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Any replacements are listed further down

[2690] **viXra:1712.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 05:43:47*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Although Fresnel's ether drag coefficient was ad hoc, its curious confirmation by the Fizeau experiment forced physicists to accept and adopt it as the main guide in the development of theories of the speed of light. Lorentz's 'local-time' , which evolved into the Lorentz transformations, was developed to explain the Fizeau experiment and stellar aberration. Given the logical, theoretical and experimental counter-evidences against the theory of relativity today, it turns out that the Fresnel's drag coefficient may not exist at all. The Fizeau experiment and the phenomenon of stellar aberration have no common physical basis. The result of the Fizeau experiment can be explained in a simple, classical way. It is as if nature conspired to lead physicists astray for more than one century. Alternative theories and interpretations for the ether drift experiments and invariance of Maxwell's equations will be proposed. Physicists rightly assumed the invariance of Maxwell's equations, but their deeply flawed conception of light as ordinary local phenomenon led them unnecessarily to seek an 'explanation' for this invariance, which was the Lorentz transformation. Einstein went down the wrong path when he sought an 'explanation' for the light postulate, when none was needed. The invariance of Maxwell's equationsfor light is a direct consequence of non-existence of the ether and there is no explanation for it for the same reason that there is no explanation for light being a wave when there is no medium for its propagation. Constancy of phase velocity of light and rotation of the wave fronts for a moving observer, which are direct consequences of non-existence of light carrying medium, can explain the phenomenon of stellar aberration .The group velocity of light behaves in a conventional way: independent of source absolute velocity, but varying with observer absolute velocity. Light is a dual phenomenon: local and non-local. Light is a dual and quantum mechanical phenomenon. The paradoxes in classical electromagnetism, such as the moving magnet and conductor problem, arose due to incompleteness of classical electromagnetism and its wrong interpretation. The solutions to these paradoxes lay in unconventional and subtle, yet logical and natural, fundamental nature of light and electromagnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2689] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-10 00:42:00*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weugel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Two mandatory combinations from different constants gives the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, which is, apart a √2 factor, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. The square and the cube of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2688] **viXra:1712.0348 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 08:00:34*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 46 Pages. develops a Natario warp drive which encompasses accelerations

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter that will unavoidably occurs when a ship
travels at superluminal speeds and the problem of the
Horizons(causally disconnected portions of spacetime).The
geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are the required
ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in theory.However
both the Alcubierre or Natario warp drive spacetimes always have a
constant speed in the internal structure of their equations which
means to say that these warp drives always travel with a constant
speed.But a real warp drive must accelerate from zero to a
superluminal speed of about $200$ times faster than light in the
beginning of an interstellar journey and de-accelerate again to
zero in the end of the journey.In this work we expand the Natario
vector introducing the coordinate time as a new Canonical Basis
for the Hodge star and we introduce an extended Natario warp drive
equation which encompasses accelerations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2687] **viXra:1712.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 02:32:29*

**Authors:** Amir Ali Tavajoh

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Existence of Dark Matter is proved by the flat rotation curves which show the distribution of luminous matter and dark matter when we move from the De Vaucuoleur spheroid of galaxy to the farthest points from center of galaxy. The dark matter increases as we get far from it, on the contrary, the luminous matter decreases.
There are two types of Dark Matter: 1- Baryonic Dark Matter, 2- Non-baryonic Dark Matter;
The volunteers for elements of dark matter are as follows:
1. MACHO (known as Baryonic Dark Matter)
2. Neutrinos (based on OPERA experiment, it is more probable that Tau neutrinos would be the fundamentals of dark matter), these are candidates for Non-baryonic Dark Matter, Hot Dark Matter.
3. Neutralinos (Candidate for Cold Dark Matter)
4. WIMP (Candidate for Cold Dark Matter)
Dark energy and Dark Matter are making the universe accelerating in a way that the voids get totally empty and superclusters get heavier in the universe by pushing the galaxies located at the void to the superclusters.
The primordial universe was continuous and there was no void, but as time goes and the superclusters appeared, voids appeared as well and the universe turn out to be discrete.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2686] **viXra:1712.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 03:12:10*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A standing wave consists of two identical waves moving in opposite
direction. In a moving reference frame, this standing wave becomes a traveling wave.
Based on the principle of superposition, the wavelengths of these two opposing waves are shown to be identical in any inertial reference frame.
According to Doppler Effect, a moving wave detector will detect two different frequencies on these two waves.
Consequently, the wave
detector will detect different speeds from both waves due to the same
wavelength but different frequencies. The calculation of the speed of
the microwave in the standing wave is
demonstrated with the typical household microwave oven which emits
microwave of frequency range around 2.45 GHz and wavelength range
around 12.2 cm.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2685] **viXra:1712.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 11:40:08*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

At least three authors have proposed the concept of light as a traveling series of ‘matter waves.’ Such a concept does not require an ‘aether’ medium as does the more prevalent concept of light, if behaving as a wave, doing so analogous to other types of ‘disturbance waves,” such as sound or water. One author’s concept is examined mathematically for plausibility and, when found to be so, extended qualitatively to incorporate that of the other authors’ to at least what is hoped may be viewed as a reasonable extent.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2684] **viXra:1712.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 19:33:31*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

We present an example of a gravitational plane wave pulse incident on a finite mass where conservation of energy and momentum does not hold.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2683] **viXra:1712.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 17:57:25*

**Authors:** A. Hughmann

**Comments:** Pages.

Based on a quantitative assessment of the fundamental forces and constants, we demonstrate a solution to the Constant Speed of Light V's Variable Speed of Light question. The solution provides that all physical constants begin at a point of fundamental perfection, where their values can be described in the absolute simplest terms, requiring only the numbers 1, 2, 3, and 5 to do so. We subsequently demonstrate that by inserting a Mass Variable into the model, to account for the quantity of mass interacting with our locale of space, we can transform these perfect prime based constants, to attain predictive results that are on average 99.94% in agreement with CODATA values. We conclude that the speed of light is indeed variable, as is every other physical constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2682] **viXra:1712.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-02 03:01:50*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, a general spacetime transformation from biquaternion left and right multiplications is introduced. First, it is shown that the transformation leaves the spacetime length invariant. Furthermore, the Lorentz transformation is derived as a special case of the general biquaternion transformation. Surprisingly, some commutation and anticommutation properties generally found in quantum mechanics are manifested by the biquaternion transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2681] **viXra:1712.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 01:47:24*

**Authors:** Lluís Bel

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 2 figures

A restriction of the Boyer-Linquist model of the Kerr metric is considered that is globally hyperbolic on the space manifold R3 with the origin excluded, the quotient m/r being unrestricted. The model becomes in this process a generalization of Brillouin’s model, describing the gravitational ﬁeld of a rotating massive point particle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2680] **viXra:1712.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 03:27:16*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature are emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable. The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass and electric dipole moment of neutrino (as the first massive fermionic particle) are estimated. The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2679] **viXra:1711.0458 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-29 03:32:30*

**Authors:** Durgadas Datta.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Critical thinking and common sense.

Modern physics based on relativity theory requires re look . Some ideas can save time for all of us instead of harping on the same string.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2678] **viXra:1711.0455 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 10:20:15*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: There are at least two recent publications indicating that spinless tau leptonic matter-antimatter pairs can exist and are Nature's way of removing redundant H dark matter and top quark annihilation dark energy particles via spin-less neutrinos of several masses that are also dark and thus unobservable

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2677] **viXra:1711.0451 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 16:08:13*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Abstract. Simultaneity is a key concept in the special theory of relativity (STR), considering two reference frames moving relative to each other at constant speed, v. We introduce a new approach to simultaneity and its relation to clock readings and position. The two clocks at the origins play a crucial role. We synchronize these at time 0, and refer to this event as the ‘point of initiation’. From symmetry reasons, we conclude that these two clock readings –at least in some sense – represent simultaneity. The second element of our approach is a new version of the Lorentz transformation; where we in a new way combine the four (time, space) variables at a specific position, giving a state variable of two orthogonal components. The resulting description of simultaneity is well suited to analyse and conclude on the travelling twin case. Further, we provide a generalization; specifying a two dimensional time vector. The absolute value of the time vector specifies a measure of distance (in time) from the point of initiation. We utilise this distance to specify simultaneity of events related to the two reference frames; simultaneity corresponding to identical distances; i.e. time vectors having same absolute value (=‘total distance’). We can also give the time vector as a complex number, where the real part equals the clock reading at the relevant position.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2676] **viXra:1711.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 06:58:58*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Where standard physics runs into infinite challenges, atomism predicts exact limits. We summarize the mathematical results briefly in a table in this note and are also revisiting the energy momentum relationship based on this view.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2675] **viXra:1711.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 13:42:22*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 7 pages

In this study, it was hypothesized that speed cannot be indefinite, and must be bounded by a universal limit. This hypothesis was rigorously analyzed using thought experiment and mathematical deduction. A time and space transformation was deemed necessary for the hypothesis to seem viable. However, the transformation turned out to be inconsistent when obtained using different derivation approaches. Furthermore, the obtained transformation equations resulted in critical contradiction. Hence, the universal speed limit hypothesis was deemed false and rejected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2674] **viXra:1711.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 23:14:27*

**Authors:** Garen Karapetian

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This article reports a relation between Heliocentric velocities of galaxies vʘ and Luminosity distances dL: dL≈vʘ/H0+dL*vʘ/c.
Data of 3655 Ia type Supernovas from Open Supernova Catalog (https://sne.space/) with Heliocentric velocities v☉ between 240 and 142100 km/sec was utilized and shows accuracy about 3%.
The relation utilized for developing the distance calculation formula: dV=vʘ/(H0*(1-vʘ/c)).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2673] **viXra:1711.0418 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-26 05:33:37*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An explanation is provided for why different observers can see the same shape as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2672] **viXra:1711.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 10:29:12*

**Authors:** Karl De Paepe

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We show there are two colliding gravitational plane wave pulses that result in signals that travel faster than light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2671] **viXra:1711.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 02:31:50*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Many previous attempts have been undertaken to produce a singularity-free solution to the black hole problem. This effort included many “Bardeen black hole” models, as well as quantum mechanical, and string theory models. The present paper describes a new solution based on a relativistic extension of Newton-Galileo physics, termed Information Relativity theory. For a purely gravitational, spherical black hole, the theory yields a black hole radius that equals the Schwarzschild radius, but without an interior singularity. Moreover, for a typical galaxy with a supermassive black hole residing at its center, the model produces a simple expression for the galaxy's dynamics in its dependence on redshift. According to the emerging dynamics, a galaxy's supermassive black hole is part of a binary system, together with a naked singularity at redshift z = 2 -1/2 ≈ 0.707, suspected to be a quasar with extreme velocity offsets or an active galactic nucleus (AGN). Another redshift, z ≈ 2.078, is also predicted to be associated with quasars and AGNs. The derived results are contrasted with observational data and with a recent ΛCDM model. Taken together, the produced galaxy dynamics and the aforementioned results could shed some light on the role of supermassive black holes in the evolution of the galaxies in which they reside.
The success of Information Relativity in reproducing the Schwarzschild radius of black holes, together with previous successful predictions of the phenomena of light bending, gravitational redshift, dark matter, and dark energy, attest the possibility of constructing a simple cosmology, based only on physical variables, without the notion of space time and its geodesics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2670] **viXra:1711.0408 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-25 05:58:47*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We are describing a new and potentially important paradox related to Einstein’s theories of special relativity and relativity of simultaneity.1 We fully agree on all of the mathematical derivations in Ein- stein’s special relativity theory and his result of relativity of simultaneity when using Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronized clocks. The paradox introduced shows that Einstein’s special relativity theory leads to a motion paradox, where a train moving relative to the ground (and the ground moving relative to the train) must stand still and be moving at the same time. We will see that one reference frame will claim that the train is moving and that the other reference frame must claim that the train is standing still in the time window “between” two distant events. This goes against common sense and logic. However, looking back at the history of relativity theory, even time dilation was going against common sense and a series of academics attempted to refute it.2 Still, based on this new paradox we have to ask ourselves if the world really can be that bizarre, or if Einstein’s special relativity could be incomplete in some way? We are not going to give an answer to the second question in this paper, but we will simply present the new paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2669] **viXra:1711.0406 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 12:24:26*

**Authors:** Igore Elkin

**Comments:** 10 Pages. -

The theory of Einstein's gravity actually gives only a change in the metric. This change, when using the principle of least action, leads to a convergence of material massive bodies. This is perceived as a gravitational interaction. In fact, the principle of least action can not force bodies to move, but only describes their motion. That is, there is an interaction that forces the bodies to move according to the principle of least action. That is, Einstein's theory is far from describing the gravitational interaction. The reason for the appearance of this interaction is written here and the basis of this interaction is the electrical interaction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2668] **viXra:1711.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 13:51:43*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A simple, parameter-free conformal approach to gravity is presented based on the the square of the quadratic Ricci scalar R alone. It is shown that when R is a non-zero constant, the associated action is fully conformal and leads to the usual equations of motion associated with the standard Einstein-Hilbert action. To demonstrate the approach, we derive the Schwarzschild metric, the field of a charged particle and the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2667] **viXra:1711.0400 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 22:34:13*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Given the near universality of the Benford/Newcomb Law of First Digits, and the ubiquity of fractal self-similarity observed throughout nature from the smallest to largest scales, it is argued that nature’s most fundamental geometry may be conformal geometry, which is universally present in full, partial, and discrete/broken forms. As a consequence, the assumption of absolute scale may apply only in restricted contexts, whereas relative scale may be the more dominant principle for the cosmos as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2666] **viXra:1711.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-24 04:56:28*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The unified theory of dynamic space describes the first force of Nature
as the Universal antigravity one, because of which the galaxies follow an accelerated
centrifugal motion. Therefore, what the great astronomer Edwin Hubble observed is
not due to the Universe expansion as a result of the Big Bang, but to the relative
motion of galaxies and their centrifugal antigravity motion. The Cosmic journey of the
matter (the galaxies) takes place at the constant timeless speed towards the Universe
periphery, while the smallest Pythagorean Triple (3, 4, 5) reveals the harmony of
Universal antigravity motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2665] **viXra:1711.0390 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-22 16:34:54*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the Experiment conducted at temperature 5.8Kelvin by scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optic they got the following measure for the charge radius of proton: 0,8335(95)fm. We deduce that the ether is function of temperature
See Vixra: 1711.0299, 1711.0362 Relativity and Cosmology; Vixra: 1711.0334 Nuclear and Atomic Physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2664] **viXra:1711.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 04:51:16*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 87 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“The Gravitons are faster than light”
Adrian Ferent
“The gravitational redshift is the proof that the gravitons are faster than light”
Adrian Ferent
Because:
“The gravitons emitted after the photons are emitted, will not interact with the photons if they have only the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who explained the gravitational redshift”
Adrian Ferent
Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction:
E = h × f + a × f - a × ν
where - a × ν is the negative energy of the graviton
ν is the frequency of the interaction graviton
This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right.
Only my Gravitation theory explains the gravitational redshift.
Another proof that the gravitons must be faster than light:
I am the first who understood and explained that gravitons with the speed of light are too slow to keep constellations together.
“If gravitons have only the speed of light will not be able to keep constellations together.“
A graviton needs less then one second to travel between stars located within 10 light-years.
Another proof that the gravitons must be faster than light:
If the gravitons have only the speed of light, the light, the electromagnetic waves, the photons can escape from a black hole.
This means the gravitons must be faster than light.
You learned from your professors that nothing can travel faster than light; I explained that the gravitons are faster than light.
This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right and Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong.
This is another proof that LIGO is a fraud, because gravitational waves are faster than light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2663] **viXra:1711.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 10:14:31*

**Authors:** A.V. Antipin

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ЭТО СТАТЬЯ НА РУССКОМ ЯЗЫКЕ.

Замечания к идее ВАРП двигателя. А.Антипин a1_mail@inbox.ru
В работе приведены общие соображения, которые показывают, что ВАРП устройства не смогут обеспечить ожидаемой сверхсветовой скорости перемещения объектов. Реальная скорость перемещения объектов с помощью ВАРП не превысит (с/2), т.е. ПОЛОВИНЫ скорости света.
=========
Comments to the idea of a WARP drive Antipin Alexandr Veniaminovich a1_mail@inbox.ru
The paper presents general considerations, that show that the WARP devices will not be able to provide the expected superluminal velocity of moving objects. The actual speed of the moving objects using WARP will not exceed (c/2), i.e. HALF the speed of light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2662] **viXra:1711.0376 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-20 10:34:35*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It is shown that a precise characterization of the class of pfs is out of grasp. Moreover, the problem is totally useless physically.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2661] **viXra:1711.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 12:35:51*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this short note we are looking into a few interesting details about relativistic kinetic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2660] **viXra:1711.0362 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 17:33:57*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the theory "The Proton Charge radius of Muonic-Hydrogen (Vixra:1711.0229;Author: Piscedda Giampaolo; Category: Relativity and Cosmology) we have deduced the existence of ether and explaining why Michelson-Morley's experiment failed. So, the concept of ether allows us to calculate the Proton Charge radius of Muonic-Hydrogen: 0,840935•10^(-15) meters (Vixra:1711.0229) and the Charge radius of Muonic-Deuterium:2.12567•10^(-15)meters (Vixra:1711.0333; Author: Piscedda Giampaolo; Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2659] **viXra:1711.0354 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 03:04:27*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two inertial reference frames moving at identical velocity can be
seperated if one of them
is put under acceleration for a duration. The coordinates of both
inertial reference frames are
related by this acceleration and its duration. An immediate property of
such coordinate transformation is the conservation of distance and length across reference frames. Therefore, the concept of
length contraction from Special Relativity is impossible in
reality and physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2658] **viXra:1711.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-19 07:15:39*

**Authors:** Alama Ekabal Ansari

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Time dilation is a well-known phenomenon for special theory of relativity and general relativity theory.
The present technology is not advanced enough to implement these theories practically.
Time dilation is a difference of elapsed time between two events as measured by observers either moving relative to each other or differently situated from a gravitational mass. The time dilation is caused by differences in either gravity or relative speed. The time dilation is explained by working of two clocks reporting different times for different speed According to Einstein relativity (E=mc2), we know that an object with a non- zero rest mass cannot achieve the speed of light. According to relativistic theory, as the speed of the object increases, effective mass of the object also increases. The increase in effective mass makes more difficult to accelerate the object. Hence, more energy is required to increase the speed of the object.
Achieving the speed of light for the object, the effective mass become almost infinite. Hence, lot of energy is required to accelerate the object with the speed of light.
There is no such technology developed as on date through which speed of light can be achieved without consuming humongous energy.
Therefore, there is a need to provide a system which can overcome the limitation of existing technology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2657] **viXra:1711.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-17 10:47:28*

**Authors:** Edigles Guedes

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We derive the element of spatial distance in terms
of the time coordinate and a new tensor related to the Kronecker delta.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2656] **viXra:1711.0325 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 11:04:24*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: Using simple methods of analysis I conclude that our present broken E8 symmetry epoch without antimatter means that Majorana neutrinos cannot exist: this results, however, in neutrinos having masses and small electric charges of 3 different amounts. The charges probably aid in neutrino detection. Masses of the leptons are derived.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2655] **viXra:1711.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-15 13:57:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Theories of gravity are incomplete when we neglect quantum phenomena and the internal structure of spacetime described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST shows that the grainy two-component spacetime is a mix of non-locality and locality that leads to a conceptual error about gravitational waves, to different theories of gravitation and to the matter-antimatter asymmetry. Within the General Theory of Relativity (GR) we can not justify whether the metric is local or non-local. Here we described a conceptual error in obtaining the local (speed = c = 299,792,458 m/s) wave-like solutions by solving the non-local/superluminal vacuum field equations of general relativity - we express the opinion that non-locality cannot lead directly to locality. SST, which is the lacking fundamental part of Theory of Everything, shows that spacetime is a mixture of two fields i.e. of the Higgs field (it is non-gravitating, imaginary, non-local and geodesic/metric) and of the Einstein spacetime (it is gravitating, real, local, dynamical and practically-flat/non-geodesic i.e. the total energy-momentum crossing the hypersurface vanishes). Such structure of spacetime causes that there are different theories of gravitation, for example, the GR, which binds the curvature of the non-local Higgs field with the local energy-momentum tensor, the YARK theory, which binds the local Einstein spacetime (ES) with the energy-momentum tensor or the SST which shows the origin of gravitation. Within GR it is easier to describe the non-local phenomena in spacetime (for example, the Kasner solutions describe such phenomena) whereas within YARK theory it is easier to describe the local phenomena in spacetime such as dark energy or “gravitational waves” discovered by LIGO-Virgo Collaborations (which, in reality, are the flows in ES) or the observed energy dependence of gravitational bending which is incomprehensible within the framework of GR. SST shows that we should observe the same speed of propagation of both the “gravitational waves” and electromagnetic waves - there should be high correlation between their intensity for active binary systems of neutron stars or neutron “black holes”. The matter-antimatter asymmetry follows from infinitesimal imaginary spin of the Higgs-field components so we must use SST to solve the problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2654] **viXra:1711.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 19:18:11*

**Authors:** Piscedda Giampaolo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

From Einstein's theory of general relativity we can calculate the proton radius of muonic-hydrogen.
The value obtain is 0,840935×10^(-15) meter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2653] **viXra:1711.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-13 03:24:40*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A lot has been philosophized and written about the phenomenon ‘time dilation’. This article shows the consequences applying this phenomenon to a photon, traveling with velocity c, relative to whichever observer, as the Special Theory of Relativity prescribes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2652] **viXra:1711.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-07 04:48:43*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** Pages.

In this paper a more detailed consideration in framework of the “The
Information as Absolute” conception of the Space and Time problems “is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2651] **viXra:1711.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 04:15:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This paper reports on the large round trip time variations observed in the Shapiro delay experiments, as reported by Bryan G Wallace , whose claim will be confirmed according to Apparent Source Theory. The 'anomalous' variations in the measured round trip time could be larger than the reported gravitational time dilation effect, typically by a factor of about five to ten. Such large anomalous variations in the round trip time that could be attributed to either the ether theory or the emission theory may have been discarded from the raw data to arrive at the relativistic prediction. The argument in this paper is that Apparent Source Theory predicts that there must have been large variations in the round trip time in the Shapiro delay experiments. And this claim is supported by the reports of Bryan G Wallace. All this casts doubts on the integrity of the experimenters. Therefore, not only did they discard data showing large variations in round trip time, they must also have manipulated the remaining data in order to 'prove' gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2650] **viXra:1711.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-06 07:02:12*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the knowable Universe"

This paper represents the third essay of the "Trilogy on the Knowable Universe". Here a scientific hypothesis on the origin of the Universe is presented and that hypothesis is described through a succession of stages, in concordance with the Theory of Reference Frames. According to this interpretation the Universe isn't a closed and finite system, as it considered in present prevailing models. The Universe, here supposed, is an unlimited system whose origin is characterized by numerous nanobigbangs in the order of a series of subsequent stages rather than by an unique central explosive bigbang. Because the experimental science can give reliable answers to all questions unless the first question on the origin of the Universe and the last question on its final future, the interpretation of this essay on the origin of the Universe is only a scientific hypothesis that doesn't pretend to represent the truth on the origin of the Universe. Besides this hypothesis is in conflict neither with the religious narration of the Genesis nor with the philosophical speculation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2649] **viXra:1711.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 20:46:41*

**Authors:** Jose P. Koshy

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Submitted to MNRAS, but rejected on the basis that the theory behind speed-dependent gravity is not well explained. However, explaining that part in detail renders it unsuitable for MINRAS.

The alternate model put forth in my previous papers visualize that gravity is finite and G depends on the square of the speed. A higher G implies that less matter is required in galaxies for satisfying Kepler's laws of orbiting motion. A finite gravity implies that distance between bodies depend on mass, and so the distribution of bodies in galaxies is nearly uniform; this in turn gives flat rotation curves. The gravitational lensing maps of Bullet Cluster is in perfect agreement with speed-dependent gravity. Speed-dependent gravity thus resolves the anomaly of missing matter, and completely rules out the existence of any dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2648] **viXra:1711.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-05 07:51:23*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As Haug has shown in a long series of papers, Newton's gravitational constant is almost for sure a composite constant. What is this exotic animal that is meters cubed divided by kg and seconds squared? It is difficult to get any intuition from the gravitational constant alone, except from understanding that it is a constant we can measure empirically and use to get Newton's formula to match actual observations. Newton's gravitational constant is a composite constant that consists of the more fundamental constants.
This means we also can rewrite Einstein's constant in a more intuitive form where it becomes independent of big G.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2647] **viXra:1711.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-04 23:37:12*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A black hole model is proposed in which a neutron star is
surrounded by a neutral gas of electrons and positrons. The gas is in a completely degenerate quantum state and does not radiate. The pressure and density in the gas are found to be much less than those in the neutron star. The radius of the black hole is far greater than the Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2646] **viXra:1711.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-03 01:03:01*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the century since Einstein's general relativity we have translated all of our solutions for relativity and quantum mechanics back into clock time, despite that dimension being too limited and too localised to describe those relationships. If we accept that clock time can have a natural complex conjugate, we can resolve quantum mechanics by appreciating the photon as a quantum without extension in its own time. We can then unify gravity and inertia with electromagnetic action, without paradox, in a Machian universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2645] **viXra:1711.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 13:03:12*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Using fourth order polynomial in the mass of the higgs boson, to interpolate basic properties, including the possible modification of one of the DM models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2644] **viXra:1711.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-02 06:21:17*

**Authors:** William Q Sumner

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Vacuum permittivity is the scalar in Maxwell’s equations that determines the speed of light and the strength of electrical fields. In 1907 Albert Einstein found that vacuum permittivity changes with gravity. Møller, Landau & Lifshitz, and Sumner found that it changes with spacetime curvature.
The wavelengths of both photons and atomic emissions decrease with vacuum permittivity but the photons emitted from atoms decrease more than photons themselves do. This changes the interpretation of gravitational redshift to one where blueshifted photons are compared to greater blueshifted atomic emissions.
For Schwarzschild geometry, redshifts can be calculated most accurately using the metric. The equation derived using time dilation and the one derived here are identical. Their weak field approximation is the same as the redshift derivation using special relativity with Doppler shift.
For Friedmann geometry, redshifts calculated by comparing blueshifted atomic emissions to those of photons flips the meaning of Hubble redshift. The universe is accelerating in collapse, a result confirmed by supernova redshift observations. The equations and logic used for Friedmann and Schwarzschild redshifts are identical. Only their vacuum permittivities are different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2643] **viXra:1711.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 06:58:44*

**Authors:** leo Vuijk

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

According to Einstein’s relativity theory, the speed of light is supposed to be the same for every observer in all reference frames.
However, there seem to be incidental differences in the lightspeed if we observe the outliers of GPS satellite to CHAMP satellite distance measurements of 180m.
At the same time in the literature I found tiny structural but characteristic unexplained irregularities in Planetary radar-pulse reflection measurements, made by I.I. Shapiro in 1964, between the Earth and Venus.
Both observations support the idea of the existence of ellipsoidal lightspeed extinction (or vacuum adaptation) volumes around massive objects like the earth. Such a volume I will call LASOF or Local Asymmetric Oscillating Vacuum Frame.
Other historic lightspeed experiments support the idea that all objects with mass are equipped with some extinction volume.
As a consequence I propose new triangular trajectory lightspeed comparison experiments between the earth and dual satellites or dual balloons and even in the laboratory to support these lightspeed extinction and adaptation ideas.
Future GRACE / LISA satellite experiment should serve as alternative for the Michelson Morley ether wind experiment, reduced by Earth lightspeed frame dragging of the Local Asymmetric Oscillating vacuum Frame (LASOF) according to Q-FFF theory.
Observing Up and down ether wind differences of the light speed between two Grace satellites by earth motion around the sun as alternative for Michelson Morley experiment.
No lightspeed differences should be measured to or from the earth direction due to gravity drag effect.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2642] **viXra:1711.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-01 10:17:49*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. The original ideas

The special theory of relativity formula for the photon Doppler
effect is applied to the frequency of the RLC circuit moving
vith velocity v relativly to the rest system. The relativistic
transformation of the RLC circuit components is derived in
case the components are all in series with the voltage source
(R−L−C−v). The generalization to the more complex situation
was not considered. It is not excluded that the article is the
preamble for the future investigation of electronic physics and will
be integral part of such instituions as Bell Laboratories, NASA,
CERN and so on.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2641] **viXra:1710.0350 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 01:40:16*

**Authors:** Saksith Jaksri

**Comments:** 87 Pages.

We study theory of modified gravity, namely disformal gravity, which is con-
structed from disformal metric. We derive the action for disformal gravity from general
purely disformal transformation. Then we find the equations of motion for the back-
ground universe and find that the disformal gravity does not provide the kinetic driven
for cosmic acceleration as usually expected from Galilean-like theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2640] **viXra:1710.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 11:12:22*

**Authors:** Walter Orlov

**Comments:** 10 Pages. In German

Hidden uncertainty in gravitational wave detection. There are two basic problems that call into question the validity of direct gravitational wave detection: 1. The strain data of the gravitational wave detectors contain the chirp-like signals in abundance. 2. The data processing procedure reduces relativistic templates to a fraction. But this remnant can have countless curves as a template. In this way, the assignment of the signal to the theoretical model disappears.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2639] **viXra:1710.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 14:36:19*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: The fine-strucure dimensionless constant alpha (1/137.035999139) has long been a mystery in physics. It now appears to be related to dark energy and the radius of the universe at age 13.5 billion years (scheduled collapse age of the 9th cyclic universe which did not happen) according to holographic cyclic E8 symmetric universe theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2638] **viXra:1710.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-31 15:33:27*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Modern physicists do not really know exactly what the Planck length or the Planck mass, or the Planck second represent. They also do not know precisely how to incorporate it into the framework of modern physics. However, many physicists assume that the Planck second must be the shortest time interval possible. This lead to an interesting paradox. Nothing with rest-mass can undergo Planck acceleration, even for one Planck second. This because no object with rest- mass can travel at the speed of light, since this would require an infinite amount of energy, as first pointed out by Einstein. So does this mean the Planck acceleration is meaningless, or merely fiction?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2637] **viXra:1710.0319 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-27 07:35:04*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 26 Pages. This article is the Author's invited contribution (a chapter) to a new book. No copyright limitations.

The key to the stars and the basis for big bang cosmology is thermal emission, not the kinetic theory of gases or Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, although the latter employs thermal emission in the form given by Kirchhoff and Planck. Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission is fundamental to astronomy and much of physics, including quantum mechanics. Via Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission, Max Planck introduced the quantum of action in developing his equation for blackbody spectra. From Kirchhoff's Law Planck's equation acquired universality and Planck's mystical absolute units. Without Kirchhoff's Law and universality of Planck's equation, astronomy and cosmology completely collapse. Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Emission is certainly false, as the clinical existence of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) proves. Consequently Planck's equation is not universal, Planck's absolute units have no special character, and astronomy and cosmology lose their foundations entirely.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2636] **viXra:1710.0315 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 02:03:32*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 1 Page.

here Is No Need for Big G in Einstein’s Field Equation! Newton Swapped with Max Planck,

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2635] **viXra:1710.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-29 05:57:53*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this work, we present in more details the formulation of Euclidean relativity. We show that even though there are profound differences between Einstein special relativity and Euclidean special relativity, general relativity with both pseudo-Euclidean metric and Euclidean metric have many common features. For example, both forms of metric can be used to describe the precession of planetary orbits around a gravitational mass and the cosmological evolution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2634] **viXra:1710.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-25 00:47:59*

**Authors:** Sunil Thakur

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The theory of relativity’s concept o motion suggests that every observer must assume that his own frame of reference is always at rest; therefore, he must ascertain the state of the motion of all other entities in relation to his own frame of reference. In this article, we have shown that for every entity its own frame of reference actually behaves as if it is in the state of the absolute rest. Therefore, the motion of an entity has to be ascertained in relation to its own frame of reference. Thus, we have made only a slight but very significant change in the proposal of the theory of relativity. Our proposal is based on actual observations of how things behave.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2633] **viXra:1710.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 17:49:56*

**Authors:** Ziaedin Shafiei

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The idea of time dilation was initially proposed by Einstein in 1905 as one component/consequence of the theory of special relativity (SR). Based on a thought, not real, experiment it maintains that a light clock which is moving away from an observer with a constant speed, goes slower in comparison with a stationary clock. This slower tick is imagined in a clock which is positioned so that the direction of light movement within the clock at rest is perpendicular to the direction of the relative movement of the clock, φ=90⁰.
It is shown in [2] that the idea of length contraction and time dilation is not supported by Michelson and Morley (M&M) experiment. It is argued further here that the thought experiment did not try, for no obvious reason, to test the clock function in any other angles, i.e. φ<90⁰. It is shown that if the clock so positioned that φ<90⁰ not only the clock on average goes even more slower but also the ticks become irregular. One tick is slower and the following one is faster than the tick of the stationary clock. This irregularity is worse when φ=0⁰. The first problem can be corrected by another component of SR, namely, length contraction. However, irregular ticks are left untouched by the theory.
Also, in SR the tick of the clock is studied when it only moves away from the observer. Moreover, no associated time delay is considered in the tick. It is shown that a related time delay or time advance must be considered in the ticks when the clock moves away from or returns to the observer, respectively. Time dilation, thus, was proposed based on incomplete analysis of one thought experiment and not all-inclusive analysis of real experiments necessary for developing a scientific theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2632] **viXra:1710.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 05:39:32*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** Pages.

Space-Time Doesn't Have A Surface To Ripple

The "fabric of space" cannot ripple like they say.

If you have 2 bowling balls on the surface of swimming pool water and attach them together and spin them -- yes, they will create the sine wave traveling ripple.

But if the bowling balls are underwater -- completely immersed in the water -- the traveling "ripple" will NOT be able to propagate (happen) and it will immediately fizz-out. There is no mechanism to keep the up and down movement going whilst under water.

Black holes and or neutron stars are also completely immersed in space-time. Space time is filling space -- everything is completely immersed in it.

Gravitational waves cannot be transverse ripples like those on top of water.

One type of wave that a gravitational wave can be is a compression type wave -- like sound.

The funny thing is: even though they designed the detector for the wrong type of wave -- the detector can detect the other type -- the compression wave..

A compression would be easily detected by LIGO

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2631] **viXra:1710.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 06:15:08*

**Authors:** Vu B Ho

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this work we discuss the motion of quantum particles when they are viewed as three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds by extending the isometric transformations in classical physics to the isometric embedding between smooth manifolds. According to the Whitney embedding theorem, in order to smoothly embed three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds we would need an ambient six-dimensional Euclidean space. As has been shown in our previous works, a six-dimensional Minkowski pseudo-Euclidean spacetime can be obtained by extending one-dimensional temporal continuum to three-dimensional temporal manifold. While the question of whether it is possible to smoothly embed three-dimensional Riemannian manifolds in six-dimensional pseudo-Euclidean spacetime remains, we will show that it is possible to apply the principle of relativity and the postulate of a universal speed to formulate a special theory of relativity in which the geometry of spacetime has a positive definite metric by modifying the Lorentz transformation. The modified Lorentz transformation gives rise to new interesting features, such as there is no upper limit for the relative speed between inertial reference frames, the assumed universal speed is not the speed of any physical object or physical field but rather the common speed of expansion of the spatial space of all inertial frames. Furthermore, we also show that when the relative speed approaches infinite values, there will be a conversion between space and time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2630] **viXra:1710.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 09:46:21*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A simple estimate is presented that raises doubts whether the new and spectacular observations of
gravitational waves by the LIGO collaboration can be attributed unambiguously to black-hole mergers.
In addition, with the advent of the VIRGO detector running, a test of the polarization character of
gravitational waves has become possible and a corresponding analysis of the data should be envisaged.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2629] **viXra:1710.0250 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-22 13:20:05*

**Authors:** Jalal Jafari

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this article, we will state equivalency of time space and energy on basis of vector attribution of time and space, special relativity principle, and electrodynamics. Also, we will state the relation of electromagnetic radiation which has emerged from acceleration of charged particle as a result of change in time and space orthogonality. We will indicate that acceleration of charged particle makes places with equal energy and these places have equal angles in time and space direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2628] **viXra:1710.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 05:54:38*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 13 Pages. What is Charge, from what does it arise and, if discrete, why?

In the paper „ Physics is easy“ we showed, that leptons ( electron, muon, tau ), W + - Z bosons and neutrinos ( electron neutrino, muon neutrino, tau neutrino) can be replaced with electron moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c . Similarly hyperons, mesons and quarks can be replaced by proton and neutron (or alpha particle respectively ) moving at different speeds from 0.1c up to 0.999.. c .
While, the neutron is composed of proton and electron orbiting around it.
Thus, all particles, which are currently known, can be replaced by the various fast moving electron or proton. Electron and proton are the only stable fundamental elementary particles.
We show, that neutron is source β rays - β electrons ( bosons Zo, W+- too) , γ rays, electron neutrinos, muon neutrinos, tauon neutrinos.
The hole is making with cocoon cloud and has a negative charge, such as electron - Spherical electron cocoon or an electron cloud has 4.57e + 14 electron orbits during 1 sec in the hydrogen atom for H alpha, and occupies a volume 2.7e-30m^3/s.
The hole is making with cocoon cloud and has a negative charge, such as electron
in neutron - Spherical electron cocoon or an electron cloud has 1,944e+25 electron orbits during 1 sec
Electron in neutron works analogically as electron in atom H.
Only their speeds are many times bigger.
Speed of electron in neutron: 0,999994c
Speed of electron in atom H: afnucleum: v/c = 0.0027212435663
perinucleum: v/c = 0.0027270653746
for Spectral line Hα 656.281 + - 1.4 nm
Speed of proton in neutron: 0,023337c
Speed of proton in atom : 0.0000636c
proton orbits around the center-of-mass with speedspeed 0,023337c,
and radiates γ ray.
In the "stable" neutron, electron orbits around the center-of-mass with speed greater than 0,999994c.
Proton is compact mass not making cocoon cloud.
The hole is making with cocoon cloud and has a negative charge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2627] **viXra:1710.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-17 16:05:16*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

In GNSS, the improvement of atomic clocks will lead to Phi/c^2 in relativistic gravitational redshift three to four decades from today. Research towards a relativistic positioning system capable of handling this expected accuracy is all based upon the Schwarzschild metric as a replacement of todays GNSS Euclidian-Newtonian metric. The method employed in this paper to determining frequency shifts between atomic clocks is an intermediate Minkowski-EEP approach. This approach is based on relating two atomic clocks to one another through a background ensemble of frequency gauged clocks, a grid. The crucial grid of this paper, the Free Fall Grid or FFG, can be related to the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild P-CP Weyl space formalism, when applied to a central mass. The FFG second order in Phi/c^2 redshifts are derived for static to static, static to satellite and satellite to satellite atomic oscillators and then compared to GR-Schwarzschild and PPN (Parametrized Post Newtonian) results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2626] **viXra:1710.0160 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-15 00:16:04*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A little over 4 centuries ago, Galileo concluded - and possibly confirmed by experiment - that different weights hit the ground at the same time when dropped from a height (discounting air resistance). This agrees with Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity; which proposes that gravity is the curvature of space-time pushing objects towards, say, the surface of a planet. It says this curvature acts equally on all bodies, making massive and less massive ones fall at equal rates. However, Einstein published a paper in 1919 (four years after General Relativity) asking if gravitation plays an essential role in formation of matter's particles. If it does, there would be more gravity acting on a massive body and it would fall slightly faster. The rate at which different objects fall is the subject of a French-backed space experiment called Microscope. Einstein's 1919 paper did more than suggest limitations of his general relativity. It seems to have been the launching pad for his Unified Field Theory; which occupied the last 30 years of his life, sought to unite gravitation with electromagnetism, and proposed that this unified field connected all parts of time and space. While the unified field theory is generally considered a failure, my own conviction is that it could transform into a world-changing success through the application of quantum mechanics, something Einstein didn't approve of because he regarded it as incomplete.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2625] **viXra:1710.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 03:22:03*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In order to explain the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein denied the existence of the absolute reference frame. It will be shown that all Einstein did was replace the absolute reference frame with another preferred reference frame: the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley apparatus. According to the Special Theory of Relativity (SRT ) , there is no preferred reference frame and all inertial reference frames are equivalent in predicting and analyzing the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. No reference frame, including the rest frame of the experiment, has any special significance different from other reference frames. It will be shown that the SRT analysis of the experiment violates this principle. This is because all other inertial observers moving relative to the Michelson-Morley apparatus do not know the outcome of the experiment until they get the experimental result of the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus. Only then can they use the Lorentz Transformation equations to ‘predict’ the outcome of the experiment in their own reference frames. If all inertial reference frames are really equivalent, why not first analyze the experiment in one of the reference frames moving relative to the apparatus, in which case there will be a fringe shift δ, and use Lorentz Transformation so that all other observers ( including the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus ) agree on the same fringe shift δ. The Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) is just another form of Lorentz ether theory ( LET): both depend on a preferred reference frame. In LET the ether is the preferred reference frame, while in SRT the rest frame of the experimental apparatus is the preferred reference frame. SRT only shifted the privilege of deciding the outcome of the experiment from the absolute reference frame to the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley experiment. The same hidden fallacy exists in the SRT analysis of the Trouton-Noble experiment. An alternative theory of absolute motion and the speed of light will be proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2624] **viXra:1710.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 06:26:01*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper explains some aspects of relativity and added some new inventions

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2623] **viXra:1710.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-14 06:53:15*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper tries a new attempt to space travel at higher speeds

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2622] **viXra:1710.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-13 09:28:00*

**Authors:** Mihir Kumar jha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Theory of everything (T.O.E), final theory or ultimate theory is a theoretical framework in the field of
physics, which holds an ultimate key to unify all the fundamental forces of nature in a single field. In other words
such theory can glue quantum mechanics with general relativity into a single framework. Many theories have been
postulated over the decades but the dominant one includes string theory and loop quantum gravity. In this paper I
would like to present a new framework which can unify quantum mechanics with general relativity by showing that
the change in Riemannian metric or the bend in space time is always an integral multiple of planks constant and
since gravity is the result due to bend in space-time, gravity itself is a discrete force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2621] **viXra:1710.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-11 02:54:20*

**Authors:** Eran sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The arrow of time is the "one-way direction" or "asymmetry" of time. The
thermodynamic arrow of time is provided by the Second Law of Thermodynamics,
which says that in an isolated system, entropy tends to increase with time
(Wikipedia).
Nevertheless, this asymmetry of time is not intuitive based on the Einstein’s field
equations that relate to space and time as one entity. Since space is symmetrical to
all directions time is also expected to be a “two way direction”.
Based on Einstein’s field equations mass curves space time and curvature of spacetime
is actually what Newtonian physics refer to as potential energy or the
gravitational field.
Two major questions can arise from this field equation interpretation:
1. Mass m, has a well-defined inherent energy based on Einstein’s special
relativity equation, =
2
.The mass curves space-time and this curvature
adds potential energy to its surrounding based on Einstein’s field equations.
What is the source of this added potential energy?
2. Since space-time is considered as a unified description and since space is
symmetric to all directions, we expect that time should flow symmetrically
both to the future and to the past. We know that this is not the case and time
flows only towards the future.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2620] **viXra:1710.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 07:08:24*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Moving Magnet Conductor problem is the problem of 'coincidence' of the effect of magnetic field in the reference frame of the magnet and the effect of electric field in the reference frame of the conductor, the effect being a definite current flowing in the conductor, for a magnet and a conductor in relative motion. In this paper, we will show that this problem will not lead to the theory of relativity, i.e. to the conclusion that absolute motion doesn't exist. This 'coincidence' occurs only in the special case in which at least one of the two ( either the magnet or the conductor ) is at absolute rest and hence is only a special case. In general, the magnet and the conductor can have a relative motion while having a common absolute motion. This is the case, for example, of a magnet - conductor experiment carried out on Earth, which has an absolute velocity of 390 Km/s . In such cases, the motion of the magnet and the motion of the conductor will have different effects even if the relative velocities are the same. We will apply Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) to this problem. In the case of light, the effect of absolute motion for co-moving light source and observer is to create an apparent change in position of the light source relative to the observer. Therefore, no fringe shift will occur in the Michelson-Morley experiment due to an apparent change of source position for the same reason that no (significant ) fringe shift will occur if the position of the source was actually, physically changed relative to the detector. Intuitively, AST can be stated as: the speed of light is equal to c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction, relative to the source, for a source moving with absolute velocity Vabs. This theory readily explains the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST applies not only to light sources, but also to all electromagnetic sources: sources of electric fields ( charges ) , sources of magnetic fields ( magnets or electromagnets ) and sources of gravitational fields. Therefore, for absolutely co-moving magnet and (infinitesimal) conductor, the effect of absolute velocity is to create an apparent change in position of the magnet as seen by the conductor. The procedure of analysis is to replace the real magnet with an apparent magnet and analyze the problem as if both the apparent magnet and the conductor are at rest. There will not be any current induced in the conductor because the conductor is not moving relative to the magnet ( hence relative to the apparent magnet ). Since the conductor is at rest relative to the magnet, it is also at rest relative to the apparent magnet and hence no current will be induced in the conductor. There will be no induced current in this case for the same reason that there will be no induced current in the case of magnet and conductor both at absolute rest. An intuitive way of stating the same theory is to assume that the magnetic field is carried by the real magnet, but will be distorted due to absolute motion. Therefore, absolute motion of a magnet can be detected by a co-moving observer from the distortion of its field. The magnetic field of a magnet moving with absolute velocity will become weaker in front of the magnet and stronger behind the magnet. The electric field of a charge in absolute motion will become weaker in front of the charge and stronger behind the charge.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2619] **viXra:1710.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-09 13:47:33*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 18 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

W artykule wyprowadzona została uogólniona transformacja Galileusza. Uzyskana transformacja jest podstawą wyprowadzenia nowej teorii fizycznej, którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru.
Uogólnioną transformację Galileusza można wyrazić od prędkości względnych (26)-(27) lub od parametru delta(v) (37)-(38). Na postawie wniosków wynikających z eksperymentu Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a wyznaczony został parametr delta(v). Dzięki temu transformacja przyjmuje szczególną postać (80)-(81), która jest zgodna z eksperymentami, w których mierzono prędkość światła.
Na podstawie otrzymanej transformacji wyznaczone zostały wzory na sumowanie prędkości oraz prędkość względną.
Cały artykuł zawiera tylko oryginalne badania prowadzone przez jego autorów.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2618] **viXra:1710.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 20:02:39*

**Authors:** Ramzi suleiman

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Special Relativity theory postulates that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (the relativity postulate), and that the velocity of light in vacuum has the same value c in all inertial frames of reference (constancy of c postulate). We hereby show that relativity principle need not be postulated, since it follows from basic principles, without reliance on Lorentz transformations, or equivalently, reliance on the constancy of light postulate. The independency of the principle of relativity on the constancy of light postulate is featured by a different symmetry of Nature from the one constrained by the Lorentz transformations. We also show that that the same deductions apply to the relativity of simultaneity principle. Furthermore, we show that the symmetry of the laws of Nature, as being embedded in Nature itself, is a general law, which holds true for ALL systems of moving bodies, regardless of the velocity of the signal which carries information between one frame of reference to another, provided that the velocity of the information carrier is constant with respect to its source, and exceeds the relative velocities between the system's reference frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2617] **viXra:1710.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 20:59:13*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 17 Pages. AN ORIGINAL RESEARCH FINDING INTEGRATING SR AND GR

We examine the Lorentz factor and the Schwarzschild solution in relation to the estimation and
verification of time dilation particularly from available Global Positioning System data. We as a result
detect the possible occurrence of a proportionality between time dilation effects of special and general
relativity in free-fall motion in Keplerian orbits. This observation is then mathematically proved. The
results show that gravitational time dilation during free fall in Keplerian orbits must be exactly double
that caused in special relativity due to linear velocity. We propose that a law has to be enunciated in view
of the proof provided, and of the experimental and technological verification of time dilation effects
during the past six to seven decades. The importance of this finding as a universal phenomenon and in the
further development of stable clocks and satellite technology is highlighted.
1.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2616] **viXra:1710.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 21:43:29*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 13 Pages. TO UPLOAD A NEW PAPER

Research on human’s attachment to cosmological phenomena at least since the Neolithic Period may prove invaluable in modern scientific understanding of our ultimate realities. Of interest has been the archaeological research about the Neolithic Magic Cosmology. In more recent periods the Greek civilization and Hindu cosmological mythology amongst others engaged in various profound intellectual ways to understand and explain the cosmos. The last two millennia saw the progress of more modern civilizations in Asia and Europe resulting in the further empowerment of philosophy, religions and of astronomy. Astronomical discoveries in recent centuries have created particularly interesting philosophical and scientific reflections on the realities of the universe. But the last few decades have evolved differing scientific concepts which have made our notions of the universe and of existence more elusive to unfold thereby digging further the gaps between philosophy, religion and science. Interestingly studies on ancient human socio-religious cultures strongly suggest that human societies have an instinctive urge to unite their material experience with religious and cosmological beliefs, that is, with supernatural phenomena. This is intriguing because our own modern scientific literature clearly shows that many of even the most eminent of scientists see a supernatural character with our universe. Philosophy and religions in their theoretical ways have produced all that can be humanly interpreted on the origin and nature of the universe and existence. Since science has the objective role to explain natural phenomena including the manner the universe originated it should eventually be able to explain what the universe and existence stand from the manner scientific research on the origin of the universe develops in the decades to come. However the final decision as to whether the universe is a natural or supernatural emanation will obviously always remain a matter of personal judgment and choice.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2615] **viXra:1710.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 22:05:08*

**Authors:** Abed Peerally

**Comments:** 23 Pages. upload

The world of astronomy could be at a new and pivotal crossroad. In recent decades the controversial debate on the origin of the universe in relation to the conflict among science, philosophy and religion has reached a crescendo to the extent that humanity is quite confused on how to interpret the nature of the realities of the universe. Is science an atheistic endeavor and are philosophers and prophets of religion just scientific illiterates. Astronomy, the oldest and biggest branch of Science, has been intimately linked to human culture including philosophy and religion for millennia or even longer. Advances in cosmology and astrophysics on the one hand and the natural sciences on the other hand are now producing insights which could, in the coming decade, elucidate in quite concrete scientific details how most probably our universe originated and what could be the nature of the intriguing realities of the universe such as the nature of matter, life, energy, gravity,
2
the mind and consciousness amongst many other riddles. This paper will show a bit of the trends in relation to mindsets on the universe and its origin and will predict that in due course we will have a new way of profoundly looking at the universe, its realities and of the place of humanity in it. This new view of our ultimate realities, when it materializes and mature, would progressively bring science, philosophy and religion under a common umbrella, spearheaded by a new Scientific Cosmological Argument. Introduction

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2614] **viXra:1710.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-07 07:10:22*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 4 Pages. none

This paper is mostly philosophical in its nature thus avoiding many equations and computations, which casual readers do not necessarily understand. Paper investigates and compares side by side in detail assumptions with their logical consequences and resulting internal inconsistencies in both; the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the GRT has many such internal inconsistencies, which have to be corrected by unusual and difficult to believe assumptions that are not backed up by a typical experience one encounters in a real life, while the MTG avoids such problems. For the readers who are interested in proofs of discussed findings the paper provides internet links to papers where such proofs are available. The key differences between the GRT and MTG theories are: the gravitational mass dependence on velocity, the nature of “empty” space, the finite or infinite size of the Universe, the existence of Black Holes (BH) with their Event Horizons (EH), the creation of Universe by the Big Bang (BB), and the relation between the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature, and the Hubble constant that characterizes the velocity of receding Galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2613] **viXra:1710.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 12:16:31*

**Authors:** Peter J Carroll

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper presents a quantitative equation for Mach’s Principle that appears to satisfy the requirements of most of the qualitative expressions of Mach’s Principle, and it suggests that the universe has spatial closure and a Transactional gravitational exchange mechanism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2612] **viXra:1710.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 05:47:13*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The true nature of absolute motion has eluded physicists for more than a century because they presumed absolute motion to be motion relative to the hypothetical ether. This author has developed a new interpretation of absolute velocity, Apparent Source Theory (AST ), that shows the ether does not exist, but absolute motion does. AST successfully explains the hitherto apparently contradicting experiments including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. An argument against the validity of absolute motion is that if absolute motion existed, it would have been detected in the Ives-Stilwell and the fast ion beam experiments.In this paper it is proposed that, unconventionally, absolute motion does not affect experiments of Doppler effect. Therefore, such experiments cannot prove or disprove absolute motion. Doppler effect is determined only by the source-observer relative velocity, by applying Exponential Doppler Effect theory [1] already proposed by this author. Absolute velocity results only in phase delay of light, and has no effect on Doppler effect and this would be a novel nature of motion and the speed of light. This is not the case for sound waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2611] **viXra:1710.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 07:11:25*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 128 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2610] **viXra:1710.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-02 17:11:39*

**Authors:** Thomas Preusser

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The holographic principle concept of physics theory traces its origins to the study of black holes. In the 1970’s Hawking and Bekenstein showed that black holes carry entropy, i.e. information, that is proportional not to black hole volume (i.e. 3-Dimensions), but to the area of the black hole horizon (i.e. 2-Dimensions). Subsequently Hooft and Susskind developed the holographic principle which pairs quantum gravity (3D) with quantum field theory (2D), making the black hole horizon “contoured 2D” and enabling entanglement information across the black hole horizon. More recently (1997 arXiv:9711200) Maldacena’s Anti-de Sitter/Conformal Field Theory correspondence, provided the holographic principle with a more explicit geometric (bulk, gravity, 3D, AdS) boundary correspondence with quantum field theory (2D, CFT), where the 2D is actually related to a dual boundary and the varying entanglement of two subsystems, A and its complement B.
The most interesting part of all the foregoing is that the holographic principle, which pertains to geometry and information, brings string theory adjacent to loop quantum gravity (LQG), which also pertains to geometry and information. More recently in LQG (1994 arXiv:9411005) Rovelli and Smolin related quantization to area / volume (geometry), and graphs (information). If “conservation” of information is a law, geometry is a more malleable topological property, (i.e. networked inter-connectedness is unaffected by changes in geometry).
There are two major issues that need to be addressed for further holographic principle progress.
Issue 1:The AdS, or bulk, gravity, 3D side, needs to be more topologically explicit and generalized. Gravity in 3D is a purely topological theory. In a topological theory geometric properties and spatial relations, i.e. networked inter-connectedness, are unaffected by the continuous change of shape or size of an object. Topological consistency is a very important aspect for systems of information, being akin to adiabatic consistency for systems of energy, thus providing stability.
Issue 2:Holographic principle entanglement needs to be put in a larger context that generalizes entanglement , and development of complexity. This includes CPT symmetry breaking, Lorentz covariant bound states (spooky action at a distance), neutrino oscillation involving electron, muon, and tau neutrinos, and gluon color charge oscillation.
Holography involves projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer. This paper expounds on projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer. In particular this paper looks at Pascal’s Projection Ellipse, and in a larger sense General Projective Relativit y (GPR), as models for projection of an image from an object as perceived by an observer, and in so doing addresses the prior holographic principle issues.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2609] **viXra:1710.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 04:07:18*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

It is known that most existing cosmology models do not include rotation, with few
exceptions such as rotating Bianchi and rotating Godel metrics. Therefore in this paper
we aim to discuss four possible ways to model rotating universe, including Nurgaliev’s
Ermakov-type equation. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with
observations, in order to open new possibilities of more realistic nonlinear cosmology
models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2608] **viXra:1710.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-01 11:46:19*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Hidding et al. suggest that the emergence of intricate and pervasive weblike structure of the Universe on Megaparsec scales can be approximated by a well-known equation from fluid mechanics, the Burgers’ equation. The solution to this equation can be obtained from a geometrical formalism. The resulting Adhesion formalism provides deep insight into the dynamics and topology of the Cosmic Web. It uncovers a direct connection between the conditions in the very early Universe and the complex spatial patterns that emerged out of these under the influence of gravity. In the present paper, we describe a cellular automaton model of the Burgers’ equation, which can be investigated via a fast computer simulation. In the end, this suggests a Cellular Automata Adhesion Model of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2607] **viXra:1709.0445 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-30 13:52:55*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: If E8 symmetry prevails, only 8 cyclic universes are allowed: the collapse of the 8th universe stopped time: luckily for us the symmetry of life (also of E8 symmetry) produced a rebirth of time and started the 9th universe evolving which it is still doing today.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2606] **viXra:1709.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-29 10:48:15*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 30 Pages. French version available - Website: http://phrenocarpe.org/index.html

We lay down the fundamental hypothesis that any electromagnetic radiation
transforms progressively, evolving towards and finally reaching after an appropriate
distance the value of the cosmic microwave background radiation wavelength
at 1,873 mm or the frequency of 160,2 GHz. This way we explain the cosmic
redshift Z of far away Galaxies using only Maxwell’s equations and the energy
quantum principle for photons. This hypothesis is also true for wavelength longer
or for frequency less than that of the cosmic microwave bacground. Hubble’s
law sprouts out naturally as the consequence of this transformation. According
to this hypothesis we compute the Hubble constant using Pioneer satellite data
and doing so deciphering the enigma of its anomalous behaviour. We speculate
about a numerical composition of the Hubble constant and introduce the Hubble
surface. This hypothesis helps to solve some cases that are still enigmatic for
the standard cosmology. We discuss about the maximal observation distance of
cosmological phenomena. We give an answer to the anomalous acceleration of the
Pioneer satellite and we show that it is a universal constant common to any satellite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2605] **viXra:1709.0430 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-29 10:53:37*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 31 Pages. English available - Site internet: http://phrenocarpe.org

Nous posons l’hypothèse fondamentale que toute radiation électromagnétique
se transforme progressivement, évoluant vers, et atteignant après une distance
appropriée, la valeur de la radiation cosmique résiduelle soit une longueur d’onde
de 1,873 mm ou la fréquence de 160,2 GHz. Ainsi nous expliquons le décalage vers
le rouge Z de la radiation provenant des galaxies éloignées moyennant les équations
classiques de Maxwell et l’énergie quantique des photons. Cette hypothèse est
aussi valable lorsque la radiation émise est de longueur d’onde plus grande, ou de
fréquence plus basse que celle de la radiation cosmique résiduelle. La loi de Hubble
émerge tout naturellement comme conséquence de cette transformation. Suivant
cette hypothèse, nous évaluons la constante de Hubble en utilisant les données
fournies par le satellite Pioneer tout en expliquant l’anomalie de comportement
attribuée à ce satellite. Nous spéculons sur une composition possible de la constante
de Hubble et introduisons la surface de Hubble. Ce modèle permet la résolution
de quelques situations inexpliquées par la cosmologie actuelle. Nous discutons de
la distance limite d’observation des phénomènes cosmologiques. Nous expliquons
l’accélération anormale du satellite Pioneer et montrons qu’elle est une constante
universelle, la même pour tout satellite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2604] **viXra:1709.0424 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-28 19:52:23*

**Authors:** Paulo Sérgio Custódio

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The formation of Primordial Black Holes is a robust prediction of
several gravitational theories. Whereas the creation of PBHs was very
active in the remote past, such process seem to be very negligible at the
present epoch.
In this work, we estimate the effects from the radiation surrounding
PBHs due to the absorption term in the equations that describe how
their masses depend on time. The Hawking radiation contributes with
mass loss and the absorption term contributes with gain, but a interesting
competition between these terms is analysed.
These effects are included in the equations describing PBHs and its
mass density as the universe evolves in time and the model is able to
describes the evolution of the numerical density of PBHs and the mass
evolution and comparisons with cosmological constraints set upper limits
in their abundances.
We evaluate the effect of this accretion onto PBHs and we get some
corrections for the initial masses that indicates some deviations from de-
fault values for the time scale for evaporation. The scale time of the PBHs
in the early universe is modified due to the energy accretion and we can
estimate how these contributions may alter the standard model of PBHs.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2603] **viXra:1709.0423 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-28 21:28:19*

**Authors:** HyunCheol Kim

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The law of inertia has been treated as a fundamental assumption in classical physics. However in this paper, I show that the law of inertia is completely possible to be derived, from the homogeneity of the spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2602] **viXra:1709.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-28 08:55:45*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Lorentz Transformation ( LT) equations were invented to make the speed of light constant ( invariant ) in reference frames moving with constant velocity relative to each other, which was implied by Maxwell's equations. This required the counterintuitive idea of relativity of length and time. The mainstream physics community just accepts this as the way nature works, while many reject it outright. Even more confusing is that the predictions of LT have been confirmed experimentally, such as the gamma factor, the electric field of moving charges and the universal light speed limit. On the other hand, absolute motion has also been decisively detected by many experiments such as the Miller, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte and the CMBR experiments. The speed of light has also been shown to vary with observer velocity, experimentally. All these facts show that the true nature of motion and the speed of light is still a mystery. In this paper, errors in the theory of Special Relativity, the non-existence of equivalence principle of General Relativity theory, and solutions will be proposed. The source of all confusions surrounding the LT is as follows: it has been wrongly presumed that the postulate of the constancy of the speed of light applies both to the phase velocity and the group velocity. We propose that it is the phase velocity, not the group velocity, which is constant independently of source or observer velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source velocity but varies with observer velocity. The relativity of length and time required to keep the phase velocity constant should be thought as an artifact and not real. LT should be applied only to predict the outcome of light speed experiments involving phase velocity such as the Doppler effect. The counterintuitive constancy of the phase velocity of light is something we should just accept as a law of nature. It is rooted in the reality that there is no medium of propagation for light waves. It is much better to just accept the constancy of the phase velocity of light without interpreting this to mean reality of relativity of length and time, and this is supported by logic and experimental evidence. LT should be interpreted to explain why all observers see the same fringe shift, not necessarily a null fringe shift. This paper also shows that the beautiful thought experiment of the equivalence principle turns out to be wrong. The equality of inertial mass and gravitational mass has its root in two of the longstanding mysteries in physics: what inertial mass is and what gravity is. Inertial mass and electrical self inductance are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomena. The velocity of a car cannot change instantaneously for the same reason that the current inside an inductor cannot change instantaneously. Just as the magnetic field of an inductor cannot change instantaneously, so does the magnetic field of the electrons, protons and neutrons of the car material. Gravity and electrostatic force are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomenon. Gravitational force is a slight difference between electrostatic attractive and repulsive forces. It follows that both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total (not net ) amount of charge in an object.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2601] **viXra:1709.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-26 18:58:33*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger) is supported by cosmic data (without fitting). Qmoger equations consist of Einstein equations with two additional terms responsible for production/absorption of matter. In Qmoger cosmology there was no Big Bang and matter is continuously producing by the Vacuum. Particularly, production of the ultralight gravitons with possible tiny electric dipole moment was started about 284 billion years ago. Quantum effects dominate interaction of these particles and they form the quantum condensate. Under influence of gravitation, the condensate is forming galaxies and producing ordinary matter, including photons. As one important result of this activity, it recently created us, the people, and continues to support us. Particularly, our subjective experiences (qualia) are a result of an interaction between the background condensate and the neural system of the brain. The action potentials of neural system create traps and coherent dynamic patterns in the dipolar condensate. So, qualia are graviton-based, which can open new directions of research in biology and medicine. At the same time, a specialized study of qualia can open a new window into the dark sector of matter. The Qmoger theory explains why most of the ordinary particles are fermions, predicts the mass of neutrino (in accord with the experimental bound) and explained their oscillations (between three flavors) in terms of interaction with the background condensate. The achievements of the Standard Model and the Quantum Field Theory can be combined with the Qmoger theory.
Key words: cosmology with continuous production of energy, ultralight gravitons with tiny electric dipole moment, biophysics, qualia.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2600] **viXra:1709.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-27 03:43:02*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

This article provides a brief outline of Special Theory of Relativity. The physics before the relativity, the special relativity in itself, and the consequences of special relativity are discussed here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2599] **viXra:1709.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-26 07:59:53*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 128 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2598] **viXra:1709.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 06:33:23*

**Authors:** H.J. Veringa

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Small mistake in title: Gravity in stead of gravirty.

In this document an attempt is made to explain the origin of gravity. The basis for the analysis is a merger of Quantum theory and Relativity. Nowhere in the analysis there is any need to deviate from well proven and successful concepts of both theories and rules of calculation, and no exotic new particles will have to be introduced. By doing so it is demonstrated that, next to its local interactions of a multi-particle system, the Schrödinger equation leads to pairs of two and only two members. This solution is used as the invariant term in the quantized Einstein energy equation which finally leads to gravitational interactions between members of the pairs. With this particular solution for the quantum-mechanical wave function it is found that gravity is a second order effect operating over a long range. In this document it is tried to give a complete and consistent account of all steps that have been taken in the derivation of the classical Newton’s law. Further the document emphasizes precise justification of some of the basic assumptions made and how it works out on a cosmological scale. It is also found that the generator of gravity is contributing mass to particles that have gravitational interaction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2597] **viXra:1709.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 01:41:33*

**Authors:** Jeffrey S. Keen

**Comments:** 6 Pages, 2 Figures,4 Tables

Existing publications suggest that the smallest psi-lines have interesting but unquantified properties. Addressing this challenge is this paper’s objective. The following quantitative experiments demonstrate that psi-lines must be greater than a minimum length of 1.58 metres before they possess nodes. At this minimum length, the distance of the node, measured from the start of the psi-line, equals 0.79 metres i.e. at its centre. Psi-lines without nodes also have a minimum length, but this is slightly less at 0.74 m. This is approximately half the minimum length of psi-lines with a node, and hence cannot be a coincidence. An exponential equation is also discovered. All these findings are additional factors to help determine the structure of psi-lines.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1804] **viXra:1712.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-07 23:35:22*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

General Relativity is solely dependent on the apparent difference in the rate of time between frames. This theory therefore attempts to explain what we are seeing in the galactic rotational velocities through relativistic effects in time rather than through Dark Matter. Properly understood, Einstein’s field equations can explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. To that end, this paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of events and spaces within the continuum, rather than the movement of particles through pre-existing, static, spaces. Gravitational fields, (dilation gradients), have different shapes around different shaped masses. Stellar systems are spherical and events appear to evolve forward at an increasingly accelerated rate as the dilation gradient deepens approaching the center of the system. In flattened spiral galaxies, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk from above and below, evolving objects forward at ~ the same rate of time and hence the same velocity. Because the mass is concentrated in the spiral arms, there is also a whipping action that also accelerates velocity. The whipping action is frame dragging. Systems between the arms are less affected by the frame dragging and have slower velocities. IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the evolution and nature of the continuum explained here-in, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1803] **viXra:1712.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-08 06:35:03*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Comments welcome.

After a brief recall of the widely known, and still unsolved problems of the coupling of gravity to matter and the transport of energy by gravitational waves (GWs), it is suggested (p. 19) that the alleged detection of GWs and black holes on 14 September 2015 (GW150914) is scientifically impossible, and can only be FRAUD. At the last section of the paper (pp. 20-21), I provide the conditions under which my conclusion can be refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1802] **viXra:1712.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-07 08:24:19*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 21 Pages. Text expanded. Comments welcome.

After a brief recall of the widely known, and still unsolved problems of the coupling of gravity to matter and the transport of energy by gravitational waves (GWs), it is suggested (p. 19) that the alleged detection of GWs and black holes on 14 September 2015 (GW150914) is scientifically impossible, and can only be FRAUD. At the last section of the paper, I provide the conditions under which my conclusion can be refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1801] **viXra:1712.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-06 05:56:21*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper, a general spacetime transformation from biquaternion left and right multiplications is introduced. First, it is shown that the transformation leaves the spacetime length invariant. Furthermore, the Lorentz transformation is derived as a special case of the general biquaternion transformation. Surprisingly, some commutation and anticommutation properties generally found in quantum mechanics are manifested by the biquaternion transformation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1800] **viXra:1711.0428 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-10 15:33:10*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Where standard physics runs into infinite challenges, atomism predicts exact limits. We summarize the mathematical results briefly in a table in this note and also revisit the energy-momentum relationship based on this view.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1799] **viXra:1711.0428 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-28 09:27:00*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Where standard physics runs into infinite challenges, atomism predicts exact limits. We summarize the mathematical results briefly in a table in this note and are also revisiting the energy momentum relationship based on this view.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1798] **viXra:1711.0404 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-28 14:49:14*

**Authors:** William O. Straub

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Several typos fixed, and a less restrictive derivation of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation is presented.

A simple, parameter-free conformal approach to gravity is presented based on the the square of the quadratic Ricci scalar R alone. It is shown that when R is a non-zero constant, the associated action is fully conformal and leads to the usual equations of motion associated with the standard Einstein-Hilbert action. To demonstrate the approach, we derive the Schwarzschild metric, the field of a charged particle and the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1797] **viXra:1711.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-03 16:41:54*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this short note we are looking into a few interesting details about relativistic kinetic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1796] **viXra:1711.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-25 07:43:51*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this short note we are looking into a few interesting details about relativistic kinetic energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1795] **viXra:1711.0363 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-23 13:38:04*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1794] **viXra:1711.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-26 12:53:10*

**Authors:** R.I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Gravitation and Cosmology, 20, 4 (2014), p. 264.

The operational and canonical definitions of an energy-momentum tensor (EMT) are considered as well as the tensor and nontensor conservation laws. It is shown that the canonical EMT contradicts the experiments and the operational definition, the Belinfante-Rosenfeld procedure worsens the situation, and the nontensor “conservation laws” are meaningless. A definition of the 4-momentum of a system demands a translator since integration of vectors is meaningless. The mass of a fluid sphere is calculated. It is shown that, according to the standard energy-momentum pseudotensor, the mass-energy of a gravitational field is positive. This contradicts the idea of a negative gravitational energy and discredits the pseudotensor. And what is more, integral 4-pseudovectors are meaningless in general since reference frames for their components are not determined even for coordinates which areMinkowskian at infinity

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1793] **viXra:1711.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-08 09:48:49*

**Authors:** Capt. Joseph H. Forrington

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

General Relativity is solely dependent on the apparent difference in the rate of time between frames. This theory therefore attempts to explain what we are seeing in the universe through relativistic effects in time rather than through the Big Bang, Dark Energy and Dark Matter. Properly understood, Einstein’s field equations can explain the rotational velocities within flattened spiral galaxies. To that end, this paper clarifies how General Relativity describes the evolution of events and spaces within the continuum, rather than the movement of particles through pre-existing, static, spaces. Gravitational fields, (dilation gradients), have different shapes around different shaped masses. Stellar systems are spherical and events appear to evolve forward at an increasingly accelerated rate as the dilation gradient deepens approaching the center of the system. In flattened spiral galaxies, the gradients act across the broad flat surface of the disk from above and below, evolving objects forward at ~ the same rate of time and hence the same velocity. Because the mass is concentrated in the spiral arms, there is also a whipping action that also accelerates velocity. The whipping action is frame dragging. Systems between the arms are less affected by the frame dragging and have slower velocities. IBEX failing to find a shock wave at the edge of the heliopause as expected is a proof of the concepts regarding the evolution and nature of the continuum explained here, as also might be the “dead zone” discovered by Pioneer 1. This theory also describes the dynamics in time by which the CMB is generated, accelerated, and concentrated, converting the potential energy of the spacetime continuum into real energy and mass. A proof of the dynamic developed here is LIGO’S Sept. 14, 2015 detection of a “gravity wave”; a distortion in the rate of time, an acceleration in the rate, travelling at c through space and distorting space in the physical form of the antenna. The theory also explains black holes and why our limits of perception within a black hole, and at ~ 13.8 Gly, are due to the limit of relativity, where our perception transitions from time-like to space-like. This is where ∆D, the difference in the rate of time between frames, = 1 s/s, which occurs both at the event horizon of a black hole and looking outward to the limits of perception. It occurs looking outward because events are being constantly accelerated in the rate of time, giving older frames progressively slower rates the older they are. This creates a time dilation gradient and the Hubble shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1792] **viXra:1711.0137 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-03 19:01:37*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A black hole model is proposed in which a neutron star is
surrounded by a neutral gas of electrons and positrons. The gas is in a completely degenerate quantum state and does not radiate. The pressure and density in the gas are found to be much less than those in the neutron star. The radius of the black hole is far greater than the Schwarzschild radius.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1791] **viXra:1711.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-06 23:08:21*

**Authors:** John Malcolm Newell

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the century since Einstein's general relativity we have translated all of our solutions for relativity and quantum mechanics back into clock time, despite that dimension being too limited and too localised to describe those relationships. If we accept that clock time can have a natural complex conjugate, we can resolve quantum mechanics by appreciating the photon as a quantum without extension in its own time. We can then unify gravity and inertia with electromagnetic action, without paradox, in a Machian universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1790] **viXra:1710.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-25 06:44:57*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Planck second is likely the shortest relevant time interval. If the Planck acceleration lasts for one Planck second, one will reach the speed of light. Yet, according to Einstein, no particle with rest-mass can travel at the speed of light as this would require an infinite amount of energy. Modern physics is incompatible with the Planck acceleration in many ways. However in atomism we see that the Planck acceleration happens for the building blocks of the Planck mass and that the Planck mass is dissolved into energy within one Planck second. Further, the Planck mass stands absolutely still as observed from any reference frame. Atomism is fully consistent with the Planck acceleration. The relativistic Planck acceleration is unique among accelerations because it can only happen from absolute rest; it is therefore the same as the Planck acceleration. In other words, atomism predicts breaks in Lorentz invariance at the Planck scale, something several quantum gravity theories address as well. Atomism seems to solve a series of challenges in modern physics and this paper is one of a series in pointing this out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1789] **viXra:1710.0340 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-02 08:08:01*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Planck second is likely the shortest relevant time interval. If the Planck acceleration lasts for one Planck second, one will reach the speed of light. Yet, according to Einstein, no particle with rest-mass can travel at the speed of light as this would require an infinite amount of energy. Modern physics is incompatible with the Planck acceleration in many ways. However in atomism we see that the Planck acceleration happens for the building blocks of the Planck mass and that the Planck mass is dissolved into energy within one Planck second. Further, the Planck mass stands absolutely still as observed from any reference frame. Atomism is fully consistent with the Planck acceleration. The relativistic Planck acceleration is unique among accelerations because it can only happen from absolute rest; it is therefore the same as the Planck acceleration. In other words, atomism predicts breaks in Lorentz invariance at the Planck scale, something several quantum gravity theories address as well. Atomism seems to solve a series of challenges in modern physics and this paper is one of a series in pointing this out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1788] **viXra:1710.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 03:57:54*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

In GNSS, the improvement of atomic clocks will lead to Phi/c^2 in relativistic gravitational redshift three to four decades from today. Research towards a relativistic positioning system capable of handling this expected accuracy is all based upon the Schwarzschild metric as a replacement of todays GNSS Euclidian-Newtonian metric. The method employed in this paper to determining frequency shifts between atomic clocks is an intermediate Minkowski-EEP approach. This approach is based on relating two atomic clocks to one another through a background ensemble of frequency gauged clocks, a grid. The crucial grid of this paper, the Free Fall Grid or FFG, can be related to the Ehlers-Pirani-Schild P-CP Weyl space formalism, when applied to a central mass. The FFG second order in Phi/c^2 redshifts are derived for static to static, static to satellite and satellite to satellite atomic oscillators and then compared to GR-Schwarzschild and PPN (Parametrized Post Newtonian) results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1787] **viXra:1710.0153 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-13 01:02:32*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In order to explain the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein denied the existence of the absolute reference frame. It will be shown that all Einstein did was replace the absolute reference frame with another preferred reference frame: the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley apparatus. According to the Special Theory of Relativity (SRT ) , there is no preferred reference frame and all inertial reference frames are equivalent in predicting and analyzing the result of the Michelson-Morley experiment. No reference frame, including the rest frame of the experiment, has any special significance over other reference frames. It will be shown that the SRT analysis of the experiment violates this principle. This is because all other inertial observers moving relative to the Michelson-Morley apparatus do not know the outcome of the experiment until they get the experimental result of the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus. Only then can they use the Lorentz Transformation equations to ‘predict’ the 'null' outcome of the experiment in their own reference frames. If all inertial reference frames are really equivalent, why not first analyze the experiment in one of the reference frames moving relative to the apparatus, in which case there will be a fringe shift δ, and use Lorentz Transformation so that all other observers ( including the observer in the rest frame of the apparatus ) agree on the same fringe shift δ. The Special Relativity Theory ( SRT ) is just another form of Lorentz ether theory ( LET): both depend on a preferred reference frame. In LET the ether is the preferred reference frame, while in SRT the rest frame of the experimental apparatus is the preferred reference frame. SRT only shifted the privilege of deciding the outcome of the experiment from the absolute reference frame to the rest frame of the Michelson-Morley experiment. The same hidden fallacy exists in the SRT analysis of the Trouton-Noble experiment. An alternative theory of absolute motion and the speed of light will be proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1786] **viXra:1710.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 07:24:57*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Relativity explained win the light of new invention

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1785] **viXra:1710.0150 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-20 07:49:40*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Explains relativity in the light ofa new invention

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1784] **viXra:1710.0136 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-14 03:33:17*

**Authors:** Mihir Kumar jha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Theory of everything (T.O.E), final theory or ultimate theory is a theoretical framework in the field of
physics, which holds an ultimate key to unify all the fundamental forces of nature in a single field. In other words
such theory can glue quantum mechanics with general relativity into a single framework. Many theories have been
postulated over the decades but the dominant one includes string theory and loop quantum gravity. In this paper I
would like to present a new framework which can unify quantum mechanics with general relativity by showing that
the change in Riemannian metric or the bend in space time is always an integral multiple of planks constant and
since gravity is the result due to bend in space-time, gravity itself is a discrete force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1783] **viXra:1710.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-27 09:14:48*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Special relativity theory postulates that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (the relativity postulate), and that the velocity of light in vacuum has the same value c in all inertial frames of reference (constancy of c postulate). We show, based on basic principles, that nature is endowed with symmetry with respect to its laws, such that the principle of relativity is a genuine property of nature, which is independent on the constant velocity of light, or on any other constant. We also show that the principle of relativity is associated with spatial asymmetry, such that the direction of relative motion matters. For frames of reference departing from each other, an observer in one frame will measure time and distance extension, with respect to the time and distance measured in the other frame, while for reference frames approaching each other, the same observer will measure time and distance contraction with respect to the same occurrence. No less important, we show that the principle of relativity is valid for all physical systems, independently of the type of information carrier utilized in the system, and is not specific to systems in which information between reference frames is transmitted by light, or other electromagnetic waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1782] **viXra:1710.0088 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-26 23:58:31*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Special relativity theory postulates that the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (the relativity postulate), and that the velocity of light in vacuum has the same value c in all inertial frames of reference (constancy of c postulate). We show, based on basic principles, that nature is endowed with symmetry with respect to its laws, such that the principle of relativity is a genuine property of nature, which is independent on the constant velocity of light, or on any other constant. We also show that the principle of relativity is associated with spatial asymmetry, such that the direction of relative motion matters. For frames of reference departing from each other, an observer in one frame will measure time and distance extension, with respect to the time and distance measured in the other frame, while for reference frames approaching each other, the same observer will measure time and distance contraction with respect to the same occurrence. No less important, we show that the principle of relativity is valid for all physical systems, independently of the type of information carrier utilized in the system, and is not specific to systems in which information between reference frames is transmitted by light, or other electromagnetic waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1781] **viXra:1710.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-16 08:38:43*

**Authors:** Jaroslav Hynecek

**Comments:** 5 Pages. none

This paper is mostly philosophical in its nature thus avoiding many equations and computations, which casual readers do not necessarily understand. Paper investigates and compares side by side in detail assumptions with their logical consequences and resulting internal inconsistencies in both; the General Relativity Theory (GRT) and the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the GRT has many such internal inconsistencies, which have to be corrected by unusual and difficult to believe assumptions that are not backed up by a typical experience one encounters in a real life, while the MTG avoids such problems. For the readers who are interested in proofs of discussed findings the paper provides internet links to papers where such proofs are available. The key differences between the GRT and MTG theories are: the gravitational mass dependence on velocity, the nature of “empty” space, the finite or infinite size of the Universe, the existence of Black Holes (BH) with their Event Horizons (EH), the creation of Universe by the Big Bang (BB), and the relation between the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CMBR) temperature, and the Hubble constant that characterizes the velocity of receding Galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1780] **viXra:1710.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-01 06:37:46*

**Authors:** Alfredo Dimas Moreira Garcia

**Comments:** 131 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity takes us to two results that presently are considered “inexplicable” to many renowned scientists, to know:
-The dilatation of time, and
-The contraction of the Lorentz Length.
The solution to these have driven the author to the development of the Undulating Relativity (UR) theory, where the Temporal variation is due to the differences on the route of the light propagation and the lengths are constants between two landmarks in uniform relative movement.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1779] **viXra:1710.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-02 22:03:50*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

Some years ago, Hidding et al. suggest that the emergence of intricate and pervasive weblike structure of the Universe on Megaparsec scales can be approximated by a well-known equation from fluid mechanics, the Burgers’ equation. The solution to this equation can be obtained from a geometrical formalism. The resulting Adhesion formalism provides deep insight into the dynamics and topology of the Cosmic Web. It uncovers a direct connection between the conditions in the very early Universe and the complex spatial patterns that emerged out of these under the influence of gravity. In the present paper, we describe a cellular automaton model of the Burgers’ equation, which can be investigated via a fast computer simulation. In the end, this suggests a Cellular Automata Adhesion Model of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1778] **viXra:1709.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-11 20:22:22*

**Authors:** HyunCheol Kim

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Feel free to mail me, if you are interested in my article.

The law of inertia has been treated as a fundamental assumption in classical physics. However in this article, I show that the law of inertia is completely possible to be derived, from the homogeneity of the spacetime, by using the time slice as a tool for dealing with the spacetime symmetries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1777] **viXra:1709.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-06 03:37:17*

**Authors:** HyunCheol Kim

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Feel free to mail me, if you are interested in my article.

The law of inertia has been treated as a fundamental assumption in classical physics. However in this article, I show that the law of inertia is completely possible to be derived, from the homogeneity of the spacetime, by using the time slice as a tool for dealing with the spacetime symmetries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1776] **viXra:1709.0423 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-29 10:04:29*

**Authors:** HyunCheol Kim

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The law of inertia has been treated as a fundamental assumption in classical physics. However in this paper, I show that the law of inertia is completely possible to be derived, from the homogeneity of the spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1775] **viXra:1709.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-06 05:41:44*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The origin of all Lorentz's ether theory and Einstein's relativity theory is the constant c in Maxwell's equations and the null result of ether drift experiments. In this paper, it will be shown that it is the phase velocity of light that is constant c independent of source and observer velocity. The group velocity of light behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source absolute velocity, but depends on observer absolute velocity. Relativity theory has already been disproved because absolute motion has been decisively detected by many experiments such as the Miller, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte and the CMBR experiments. The group velocity of light has also been shown experimentally to vary with observer velocity. The counterintuitive constancy of the phase velocity of light is something that should be just accepted as a law of nature. It is rooted in the reality that there is no medium of propagation for light waves. This paper also shows that the beautiful thought experiment of the equivalence principle turns out to be wrong. The equality of inertial mass and gravitational mass has its root in two of the longstanding mysteries in physics: what inertial mass is and what gravity is.Inertial mass and electrical self inductance are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomena. The velocity of a car cannot change instantaneously for the same reason that the current inside an inductor cannot change instantaneously. Just as the magnetic field of an inductor cannot change instantaneously, so does the magnetic field of the electrons, protons and neutrons of the car material. Gravity and electrostatic force are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomenon. Gravitational force is a slight difference between electrostatic attractive and repulsive forces. It follows that both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total(not net ) amount of charge in an object.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1774] **viXra:1709.0415 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-29 04:41:05*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Lorentz Transformation ( LT) equations were invented to make the speed of light constant ( invariant ) in reference frames moving with constant velocity relative to each other, which was implied by Maxwell's equations. This required the counterintuitive idea of relativity of length and time. The mainstream physics community just accepts this as the way nature works, while many reject it outright. Even more confusing is that the predictions of LT have been confirmed experimentally, such as the gamma factor, the electric field of moving charges and the universal light speed limit. On the other hand, absolute motion has also been decisively detected by many experiments such as the Miller, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte and the CMBR experiments. The speed of light has also been shown experimentally to vary with observer velocity. All these facts show that the true nature of motion and the speed of light is still a mystery. In this paper, errors in the theory of Special Relativity, the non-existence of equivalence principle of General Relativity theory, and solutions will be proposed. The source of all confusions surrounding the LT is as follows: it has been wrongly presumed that the postulate of the constancy of the speed of light applies both to the phase velocity and the group velocity. We propose that it is the phase velocity, not the group velocity, which is constant independently of source or observer absolute or relative velocity. The group velocity behaves in a more conventional way: it is independent of source absolute velocity but varies with observer absolute velocity. The relativity of length and time required to keep the phase velocity constant should be thought as an artifact and not real. LT should be applied only to predict the outcome of light speed experiments involving phase velocity such as the Doppler effect. The counterintuitive constancy of the phase velocity of light is something that should be just accepted as a law of nature. It is rooted in the reality that there is no medium of propagation for light waves. It is much better to just accept the constancy of the phase velocity of light without interpreting this to mean reality of relativity of length and time, and this view is supported by logic and experimental evidence. This paper also shows that the beautiful thought experiment of the equivalence principle turns out to be wrong. The equality of inertial mass and gravitational mass has its root in two of the longstanding mysteries in physics: what inertial mass is and what gravity is. Inertial mass and electrical self inductance are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomena. The velocity of a car cannot change instantaneously for the same reason that the current inside an inductor cannot change instantaneously. Just as the magnetic field of an inductor cannot change instantaneously, so does the magnetic field of the electrons, protons and neutrons of the car material. Gravity and electrostatic force are not only analogous, but are fundamentally the same phenomenon. Gravitational force is a slight difference between electrostatic attractive and repulsive forces. It follows that both inertial mass and gravitational mass depend on the same quantity: the total (not net ) amount of charge in an object.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1773] **viXra:1709.0395 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-01 03:43:14*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

This article provides a brief outline of Special Theory of Relativity. The physics before the relativity, the special relativity in itself, and the consequences of special relativity are discussed here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1772] **viXra:1709.0395 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-28 03:15:35*

**Authors:** Arjun Dahal

**Comments:** 4 Pages. ©2017-2018 Journal of St. Xavier's Physics Council

This article provides a brief outline of Special Theory of Relativity. The physics before the
relativity, the special relativity in itself, and the consequences of special relativity are discussed
here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology