[10] **viXra:0912.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Stephen P. Smith

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Kant noted the importance of spatial and temporal intuitions (synthetics) in geometric
reasoning, but intuitions lend themselves to different interpretations and a more solid grounding
may be sought in formality. In mathematics David Hilbert defended formality, while L. E. J.
Brouwer cited intuitions that remain unencompassed by formality. In this paper, the conflict
between formality and intuition is again investigated, and it is found to impact on our
interpretations of space-time as translated into the language of geometry. It is argued that that
language as a formal system works because of an auxiliary innateness that carries sentience, or
feeling. Therefore, the formality is necessarily incomplete as sentience is beyond its reach.
Specifically, it is argued that sentience is covertly connected to space-time geometry when
axioms of congruency are stipulated, essentially hiding in the formality what is sense-certain.
Accordingly, geometry is constructed from primitive intuitions represented by one-pointedness
and route-invariance. Geometry is recognized as a two-sided language that permitted a Hegelian
passage from Euclidean geometry to Riemannian geometry. The concepts of general relativity,
quantum mechanics and entropy-irreversibility are found to be the consequences of linguistic
type reasoning, and perceived conflicts (e.g., the puzzle of quantum gravity) are conflicts only
within formal linguistic systems. Therefore, the conflicts do not survive beyond the synthetics
because what is felt relates to inexplicable feeling, and because the question of synthesis returns
only to Hegel's absolute Notion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:0912.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 21 pages

First reading of article approved by IJMPB, which had half of my PhD dissertation results. For the record. Basis of quantum interpretation of Density wave dynamics included.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:0912.0048 [pdf]**
*replaced on 18 May 2010*

**Authors:** Frederic Lassiaille

**Comments:** 36 pages.

The study of this article suggests an explanation for the "dark matter mystery". This explanation is
based on a modification of Newton's law. This modification is conducted from an Euclidean vision of
relativity.
Concerning the mystery of the velocity of the stars inside a galaxy, the study calculates a theoretical
curve which is different from the one coming from Newton's law. This theoretical curve is very close,
qualitatively speaking, to the measured one.
Concerning the mystery of the velocity of a galaxy inside its group, the explanation is more direct.
For this mystery, the study calculates a greater value for G, the gravitational constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:0912.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 20 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Zou Ha

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

One question is that we always get the integrated photographs in
good order when taking photograph though the phenomenon of particle-wave duality
exist in the microcosm. Feynman path is probability and we should not get the good
order photos. There is unknown mechanism in the microcosm. Another question is
quantum gravitation how to connect the line and the dot. If I am the particle how I
move. I think of doing some sewing and the unknown space was introduced. The two
questions will be thought together and I give an able mechanism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:0912.0044 [pdf]**
*replaced on 12 Mar 2010*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 86 Pages. Titles in the headers of the sections rewritten in a more conventional way.

If the Universe have more than 4 Dimensions then its Extra Dimensional Nature generates in our
4D Spacetime a projection of a 5D Bulk Weyl Tensor. We demonstrate that this happens not only in
the Randall-Sundrum BraneWorld Model where this idea appeared first (developed by Shiromizu, Maeda
and Sasaki)but also occurs in the Kaluza-Klein 5D Induced Matter Formalism.As a matter of fact this
5D Bulk Weyl Tensor appears in every Extra Dimensional Formalism (eg Basini-Capozziello-Wesson-Overduin
Dimensional Reduction From 5D to 4D) because this Bulk Weyl tensor is being generated
by the Extra Dimensional Nature of the Universe regardless and independently of the Mathematical
Formalism used and the Dimensional Reduction From 5D to 4D of the Einstein and Ricci Tensors
in both Kaluza-Klein and Randall-Sundrum Formalisms are similar.Also as in the Randall-Sundrum
Model this 5D Bulk Weyl Tensor generates in the Kaluza-Klein formalism a Tidal "Electric" Charge
"seen" in 4D as an Extra Term in the Schwarzschild Metric resembling the Reissner-Nordstrom Metric.
We analyze the Gravitational Bending Of Light in this BraneWorld Black Hole Metric(known as the
Dadhich,Maartens,Papadopolous and Rezania) affected by an Extra Term due to the presence of the
Tidal Charge compared to the Bending Of Light in the Reissner-Nordstrom Metric with the Electric
Charge also being generated by the Extra Dimension in agreement with the point of view of Ponce
De Leon (explaining in the generation process how and why antiparticles have the same rest mass m_{0}
but charges of equal modulus and opposite signs when compared to particles)and unlike the Reissner-Nordstrom
Metric the terms G/(c^{4}) do not appear in the Tidal Charge Extra Term.Thereby we conclude
that the Extra Term produced by the Tidal Charge in the Bending Of Light due to the presence of the
Extra Dimensions is more suitable to be detected than its Reissner-Nordstrom counterpart and this line
of reason is one of the best approaches to test the Higher Dimensional Nature of the Universe and we
describe a possible experiment using Artificial Satellites and the rotating BraneWorld Black Hole Metric
to do so

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:0912.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 11 Nov 2009*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 9 pages, Spanish language

Demonstration that the 2 fundamental equations of Einstein's
general relativity, geodesics and gravitational equations of Einstein's gravitational
field, are incompatible with the phenomenon of gravitational redshift, according to
which the time stationary, measured by a clock lighting, takes more slowly the
greater the gravitational potential. Consequently, it is postulated the fundamental
equation of the theory connected.
This intertwined with subparagraphs that solve the problem of event horizons
and Schwarzschild black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:0912.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 8 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Feng Xu

**Comments:** 7 pages, first published in 2004 in Hadronic Journal, volume 27, pages 741-748

An apparent time dependence of the Hubble constant was deduced from the linear correlation between the recession velocity of galaxies and the traveled distance of their photons under the assumption of the space expansion being homologous. The time dependence of the space expansion velocity at early era implied that the currently used relativistic Doppler equation, invalid for accelerating/deaccelerating reference frames, would lead to inaccurate measurement of the cosmological recession velocity for highly redshifted galaxies/quasars.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:0912.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 Jan 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 41 pages, 2 figures, companion piece to
http://vixra.org/abs/0912.0012

This 41 page PPT changed to PDF is material in common A.Beckwith gave in the ChristChurch,
New Zealand Meeting, December 16th, 2009, i.e. the ACGRG 5th conference in GR , and also to be
presented in the Beyond the Standard Model, 2010 meeting, in South
Africa

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:0912.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Dec 2009*

**Authors:** Z.Y. Wang

**Comments:** 3 pages.

Although there has not any direct evidence to the Unruh effect and Hawking radiation
until now, the converse effect was maybe detected in superconductors. In a noteless experiment
performed by scientists of USSR in 1984, a heat flow across the Josephson junction induced the
a.c.component[1] and was interpreted to be a thermoelectric effect. Actually, the thermoelectric effect
means a temperature gradient will generate an extra current. It occurs in a normal material but does
not exist in superconductors. Here is a whole new effect that an extra phase difference rather than
current is induced. We regard it as the converse Unruh effect where the temperature is corresponding
to an acceleration. Then the temperature gradient will lead to an energy difference and consequential
phase change just like the a.c.Josephson effect. Based on the postulate, the frequency formula
dependent to the temperature difference T T dl is given which is in the region of
ω = 4πkΔ/(ℏ^{2} V_{F}) ∫(T_{1} - T_{2})dl
radiowaves and consistent with the mentioned experiment. We hope further experiments will be
carried out soon to make clear the phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:0912.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 19 Feb 2010*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 20 pages. Significant re dos of material on deceleration parameter q(z) on
pages 3, 4, and also Appendix A ( just added ). Figure 1 re sized and re parameterized.
Additional work done on rest of document to answer questions raised by participants
in Beyond the Standard Model, 2010, and also major re dos of what is now Appendix
D. Emphasis as as source document of information for some of the presentations for
several conference presentations, including Beyond the Standard Model 2010,
and SPESIF 2010, and Piers XIAN, 2010, as well as possibly either IDM 2010 in
July, or DICE 2010 in September 2010.

The following document is to answer if higher dimensions add value to answering fundamental
cosmology questions. The results are mixed, 1st with higher dimensions apparently helping in
reconstructing and preserving the value of Planck's constant, and the fine structure constant from a
prior to a present universe, while 2nd failing to add anything different from four dimensional
cosmological models to the question of what would cause an increase in the expansion rate of the
universe, as of a billion years ago. Finally 3rd, higher dimensions may allow creation of a joint
DM and DE model. A choice between LQG and brane world geometry is introduced by Snyder
geometry, where Snyder geometry's minimum uncertainty length calculations δx may help
determine to what extent gravity is an emergent field that is classical. Independent of the choice
of LQG and branes (four dimensions versus higher dimensional cosmology models) is the
following question: If gravity is largely classical, how much nonlinearity is involved? Gravitons
and their structure as information carriers may help answer these questions. The main point of this
document: DM and DE may be unified in terms of cosmological dynamics if the higher
dimensional models of DM, as seen by KK towers of gravitons are seen to be pertinent to
increasing acceleration of the universe a billion years ago via a 4th dimensional small graviton
mass term added to the KK tower DM representation of gravitons (a model of DM).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology