster and for the Solar System.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3463] viXra:1909.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-01 13:34:31

Unified Theory of Gravity and Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Hence, solutions of the unified theory is Reissner-Nodstrom solution in vacuum. We found revised Einstein gravity tensor equation is satisfied the condition by 2-order contra-invariant metric tensor two times product.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3462] viXra:1909.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2019-09-01 14:18:42

Fizeau Interferometer and Doppler Effect

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The interference pattern from a Fizeau interferometer is conserved in all inertial reference frames. Its constructive pattern requires the wavelength to be proportional to the width of the interferometer at the point of interference. The length contraction from Lorentz transformation assumes the interferometer to be contracted in the direction of the relative motion. The wavelength is contracted as well. For two observers moving at the same speed, the contracted wavelength appears to be identical for both of them. If one of them moves in the opposite direction, they will observe an identical wavelength but two different frequencies due to the Doppler effect. Consequently, they observe two different speeds from the same light.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3461] viXra:1908.0629 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-31 15:27:47

Calculating the Twin Paradox Using Length Contraction

Authors: Tom Fuchs
Comments: 3 Pages.

I show that the traveling twin ages less because that twin's path is shorter. The reason typically given, that only the traveling twin accelerates, is superfluous.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3460] viXra:1908.0623 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-30 09:22:17

Error of Einstein's Thought Experiment

Authors: Dariusz Dudało
Comments: 3 Pages.

Error of Einstein's thought experiment
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3459] viXra:1908.0616 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-30 19:15:31

Maximum Force from Space Generation Model - with Annotation

Authors: Richard J Benish
Comments: 20 pages

Based on the work of Jacobson [1] and Gibbons, [2] Christoph Schiller [3] has shown not only that a maximum force follows from general relativity, but that general relativity can be derived from the principle of maximum force. In the present paper an alternative derivation of maximum force is given. Inspired by the equivalence principle, the approach is based on a modification of the well known special relativity equation for the velocity acquired from uniform proper acceleration. Though in Schiller's derivation the existence of gravitational horizons plays a key role, in the present derivation this is not the case. In fact, though the kinematic equation that we start with does exhibit a horizon, it is not carried over to its gravitational counterpart. A few of the geometrical consequences and physical implications of this result are discussed. The first page is an Annotation, which provides context with regard to motivation, and highlights correspondence with the IJTP reviewers, and with Christoph Schiller.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3458] viXra:1908.0609 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 08:53:37

Reissner-Nodstrom Solution and Energy-Momentum Density’s Conservation Law

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

We find Reissner-Nodstrom solution hold by the energy-momentum density’s conservation law (Noether’s theorem) of electromagnetic field in general relativity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3457] viXra:1908.0606 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 12:57:14

Undulating Relativity + §28 Simplified Periellium Advance

Authors: Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia
Comments: 155 Pages.

Undulating Relativity + §28 Simplified Periellium Advance
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3456] viXra:1908.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-28 15:23:33

Michelson-Morley Experiment

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment is devoted to the experimental measurement of the anisotropy of the speed of light propagation on the Earth's surface. Since at that time it was believed that space is filled with ether and light propagates in it, it was assumed possible to determine the speed of the Earth relative to the "ether" and the direction of motion of the Solar system in the space ASO. Опыт Майкельсона-Морли посвящен экспериментальному измерению анизотропии скорости распространения света на поверхности Земли. Т.к. в то время считалось, что пространство заполнено эфиром и свет распространяется в ней, то предполагалось возможным определить скорость Земли относительно "эфира" и направления движения Солнечной системы в космическом АСО.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3455] viXra:1908.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-29 02:13:22

The Goedel Theorem and the Lorentz Contraction

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 12 Pages. original article

The power spectral formula of the Cherenkov radiation of the system of two equal charges is derived in the framework of the source theory. The distance between charges is supposed to be relativistically contracted which manifests in the spectral formula. The knowledge of the spectral formula then can be used to verify of the Lorentz contraction of the relativistic length. A feasible experiment for the verification of the Lorentz contraction is suggested.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3454] viXra:1908.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-27 15:21:08

Comments to the Idea of a Warp Drive.

Authors: A.V. Antipin
Comments: 4 Pages.

The paper presents general considerations, that show that the WARP devices will not be able to provide the expected superluminal velocity of moving objects. The actual speed of the moving objects using WARP will not exceed (c/2), i.e. HALF the speed of light. The article is based on the materials of the report made on December 03, 2017. Russian version of the article: http://vixra.org/abs/1711.0377 Версия на РУССКОМ языке: http://vixra.org/abs/1711.0377
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3453] viXra:1908.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 16:33:26

A Graph for Describing Events in TSR

Authors: Per Hokstad
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract. We present a graphical approach which illustrates a chain of events within the theory of special relativity (TSR). The graph represents an alternative to the ‘world line’, and presents the standard time & position–parameters. Further, the graph provides the so-called ‘proper time’, which we refer to as ‘internal time’. The object we follow has a velocity being piecewise constant; a condition that can be relaxed. The travelling twin provides an example.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3452] viXra:1908.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 18:19:34

Using the Earth as a Starting Point for the Big Bang Expansion

Authors: Royan Rosche
Comments: 1 Page.

Rather than trying to sum up the entirety of all galaxies and stars, and atoms, etc which the scientific community does for the Big Bang theory, I use the Earth as the “point” and its current location as the “Expanded end form” or where it lies now as the "end result" of Big Bang Expansion, not as Proof to Know All, but as a method to know the Time and Space of the Earth only, as if someone was able to watch the atoms that would be the Earth from the Initial Big Bang up to where they are now.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3451] viXra:1908.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 21:01:50

Logical Composition up to Special Relativity Theory

Authors: Tsuneaki Takahashi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Science theory is composed of definitions, logic and facts. Facts are real and not deniable. Logic could have multiple expressions. So we need to choose most appropriate expression. A composition from definitions, facts and logic to Special Relativity Theory is tried here.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3450] viXra:1908.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-26 04:40:01

The Irrelevance of Abstract Reference Frames in Physics

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 11 Pages.

In the past century, abstract mathematical reference frames have become the universal way to formulate and understand the fundamental laws of physics. Galileo's principle of relativity and Einstein's special relativity theory states that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames. The subtly hidden assumption in this statement is that the laws of physics can be formulated correctly at least in one inertial reference frame, which is shown to be wrong. In the general theory of relativity (accelerating) reference frames can even affect the laws of physics. The true laws of physics became hidden by the very idea of using reference frames as the observers. In the reference frame concept, the laws of physics are formulated as seen by the third observer, i.e. reference frame. The mystery that has eluded physicists so far is that a third observer (reference frame) is irrelevant or cannot see the true nature of electromagnetic interaction between two charges, for example. Electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena are elusive in that they do not act in the classical way expected by the third observer (reference frame). The traditional concept of reference frames was based on classical, conventional thinking and experience, such as the motion of a ball or the propagation of classical waves as seen in two relatively moving inertial frames. Einstein's special relativity theory was built upon the fallacious Galileo's reference frames. Galileo's relativity is only approximately correct and applies only to ordinary, everyday experiences and is fundamentally wrong. According to the new theory proposed in this paper, the observer is fundamentally the body or particle directly experiencing electromagnetic or gravitational fields and waves. The observer is the atom, molecule, electron or proton directly detecting or experiencing electromagnetic and gravitational fields and waves, such as atoms in light detecting devices, the human eye or massive bodies experiencing gravitation of another body. Einstein (correctly) discovered his chasing a beam of light thought experiment. However, since physicists universally thought in terms of reference frames, this ( wrongly ) led him to the special theory of relativity. The principle of relativity should be discarded ; reference frames, whether inertial, accelerating or rotating , are irrelevant in the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics. The concept of reference frames must be abandoned altogether. The fundamental laws of physics cannot be correctly formulated in any reference frame, i.e. relative to the third 'observer' who is not directly experiencing electromagnetic or gravitational phenomena. A new way of formulating the laws of physics relative to (as seen by ) the direct observer is introduced. Newton's and Mach's views on inertia will be reconciled.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3449] viXra:1908.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-23 08:11:01

Cutting the Gordian Knot of Theoretical Physics (The Unification of Gravitational and Maxwellian Fields)

Authors: Rolf Warnemünde
Comments: 35 Pages. c 2019 CC BY-NC-ND

It concerns the unification of Maxwell-Field and Gravitational-Field without compromise consisting of: 1. A derivation of the general equations of continuously differentiable fluctuating 3-dimensional vector fields turning out to be generalized Maxwell-Equations 2. Identifying the Einstein-Space as the result of deforming an Euclidean Space, 3. Identifying the fluctuating hypersurface of the Einstein-Space as gravitational wave propagating with the velocity of light seen from an observer space or rather coordinate space, This leads to 1. the quantitative unification of Maxwell-Field and Gravitational-Field, 2. the facilitation of quantizing gravitational fields, 3. considerations of general gravitational waves from a new perspective. With the described unification electromagnetism is directly led back to the most fundamental terms of physics, space and time.Last but not least the importance of the Einstein-Equations for microphysics is proved
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3448] viXra:1908.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-21 23:05:24

An Explanation of Foucault Pendulum Leads to no-Shape Substance (Subquantum Aether) and Some Implications

Authors: Victor Christianto, Robert Neil Boyd, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

The present paper explains Foucault Pendulum experiment which leads to No-Shape Substance form of SQ Aether of Qi Ji. We also discuss some related phenomena. This paper can be viewed as a dialogue effort to find connection between the notion of aether by Western scientists in the past and No-Shape Substance by Qi Ji et al.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3447] viXra:1908.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-19 23:08:34

Sagnac Effect on Inertial Motion

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

Wang, Zheng, and Yao carried out an experiment in 2004 to determine if the Sagnac effect can be applied to the inertial motion. Their experiment showed that there was indeed phase difference between the two light beams passing through the same optical fiber in inertial motion. However, the focus of their experiment was on the rest frame of the light source. They did not realize that the time difference from the phase difference should exist in all reference frames. The difference in the elapsed time taken by two light beams to pass through the linear fiber segment in the rest frame of the segment effectively corresponds to the speed difference between two light beams. The Sagnac effect in inertial motion provides a precise experimental evidence that the speed of light is different in a different reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3446] viXra:1908.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-20 00:50:18

Can the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation be Doppler Shifted Light from Receding Superluminal Galaxies ?

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new idea that the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ( CMBR ) could be Doppler shifted light from receding superluminal distant galaxies. One immediate objection to this idea is that superluminal velocities do not exist in nature. However, we know that superluminal galaxies have already been observed. Moreover, in my recent paper entitled " Absolute Motion, Light Speed Limit, Superluminal Galaxies and Star Light Bending " , I have shown how absolute motion, light speed limit and superluminal galaxies can co-exist in the universe. Hubble's law also predicts superluminal galaxies at sufficiently large distances. A new exponential law of Doppler effect is introduced: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e -V/c , where e is Euler's constant. Using the new law of Doppler effect, CMBR frequency and Hubble's law we estimate the distance and speed of the superluminal galaxies the CMBR radiation is mainly coming from.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3445] viXra:1908.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-18 10:08:45

Compton Scattering Not Well Verified

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 6 Pages.

Compton scattering cannot yet be said to have been verified beyond any doubt. The only verification experiment performed is still the original experiment of A.H.Compton from 1922. To date, there is not another experiment done to corroborate the 1922 findings. There are modern experiments done in the laboratories of today’s universities to verify Compton scattering with γ-ray sources from radionuclides where the energies of the rays are measured with NaI scintillation detectors or germanium detectors. Such experiments are shown to be invalid as the result that shows clear agreement with the theory is all due to the calibration of the detectors and nothing besides. Furthermore, a verification that the inverse of energy 1/E varying linearly with (1 − cos θ) is insufficient as a verification of the full Compton scattering formula for wavelength changes. A proper verification requires verifying the wavelength formula where the wavelength is measured directly.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3444] viXra:1908.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-19 02:32:39

Absolute Motion, Light Speed Limit, Superluminal Galaxies and Star Light Bending

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we assert that absolute motion is not motion relative to the hypothetical ether. Absolute motion is fundamentally motion of a body relative to all matter in the universe. Hence absolute motion does exist but the ether doesn't exist. The ether has been disproved by the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Arago and the Airy star light refraction and aberration experiments. On the other hand, absolute motion has been detected in the Silvertooth, the CMBR anisotropy, the Marinov, the Roland De Witte and other experiments. We show how this view of absolute motion can also be compatible with the observed phenomena of light speed limit, superluminal galaxies. We show that star light deflection near the Sun doesn't exist.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3443] viXra:1908.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-16 20:00:45

Anthropic Principle in Human Relationships - Why Couples Fight

Authors: Daniel Stedman
Comments: 2 Pages. From Medium.com

Wheeler's Anthropic Principle applied to marriage and co-habitation. Why do relationships experience disturbances? Because we are here!
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3442] viXra:1908.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-15 19:16:52

An Exact Solution of the Einstein Equations with Cosmological Term for Cylindrically Symmetric Space

Authors: Xuan Zhong Ni
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this article, we derived an exact solution of the Einstein equations with cosmological term for cylindrically symmetric space .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3441] viXra:1908.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-14 09:29:44

Inertia as a Net Magnetic Effect and Gravity as a Net Electrostatic Force

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper reveals the long standing mysteries of inertia and gravity, based on Weber's electrodynamics formula. Conventionally it is presumed that the electrical and magnetic force of interaction between opposite charges is equal in magnitude to the force of interaction between similar charges. Changing this view leads to a very compelling theory of inertia and gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3440] viXra:1908.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-14 10:33:32

Causality Between Events with Space-Like Separation

Authors: G. L. Harnagel
Comments: 6 Pages.

Since the first part of the twentieth century, it has been maintained that faster-than-light movement could produce time travel into the past with its accompanying causality-violation paradoxes. This paper demonstrates that this assumption is false because of misinterpretation of the Minkowski diagram and the Lorentz transformation (LT) upon which it is based, plus the completely unsubstantiated belief that the past is “back there somewhere.”
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3439] viXra:1908.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-12 15:11:15

The Higgs Boson and the IVBs: Gatekeepers of the Multiverse

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Higgs boson and its associated IVBs may be fairly characterized as "gate-keepers" of the Multiverse, in that they control/regulate the asymmetric products (such as our "matter only" Cosmos) that emerge from the "all-symmetric" domain of the Multiverse (i.e., the quantum-mechanical universal "void" of Heisenberg/Dirac).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3438] viXra:1908.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-13 03:09:39

Brief Overview of the Theory of Relativity and Modern Science.

Authors: Valentín Ibáñez Fernández
Comments: 13 Pages.

ABSTRACT The special theory of relativity has been adopting as the basis of modern theoretical physics. Any assumption or contradiction is declaring erroneous. Nevertheless, because of the lack of argument, and therefore not understanding, many people think that the special theory of relativity is true, although they do not know why. In addition, there are still three scientific assessments in the academic environment. 1. The theory is correct and is one of the most outstanding discoveries of the 20th century. 2. The theory is a combination of truth and untruth. 3. The theory is absurd. Some consideration of modern science on the special theory of relativity. The Nobel Prize Committee refused to award premium to Einstein for the special theory of relativity. Consequently, it is vital to investigate the essence of theory. This investigation is of unprecedented importance in terms of developing the science, philosophy and technology.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3437] viXra:1908.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-11 21:52:37

'c' for Yourself (Why a Speed Limit?)

Authors: David Colasante
Comments: 4 Pages. Keywords: speed c. lightspeed, speed limit, lightlike, photon, pinhole, interval-time, spacetime, ALPHA, CERN, coordinates, Euclidean, interval contact, remote contact, photo-annihilation, curved-space, radial-time, anti-hydrogen, positron, annihilation,

The Euclidean lens of interval-time coordinates reveals explanations for, rather than mere descriptions of finite, universal, constant and invariant speed limit c.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3436] viXra:1908.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-10 06:28:05

There is no Coordinate System Without Mass

Authors: Milan D. Nešić
Comments: 11 Pages.

Even a mathematical coordinate system without any physical quality cannot be without mass because it must assume both on the abscissa and on the ordinate some measuring units (numbers), even if they have been entered by a person at random. On the other hand, science is impossible without an analytical mathematical description that would be checked by an experiment, by man and his mass too. Then how can cosmology answer the question of the origin of the cosmos, which has mass, if the mass is assumed in advance as existing? So that by no means, nor tacitly too, will man consider his technical coordinate system as absolute; by taking into account, therefore, the coordinate systems without any measuring unit, neither of the length nor of the time. But is this then the coordinate system and any science at all? The article exposes the true interpretation of Einstein's postulate c=const and a way of entering the philosophy of science and cosmology by which can be perhaps guessed the answer to the question: How come the World exists?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3435] viXra:1908.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 00:27:18

Consistent Coordinate Transformation for Relativistic Circular Motion and Speeds of Light

Authors: Yang-Ho Choi
Comments: 27 Pages.

A world system is composed of the world lines of the rest observers in the system. We present a relativistic coordinate transformation, termed the transformation under constant light speed with the same angle (TCL-SA), between a rotating world system and the isotropic system. In TCL-SA, the constancy of the two-way speed of light holds, and the angles of rotation before and after the transformation are the same. Additionally a transformation for inertial world systems is derived from it through the limit operation of circular motion to linear motion. The generalized Sagnac effect involves linear motion, as well as circular motion. We deal with the generalized effect via TCL-SA and via the framework of Mansouri and Sexl (MS), analyzing the speeds of light. Their analysis results correspond to each other and are in agreement with the experimental results. Within the framework of special and general relativity (SGR), traditionally the Sagnac effect has been dealt with by using the Galilean transformation (GT) in cylindrical coordinates together with the invariant line element. Applying the same traditional methods to an inertial frame in place of the rotating one, we show that the speed of light with respect to proper time is anisotropic in the inertial frame, even if the Lorentz transformation, instead of GT, is employed. The local speeds of light obtained via the traditional methods within SGR correspond to those derived from TCL-SA and from the MS framework.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3434] viXra:1908.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-09 00:34:54

Question to Physical Societies That Believe Special Relativity Is Consistent

Authors: Yang-Ho Choi
Comments: 2 Pages.

Most physical societies seem to firmly believe that the special theory of relativity (STR) has been experimentally verified and dose not have any inconsistencies. However, the equivalence of inertial frames under light speed constancy is mathematically infeasible. I present a basic question of STR to show it, and ask the societies to answer the public question.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3433] viXra:1908.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 13:56:17

Coordinates and Static Sphere Metric Solutions

Authors: Karl De Paepe
Comments: 1 Page.

We show there is a scalar function calculated from a metric solution to the Einstein field equations for a static spherically symmetric sphere that depends on coordinates.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3432] viXra:1908.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-07 22:57:29

Random Liquid Cosmological Model of the Universe

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 12 Pages. 5 figures. Including Russian abstract.

There are many universe models, and the universe model based on general relativity has gained wide acceptance. The Big Bang theory is a view that many researchers accepted. However, what is the mechanism of The Big Bang in the universe, why the Universe Big Bang is produced, and what happened to the universe before the Big Bang in the universe, none of which is a good theory to explain. If we agree that there is Virtual Spacetime, we can explain the current expansion of the universe and the possible shrinkage from the mutual oscillation relationship between Virtual Spacetime and Real Spacetime. It is the expansion and contraction of the universe that is caused by the back and forth oscillation of the real spacetime and virtual spacetime component energy forms of the universe. That is, the mass and energy of the universe's Virtual and Real Spacetime transform each other, causing the expansion and contraction effects of the universe. The energy of Virtual Spacetime reflects the mass in Real Spacetime. In Real Spacetime, the reduction of the mass of the universe leads to an increase in the kinetic energy of Real Spacetime. Conversely, if the kinetic energy of Real Spacetime is reduced and the total mass of the universe is increased, it reflects the contraction of the universe. In addition, through the assumptions of Virtual Spacetime, we can also obtain a variety of states that may exist in the universe, including at least two states of gas and liquid. That is to say, if we look at the material composition of the universe from the scale of the universe, the forms of these substances include at least two forms, gaseous and liquid. The division of these two states of the universe also means that we can use the knowledge of fluid mechanics to deal with various problems of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3431] viXra:1908.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-05 10:21:56

Unified Gravito-Kinematics Theory Version March 2019

Authors: Peter Hlava�?ka
Comments: 14 Pages. New version of original 2016 publication

Unified gravito-kinematics theory unifies gravity and kinematics on deeper level as current theories. It is generally compatible with quotations of General relativity, but it extends it and introduces different explanations to selected underlying principles on which is General relativity based. Unified gravito-kinematics theory explains or solves following open problems: primary cause and underlying mechanism of inertia, explanation of speed of light as speed limit, primary cause and underlying mechanism of relativity (Lorentz transformations), explanation of creation of rings of planets explanation of increasing speed of expansion of universe (dark energy), explanation of galaxy rotation problem, solving of some singularities in relativity theory and solution for compatibility of relativity theory with quantum mechanics, which will open door to merge of quantum mechanics and what is now relativity theory. What is most important, Unified gravito-kinematics theory makes very specific predictions, which can be tested by experiments and by astronomic observations. This paper includes one proposed rotation experiment and explanation of creation of rings around planets and smaller objects.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3430] viXra:1908.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 08:23:29

The COSMOS: A Uniformly Spherical Expansion model (U.S.E.)

Authors: F. J. Gheeraert
Comments: Language=Dutch, 55 pages

A model of the COSMOS based on the assumption that the limit of gravitational forces, although capable of keeping galaxies "together", cannot influence anymore the velocity at which the galaxies themselves are moving away from the point Omega (point of Big Bang).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3429] viXra:1908.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 15:36:20

A Sceptical Analysis of Quantized Inertia

Authors: Michele Renda
Comments: 6 Pages.

We perform an analysis of the derivation of Quantized Inertia (QI) theory, formerly known with the acronym MiHsC, as presented by McCulloch (2007, 2013). Two major flaws were found in the original derivation. We derive a discrete black-body radiation spectrum, deriving a different formulation for $F(a)$ than the one presented in the original theory. We present a numerical result of the new solution which is compared against the original prediction.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3428] viXra:1908.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-02 04:39:16

Proposal for a New Light Speed Anisotropy Experiment Based on Time of Flight Method

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 12 Pages.

A new light speed anisotropy experiment is proposed that is based on time of flight technique. Two light transceivers A and B are fixed to each end of a rigid rod. A short light pulse initially emitted by A is detected by B, upon which B is triggered to emit a light pulse, which in turn is detected by A, upon which A is triggered to emit another light pulse which will be detected by B, and so on. An electronic counter counts the pulses. Changing the orientation of the rod with respect to Earth's absolute velocity direction will cause a variation of the number of pulses counted in a given period of time ( i.e. the frequency ). The unique feature of this experiment is that Earth's absolute velocity can be determined with any desired accuracy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3427] viXra:1908.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2019-08-01 00:06:45

Error in Modern Astronomy

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 7 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

The conservation of the interference pattern from double slit interference proves that the wavelength is conserved in all inertial reference frames. However, there is a popular belief in modern astronomy that the wavelength can be changed by the choice of reference frame. This erroneous belief results in the problematic prediction of the radial speed of galaxy. The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. From both conservation properties, the velocity of the light is proved to be different in a different reference frame. This different velocity was confirmed by lunar laser ranging test at NASA in 2009. The relative motion between the light source and the light detector bears great similarity to the magnetic force on a moving charge. The motion changes the interference pattern but not the wavelength in the rest frame of the star. This is known as the blueshift or the redshift in astronomy. The speed of light in the rest frame of the grism determines how the spectrum is shifted. Wide Field Camera 3 in Hubble Space Telescope provides an excellent example on how the speed of light can change the spectrum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3426] viXra:1907.0623 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-31 12:17:42

Up Quarks of 4.8 Mev and Electron Neutrinos of 2.2 X 10^-6 Mev Both Arose in a Holographic 2nd Cyclic Universe

Authors: George R. briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The presence of up quarks of 4.8 MeV indicate that unbroken E8 symmetry was active by the 2nd cyclic universe: also the presence of electron neutrinos of 2.2 x 10^-6 MeV indicate that holography was active by this time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3425] viXra:1907.0620 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-31 13:05:04

The MHCE8S Model Of Physics

Authors: George R. briggs
Comments: 2 Pages. The MHCE8S theory is now essentially complete

Abstract: The replacement for the Standard Model is given
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3424] viXra:1907.0610 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-30 08:27:24

Mössbauer Experiments in a Rotating System: the so-Called "Synchronization Effect" to Explain the Extra Energy Shift Between Emitted and Absorbed Radiation Constitutes a Complete Failure

Authors: Alexander Kholmetskii, Tolga Yarman, Ozan Yarman, Metin Arik
Comments: 12 Pages.

We show that a new attempt by C. Corda to once more rehash his so-called "synchronization effect" in order to account for the origin of the extra energy shift between emitted and absorbed radiation in Mössbauer rotor experiments (C. Corda, Int. J. Mod. Phys. D, doi: 10.1142/S0218271819501311) is yet again erroneous, just as were his previous attempts (Ann. Phys. 355, 360 (2015); Ann. Phys. 368, 258 (2016); Int. J. Mod. Phys. D 27, 1847016 (2018)). The correct approach presented herein with regards to the calculation of the energy shift between emitted and absorbed radiation in a rotating system leads to, as a matter of fact, no specific "synchronization effect".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3423] viXra:1907.0585 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-29 11:27:35

Trigonometric Functions – is there a Problem?

Authors: Ilija Baruk�?ić
Comments: 8 pages. Copyright © 2019 by Ilija Baruk�?ić, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved. Published by:

Trigonometry is an important part of mathematics. In general, a proper understanding of trigonometric functions is a pre-requisite for understanding important topics in physics, architecture, and many branches of engineering. We commonly suppose that the mathematics of trigonometric functions is perfectly true. However, trigonometric functions have a very long and colourful history and the need to take a more precise look on the same is great. This publication provides some evidence that there are circumstances where today understanding of trigonometric functions leads to contradictions. Keywords — Trigonometric functions, Classical logic, Contradiction
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3422] viXra:1907.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-30 03:36:36

A New Insight Explains Both the Michelson-Morley Experiment and Stellar Aberration Apparent Change of Light Source Position Relative to an Absolutely Moving Observer

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we propose a profound connection between the Michelson-Morley ( MM ) experiment and the phenomenon of stellar aberration. A new crucial insight can explain both the MM experiment and stellar aberration: apparent change of light source position relative to an absolutely moving observer. We call this Apparent Source Theory (AST ).The apparent change in star position in Bradley's stellar aberration is because of observer's absolute motion, not because of relative motion. Likewise, the effect of absolute motion of the observer/detector in the MM experiment is to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the observer/detector. In AST the observer is the human observer or a device that directly detects the light. This is unlike the theory of relativity in which the observer is the person doing the experiments. Apparent change in position of the light source will result in only a small fringe shift for the same reason that an actual, physical change of source position will result in a small fringe shift. This new interpretation requires a significant revision of the current understanding of stellar aberration which has its basis in the classical law of addition of velocities. The direction of apparent change in star position is not in the same direction as the observer's absolute velocity, but in the opposite direction !
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3421] viXra:1907.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-28 11:45:07

The Modern Electron is Slightly Heavier Than its Archaic Version: Why is This So ?

Authors: George R. briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The modern 0.511 MeV electron was established by the start of the 3rd cyclic universe. Why it had its 0.511 - 0.5 modern vs.archaic mc^2 energy difference is the subject of this note.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3420] viXra:1907.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-27 14:20:44

Pulsars and Special Relativity

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 8 Pages.

The mistaken belief held by countless mathematicians that light always arrives at c for all observers can be easily demonstrated to be totally false by observing pulsars at different times of the year. Where v is the speed of an observer on earth, light from pulsars will arrive at c+v when the earth is moving toward the pulsar and at c-v when the earth is moving away from the pulsar.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

Replacements of recent Submissions

[2454] viXra:1909.0338 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-21 21:39:21

The Cosmic Origin of Climate Cycles

Authors: F.M. Sanchez
Comments: 4 Pages.

  The Wolf and Milankovich cycles, as well as a 725 years one, are shown to be tightly connected to the invariant Hubble-Sanchez horizon radius, via the Bohr radius, the background temperature and the Kotov length, implying a liaison between the Mattieu group, the superstring dimension 496 and the Higgs boson mass. The Mattieu group order factorisation 66 × 5! is implied, and leads to a relation implying the Monster Couple, characterising the Tau, Mu Leptons and Proton masses and confirming the Eddington's Proton-Tau symmetry. A cosmic connection with the weak bosons implies explicit ppb formula for the Millenarium Lepton masses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2453] viXra:1909.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-15 12:46:22

Electric Charges as Energy Pairs

Authors: ‪Moshe Segal‬‏
Comments: 15 Pages.

The kinetic energy of a moving mass is attributed to the mass increase because of its velocity. Thus, mass is recognized as a special form of energy. As will be shown in this article, there are similarities between mass and charge which might lead us to conclude that charge should also be considered as a special form of energy. Thus, this article does claim that Charge might also be recognized as another form of Energy, as mass turned to be. This claim, if found viable, and supported by additional findings, will make Energy as the only distinct entity (in addition to time and space), a simpler and cleaner view of nature. Also, this article suggests the following: 1. Analogeous to the equation: E = m c ^ 2 where E is energy, m is mass c is the speed of light and ^ stands for power of. derived by the special theory of relativity, which describes the relation between the energy embedded in mass and mass magnitude, this article suggests several options of equations that might describe the relation between the energy and charge magnitude. These suggestions are based only on assumptions and must be supported by additional findings. 2. Since charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then the energy embedded in charge also comes in two energy types. This might be one of the crucial reasons why it was difficult to recognize charge as another form of energy. However, the article provides a logical explanation to this issue. The article also assigns these energy types to one set of Energy Pairs. This Energy Pairs Theory is also used to explain why in the electron and positron collisions the charges completely disappear.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2452] viXra:1909.0065 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-16 07:07:08

The Length and Mass Scales of Cosmology and Astrophysics from Quantum Scales

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 11 Pages. Typos corrected

The length and mass scales of cosmology and astrophysics are shown to derive from quantum scales. The Quantum/Classical connection maps the Bohr radius, the reduced Compton wavelength and the classical electron radius – three ‘quantum’ length scales that lie in geometric progression with common ratio α, the fine structure constant – onto three ‘classical’ length scales: the radius of the observable universe; the radius of the stellar halo of the geometric-mean-sized galaxy that is typified by the Milky Way; and the radius of the planetary system of the geometric-mean-sized star that is typified by the sun. By way of the Quantum/Classical connection, the three classical length scales lie in geometric progression with common ratio equal to alpha^5/2 (=4.55E-6). This observation has opened up a framework of multiplicative relationships between cosmological and astrophysical scales based on powers of alpha^5/2. The astrophysical scales of the model refer to the geometric mean values of distributions of scales. ‘Local’ scales take very nearly ideal (geometric mean) values. The baryonic mass of the Milky Way and the mass of the sun approximate very closely to the baryonic mass of the Hubble sphere multiplied by alpha^5 and alpha^10, respectively. The total mass of the Milky Way, the mass of the supermassive black hole Sgr A* at the centre of the Milky Way and the geometric mean mass of black hole-black hole gravitational wave event progenitors approximate very closely to the total mass/energy of the Hubble sphere multiplied by alpha^5, alpha^15/2 and alpha^10, respectively. The results indicate that the total mass/energy of the Hubble sphere increases with time and that black holes grow at Hubble rate. The Schwarzschild radius of the ‘ideal’ star equals the radius of the star multiplied by alpha^5/2. By way of the Quantum/Classical connection, the radius and mass of the ‘ideal’ star map onto the mass and atomic radius, respectively, of the stable nuclide iron-56. The nearly-ideal sun is the counterpart of the stable nuclide chromium-53.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2451] viXra:1909.0024 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-03 01:23:22

Unified Theory of Gravity and Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Solutions of unified theory equations of gravity and electromagnetism satisfy Einstein-Maxwell equation. Hence, solutions of the unified theory is Reissner-Nodstrom solution in vacuum. We found revised Einstein gravity tensor equation is satisfied the condition by 2-order contra-invariant metric tensor two times product.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2450] viXra:1908.0574 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-10 14:24:35

Michelson-Morley Experiment

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: 12 Pages. timinva@yandex.ru, russian

The Michelson-Morley experiment is devoted to the experimental measurement of the anisotropy of the speed of light propagation on the Earth's surface. Since at that time it was believed that space is filled with ether and light propagates in it, it was assumed possible to determine the speed of the Earth relative to the "ether" and the direction of motion of the Solar system in the space ASO. But the result is known to be negative. Rose "ether wind" was isotropic, to be exact - zero. Why didn't the theory coincide with the experiment? In the orthonormal wave space Einstein's str the coordinates linked to each individual ISO to conditionally fit in space and time, the number of waves from resting in it a reference source. But whatever coordinate system is adopted, the number of waves on the trajectory will not depend on it. And phase of the returning route, the installation of MM-waves will coincide invariably in any ISO. But only with wave standards. Not Galilean absolute! If we had Galilean absolute standards, we would see the world differently. At least – if not eyes, ears, nose, tongue, hands (tactile) and other available feeling organs-at least in physical experiments. But we can not hope for this – all real standards are subject to electromagnetic and gravitational interaction with a finite, equal to the speed of light in a vacuum. And these are again the same waves.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2449] viXra:1908.0574 [pdf] replaced on 2019-09-08 15:54:17

Michelson-Morley Experiment

Authors: Valery Timin
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment is devoted to the experimental measurement of the anisotropy of the speed of light propagation on the Earth's surface. Since at that time it was believed that space is filled with ether and light propagates in it, it was assumed possible to determine the speed of the Earth relative to the "ether" and the direction of motion of the Solar system in the space ASO. But the result is known to be negative. Rose "ether wind" was isotropic, to be exact - zero. Why didn't the theory coincide with the experiment? In the orthonormal wave space Einstein's str the coordinates linked to each individual ISO to conditionally fit in space and time, the number of waves from resting in it a reference source. But whatever coordinate system is adopted, the number of waves on the trajectory will not depend on it. And phase of the returning route, the installation of MM-waves will coincide invariably in any ISO. But only with wave standards. Not Galilean absolute! If we had Galilean absolute standards, we would see the world differently. At least – if not eyes, ears, nose, tongue, hands (tactile) and other available feeling organs-at least in physical experiments. But we can not hope for this – all real standards are subject to electromagnetic and gravitational interaction with a finite, equal to the speed of light in a vacuum. And these are again the same waves.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2448] viXra:1908.0504 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-29 07:56:34

The Irrelevance of Abstract Reference Frames in Physics

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 15 Pages.

In the past century, abstract mathematical reference frames have become the universal way to formulate and understand the fundamental laws of physics. Galileo's principle of relativity and Einstein's special relativity theory states that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial reference frames. The subtly hidden assumption in this statement is that the laws of physics can be formulated correctly at least in one inertial reference frame, which is shown to be wrong. In the general theory of relativity (accelerating) reference frames can even affect the laws of physics. The true laws of physics became hidden by the very idea of using reference frames as the observers. In the reference frame concept, the laws of physics are formulated as seen by the third observer, i.e. reference frame. The mystery that has eluded physicists so far is that a third observer (reference frame) is irrelevant or cannot see the true nature of electromagnetic interaction between two charges, for example. Electromagnetic and gravitational phenomena are elusive in that they do not act in the classical way expected by the third observer (reference frame). The traditional concept of reference frames was based on classical, conventional thinking and experience, such as the motion of a ball or the propagation of classical waves as seen in two relatively moving inertial frames. Einstein's special relativity theory was built upon the fallacious Galileo's reference frames. Galileo's relativity is only approximately correct and applies only to ordinary, everyday experiences and is fundamentally wrong. According to the new theory proposed in this paper, the observer is fundamentally the body or particle directly experiencing electromagnetic or gravitational fields and waves. The observer is the atom, molecule, electron or proton directly detecting or experiencing electromagnetic and gravitational fields and waves, such as the atoms in light detecting devices, the human eye or massive bodies experiencing gravitation of another body. Einstein (correctly) discovered his chasing a beam of light thought experiment. However, since physicists universally thought in terms of reference frames, this ( wrongly ) led him to the special theory of relativity. The principle of relativity should be discarded ; reference frames, whether inertial, accelerating or rotating , are irrelevant in the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics. The concept of reference frames must be abandoned altogether. The fundamental laws of physics cannot be correctly formulated in any reference frame, i.e. relative to the third 'observer' who is not directly experiencing electromagnetic or gravitational phenomena. A new way of formulating the laws of physics relative to (as seen by ) the direct observer is introduced. Newton's and Mach's views on inertia will be reconciled.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2447] viXra:1908.0484 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-29 02:59:40

Cutting the Gordian Knot of Theoretical Physics (The Unification of Gravitational and Maxwellian Fields)

Authors: Rolf Warnemünde
Comments: 35 Pages. corrected formula-typing-errors

It concerns the unification of Maxwell-Field and Gravitational-Field without compromise consisting of: 1. A derivation of the general equations of continuously differentiable fluctuating 3-dimensional vector fields turning out to be generalized Maxwell-Equations 2. Identifying the Einstein-Space as the result of deforming an Euclidean Space, 3. Identifying the fluctuating hypersurface of the Einstein-Space as gravitational wave propagating with the velocity of light seen from an observer space or rather coordinate space, This leads to 1. the quantitative unification of Maxwell-Field and Gravitational-Field, 2. the facilitation of quantizing gravitational fields, 3. considerations of general gravitational waves from a new perspective. With the described unification electromagnetism is directly led back to the most fundamental terms of physics, space and time.Last but not least the importance of the Einstein-Equations for microphysics is proved.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2446] viXra:1908.0410 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-27 00:24:37

Sagnac Effect on Inertial Motion

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

Wang, Zheng, and Yao carried out an experiment in 2004 to determine if the Sagnac effect can be applied to the inertial motion. Their experiment showed that there was indeed phase difference between the two light beams passing through the same optical fiber in inertial motion. However, the focus of their experiment was on the rest frame of the light source. They did not realize that the time difference from the phase difference should exist in all reference frames. The difference in the elapsed time taken by two light beams to pass through the linear fiber segment in the rest frame of the segment effectively corresponds to the speed difference between two light beams. The Sagnac effect in inertial motion provides a precise experimental evidence that the speed of light is different in a different reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2445] viXra:1908.0409 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-22 09:34:08

Can the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation be Doppler Shifted Light from Receding Superluminal Galaxies ?

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new idea that the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation ( CMBR ) could be Doppler shifted light from receding superluminal distant galaxies. One immediate objection to this idea is that superluminal velocities do not exist in nature. However, we know that superluminal galaxies have already been observed. Moreover, in my recent paper entitled " Absolute Motion, Light Speed Limit, Superluminal Galaxies and Star Light Bending " , I have shown how absolute motion, light speed limit and superluminal galaxies can co-exist in the universe. Hubble's law also predicts superluminal galaxies at sufficiently large distances. A new exponential law of Doppler effect is introduced: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e -V/c , where e is Euler's constant. Using the new law of Doppler effect, CMBR frequency and Hubble's law we estimate the distance and speed of the superluminal galaxies the CMBR radiation is mainly coming from. The new theory (" Doppler shifted light from superluminal galaxies" ) can also explain the origin of apparently unrelated cosmic X ray background radiation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2444] viXra:1908.0309 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-19 02:38:06

Inertia as a Net Magnetic Effect and Gravity as a Net Electrostatic Force

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper reveals the long standing mysteries of inertia and gravity, based on Weber's electrodynamics formula. Conventionally it is presumed that the electrical and magnetic force of interaction between opposite charges is equal in magnitude to the force of interaction between similar charges. Changing this view leads to a very compelling theory of inertia and gravity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2443] viXra:1908.0256 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-21 13:52:33

The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs: Gatekeepers of the Multiverse

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 7 Pages. replacing postscript

Abstract The Higgs boson and its associated IVBs may be fairly characterized as "gate-keepers" of the Multiverse, in that they control/regulate the asymmetric products (such as our "matter only" Cosmos) that emerge from the "all-symmetric" domain of the Multiverse (i.e., the quantum-mechanical universal "void" of Heisenberg/Dirac).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2442] viXra:1908.0256 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-13 09:02:50

The Higgs Boson and the Weak Force IVBs: Gatekeepers of the Multiverse

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 Pages. adding several new links and minor corrections

The Higgs boson and its associated IVBs may be fairly characterized as "gate-keepers" of the Multiverse, in that they control/regulate the asymmetric products (such as our "matter only" Cosmos) that emerge from the "all-symmetric" domain of the Multiverse (i.e., the quantum-mechanical universal "void" of Heisenberg/Dirac).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2441] viXra:1908.0238 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-12 12:05:58

'c' for Yourself! (Why a Speed Limit?)

Authors: David Colasante
Comments: 4 Pages. append figure numbers

The Euclidean lens of interval-time coordinates reveals explanations for, rather than mere descriptions of finite, universal, constant and invariant speed limit c.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2440] viXra:1908.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-29 07:49:25

Question to Physical Societies That Believe Special Relativity Is Consistent

Authors: Yang-Ho Choi
Comments: 2 Pages.

Most physical societies seem to firmly believe that the special theory of relativity (STR) has been experimentally verified and dose not have any inconsistencies. However, the equivalence of inertial frames under light speed constancy is mathematically infeasible. I present a basic question of STR to show it, and ask the societies, especially the American Physical Society, to answer the public question.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2439] viXra:1908.0010 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-14 09:35:38

Proposal for a New Light Speed Anisotropy Experiment Based on Time of Flight Method by Continuous Exchange of a Short Light Pulse Between Two Light Transponders

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 17 Pages.

A new light speed anisotropy experiment is proposed that is based on time of flight technique. Two light transceivers (transponders) A and B are fixed to each end of a rigid rod. A short light pulse initially emitted by transponder A is detected by transponder B, upon which B is triggered to emit a light pulse, which in turn is detected by A, upon which A is triggered to emit another light pulse which will be detected by B, and so on. A short light pulse is continuously exchanged between two light transponders. An electronic counter counts the pulses emitted. Changing the orientation of the rod with respect to Earth's absolute velocity direction will cause a variation of the number of pulses counted in a given period of time ( i.e. the frequency ). The unique feature of this experiment is that Earth's absolute velocity can be determined, theoretically, with any desired accuracy. The new 'transponder' technique may reveal many of the mysteries of the speed of light, including light speed anisotropy and the dependence of group velocity of light on mirror velocity, which would not be possible or difficult otherwise. Conventional methods involve a single pulse with spatially separated emitter and detector and clock synchronization. The new technique involves a free running, continuous exchange of a short light pulse, with the frequency determined by the round trip time of the light pulse itself. Change in the (group) velocity of light is detected as change in the frequency of the light pulses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2438] viXra:1908.0010 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-06 01:48:53

Proposal for a New Light Speed Anisotropy Experiment Based on Time of Flight Method by Continuous Exchange of a Short Light Pulse Between Two Light Transponders

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 12 Pages.

A new light speed anisotropy experiment is proposed that is based on time of flight technique. Two light transceivers (transponders) A and B are fixed to each end of a rigid rod. A short light pulse initially emitted by transponder A is detected by transponder B, upon which B is triggered to emit a light pulse, which in turn is detected by A, upon which A is triggered to emit another light pulse which will be detected by B, and so on. A short light pulse is continuously exchanged between two light transponders. An electronic counter counts the pulses. Changing the orientation of the rod with respect to Earth's absolute velocity direction will cause a variation of the number of pulses counted in a given period of time ( i.e. the frequency ). The unique feature of this experiment is that Earth's absolute velocity can be determined with any desired accuracy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2437] viXra:1908.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-12 15:55:54

Error in Modern Astronomy

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 7 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The conservation of the interference pattern from double slit interference proves that the wavelength is conserved in all inertial reference frames. However, there is a popular belief in modern astronomy that the wavelength can be changed by the choice of reference frame. This erroneous belief results in the problematic prediction of the radial speed of galaxy. The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. From both conservation properties, the velocity of the light is proved to be different in a different reference frame. This different velocity was confirmed by lunar laser ranging test at NASA in 2009. The relative motion between the light source and the light detector bears great similarity to the magnetic force on a moving charge. The motion changes the interference pattern but not the wavelength in the rest frame of the star. This is known as the blueshift or the redshift in astronomy. The speed of light in the rest frame of the grism determines how the spectrum is shifted. Wide Field Camera 3 in Hubble Space Telescope provides an excellent example on how the speed of light can change the spectrum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2436] viXra:1908.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-06 22:41:44

Error in Modern Astronomy

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 7 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The conservation of the interference pattern from double slit interference proves that the wavelength is conserved in all inertial reference frames. However, there is a popular belief in modern astronomy that the wavelength can be changed by the choice of reference frame. This erroneous belief results in the problematic prediction of the radial speed of galaxy. The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. From both conservation properties, the velocity of the light is proved to be different in a different reference frame. This different velocity was confirmed by lunar laser ranging test at NASA in 2009. The relative motion between the light source and the light detector bears great similarity to the magnetic force on a moving charge. The motion changes the interference pattern but not the wavelength in the rest frame of the star. This is known as the blueshift or the redshift in astronomy. The speed of light in the rest frame of the grism determines how the spectrum is shifted. Wide Field Camera 3 in Hubble Space Telescope provides an excellent example on how the speed of light can change the spectrum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2435] viXra:1908.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-05 23:19:35

Error in Modern Astronomy

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 7 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The conservation of the interference pattern from double slit interference proves that the wavelength is conserved in all inertial reference frames. However, there is a popular belief in modern astronomy that the wavelength can be changed by the choice of reference frame. This erroneous belief results in the problematic prediction of the radial speed of galaxy. The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. From both conservation properties, the velocity of the light is proved to be different in a different reference frame. This different velocity was confirmed by lunar laser ranging test at NASA in 2009. The relative motion between the light source and the light detector bears great similarity to the magnetic force on a moving charge. The motion changes the interference pattern but not the wavelength in the rest frame of the star. This is known as the blueshift or the redshift in astronomy. The speed of light in the rest frame of the grism determines how the spectrum is shifted. Wide Field Camera 3 in Hubble Space Telescope provides an excellent example on how the speed of light can change the spectrum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2434] viXra:1908.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2019-08-01 15:29:05

Error in Modern Astronomy

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 7 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications

The conservation of the interference pattern from double slit interference proves that the wavelength is conserved in all inertial reference frames. However, there is a popular belief in modern astronomy that the wavelength can be changed by the choice of reference frame. This erroneous belief results in the problematic prediction of the radial speed of galaxy. The reflection symmetry shows that the elapsed time is conserved in all inertial reference frames. From both conservation properties, the velocity of the light is proved to be different in a different reference frame. This different velocity was confirmed by lunar laser ranging test at NASA in 2009. The relative motion between the light source and the light detector bears great similarity to the magnetic force on a moving charge. The motion changes the interference pattern but not the wavelength in the rest frame of the star. This is known as the blueshift or the redshift in astronomy. The speed of light in the rest frame of the grism determines how the spectrum is shifted. Wide Field Camera 3 in Hubble Space Telescope provides an excellent example on how the speed of light can change the spectrum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2433] viXra:1907.0585 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-31 03:08:38

Trigonometric Functions is there a Problem?

Authors: Ilija Barukcic
Comments: 8 pages. (C) Copyright 2019 by Ilija Barukcic, Jever, Germany. All rights reserved. Published by:

Trigonometry is an important part of mathematics. In general, a proper understanding of trigonometric functions is a pre-requisite for understanding important topics in physics, architecture, and many branches of engineering. We commonly suppose that the mathematics of trigonometric functions is perfectly true. However, trigonometric functions have a very long and colourful history and the need to take a more precise look on the same is great. This publication provides some evidence that there are circumstances where today understanding of trigonometric functions leads to contradictions. Keywords — Trigonometric functions, Classical logic, Contradiction
Category: Relativity and Cosmology