[23] **viXra:1011.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2012-05-03 03:28:42*

**Authors:** Zhan Likui

**Comments:** 14 pages, 4 figures, 3586 words, In English

In a black hole, no force can prevent matter from collapsing into a point, a gravitational singularity. The problem of the singularity is always a difficult one. We attempt to discussion gravitation from another angle in this work. Based on experimental analysis and theoretical verification, a hypothesis regarding mass in gravitational fields is presented. It can avoid the problem of singularity, and the meaning of gravitation is simple to determine.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1011.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Akindele J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 20 pages. Submitted to Progress in Physics

Graphical analysis of the geometry of a curved 'three-dimensional' absolute intrinsic
metric space, (an absolute intrinsic Riemannian metric space) φM^{3}, which is curved
onto the absolute time/absolute intrinsic time 'dimensions' (along the vertical), as a
curved hyper-surface, and projects a flat three-dimensional proper intrinsic metric space
φE'^{3} underlying its outward manifestation namely, the flat proper physical Euclidean
3-space φE'^{3}, both as flat hyper-surfaces along the horizontal, isolated in part one of this
paper, is done. Two absolute intrinsic tensor equations, one of which is of the divergenceless
form of Einstein free-space field equations and the other which is a tensorial
statement of local Euclidean invariance on φM^{3}, are derived. Simultaneous (algebraic)
solution of the equations yields the absolute intrinsic metric tensor and absolute intrinsic
Ricci tensor of absolute intrinsic Riemann geometry on the curved absolute intrinsic
metric space φM^{3}, in terms of an isolated absolute intrinsic curvature parameter.
Relations for absolute intrinsic coordinate projections into the underlying flat proper
intrinsic space are derived. A superposition procedure that yields resultant absolute intrinsic
metric tensor and resultant absolute intrinsic Ricci tensor, as well as resultant
absolute intrinsic coordinate projection relations when two or a larger number of absolute
intrinsic Riemannian metric spaces co-exist, are developed. Finally the fact that
a curved 'three-dimensional' absolute intrinsic metric space φM^{3} is perfectly isotropic
(that is, all directions are perfectly the same) and is consequently contracted to a 'onedimensional'
absolute intrinsic metric space denoted by φρ, which is curved onto the
absolute time/absolute intrinsic time 'dimensions' along the vertical and that the underlying
projective three-dimensional flat proper intrinsic metric space φE'^{3} is perfectly
isotropic and is consequently contracted to a straight line one-dimensional isotropic
proper intrinsic metric space φρ' along the horizontal, with respect to observers in the
physical proper Euclidean 3-space φE'^{3} that overlies φρ', are deduced.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1011.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 30 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Akindele J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 11 pages. Submitted to Progress in Physics

Having isolated a four-world picture in which four symmetrical universes in different
spacetime domains coexist and in which an isolated two-dimensional intrinsic spacetime
underlies the four-dimensional spacetime in each universe, and having shown that
the special theory of relativity rests on a four-world background elsewhere, we review
the geometry of spacetime/intrinsic spacetime in a long-range metric force field within
the four-world picture in the four parts of this paper. We show within an elaborate programme
that the four-dimensional metric spacetime and its underlying two-dimensional
intrinsic metric spacetime undergo two stages of evolution in the sequence of absolute
spacetime/absolute intrinsic spacetime → proper spacetime/proper intrinsic spacetime → relativistic spacetime/relativistic intrinsic spacetime in all finite neighborhood of
a long-range metric force field and that these are supported by a sequence of spacetime
/intrinic spacetime geometries. The programme takes off in this first paper by
isolating two classes of three-dimensional Riemannian metric space namely, the conventional
three-dimensional Riemannian metric space and a new 'three-dimensional'
absolute intrinsic Riemannian metric space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1011.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 29 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Raymond Jensen

**Comments:** 15 pages, To appear in 2011 SPESIF Proceedings.

In this article it is argued, that the universe cannot be modeled as a space-time manifold. A theorem of
geometry provides that null geodesics on a space-time manifold which begin at the same point with the same initial
tangent vector are unique. But in reality, light originating from a single point with a given initial direction does not travel
along a unique null geodesic path when a massive object attracts it, in particular when the massive object is in an
indefinite location. Therefore, the universe cannot be described as a space-time manifold. It is then argued that the
universe is a superposition of space-time manifolds, where the manifolds form a Hilbert space over the complex numbers.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1011.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-08-27 08:35:09*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 12 Pages. adding new section

Fundamentally, the dimensionality of spacetime is a matter of energy conservation: three dimensions are sufficient to establish an entropic domain in which the basic thermodynamic requirements necessary to conserve the energy of free forms of electromagnetic energy (light, EM radiation, etc.) are present; likewise, four dimensions are necessary to meet the conservation requirements of bound forms of electromagnetic energy (mass/matter).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1011.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 26 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 25 pages

Repulsive gravity at large distances has been included in the universal solution of Einstein's
equations by introducing a cosmological constant, which excludes the dark energy
interpretation. For an external-coordinate-observer cosmological model, the big-bang singularity
has been replaced by a granular primeval particle, and expansion is controlled by the velocity of
light. Then problems inherent in the standard model do not arise, and no inflation phase is
necessary. It is advantageous to truncate the graviton field at a maximum radius, which is
related to proton dimensions through the ratio (e^{2}/Gm^{2}). This governs the onset of universal
repulsion at around 7Gyr, in rough agreement with observations of Type Ia supernovae.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1011.0063 [pdf]**
*replaced on 23 May 2011*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 10 pages

Intrinsic motions are the expression of conservation law and cosmic order in matter. The Universe, and
everything in it, is always in some type of motion, whether absolute, relative, intrinsic, entropic, atomic,
biological, or evolutionary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1011.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 25 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 29 pages

A recent Letter to the Editor (Sharples J. J., Coordinate transformations and metric extension:
a rebuttal to the relativistic claims of Stephen J. Crothers, Progress in Physics,
v.1, 2010) has analysed a number of my publications in Progress in Physics. There
are serious problems with this treatment which should be brought to the attention of
the Journal's readership. Dr. Sharples has committed errors in both mathematics
and physics. For instance, his notion that r = 0 in the so-called "Schwarzschild solution"
marks the point at the centre of the related manifold is false, as is his related
claim that Schwarzschild's actual solution describes a manifold that is extendible. His
post hoc introduction of Newtonian concepts and related mathematical expressions into
Schwarzschild's actual solution are invalid; for instance, Newtonian two-body relations
into what is alleged to be a one-body problem. Each of the objections are treated in turn
and their invalidity fully demonstrated. Black hole theory is riddled with contradictions.
This article provides definitive proof that black holes do not exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1011.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 pages

In Alan Guth's theory of inflation, "repulsive gravity" is produced by the "negative pressure" of a
supercooled "Higgs inflaton field" in a "false vacuum". This "repulsive gravity" drives the expansion of
space (restoring the "true vacuum") during the brief period of inflation which initiates the Universe. There is
a curious similarity between this conception of the mechanics of inflation and the notion of a "rebound" at
the end of a cosmic life cycle or "Big Crunch" in a closed, cyclic Universe. This "rebound" is the explosion
of a cosmic-sized black hole which has exhausted all external supplies of space, and so can no longer create
the gravitational field and time dimension necessary to contain its energy content, which exists largely or
wholly in the form of gravitationally bound light (due to proton decay within the black hole's event
horizon). (See: "Entropy, Gravitation, and Thermodynamics".)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1011.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 23 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** A. R. Hadjesfandiari

**Comments:** 73 pages

By examining the theory of relativity, as originally proposed by Lorentz, Poincare and
Einstein, a fundamental theory of general motion is developed. From this, the
relationship between space-time and matter is discovered. As a result, the geometrical
theory of interaction is introduced. The corresponding geometrical theory of
electrodynamics resolves the origin of electromagnetic interaction, as a vortex-like field,
and clarifies some of the existing ambiguities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1011.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 22 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** L. Borissova, D. Rabounski

**Comments:** 263 pages, première édition en langue française, traduit de l'anglais et édité par Patrick
Marquet, American Research Press, Rehoboth (NM), USA

Cet ouvrage est la traduction française du livre "Fields, Vacuum and the Mirror Universe"
publié originalement en anglais en 2009, par les physiciens Larissa Borissova et Dmitri
Rabounski, enrichi de nouveaux exposés. Le livre propose une analyse physico-mathématique
nouvelle en élaborant une théorie des observables dans le cadre de la relativité générale.
Dans leur célèbre livre de référence "Théorie des Champs", Lev Landau et Evgeny Lifshitz ont
décrit de manière très complète le mouvement des particules dans les champs électromagnétique
et gravitationnel. Les méthodes d'analyse covariante alors en vigueur depuis le milieu des
années 30 ne prenaient pas encore en compte les concepts de quantités physiquement observables
(grandeurs chronologiquement invariantes ou plus précisément grandeurs dites "chronométriques")
de la relativité générale. Les auteurs ont donc voulu insister sur la nécessité d'étendre
cette perspective mathématique à la théorie physique existante en l'appliquant au mouvement
des particules se déplaçant dans les champs électromagnétiques et gravitationnels. De plus,
l'étude des mouvements d'une particule douée de moment de rotation intrinsèque, n'a pas été
entreprise dans ce contexte par Landau et Lifshitz. C'est pourquoi un exposé séparé du livre
a été entièrement consacré à ce type de mouvement particulier. Les auteurs ont également
ajouté un chapitre redéfinissant les éléments d'algèbre tensorielle et d'analyse dans le
cadre des invariants chronométriques. L'ensemble de cet ouvrage se présente alors comme
une contribution supplémentaire à la "Théorie des Champs".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1011.0052 [pdf]**
*replaced on 22 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** G. V. Sharlanov

**Comments:** 13 pages

The change of the units between two "time-spatial domains" with different
gravitational potentials is analyzed in the article, as a consequence of the nature of
space and time which are mutually connected with each other in the warped spacetime
of the Universe.
The main topic of the article is:
New definition of the postulate "invariance of the speed of light" - "uncertainty
principle of the macro-world".
Other topics concerned:
The change of the SI base units (second and metre) and the speed of light in
the Gravitational Field are analyzed while discussing of the article of Albert
Einstein "On the Influence of Gravitation on the Propagation of Light".
The change of the SI base units (second and metre) in Field without Gravity
is analyzed, and then conclusion about Special Theory of Relativity is made.
new universal hierarchical structure of the SI System is proposed, where
the "second" and "metre" stay at the highest level. The main principle of the
hierarchical place of any unit is also proposed.
The consequences of this article directly reflect on cosmology and give explanations
of a lot of problems (such as: "the accelerated expansion of the Universe", "the
problem with the dark matter", etc.).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1011.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 21 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Shehrin Sayed

**Comments:** 4 pages

The expansion of the universe is proved to be an adiabatic process. The proposed idea shows good
agreement with the observable universe and can explain some basic characteristics of the universe. It is
also showed that the first kind of Friedmann model contradicts with the observable universe. The proposed
idea also indicates that the size of the universe is finite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1011.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 21 Dec 2010*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 10 pages

The IVBs (Intermediate Vector Bosons) are the field vectors (force carriers) of the weak force. The IVBs
reconstitute the very dense, early metric of spacetime (during the "Big Bang"), and their mass is the
probable consequence of the binding energy necessary to condense, compact, and/or convolute the
spacetime metric. Originally, the "W" IVBs were indistinguishable from the early dense metric of which
they were a part - the energy level of electroweak unification. The "Electroweak Era" existed from 10(-12)
to 10(-35) seconds after the Big Bang, when collision energy exceeded 100 GEV and the temperature
exceeded 10(15) Kelvins. During this time (a tiny fraction of a second in human terms) the whole of
spacetime - the whole Cosmos - was in effect a single huge "W" IVB within which all the transitions of
"identity" within the lepton family of particles (including the heavy leptons), and all the transitions of
"flavor" within the quark family of particles (including quarks of the heavy baryons or "hyperons"), could
take place freely without restriction or energy barriers (quark and lepton families were unified among
themselves, but quarks remained separate from leptons.) (See: Brian Greene: "The Fabric of the Cosmos",
page 270, Knopf, 2004.)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1011.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 10 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Henry D. May

**Comments:** 7 pages

The cosmological model of Roland Omnès was abandoned more than 30 years ago because it
failed to show that coalescence was able to continue long enough to produce aggregations as large as the
masses of galaxies. It was also determined that a universe containing antimatter galaxies is inconsistent with
observations of cosmic annihilation radiation. This paper explores the implications of a simple assumption
that suggests a reevaluation of those objections is needed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1011.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 7 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Leonid I. Filippov

**Comments:** 11 pages, 8 figures, In Russian

The mass point is moving along the circle of a radius at angular velocity of ω and interacts with
the spherical domain of 3.10^{26}m radius, with a uniform mass and 10^{-26} kg/m^{3}density. As a result of the treatment
we arrive at the formula for a centrifugal force F = m,ω^{2}.a.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1011.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Akindele O. J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 15 pages. Paper to appear in Progress in Physics vol.1, 2011, pp. 25-39.

The re-identification of the many-world background of the special theory of relativity
(SR) as four-world background in the first part of this paper (instead of two-wold
background isolated in the initial papers), is concluded in this second part. The flat
two-dimensional proper intrinsic spacetime, which underlies the flat four-dimensional
proper spacetime in each universe, introduced as ansatz in the initial paper, is derived
formally within the four-world picture. The identical magnitudes of masses, identical
sizes and identical shapes of the four members of every quartet of symmetry-partner
particles or objects in the four universes are shown. The immutability of Lorentz invariance
on flat spacetime of SR in each of the four universes is shown to arise as a
consequence of the perfect symmetry of relative motion at all times among the four
members of every quartet of symmetry-partner particles and objects in the four universes.
The The perfect symmetry of relative motions at all times, coupled with the
identical magnitudes of masses, identical sizes and identical shapes, of the members of
every quartet of symmetry-partner particles and objects in the four universes, guarantee
perfect symmetry of state among the universes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1011.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 6 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Akindele O. J. Adekugbe

**Comments:** 22 pages. Paper to appear in Progress in Physics, vol.1, 2011, pp. 3-24.

The pair of co-existing symmetrical universes, referred to as our (or positive) universe
and negative universe, isolated and shown to constitute a two-world background for
the special theory of relativity (SR) in previous papers, encompasses another pair of
symmetrical universes, referred to as positive time-universe and negative time-universe.
The Euclidean 3-spaces (in the context of SR) of the positive time-universe and the
negative time-universe constitute the time dimensions of our (or positive) universe and
the negative universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces of our
universe and the negative universe and the Euclidean 3-spaces of or our universe and
the negative universe constitute the time dimensions of the positive time-universe and
the negative time-universe respectively, relative to observers in the Euclidean 3-spaces
of the positive time-universe and the negative time-universe. Thus time is a secondary
concept derived from the concept of space according to this paper. The one-dimensional
particle or object in time dimension to every three-dimensional particle or object in
3-space in our universe is a three-dimensional particle or object in 3-space in the positive
time-universe. Perfect symmetry of natural laws is established among the resulting
four universes and two outstanding issues about the new spacetime/intrinsic spacetime
geometrical representation of Lorentz transformation/intrinsic Lorentz transformation
in the two-world picture, developed in the previous papers, are resolved within the larger
four-world picture in this first part of this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1011.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 4 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Lukasz Glinka

**Comments:** 12 pages, published in Prespacetime Journal 1(9), pp. 1395-1402 (November 2010)

The boson-phonon duality due to inflaton energy is presented in the context
of quantum universes discussed recently by the author. The duality leads
to bonons, i.e. the bosonic-phononic quantum universes. This state of things
manifestly corresponds to the Lewis-Kripke modal realism, and physical
presence of Multiverse in Nature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1011.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Juan Carlos Alcerro Mena

**Comments:** 11 pages

An unpublished observation made in the theory of relativity, reveals a reality of higher
spatial dimensions which implies a new model of matter, called equivalent photon model of
matter, which displays every particle with rest mass greater than zero, as a photon in a fourdimensional
space (without referring to the space-time). This gives an alternative derivation of
quantum physics, also can observe the reality behind special relativity, arise physical predictions
that not are covered by the existing physical theory and spontaneously arises the concept of fivedimensional
space-time, with its fourth spatial axis of compact type.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1011.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Royce Haynes

**Comments:** 11 pages, Paper 3 in series of 3, "Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm", submitted to Apeiron, November 2, 2010.

In the first paper in this series, we described a "cosmic fabric" which served as the birthplace of our
universe: spin-oriented hydrogen atoms at zero Kelvin in a matrix perhaps infinite and (almost) eternal. In
the second paper we described how a portion of the cosmic fabric ultimately condensed into a
Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC), the "primeval atom". In this third paper we describe the Big Bang itself, an
implosion-explosion event involving nuclear fusion of hydrogen into the primordial mix of elements. Using
the ZKBB model, one can calculate the approximate temperature of the Big Bang as 5.7 billion K. The
explosion fragmented the remaining BEC, propelling billions of fragments of "cosmic shrapnel" out from
the locus of the Big Bang, which ultimately evolved into the structures we see in our present universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1011.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Royce Haynes

**Comments:** 8 pages, Paper 2 in series of 3, "Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm", submitted to Apeiron, November 2, 2010.

In the first paper in this series, we described the logic suggesting a "cosmic fabric", which served as the
birthplace of our universe: a sparse distribution of spin-oriented hydrogen atoms at zero Kelvin, perhaps
infinite and (almost) eternal. This second paper describes how a portion of this cosmic fabric could have
condensed into a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC). This cold ball of highly concentrated matter may be the
"primeval atom", proposed by Georges Lemaître in 1931, as the starting point for our universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1011.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Nov 2010*

**Authors:** Royce Haynes

**Comments:** 13 pages, Paper 1 in series of 3, "Zero Kelvin Big Bang, an Alternative Paradigm", submitted to Apeiron, November 2, 2010.

This is the first in a series of papers describing an alternative paradigm for the history of the universe. The
Zero Kelvin Big Bang (ZKBB) theory is compared to the prevailing paradigm of the Standard Big Bang
(SBB), and challenges the notion that the universe is "all there is". Logic suggests that the Big Bang was
not a creation event, but that the universe did have a beginning: a "cosmic fabric" of pre-existing matter, in
pre-existing space. Instead, the ZKBB was a transitional event between that "beginning" and our present
universe. Extrapolating entropy back in time (as SBB does for matter and energy) and applying simple
logic suggests a "cosmic fabric" consisting of the simplest, stable particles of matter, at the lowest energy
state possible: singlet state, spin-oriented atomic hydrogen at zero Kelvin, at a density of, at most, only a
few atoms per cubic meter of space, infinite and (almost) eternal. Papers II and III in this series describe
formation of an atomic hydrogen Bose-Einstein condensate as Lemaître's primeval atom, followed by an
implosion-explosion Big Bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology