[33] **viXra:1301.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-02-03 08:45:07*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This is the French version of «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT» on viXra.

La théorie de la relativité d’Einstein sera mise à l’épreuve dans un environnement de microgravité par ACES-PHARAO. Une horloge à atomes froids sera installée en 2013 à l’extérieur du module spatial Columbus et rapportera des données avec une exactitude plus élevée que ce qui est accessible avec la gravité terrestre. Notre souhait est que l’effet Allais soit inclus dans son programme d'application. Cet effet est lié à une déviation inexpliquée du mouvement du pendule lors d’éclipses solaires. Pharao fournirait un moyen unique de chercher dans un référentiel d’éclipse une éventuelle variation de la constante G. La comparaison entre l’horloge spatiale et celles disponibles sur Terre permettrait de découvrir si le potentiel gravitationnel et la vitesse des stations terrestres sont toujours constants, si le principe d’équivalence comporte une faille. (Einstein's theory of relativity will be put to the test in a micro-gravitational environment by ACES/PHARAO. It is scheduled to be installed in 2013. The space will be studied by a new kind of atomic clock (Pharao) which will yield data accuracy much higher than what is attainable under earth’s gravitation. Our wish is that ACES includes the Allais effect in his application domain. This effect is related to an unexplained deviation of the plane of oscillation of the pendulum during solar eclipse. Pharao would provide a unique way to search a possible variation of the constant G in an eclipse framework. Frequency comparisons between distant clocks both space to-ground and ground-to-ground would allow, during the eclipse time interval, to discover if the gravitational potential and velocity of the ground stations are still constant, if the equivalence principle contains a flaw.)

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1301.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-30 11:29:40*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 7 Pages. «LA MISSION PHARAO/ACES ET L’EFFET ALLAIS» is the French version of «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT» on viXra.

La théorie de la relativité d’Einstein sera mise à l’épreuve dans un environnement de microgravité par Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES), mission de l’agence spatiale européenne (ESA) développée par les laboratoires scientifiques français sous maîtrise d’œuvre du Centre National D’Études Spatiales (CNES). Le Projet d'Horloge Atomique par Refroidissement d'Atomes en Orbite (PHARAO) est l’élément central de la mission européenne ACES constituée de plusieurs horloges atomiques. L’horloge à atomes froids sera installée en 2013 pendant 18 mois à l’extérieur du module européen Columbus de la Station spatiale internationale (ISS) et rapportera des données avec une exactitude beaucoup plus élevée que ce qui est accessible avec la gravité terrestre. La physique théorique, la métrologie et la conception de l'horloge atomique seront toutes partantes pour bénéficier de ce partenariat. Notre souhait est que ACES puisse inclure l’effet d'éclipse Allais dans son programme d'application. Cet effet est lié à une déviation exceptionnelle et inexpliquée du mouvement du pendule lors d’éclipses solaires. Pharao fournirait un moyen unique de chercher dans un référentiel d’éclipse une éventuelle variation de la constante G. La comparaison entre l’horloge spatiale et celles disponibles sur Terre, qui fonctionnent sur des transitions différentes et qui dépendent de façons diverses des constantes fondamentales, permettrait, pendant l'intervalle de temps de l’éclipse, de découvrir si le potentiel gravitationnel et la vitesse des stations terrestres sont toujours constants, si le principe d’équivalence comporte une faille.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1301.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-30 10:32:49*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Einstein's theory of relativity will be put to the test in a micro-gravitational environment by Atomic Clock Ensemble in Space (ACES), European Space Agency (Esa) mission developed in cooperation with the French Space Agency (CNES). It is scheduled to be installed in 2013 on board the International Space Station (ISS). The space will be studied by a new kind of atomic clock (Pharao) which will yield data accuracy much higher than what is attainable under earth’s gravitation. Theoretical physics, metrology and atomic clock design are all starters to benefit from this joint venture. Our wish is that ACES includes the Allais eclipse effect in his application domain. This effect is related to an unexplained deviation of the plane of oscillation of the pendulum during solar eclipse. Pharao, called a "cesium fountain clock", would provide a unique way to search a possible variation of the constant G in an eclipse framework. Frequency comparisons between distant clocks both space to-ground and ground-to-ground would allow, during the eclipse time interval, to discover if the gravitational potential and velocity of the ground stations are still constant, if the equivalence principle contains a flaw.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1301.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-06-17 02:39:42*

**Authors:** Guo Chenxi

**Comments:** 10 pages; 1 figure; 11 formula

The concept of matter is examined in plain nature-views; emphasize the identity of mass and energy; the intrinsic property of matter is electromagnetics; and the principle of constancy of light velocity is ubiquitous. For the above understanding of matter, reconsider the concept of force, hereby consolidate the fundamental relations between energy, inertial mass and gravitational mass, force, and momentum in mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1301.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-27 13:45:13*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

It’s well known Restricted Relativity (or Special) is held as a theory. Well, this is a typical example of lack of knowledge on what one has in one’s hands, and typical for the official science, or system science, if you like. All this is true, today more than ever, after the recent and awkward news on tachyon neutrinos (or superluminal, if you like), between CERN and OPERA. It’s not awkward for the experimental scientists who carried out that experiment, but rather for those theorists (very known, in most cases) who welcomed and applauded, without rejecting that extravagant news, as I did, on the contrary, on all blogs etc.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1301.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-27 21:57:34*

**Authors:** Robert Louis Kemp

**Comments:** 42 Pages. Copyright © 2013 - Super Principia Mathematica - The Rage to Master Conceptual & Mathematical Physics

This paper described a new algorithm, for “generalized mathematical formalism” of a “Spherically Symmetric Metric” ( ), that describes the Euclidean Metric, Minkowski Metric, Einstein Metric, or the Schwarzschild Metric; using Three (3) Metric Components & Three (3) Metric Coefficients; and likewise using a general algorithm which is composed of, Two (2) Metric Components & Two (2) Metric Coefficients.
In this paper a general introduction to basic mathematical concepts for the geometric description of Euclidean “Flat-Space” Geometry and Non-Euclidean “Curved-Space” Geometry, and Spherically Symmetric Metric equations which are used for describing the causality and motion of the “Gravitational” interaction between mass with vacuum energy space, and the mass interaction with mass.
This paper gives a conceptual and mathematical description of the differential geometry, of flat and curved space, space-time, or gravitational fields, using the “metric theory” mathematics of Euclidean, Minkowski, Einstein, and Schwarzschild, Spherically Symmetric metrics, and geodesic line elements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1301.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-27 09:12:36*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif, Mark Simpson, Aditya Kumar, Neil Bates, String Theory Development Research Group

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Some of the most popular topics in the Sting Theory Development Facebook group, which is one of the few facebook groups on facebook that is commited to doing research in the subject of theoretical physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1301.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-28 23:09:07*

**Authors:** David E. Rutherford

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We present a model that offers a resolution to the Horizon Problem of cosmology and eliminates the need for Inflation. It also suggests a possible new origin for the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation. In addition, this model eliminates the need to invoke Dark Energy and Dark Matter to explain the accelerated expansion of the universe. In essence, it implies that there is no accelerated expansion by fitting the model to Type 1a Supernovae and Gamma Ray Burst data with a reduced chi-square (goodness-of-fit) of 0.99, using only the Hubble constant as a parameter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1301.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-25 10:26:57*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is taught by the Big Bang Mathematical Religion that Earth is the center of the Universe. This is incorrect. It is known by real scientists that Earth is the center of what we observe in the universe. This means that it is the center of the observable universe. An elaboration of the differences is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1301.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-24 15:39:18*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The phenomenon of time dilation demands the existence of a field that supports the propagation of photons. Historical references identify this field as the luminiferous ether. I will call it the temporal-inertial field (TI field), because I may attribute properties to this field not obtained by classical versions of the luminiferous ether. Time dilation occurs when an ongoing process moves relative to space, relative to this ether, relative to this TI field. The greater the velocity of the process relative to space the greater is the time dilation experienced by that process. The rate at which a process is slowed or accelerated is intrinsic, absolute and depends solely on the velocity of the process relative to space. If space has no properties other than dimensionality, motion relative to that space is undefined and meaningless and can have no influence on any ongoing process. Accordingly I assert the existence of the so-called TI field that supports the propagation of photons and occupies and permeates all of space, including the space of atoms. The entire thrust of this paper is that geometry does not govern the physics of time dilation; motion relative to the TI field of space does.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1301.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-22 20:57:45*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif, Nasir Germain

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Research on the Higg Boson can lead to early discoveries of unknown subatomic particles in our universe or new forms of cosmic radiation. If this is the case, then the discovery would be one of the most revolutionary discoveries of our time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1301.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-21 21:18:22*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is hypothesized an Ockham’s Razor definition of matter so that science can be saved from mathematical fantasies and the collective insanity of those who teach that math is the language of some invisible being in the sky that created all matter via Big Bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1301.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-22 16:47:14*

**Authors:** Robert Louis Kemp

**Comments:** 44 Pages. Copyright © 2013 - Super Principia Mathematica - The Rage to Master Conceptual & Mathematical Physics

In this paper a general introduction to basic concepts for the geometric description of Euclidean “Flat-Space” Geometry and Non-Euclidean “Curved-Space” Geometry, and Spherically Symmetric Metric equations which are used for describing the causality and motion of the “Gravitational” interaction between mass with vacuum energy space, and the mass interaction with mass.
This paper gives a conceptual and mathematical description of the differential geometry, of flat and curved space, space-time, or gravitational fields, using the “metric theory” mathematics of Euclidean, Minkowski, Einstein, and Schwarzschild, Spherically Symmetric metrics, and geodesic line elements.
This paper postulates a “Vacuum Energy Perfect Fluid” model and a “Dark Matter Force and Pressure” associated with the Non-Euclidean Spherically Symmetric metric equations, and also gives a conceptual and mathematical description and rationale, for selecting the Schwarzschild Metric over the Einstein Metric, as a physical description of the gradient gravitational, field surrounding a localized net inertial mass/matter source.
This paper also gives a new generalized mathematical formalism for describing “Non-Euclidean” Spherically Symmetric Metrics, of space, space-time, or the gravitational field, using a generalized “Metric “Curvature” Coefficient”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1301.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-03-08 19:46:55*

**Authors:** Robert Louis Kemp

**Comments:** 44 Pages. Copyright © 2013 - Super Principia Mathematica – The Rage to Master Conceptual & Mathematical Physics

This paper postulates a “Dark Matter Force and Pressure” and also gives a conceptual and mathematical description for the reason for choosing a “Vacuum Energy Perfect Fluid” model, and using the Schwarzschild Metric over the Einstein Metric, based on the concept of whether there is “Zero Pressure” impressed upon the surface of the Black Hole Event Horizon; And likewise, whether the “Volume Mass Density” and the curvature of space, space-time, or the gravitational field, surrounding a matter source is normal throughout the gradient of a gravitational field, or whether it is rarefied/condensed through the gradient of a gravitational field, and eventually becomes normal far away from the matter source. In this paper a general introduction into the basic concepts of a “Perfect Fluid” gravitation theory, and this bodes for the necessity of Non-Euclidean “Curved-Space” Geometry, and Spherically Symmetric Metrics, used for describing causality for “Gravitational” interaction of mass with space or “isotropic aether” space-time, and mass interaction with mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1301.0126 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-21 20:33:11*

**Authors:** Adam G. Freeman

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Many of the profound ideas in nature manifest themselves as symmetries. Everything in physics that has been observed to date has a symmetrical opposite but equal property except for gravitational attraction. If antimatter is revealed to be gravitationally repulsive to matter through experimentation, then the equal and opposite of gravitational attraction or anti-gravity will be established. This paper reveals that if antimatter is in fact repulsive to matter as it should be according to a CPT transformation of the Einstein field equations for general relativity, then it has a pseudo-spherical volume mathematically. This paper first discusses the familiar Schwarzschild solution to emphasize how that leads to Newton’s law of gravitational attraction. Then we discuss the CPT transformation of the Einstein field equations in the context of the Schwarzschild solution and how this leads to a repulsion between matter and anti-matter and how this repulsion is in sync with a pseudo-spherical geometry. Finally we discuss antimatter to antimatter attraction in general relativity and conclude with how this new derivation that is analogous to the Schwarzschild solution is important for physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1301.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-20 15:35:38*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, discover the new system that is concerned about Rindler coordinate theory. In this time, .The new system uses the tetrad on the new method and it discovers the new inverse-coordinate transformation of the new system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1301.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-20 12:53:49*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The answers to some of the greatest and biggest unawnsered problems in physics itself.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1301.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-19 00:13:09*

**Authors:** David E. Rutherford

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Several applications of this article can be found at http://www.softcom.net/users/der555/

In special relativity, spacetime can be described as Minkowskian. We intend to show that spacetime, as well as the laws of electromagnetism, can be described using a four-dimensional Euclidean metric as a foundation. In order to formulate these laws successfully, however, it is necessary to extend the laws of electromagnetism by replacing the Maxwell tensor with an electric field four-vector. In addition, to assure the covariance of the new laws, we introduce equations that, completely, replace the Lorentz transformation equations and Lorentz group. The above replacements, we believe, lead naturally to a unification of the electromagnetic field with the gravitational and nuclear fields. We introduce, also, a new mathematical formalism which facilitates the presentation of our laws.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1301.0098 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-16 12:35:32*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Fourteen Pages

Dr. D. Sasso of Italy has just published two new papers: THE STABILITY OF ELECTRODYNAMIC PARICLES: THE DELTA RADIATION and THE PHYSICAL NATURE OF MESONS AND THE PRINCIPLE OF DECAY IN THE NON – STANDARD MODEL Dr. Sasso introduces some interesting new ideas including the Non-Standard Model. We are also joined this month my Harry H. Ricker as well as papers by your Editor, Glenn A. Baxter and another by Robert McCoy regarding the Higgs Boson plus a guest editorial by Sue Lange regarding the NPA, the Natural Philosophy Alliance.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1301.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-16 01:42:36*

**Authors:** Michael Emerson

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A number of papers and scientist have said that in the multiverse there are multiple you, and they play out every possible cosmic history, this paper is an attempt to prove this unlikely.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1301.0095 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-05-21 14:34:04*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 4 Pages. published in the Hadronic Journal, 36(3) 2013 pp345-348

Einstein gave two conflicting interpretations of the Lorentz
transformation for time, τ=t√(1-v2/c2), applied to a moving clock. The
first was as a coordinate transformation, which was the basis of its
derivation. The second was as a physical slowing effect on the moving
clock caused solely by its motion relative to a stationary reference clock.
These interpretations are not independent. That is, the Lorentz
coordinate transformation cannot be applied during the clock’s time of
motion without correcting for the lack of synchronization between the
moving and stationary clocks resulting from the slowing of the moving
clock. Otherwise, the Lorentz transformation gives an incorrect result.
In addition, the interpretation as a physical effect has seemingly
insurmountable logical difficulties, as it subjects the moving clock to a
physical slowing dependent upon an arbitrary inertial reference frame,
and which is therefore indeterminable. This interpretation is supported
by questionable experimental evidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1301.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-14 23:28:06*

**Authors:** John G. Hartnett

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Published in New Advances in Physics 2(2):115-123, 2008

Electromagnetism is analyzed in a 5D expanding universe. Compared to the usual 4D description of electrodynamics it can be viewed as adding effective charge and current densities to the universe that are static in time. These lead to effective polarization and magnetization of the vacuum, which is most significant at high redshift. Electromagnetic waves propagate but group and phase velocities are dispersive. This introduces a new energy scale to the cosmos. And as a result electromagnetic waves propagate with superluminal speeds but no energy is transmitted faster than c.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1301.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-12 05:31:16*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Poincare and Einstein supposed that it is practically impossible to determine one-way speed of light, that’s why speed of light in different ways may differ. They also supposed that till there is no the experiment which would depend on the value of one-way speed of light, it is possible to consider that all one-way speeds of light are equal to two-way speed of light. It is offered the explanation of the experiment connected with “Red shift” with the aid of one-way speed of light, therefore it is shown the dependence on magnitude of one-way speed of light. Mechanics is set up based on the unidirectional speeds of light. For example, the experiment of Michelson-Morley is explained with the aid of this mechanics. The cause of the inception of Fitzgerald contraction is explained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1301.0060 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-07 08:59:30*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

It is well-known from the classical mechanics that there exists relation between the metric tensor and the effective mass tensor of the body (EMT). We have introduced the concept of the EMT in the General Relativity and we have found that there exists similar relation between the metric tensor and the EMT for the moving body in a weak gravitational field. We propose the an experimental verification of our considerations.
We compared a few physical features concerning of the space-time curvature with the physical fea-tures of the EMT and the result of this comparisons are presented in the form of a table in this paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1301.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-09 19:17:34*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana, B.V.S.T. Sai

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper an attempt is made to understand the basic unified concepts of gravity, electromagnetism, nuclear charge radius, cosmic geometry; cosmic mass density, cosmic thermal energy density and cosmic red shift. The four key assumptions are : 1) Planck’s constant increases with cosmic time. 2) Being a primordial evolving black hole and angular velocity being H_t, universe is always rotating with light speed. 3) Atomic gravitational constant is squared Avogadro number times the classical gravitational constant and 4) Avogadro number is discrete and hence the atomic gravitational constant is discrete. This may be the root cause of discrete nature of revolving electron’s potential energy. Finally it can be suggested that current cosmological changes may be reflected in any existing atom.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1301.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-24 09:13:03*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 4 Pages. 1 color figure, fixed sign in equation 27, misc edits, quote possibly misattributed to Einstein

The modified cosmological model (MCM) is explored in the context of general relativity. A flaw in the ADM positive-definiteness theorem is identified. We present an exposition of the relationship between Einstein's equations and the precessing classical oscillator. Kaluza theory is applied to the MCM and we find a logical motivation for the cylinder condition which leads to a simple mechanism for AdS/CFT.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1301.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-01-25 06:38:29*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Galilean (and Einstein’s) invariance principle gives significance to the relative motion of reference frames (observers). And it states that the laws of physics do not vary in reference frames that are in relative uniform-rectilinear motion and vary if the reference frames are accelerated. Therefore all inertial frames are in uniform-rectilinear motion relative to each other. This paper presents a new principle that gives significance to the relative motion of physical systems (e. g the solar system) and not to reference frames. It shifts the focus from the motion of reference frames (observers) to the motion of the physical systems to be observed. It states that the laws of mechanics and gravity (in their simplest or complex forms) are the same in physical systems that are at rest relative to each other and vary if there is relative motion between the two systems. This implies the validity of absolute reference frames in which the laws of mechanics are in their simplest forms. The laws of mechanics (and gravity) are independent of the choice or relative motion of reference frames. Therefore, we can use any reference frame provided that we know its motion relative to the physical system or relative to an absolute reference, with the same result for all reference frames; however, we can use reference frames attached to the physical systems for convenience (for example to the centre of the sun for the solar system). An observer should not attempt to apply the laws of mechanics before knowing his /her state of motion relative to an absolute reference or relative to the physical system to be observed. The relative motion of physical systems has kinetics effect, whereas the relative motion of reference frames (observers) has only kinematics effect. Inertial frames may be redefined as: All inertial frames are at rest relative to each other. Thus a frame which is in motion relative to an inertial (absolute) frame is not an inertial frame. All real motion has a cause and hence we can differentiate between real and illusionary motions. Motion without a cause is not a real motion. This is obviously an opposing view to relativity.
A thought experiment with two identical solar systems and two observers is presented to show that the laws of mechanics and gravity are not the same in physical systems that are in relative motion.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1301.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-25 20:04:15*

**Authors:** John Shim

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has been superseded by "On the Lorentz Transformations"

The Lorentz transformations are not true coordinate transformations as Einstein derives them.
That is, they do not represent a one-to-one mapping of a single set of coordinate values in one
coordinate system onto another set in an identical coordinate system moving at a constant
velocity relative to the first. Rather, they represent a mapping of an average of two sets of
coordinate values from the first coordinate system onto a single set of values in the second. If
the measurement system used in an experiment is inconsistent with Einstein’s averaging method,
then the Lorentz transformations will give incorrect results. A simple example is given of a
photon-emitting clock moving at a constant velocity, v, in a straight line between two photon
detectors. The time of travel of the clock between detectors measured by the front detector
would be t = τ, and by the rear detector would be t = τ (1-v/(c+v)). The Lorentz transformation
gives a value of t = τ / √(1-v2/c2) for both detectors. It is also noted that the Lorentz
transformations give results inconsistent with the coordinates of photons in a light pulse of the
form c2t2-x2-y2-z2=0, when measured in an inertial reference frame different from that of the
source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1301.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-05 12:51:18*

**Authors:** Moishe Garfinkle

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Cosmologists such Sakharov, Alfvén, Klein, Weizsäcker, Gamow and Harrison all disregarded the distribution of baryons and antibaryons immediately prior to freeze-out in trying to elucidate the circumstances that explained hadron distribution in the early universe. They simply accepted a uniform distribution: each baryon paired with an antibaryon. Their acceptance of this assumption resulted in theoretical difficulties that could not be overcome. This essay discards this assumption of homogeneity or uniformity. Although this essay does deal with early-universe matters, it is not meant to indicate any involvement in energy distribution functions nor in any symmetry-asymmetry controversies. Cluster formation is strictly geometric. This essay has value as far as problems early cosmologists faced but also should complete the historic record.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1301.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-03 15:05:36*

**Authors:** Andrew Nassif, Thomas Zolotor

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Typical classifications, group theory, and physics theories in this paper are provided by Andrew Nassif. FHB classifications, and candals surveys are provided by Thomas Zolotor

FHB galaxies are faint hubble blob galaxies, which are named because of their unusually large distance from the milk way and from the hubble's telescope reach of view.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1301.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-05 04:45:26*

**Authors:** Amine Benachour

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Based on the Euclidian concept of distance and velocity, we propose a thought experiment which shows that if the clocks carried by two observers in a uniform linear motion, don't indicate the same time, their relative velocities will necessarily be different.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1301.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-01-11 21:42:04*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Journal Ref: Hadronic J. 36(5), 555-563 (2013)

The gravitational energy, momentum, and stress are calculated for the Robertson-Walker metric.
The principle of energy conservation is applied, in conjunction with the Friedmann equations. Together, they show that the cosmological constant is non-zero, the curvature index k = 0, and the acceleration is positive. It is shown that the gravitational field accounts for two-thirds of the energy in the Universe. Keywords: dark energy = gravitational energy

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1301.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-01-03 08:01:07*

**Authors:** Marcelo Carvalho; Alexandre Lyra de Oliveira

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

We present two models combining some aspects of the Galilei and the Special Relativity that leads to a unification of both relativities. This unification is founded on a reinterpretation of the absolute time
of the Galilei relativity that is considered as a quantity in its own and not as mere reinterpretation of
the time of the Special relativity in the limit of low velocity. In the first model, the Galilei relativity
plays a prominent role in the sense that the basic kinematical laws of Special relativity, e.g. the Lorentz
transformation and the velocity law, follows from the corresponding Galilei transformations for the position
and velocity. This first model also provides a new way of conceiving the nature of relativistic spacetime where
the Lorentz transformation is induced by the Galilei transformation through an embedding of 3-dimensional
Euclidean space into hyperplanes of 4-dimensional Euclidean space. This idea provides the starting point for
the development of a second model that leads to a generalization of the Lorentz transformation, which includes,
as particular cases, the standard Lorentz transformation and transformations that apply to the case of
superluminal frames.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology