[32] **viXra:1403.0979 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-01 10:35:56*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 11; UK English; Freelance scientist.

NEGATIVE ENERGY particles.
From S. Hawking:- “Particle Creation of Black Holes" two quotes.
“ Just outside the event horizon there will be virtual pairs of particles, one with negative energy and one with positive energy.”
AND
“It should be emphasized that these pictures of the mechanism responsible for the thermal emission and area decrease are heuristic only and should not be taken too literally"
From a “standard physics point of view" the hypothetical NEGATIVE energy particle has, necessarily, other associated properties.
# = breaks “standard physics point of view" laws.
[A] Negative energy :: (1) # negative Kelvin temperature!
[B] Negative mass :: (1) # negative mass, which cannot be anti-matter because it has positive mass!
[C] Negative velocity (The space distance & time is self-referenced to the NEGATIVE energy particle.)
[C1] Negative space :: (1) # negative space distance, where all “normal space" has positive space distances.
[C2] Negative time :: (1) # negative time difference, where all “normal time" has positive time difference.
I suppose that tacyons would fit into the [C] category, but I’m not aware of any observation confirming the existence of [A], [B] or [C]. Of course the “standard physics point of view" does not apply inside a black hole! Theoretically, nothing but tacyons could escape from a black hole!
NEGATIVE INERTIA particles.
I, somewhat cynically, posit a similar NON-“standard physics point of view" property of matter [impossible in my understanding of the laws of physics]:-
NEGATIVE INERTIA particles.
[BUT, it does have some predicted properties that are compatible with experimental observations!]
Basic consequences
[1] If a group of negative inertia “particles” were hit by another they would go flying off in all directions immediately. [Normal matter would tend to have a “stay in the same place" tendency.]
[2] From the above, the negative inertia matter would not “clump together.
[3] It would be spread evenly, like a gas, throughout the universe.
[4] The negative inertia would also apply to how easy it is to add [or remove] angular momentum to [or from] a spinning body.
Possible assumptions (A) & conclusions (C)
[A1] It would be pushed away by photon pressure from stars & the accretion discs of galactic black holes much easier than normal matter.
[C1] The inner parts of galaxies would be emptied of negative inertia matter. The outer reaches of galaxies would have the “I want to go faster” type of negative inertia and, hence move faster!
[A2] Because the the negative inertia matter is so evenly and, hence “thinly” spread throughout the universe, its influence only becomes more noticeable as cosmic expansion increases. From our “newest time = greatest expansion", “localised viewpoint" of our universe we would see the greatest cosmic expansion around us.
[C2] [The normal matter is “spread out thinner & thinner” with time and also the greatest effect of negative inertia, because the negative inertia matter is initially, spread out fairly evenly [like a gas.]. The “I want to go faster” type negative inertia matter could cause the increased expansion of the universe. It would have a “pushing apart”, “increased velocity” effect!
[C3] The negative inertia matter could account for increased star rotation speeds on edges of galaxies and dark energy too. It’s an unexplored aspect of exotic matter!
[C4] The negative inertia matter could be viewed as “dark matter” or “shadow matter”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1403.0978 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-31 21:51:21*

**Authors:** Shalender Singh, Vishnu Priya Singh Parmar

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Lorentz transformations and special theory of relativity have existed for more than a century and mathematics related to them has been used and applied for innumerous times. Relativistic energy and relativistic momentum equations have been derived and proven to be conserved if energy/momentum transaction is seen from different frames of reference. The set of permissible inertial reference frame velocities from where the energy and momentum of a closed system of particles may be observed to be conserved forms a ball in the velocity vector space. In this paper we use the existing equations of special theory of relativity and Lorentz transformations and the mathematical structure of the observation velocity space to prove that the conservation of kinetic energy implies the conservation of momentum. We also prove that the conservation of momentum implies the conservation of kinetic energy. We further derive many more linearly independent conservation equations directly from the conservation of energy/ momentum. The derivation of the conservation of kinetic energy from the conservation of momentum implies that either potential energy has a momentum thus made of inertial particles or there cannot be a net conversion of potential energy to kinetic energy. Furthermore the existence of many equations lead to extremely strict form of transfers of energy and momentum. It highly restricts the set of states particles in any closed system can assume without changing the overall energy of the system. This has a strong impact on the particle mechanics and as an example we show that the relativistic explanation of the elastic collision of particles striking each other as used by Einstein in the 1934 two blackboard derivation of mass and energy is itself inconsistent and wrong.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1403.0973 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-04 02:00:54*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 33 pages. American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 3, No. 4, 2014, pp. 152-167. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20140304.12

As a result of integration of the equations of motion with regard to the pressure field and acceleration field the system’s integral energy-momentum 4-vector is found. It is shown that this vector in the covariant theory of gravitation must be equal to zero. This allows us to explain the 4/3 problem and the problem of neutrino energy in an ideal spherical supernova collapse. At the same time, in order to describe the system’s state, instead of the integral 4-vector we must use the four-momentum, which is derived from the Lagrangian. The described approach differs substantially from the results of the general theory of relativity, in which the integral 4-vector serves as the system’s four-momentum, and the stress-energy tensor of the gravitational field is replaced by the corresponding pseudotensor.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1403.0966 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-28 18:21:30*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

These notes constitute a supplement to my paper ‘The Theological Basis of Big Bang Cosmology and the Failure of General Relativity’ and should therefore be read after that paper.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1403.0961 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-28 10:23:00*

**Authors:** Leonid Filippov

**Comments:** 41 Pages. in Russian

Lorentz transforms are derived and electrodynamic and optical effects of Special theory of relativity. A known formula for centrifugal force of inertia, which is a consequence of the emergence of gravitational interaction of the test body with all bodies of the Universe, is deduced. This corresponds to Mach’s principle, explaining the equivalence of inertial and gravitational masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1403.0953 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 19:22:55*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 11 Pages. This paper appeared in WSPC - Proceedings THE PHYSICS OF REALITY: SPACE, TIME, MATTER, COSMOS, VIGIER VIII - BCS 2012

It is shown in this paper that the Big Bang Cosmology has its basis in theology, not in science, that it pertains to a Universe entirely filled by a single spherically symmetric continuous indivisible homogeneous body and therefore models nothing, that it violates the physical principles of General Relativity, that it violates the conservation of energy, and that General Relativity itself violates the usual conservation of energy and momentum and is therefore in conflict with experiment on a deep level, rendering Einstein’s conception of the
physical Universe and the gravitational field invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1403.0949 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-27 12:34:23*

**Authors:** Helmut Söllinger

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The author's starting point is the axiom that the product of particle masses and the gravitational constant is constant and that the masses of the proton and the electron would increase while the gravitational constant would reduce over time. With this assumption, the author manages to explain the cosmic redshift without presupposing an expansion of the cosmos.
He presents an underlying relation between the fundamental natural constants, the Hubble constant and the two particle masses, which would describe in quantitative terms not just the beginning, but also – and this is what is momentously new about this model – the end of the universe as we know it. Via a mathematical link, the temporal change in the gravitational constant and the particle masses is described in relation to the Hubble constant. In this context, attention must also be paid to the way in which the change of the electron mass affects the definition of the SI units for length and time.
In addition, the author uses an analogy between magnetism and electricity in which the electron and the proton are considered as the two ends of an electrical dipole string. He develops a model for the elementary unit of the so-called dark matter through which the rotation characteristics of galaxies can be explained.
On the basis of this assumed fundamental relation, the author quantifies the mass and length of the supposed elementary electrets, thus estimating the number of elementary electrets that should cross a typical galaxy. With his model, the author is the first to design a concrete and compact proposal for solving the greatest mysteries of cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1403.0938 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-26 05:11:46*

**Authors:** Wan-Chung Hu

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

This study is to describe the defintion of space, time, light, and development of grand unified theories. Space has its smallest unit. Time is actually the inverse of unit space oscillation. Light is electromagnetic wave as well as gravitational wave. Light frequency can decicide unit space oscillation. By linking Stefan's law to Larmor formula, we can get a grand unified theory including electric field, magnetic field, gravity field(acceleration), momentity field(spinity/impelity filed)(angular momentum/linear momentum) and heat/temperature field. This equation is also the equation for heat-light transformation. Yukawa field can replace the electromagnetic fields to explain strong and weak force. Thus, all force fields are united!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1403.0919 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-24 07:18:57*

**Authors:** Richard L. Amoroso

**Comments:** 12 Pages. From 8th Vigier Symposium proceedings, "The Physics of Reality: Space, Time, Matter, Cosmos"

Newton claimed the influence of gravity is instantaneous; Einstein insisted no influence could propagate faster than the speed of light.
Recent experiments to test the speed of gravity have been controversial and inconclusive on technical grounds. Considerable effort is
currently expended in the search for a Quantum Gravity; but there is no a priori reason there should be one. We propose that is not the
regime of integration which instead occurs in the arena of the Unified Field, UF; further that a completed model of Geometrodynamics
inherently includes a Newton/Einstein duality which introduces shock effects in certain arenas. The unified theory predicts that there is
no graviton of the usual phenomenal form (an artifact of the incompleteness of Gauge Theory, i.e. gauge theory is only an approximation
suggesting new physics). A new Large Scale Additional Dimensional (LSXD) M-Theoretic topological charge alternative is presented.
We also attempt to show how the Titius-Bode Law for solar and exoplanetary configurations appears to provide indicia of this
multiverse gravitational model. Applications of the dual geometrodynamics formulation include an interpretation of quasar luminosity as
the result of gravitational shock waves in a manner countering explanations of large redshift, Z in Big Bang cosmology putatively based
on Doppler recession. Instead redshift occurs as the result of a periodic minute photon mass anisotropy caused by periodic coupling to a
covariant polarized Dirac vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1403.0490 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-21 07:39:23*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Nothing is still in this Universe ant there is also another alternative relativity, for those objects which look not moving.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1403.0388 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-10 20:45:52*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Minor correction re alpha decay

The discovery that the electron current fluctuations through Zener diode pn junctions in
reverse bias mode, which arise via quantum barrier tunnelling, are completely driven by
space fluctuations, has revolutionised the detection and characterisation of gravitational
waves, which are space fluctuations, and also has revolutionised the interpretation of
probabilities in the quantum theory. Here we report very simple and cheap table-top
gravitational wave experiments using Zener diode detectors, and reveal the implications
for the nature of space and time, and for the quantum theory of “matter”, and the
emergence of the “classical world” as space-induced wave function localisation. The
dynamical space posses an intrinsic inflation epoch.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1403.0387 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-04-03 17:42:58*

**Authors:** Reginald T Cahill

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The discovery that the electron current fluctuations through Zener diode $pn$ junctions in reverse bias mode, which arise via quantum barrier tunnelling, are completely driven by space fluctuations, has revolutionised the detection and characterisation of gravitational waves, which are space fluctuations, and also has revolutionised the interpretation of probabilities in the quantum theory. Here we report new data from the very simple and cheap table-top gravitational wave experiment using Zener diode detectors, and reveal the implications for the nature of space and time, and for the quantum theory of ``matter", and the emergence of the ``classical world" as space-induced wave function localisation. The dynamical space posses an intrinsic inflation epoch with associated fractal turbulence: gravitational waves, perhaps as observed by the BICEP2 experiment in the Antarctica.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1403.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-20 22:39:22*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** 4 pages; mostly font 11; A4 paper; UK English; Freelance scientist.

This looks at black holes from a different viewpoint. The black holes and normal space are viewed as two parts to a single closed system.
the ideas are:-
[1] As electrons and protons have mass they cannot travel at the velocity of light. This would mean that there must be three event horizons.
(a) The electro-magnetic event horizon.
(b) The electron - positron event horizon
(c) The proton - anti-proton event horizon
[2] If a black hole is in empty space the only influence is that the pairs formed from virtual particles are pulled apart at the last two event horizons. The infalling particles will have more kinetic energy than the emitted particles.
From the E = m * c^2 equivalence principle,
the kinetic energy differences will add mass to the black hole.
[3] Infalling photons should gain energy from the gravity gradient and the “emitted” photon (Hawking radiation from inside the e - p event horizon) should lose energy because of the gravity gradient. Overall photons falling into the black hole would have higher photonic energy than the “emitted” photons.
the photon energy differences will add mass to the black hole.
[2] & [3] = The original mass of the black hole does not reduce! [Unless bombarded with antimatter!]
[4] Black holes have a massive “footprint” in our “normal space” [NS].
Because of this we must consider black holes & “normal space” together, as two parts of “closed system” both from a thermodynamic and a quantum point of view.
Properties in & around black holes, including polarisation [polarization] of the cosmic microwave background radiation, are considered from this new viewpoint.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1403.0308 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-20 03:50:42*

**Authors:** Mustafa Salti

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Eur.Phys.J. Plus (2014) 129:42

In literature, a large number of approaches have been done to reconstruct the potential and dynamics of the scalar fields by establishing a connection between holographic/Ricci/new agegraphic/ghost energy density and a scalar eld model of dark energy. In most of these attempts, the analytical form of the potentials in terms of the scalar eld have not been reconstructed due to the complexity of the equations involved. In the present work, we establish a correspondence between ghost dark energy and quintessence, tachyon and dilaton scalar eld models in anisotropic Bianchi type-I universe to reconstruct the dynamics of these scalar fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1403.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-20 03:53:06*

**Authors:** Mustafa Salti

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Commun. Theor. Phys. 61 (2014) 171–176.

In the present study, using the Fourier analyze method and considering the Bianchi-type I spacetime, we investigate
the dynamics of photon in the torsion gravity, and show that the free-space Maxwell equations give the same results.
Furthermore, we also discuss the harmonic oscillator behavior of the solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1403.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-20 03:57:40*

**Authors:** Mustafa Salti

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Int.J.Theor.Phys. 52 (2013) 4583-4591

The main goal of the present work is to investigate the validity of the second law of gravitational
thermodynamics in an expanding Godel-type universe filled with generalized Chaplygin gas interacting
with cold dark matter. By assuming the Universe as a thermodynamical system bounded by the
apparent horizon, and calculating separately the entropy variation for generalized Chaplygin gas,
cold dark matter and for the horizon itself, we obtained an expression for the time derivative of the
total entropy. We conclude that the 2nd law of gravitational thermodynamics is conditionally valid
in the cosmological scenario where the generalized Chaplygin gas interacts with cold dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1403.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-19 14:56:28*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Diagram with text presents major stages of the gravitational take-over of the electromagnetic metric and its functions at increasing matter densities and local gravitational field strengths.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1403.0290 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-24 05:57:49*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla, Usha Raut

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

An attempt is made to simulate the curved space-time of General Relativity by comparison with the characteristics of a potential vortex at steady state sometimes called a free vortex. In this paper, we present results of our study of the potential vortex as an analogy with gravity and General Relativity. Analyses of potential vortex characteristics demonstrate that an analogy exists between potential vortex flow, General Relativity and the gravitational fields around massive objects. An analogue model of gravity is developed which simulates the potential vortex model of space-time observed by Gravity Probe-B experiments. Statements by Gravity Probe-B researchers that the region around Earth resembles a “space-time vortex” lend credibility to the premise of this paper that potential vortex flow and gravity are related. Albert Einstein introduced the first analogue model for General Relativity that describes space-time as a membrane upon which objects move along geodesics. Analogue models provide a unique and viable means of analyzing complex space-time in situations that would normally be beyond our means to explore using conventional methods. Further, by exploring the dynamics of the analogue model, we are able to recover the equivalent form of the Einstein field equation starting from the usual equations of hydrodynamics and vector dynamics and make predictions about space-time and gravity using these observations. An implication for the existence of an analogy between space-time and the potential vortex is the possibility that space-time can be considered a superfluid forming the surface of our universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1403.0219 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-03-18 07:07:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a
high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron –
proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1403.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-13 19:42:37*

**Authors:** Aleksandr V. Bukalov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Proc. 11-th Gamov Odessa Astronomical Conftrence, - Odessa,2011

It is shown, that the Earth biosphere main parameters, such as the alive matter total mass, the
DNA and peptides length, are connected with the observed Universe parameters. In particular,
the length of the integral genome DNA of the Earth biosphere is equal to the Hubble radius. The
consideration of humanity as the biosphere matter especial part provides us to value the human
mass limit and extremal quantity; the obtained results coincide with the ones, calculated by the
demography specialists. The obtained relations are explained by the author conception of the
synergistical evolutioning Universe, where the nonequilibrium structures, including the alive ones,
are created under the action of the observed energy forms as well as of the dark energy. The
connection between the biosphere and Universe parameters provides us to extend the Anthropic
principle notion as well as the observer conception because the biosphere is an adaptation tracing
system, which adjusts itself under the Universe evolution to be the one unit with it.
Keywords: biosphere, cosmological parameters, Hubble radius, DNA length, humanity mass, Earth biosphere
mass, Universe mass, Hubble radius, P. Dirac Big Numbers, ﬁne structure constant, synergetical Universe,
biospheres number in the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1403.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-13 23:16:44*

**Authors:** Hyoyoung Choi, Prabir Rudra

**Comments:** 23 pages, 16 figures

Departing from the abstract aversion of the concept of negative
mass (energy), we propose a pair creation model of the universe
taking into account the possibility of co-existence of both
positive and negative mass particles. Nature of negative mass has
been given a fair thought and the possible dynamics is studied.
The existence of negative mass has been theoretically justified.
The birth of the universe is explained and the future is predicted
using the pair creation model. Various cosmological problems have
been discussed and it has been shown that the model presents an
obvious solution to all of them. Einstein's field equations of
General Relativity have been modified in the light of the model.
The energy ratio of the components of the universe (matter, dark
matter and dark energy) is studied using the model and found to be
comparable with the experimental data obtained from WMAP and
Planck. Finally it is concluded that the model deserves a serious
consideration, given its consistency with the observational data.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1403.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-14 03:54:42*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I'm studying Bioscience externally with Charles Darwin University in Australia, and the textbook for this unit is "Essentials of Human Anatomy and Physiology" (Tenth Edition) by Elaine N. Marieb - Pearson Education Limited, 2014. In the textbook on p.35, Review Question 3 asks "Which is not essential to survival? (Water, Oxygen, Gravity, Atmospheric pressure, Nutrients)" Of course, the answer is supposed to be "gravity". For years, I've firmly believed (based on neglected theories of Einstein's, that I've built on) that gravity is as essential as any of the other items (without gravity, there would be no atoms and no water, oxygen, atmosphere etc.) My question is - If I'm asked this as a multiple choice in a test (meaning there'e no space for lengthy explanation), what should I do? Stick to the beliefs I've spent years developing, and get marked "wrong"? Or conform to tradition, answer "gravity" even though I don't want to, and get marked "right"?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1403.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-06-07 23:11:27*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Principle of Equivalence is a central concept of Einstein's theory of gravitation, which makes generally covariant presentation of that theory extremely convenient for working out and communicating its dynamical detail. Weinberg has pointed out, however, that part of the base physics content of the theory, e.g., its overall stress-energy and conserved four-momentum, is inaccessible to formulations which maintain strict general covariance. Feynman, whose lectures on gravitation initially pursue an order-by-order construction of the theory, as a by-product arrived at a revelatory insight into the dynamical character of the gravitational field that reaches one step beyond Weinberg's not yet theory-stipulating separation of the Einstein tensor into its physically dissimilar linear and nonlinear parts. While Einstein's gauge-imposition of a local conservation principle is a common theme in physical theory, permitting it to spill over into outright solution nonuniqueness clearly isn't acceptable classical physics. Thus stipulation of Feynman's gravitational Lorentz condition, which pins down the dynamical character of the gravitational field, is fundamental to physically sensible application of Einstein's gravity theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1403.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-26 08:04:04*

**Authors:** Aleksandr V. Bukalov

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Physics of consciousness and life, Cosmology and Astrophysics. — 2011. — № 4. — P. 49–53.

It is shown that 160-minute oscillations of luminosity of the Sun and some quasars, found out by a series of researchers, could be explained within the bounds of superconducting cosmology (SCC) as the oscillations of the primary Higgs vacuum, which remained in the present Universe. The anthropic consequences of existence of such oscillations are discussed.
Key words: vacuum, superconducting cosmology, Higgs field, Anthropic Principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1403.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-26 08:15:17*

**Authors:** Aleksandr V. Bukalov

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Physics of consciousness and life, Cosmology and Astrophysics. — 2013. — № 3. — P. 10–11.

The problem of coincidence of cosmic values is discussed. It is shown that in the modern era, at z = 0, on the basis of collaboration PLANCK data, the ratio between the density of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the critical density of the universe holds with high accuracy. Such ratio, as well as other unexplained in the standard Friedmann cosmology, is well explained in the cosmological model with superconductivity (CMS), previously proposed by the author.
Keywords: cosmology, microwave radiation, coincidence problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1403.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-10 04:42:23*

**Authors:** Miroslaw J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the papers [1, 2] we presented the concept of the effective mass tensor (EMT) in General Relativity (GR). According to this concept under the influence of the gravitational field the bare mass tensor becomes the EMT. The concept of the EMT is a new physical interpretation of GR, where the curvature of space-time has been replaced by the EMT. In this paper we consider again the concept of the EMT in the GR but in the aspect of Newton’s bucket argument.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1403.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-02 07:54:01*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we define the accelerated frame that moves in -axis in the curved space-time. And we calculate the curvature tensor of the stationary accelerated frame in the gravity field. In this time, the curvature tensor divide the observational curvature tensor of the people and the curvature tensor of the people’s self on the planet in the gravity field

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1403.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-05 11:29:08*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The present article proposes a theory of relativity which disentangles Einstein's relativistic approach from Lorentz's invariance principle, the latter being basically an Ether theory. This modification, termed Complete Relativity (CR) is justified both theoretically and experimentally. On the theoretical side it is argued, as done half a century ago by Herbert Dingle, that the inconsistency in Special Relativity theory (SR) is a result of Einstein's attempt to reconcile the theory with the Lorentz's electrodynamics. On the empirical side, questioning the adequacy of the Lorentz invariance principle is supported by numerous experimental results, attesting to symmetry-breaking at high enough energy, and by Quantum Gravity and other theories which allow for such breaking.
In part I of the theory, presented here, I focus is on relativistic time and space under conditions of uniform motion. Relaxing the constraint of SR's second axiom yields time and distance transformations in which the direction of relative movement with respect to an observer has dramatic effects. The derived time and distance expressions are tested using three different types of experiments: The seminal Michelson-Morley null experiment, the famous Frisch and Smith muon decay experiment, and recent quasi-luminal neutrino experiments. Tests of the theory, using the above mentioned experiments, shows that it succeeds in predicting all the reported results. In comparison, SR, which is known to predict the results of the first two types of experiments, fails completely in predicting the results of the quasi-luminal neutrino experiments. Because in the quasi-luminal neutrino experiment the neutrinos depart from a source laboratory and approach a detector laboratory, their results qualify as a crucial test for comparison between SR and CR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1403.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-05 02:39:35*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We consider physics of reference frames moving with any speed, starting from the inertial field. We point out the different physical behavior of electrodynamic systems with respect to other systems, due to the different physical meaning of mass. These considerations allow to define a generalized concept of field that materializes in the domain Space-Time-Mass where new equations of trasformations for reference frames are used. We define at last physical properties of differential forces of reaction in fields of force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1403.0023 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-27 03:17:14*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 36 pages. Jordan Journal of Physics. Vol. 9 (No. 1), pp. 1-30, (2016).

Based on the condition of relativistic energy uniqueness the calibration of the cosmological constant was performed. This allowed us to obtain the corresponding equation for the metric, to determine the generalized momentum, the relativistic energy, momentum and the mass of the system, as well as the expressions for the kinetic and potential energies. The scalar curvature at an arbitrary point of the system equaled zero, if the matter is absent at this point; the presence of a gravitational or electromagnetic field is enough for the space-time curvature. Four-potentials of the acceleration field and pressure field, as well as tensor invariants determining the energy density of these fields, were introduced into the Lagrangian in order to describe the system’s motion more precisely. The structure of the Lagrangian used is completely symmetrical in form with respect to the four-potentials of gravitational and electromagnetic fields and acceleration and pressure fields. The stress-energy tensors of the gravitational, acceleration and pressure fields are obtained in explicit form, each of them can be expressed through the corresponding field vector and additional solenoidal vector. A description of the equations of acceleration and pressure fields is provided.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1403.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-04 08:34:38*

**Authors:** Valentino Giudice

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this article I describe the five-dimensional model, a model having five dimensions: three space dimensions and two time dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1403.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-03-01 01:27:01*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven page letter

It is well known, that in some experiments, light exhibits ‘wave’ property; like interference and diffraction; whereas in other experiments, like photoelectric effect, it shows ‘particle’ nature. So, the physicists currently think in terms of ‘wave-particle-duality’ of light, their mutual exclusiveness, and complementarily. Here, in this paper, this ‘wave-particle-duality’ is explained; that at the frequencies of light, very narrow-band filtering, and generation of purely monochromatic light, of one Hz bandwidth, are not technically possible; so there is always some bandwidth and ‘line-width’, due to which the waves form wave-packets, localized in space, as ‘particles’. Then this familiarity with waves is applied to understand the observations of ‘cosmological red shift’.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology