Relativity and Cosmology

1408 Submissions

[32] viXra:1408.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-31 19:26:52

Brief Introduction of The Theory of System Relativity

Authors: Liu Taixiang
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Theory of System Relativity is based on the premise of the assumption of the quantization of matter and introduces a brand new view of matter in terms of "monism and dualism". In view of the serious contradictions existing among the current different branches of physical theories, the author conducts a preliminary study from the perspective of the Theory of System Relativity and attempts to incorporate the different branches of physical theories into the theoretical framework of the Theory of System Relativity. Especially to the general relativity and the quantum theory, the author takes his unique view that the two different theories may achieve unity although the serous contradictions existing between them. This book is a brand new way for matter principle. It can be used as a reference book for philosophy and fundamental physics research, and also be available for physics enthusiasts and relevant personnel.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31] viXra:1408.0240 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-25 01:49:53

Nonuniform Dust, Oppenheimer-Snyder, and a Singular Detour to Nonsingular Physics

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 14 Pages.

Oppenheimer and Snyder treated in "comoving coordinates" a finite-radius ball of self-gravitationally contracting dust whose energy density is initially static; this is incisively dealt with by use of Tolman's rarely-cited closed-form "comoving" metric solutions for all spherically-symmetric nonuniform dust distributions. Unaware of Tolman's general solutions, Oppenheimer and Snyder assumed that the uniform space-filling dust solution applies without modification to the interior of their dust ball, which is validated by Tolman's solutions. We also find that all nonuniform dust solutions which adhere to the Oppenheimer-Snyder initial conditions have a time-cycloid character that strikingly parallels Newtonian particle gravitational infall, and as well renders those solutions periodically singular. The highly intricate, and thus easily misapprehended, singular transformation of the Oppenheimer-Snyder dust-ball solution from "comoving" to "standard" coordinates is re-derived in detail; it reveals the completely nonsingular nature of the dust-ball metric in "standard" coordinates. Thus the periodically-singular quasi-Newtonian character of the "comoving" dust-ball metric is an artifact of the perceptibly unphysical "synthetic" nature of "comoving coordinates", whose definition requires the clocks of an infinite number of observers.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30] viXra:1408.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-31 13:42:28

Ondes de Choc Lumineuses Cosmiques

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 10 pages. «Ondes de choc lumineuses cosmiques» is the French version of «Cosmic Luminous Shock Waves» on

Nous émettons l’hypothèse de l’existence d’ondes de choc lumineuses susceptibles de participer à la formation de nuages et d’événements atmosphériques sévères. Ces ondes auraient la particularité d’être créées et modulées par le choc des rayons cosmiques galactiques avec les particules de la couronne solaire : les particules énergétiques du rayonnement cosmique, en collision avec les atomes de l’atmosphère solaire, les disloquent, avec le résultat que la vitesse de l’électron ultra-relativiste dans le plasma solaire peut être supérieure à la vitesse de la lumière dans ce milieu. Ce qui produirait un rayonnement secondaire d’intensité supérieure analogue à celui des ondes rayonnantes dans les liquides par effet Tcherenkov. Leur existence pourrait être liée à un phénomène visuel appelé « expérience de flashes lumineux » auquel tous les astronautes sont confrontés.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29] viXra:1408.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-31 09:48:30

Cosmic Luminous Shock Waves

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 9 Pages.

We hypothesize the existence of cosmic luminous shock waves which might participate in the formation of clouds and severe weather events. These waves would have the peculiarity to be created and modulated by the shock of the galactic cosmic rays with the particles of the solar corona: the energetic particles of cosmic rays collide with atoms of the solar atmosphere, shatter them, with the result that the velocity of the ultra-relativistic electron in the solar plasma might be greater than the speed of light in this medium. What would produce a secondary radiation of higher intensity analogous to that of the shock waves radiating in liquids by Cherenkov effect. Their existence may be linked to a visual phenomenon called «experience of bright light flashes» with which all the astronauts are confronted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[28] viXra:1408.0227 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-17 09:12:09

A Mix of Theory and Observation

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 18 Pages.

We present in this first part of the article a summary of the theories of Le Verrier, Stockwell and Laplace on the secular precession of the perihelion of the planets, especially Mercury, leaving part 2 a review of the theory of Mercury from Le Verrier, comments Newcomb on anomalies of Mercury and a description of how the observed values were obtained by Clemence, important reference cited by Weinberg. Also shown is one more hypothesis for the precession of the perihelion of Mercury, a decrease in the mass of the Sun, rather than an increase in the mass of the planets, similar to what has been done with the assumption of the solar wind. This new assumption, however, appears to be unnecessary before most important fact here presented. An exact theoretical value was classically obtained following the theory of Stockwell, based on planetary theory of Laplace, your Mécanique Céleste: we find 5600’',84 of arc per century for the angular velocity of the longitude of the perihelion of Mercury, dw/dt, adding to the precession of the equinoxes of the Earth to the beginning of the year 1850, as calculated by Stockwell.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27] viXra:1408.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-30 20:11:40

Note :Ajout au Papier « la Mission Pharao/aces et L Effet Allais »

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 2 Pages. This is the French version of Note added to paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT», on

Depuis que nous avons présenté le papier « LA MISSION PHARAO/ACES ET L’EFFET ALLAIS » en 2012, dans lequel nous demandions aux autorités scientifiques du projet Pharao de tenir compte de l’effet d’éclipse Allais, une information appréciable a été communiquée par la direction de Pharao à un de nos correspondants internet.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[26] viXra:1408.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-30 15:35:40

Note Added to Paper «THE Pharao/aces Mission and the Allais EFFECT»

Authors: Russell Bagdoo
Comments: 2 Pages. This is a Note added to paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT», org/abs/1301.0185 on viXra.

Since we submitted the paper «THE PHARAO/ACES MISSION AND THE ALLAIS EFFECT» in 2012, in which we asked to scientific authorities in charge of the Pharao project to consider the Allais eclipse effect, significant information concerning the Allais eclipse effect was provided to one of our Internet correspondents by the direction of the "Pharao project".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[25] viXra:1408.0213 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-02 01:46:58

Clarifying Previous Points Regarding Dark Matter

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 5 Pages.

Reason for replacement - to address this statement from the new version: "If a quadrupole gravitational wave becomes a dipole electromagnetic wave, it not only has to change its strength in the way described above but it also has to change its shape." After reading "Study challenges black hole theory" in Astronomy magazine's September 2014 issue, I sat down in front of my computer and spent the whole afternoon typing this reply. Most of the thoughts were initially addressed in previous contributions to and, as the heading states, this article is "Clarifying Previous Points Regarding Dark Matter" (with cameos by imaginary numbers, time travel into the past, instant space-time travel, unifying fundamental forces with each other as well as matter/mass, string theory, black holes, and the cosmic DVD).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[24] viXra:1408.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-28 04:31:37

An Introduction to m(GR) Theory

Authors: Mirosław J. Kubiak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Usually, physicists propose the alternative theories of gravity to the General Relativity (GR). In this paper we propose something different – m(GR) theory. This theory is the modification of GR theory, where the metric tensor has been replaced by the effective mass tensor. The m(GR) theory is a new theory of gravitation, which describes the gravitational phenomena not as geometric properties of the space-time but as the dynamical properties of the bodies which, under the influence of the external gravitational field, behave like bodies with the effective mass.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23] viXra:1408.0172 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-12 02:02:09

The Critical Error in the Formulation of the Special Relativity

Authors: Radwan M. Kassir
Comments: 13 pages. v3: new edition

The perception of events in two inertial reference frames in relative motion is analyzed from the perspective of the special relativity (SR) postulates. Straightforward inconsistencies have been identified, and subsequent mathematical contradictions disproving the SR predictions have been determined. The approach used in the SR formulation to get around the identified contradictions is revealed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[22] viXra:1408.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-26 04:17:34

Armenian Theory of Special Relativity Illustrated

Authors: Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan
Comments: 11 Pages In English, Copyrighted

The aim of this current article is to illustrate in detail Armenian relativistic formulas and compare them with Lorentz relativistic formulas so that readers can easily differentiate these two theories and visualize how general and rich our Armenian Theory of Special Relativity really is with a spectacular build in asymmetry. Then we are going behind this comparison and illustrating that build in asymmetry inside Armenian Theory of Special Relativity is reincarnating the aether as a universal reference medium, which is not contrary to relativity theory. We mathematically prove the existence of aether and we show how to extract infinite energy from the time-space or sub-atomic aether medium. Our theory explains all these facts and peacefully brings together followers of absolute aether theory, relativistic aether theory or followers of dark matter theory. We also mention that the absolute aether medium has a very complex geometric character, which has never been seen before. We are explaining why NASA’s earlier "BPP" and DARPA’s "Casimir Effect Enhancement" programs failed. We are also stating that the time is right to reopen NASA’s BPP program and fuel the spacecrafts using the everywhere existing aether asymmetric momentum force.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21] viXra:1408.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-24 17:14:29

The Planck Relation is a Geometric Mean Equation

Authors: James A. Tassano
Comments: 3 Pages.

We show that the Planck relation is a geometric mean equation, supporting the idea that the universe is undergoing a geometric mean expansion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20] viXra:1408.0160 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-14 14:13:22

New Equations for the Motions of Bodies

Authors: Silas Sacheli Santos
Comments: 15 Pages.

New equations for the motions of bodies are derived from non-instantaneous forces, some equations of special relativity (but derived from Newtonian Physics), Galilean transformations and a preferred frame (the cosmic microwave background).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1408.0158 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-24 16:59:16

Ground Potential

Authors: Steven Sesselmann
Comments: 14 Pages. Major revision October 2017

The baryon asymmetry problem, the nature of force, the invariance of a proton mass, the electron to proton mass ratio, the apparent numerical equivalence of charges, and last but not least, an accurate definition of ground potential are all questions we would like to answer. Herein a unified theory is proposed where the Lorentz γ factor can be accurately calculated for any body, either in motion or at rest in a gravitational field, from the electron to proton mass ratio. This model shows why the relative potentials of electrons and protons are exclusively a function of observer potential, which in turn leads to a unification of gravity and the electromagnetic force. Based on the current standard for electron and proton energies, Earth ground potential has been established at 930 million volts.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18] viXra:1408.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-22 15:27:09

Copious Tetraquarks: No True Hexaquarks - Indicators of E8 Symmetry in the Universe?

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: In a previous letter (see viXra 1408.0067) I have found that our universe has the broken symmetry E8 x U(1) and should contain exactly 248 types of quantum particles and that these have all been found. Included are 2-quark and 3-quark particles but no particle having 4 quarks or more. We do find one copious 4-quark particle and propose that it is a marker particle to alert us to the fact that the exalted 248 numeric goal has been attained. Studies by others indicate a 6-quark particle should be plentiful, but this has not materialized.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1408.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-10 13:33:24

The Earth's Rotation Perhaps May Explain the Anomaly of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 2 Pages. See also viXra:1410.0133, "The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace", by Valdir M.S. Godoi

As we could see, other effects of Earth's rotation, as nutation, are not contained in the value of the general Earth's precession calculated for Mercury (5026.50''), and therefore can be an important component to explain the anomaly of Mercury. We should also add the variability of Earth’s precession, very well expressed in John N. Stockwell (and according to Mécanique Céleste).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1408.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-18 07:00:33

New Solutions of Gravitational Collapse in General Relativity and in the Newtonian Limit

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 24 Pages.

We discuss the Oppenheimer-Snyder-Datt (OSD) solution from a new perspective, introduce a completely new formulation of the problem exclusively in external Schwarzschild space-time (ESM) and present a new treatment of the singularities in this new formulation. We also give a new Newtonian approximation of the problem. Furthermore, we present new numerical solutions of the modified OSD-model and of the ball-to-ball-collapse with 4 different numerical methods.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15] viXra:1408.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-07 13:04:33

An Example of Numerical Limitation as the Cause of the Anomaly of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 4 Pages. See also viXra:1410.0133, "The Precession of the Perihelion of Mercury Explained by Celestial Mechanics of Laplace", by Valdir M.S. Godoi

An example is given of how it is possible that a limitation in determining the value of daily precession of the perihelion of Mercury explain this precession when designed for a century.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:1408.0091 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-03 18:51:38

A New Value for the Anomaly of Mercury

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Abandon the hypothesis of the solar wind and obtain a new value for the anomaly of the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury. The theoretical value of the total secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury, according to the work of Le Verrier 1859, is only about 8'' unless the observed value quoted by Weinberg (in reference to Duncombe and Clemence). The hypothesis of the influence of the satellites in the calculation of precession, previously abandoned, should return, since 1'' is not so insignificant compared to 8''.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[13] viXra:1408.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-14 08:48:18

The Definition of Density in General Relativity

Authors: Ernst Fischer
Comments: 6 Pages. Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2014

According to general relativity the geometry of space depends on the distribution of matter or energy fields. The relation between the locally defined geometry parameters and the volume elements depends on curvature. Thus integration of local properties like energy density, defined in the Euclidean tangent space, does not lead to correct integral data like total energy. To obtain integral conservation, a correction term must be added to account for the curvature of space. This correction term is the equivalent of potential energy in Newtonian gravitation. With this correction the formation of singularities by gravitational collapse does no longer occur and the so called dark energy finds its natural explanation as potential energy of matter itself.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1408.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-29 03:35:59

Special Relativity Fails to Resolve Cosmic Muon Decay

Authors: Rasjid Chan Kah Chew
Comments: 4 Pages. a replacement with a little extra note.

The Special Theory of Relativity does not explain the cosmic muon decay phenomenon; it is not evidence of time dilation. The “dilated time” of special relativity has no physical interpretation as time as interpreted in physics; therefore, the extended lifetime of the muon, arrived at through the used of time dilation,cannot be used in the simple formula : distance = speed x time. So far, no one seems to have pointed to this simple fact. An invalid argument has been repeated and propagated for decades that purportedly resolves the cosmic muon decay phenomenon. Furthermore, the best experiment by CERN [3] measured the average lifetime of muon as 64.368(29) μs, (γ = 29.33, v = 0.9994 c). The now accepted mean proper lifetime for μ − = 2.19489(10) μs is a value computed from the relativistic time dilation formula using the figure of 64.368(29) μs assuming the validity of Special Relativity Theory; it is not an empirical value from experiments.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1408.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-12 15:39:22

The Lorentz Transformation Fails Special Relativity

Authors: Rasjid Chan Kah Chew
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Special Theory of Relativity falls by the Lorentz transformation, the very foundation on which the theory rests. The application of the Lorentz transformation does not naturally give rise to projections in spacetime where the space coordinates still retain any relevance to the usual physical real length; the dilated time too may have no relevance to real time. The conclusion is that the Special Theory of Relativity is just an abstract mathematical model and not a theory in physics; it has no relevance to our physical world. As such, all empirical and experimental evidence that purportedly validate the theory become void and meaningless.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1408.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-11 11:45:00

Our Universe With the Broken Symmetry E8 x U(1) Must Contain Exactly 248 Different Kinds of Symmetry Representation Particles and Antiparticles: All Have Been Found

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

In our epoch E8 symmetry exists and is the governing symmetry of the universe although it is a broken symmetry (see viXra 1405.0210) responsible for our feeble gravity. Studies of existing lepton, hadron, meson, and QCD particles indicate that there are 12 lepton, 100 baryon, 100 meson and 14 QCD species here at present, or 226 in all. Adding the 22 new particles required to implement E8 symmetry yields a total of 248 different particles and Antiparticles required for our universe to have E8 symmetry, and these have all been found.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:1408.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-03 17:53:21

Finding in le Verrier, Theoretically, the 5600’’ Observed by Weinberg

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 3 Pages.

Encontrei um valor teórico muito próximo dos 5600’’ observados do movimento secular da longitude do periélio de Mercúrio, no famoso “Tratado do Movimento de Mercúrio”, de Le Verrier. Mais exatamente existem ainda 8’’ ou 10’’ de diferença para um século de observações, mas creditaria esta diferença aos satélites (mais que ao vento solar), às imprecisões das massas dos planetas, em especial Mercúrio, e às conhecidas limitações dos cálculos numéricos.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1408.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-09 15:37:55

Einstein's Rotating Disk The Wrong Approach to The Right Theory

Authors: Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen
Comments: 1 Page.

It is shown that by applying a simple and correct method of measurement of the circumference the space in rotating disk is flat.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1408.0056 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-15 09:35:10

On the Origin and Physical Nature of the Cosmological Vacuum V.3

Authors: Ramon Isasi
Comments: 19 pages; 1 Figure; 1 Table.

In the present manuscript, we considere the origin of the cosmological space and the Cosmological Constant as a consequence of the annihilation of the matter - antimatter at the very beginning of the big bang. Since the cosmological expansion create the space, the cosmological vacuum is considered as a very hegemonic entity which is the locus where all the objects create the events. Certanly, N units of masses in conjunct are required to produce an equilibrium between the gravitational phenomena of the matter in bulk and each coulombic interaction between protons and electrons within the nuclear and atomic contour in all astrophysical (e.g. stars) or cosmological entities (e.g. galaxies). The "dark matter" is considered to be formed by highly excited H and HeI Rydberg's atoms in equilibrium with the CMB radiation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1408.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-09 14:24:32

Can the Geometry Prove the General Relativity Incorrect?

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 18 Pages. none

In this paper it is shown that the General Relativity Theory (GRT), which belongs to a class of metric theories of gravity, is based on a wrong assumption, contradicts the well-established laws of physics, and also its own maximum speed postulate. It is shown, based on simple arguments of geometry, that in the GRT the motion of a test body in an orbit around the centrally gravitating mass does not satisfy the conservation of angular momentum and that the equation describing the equivalence of acceleration with the force of gravity violates the contravariance principle. Finally, it is shown that the GRT also violates the Gauss law. The critique rests on a comparison of the Schwarzschild metric, which is derived from Einstein field equations, with the previously derived author's new metric from which the Schwarzschild metric follows as a first order approximation, but which is not derived from Einstein field equations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1408.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-08 05:30:28

A Comment on the Mass of the Planets

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 1 Page. A spontaneous letter in portuguese

Beyond the question "Gravitational Mass = Inertial Mass?" should be the question "Gravitational Mass Planet X = Gravitational Mass Planet Y"?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4] viXra:1408.0027 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-30 08:47:09

The Masses of the Solar System´s Planets

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Compares the current masses of Mercury to Saturn, with the values of Le Verrier and Newcomb and recalculates the value of the deviation obtained for the secular precession of the perihelion of Mercury with current masses.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:1408.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2014-08-06 04:15:59

Maximal Acceleration Perspective Problems.

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 10 pages

We determine nonlinear transformations between coordinate systems which are mutually in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal acceleration limit follows from the kinematical origin. Maximal acceleration is an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity. We derive the dependence of mass, length, time, Doppler effect, Cherenkov angle and transition radiation angle on acceleration as an analogue phenomena in special theory of relativity. The derived addition theorem for acceleration can play crucial role in modern particle physics and cosmology
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1408.0013 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-14 22:04:22

A Simple Theory of Gravity Based on Mach's Principle

Authors: Arindam Sinha
Comments: 24 Pages.

A simple and intuitive alternative theory of gravity based on Mach's Principle is proposed. At any location, total gravitational potential from the Universe's matter distribution is c2. This Universal background potential constitutes unit rest energy of matter and provides its unit mass, which is the essence behind E=mc2. The background gravity creates a local sidereal inertial frame at every location. A velocity increases gravitational potential through net blue-shift of Universe's background gravity, causing kinematic time dilation, which is a form of gravitational time dilation. Matter and energy follow different rules of motion, as matter does not undergo Shapiro delay. As a consequence, speed of matter may exceed the speed of light. The theory is consistent with existing relativity experiments, and is falsifiable based on experiments whose predictions differ from General Relativity. The theory also explains why all the ICARUS and corrected OPERA experiments still show mean neutrino velocities slightly above speed of light (early arrival of neutrinos by 0.1-6.5ns), even after correcting the issues that had led to the original OPERA experiments to erroneously report faster than light neutrinos (early arrival by ~60ns).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1408.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-03 17:28:46

A Simple Relativistic Cosmology of the Universe

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 29 Pages.

The paper presents a relativistic extension of Newton’s mechanics, termed Newtonian Relativity, and utilizes it to infer the state of the observable universe. The theory is successful in making significant predictions regarding the accelerating nature of the universe, its composition of matter, dark matter and dark energy, and regarding the time-line of the evolution of chemical elements. The theory yields simple expressions for the dynamics of normal matter, dark matter, kinetic energy and dark energy, in their dependence on redshift. It also yields simple expressions for the prediction of Ω_matter and Ω_Λ for any given redshift range. Predictions from these expressions are compared with observations based ΛCDM cosmologies. Strikingly, the theoretical distribution of the kinetic energy density in the universe is bell shaped and symmetrical around the famous Golden Ratio. With regard to the evolutionary time-line of chemical elements, the theory predicts that the chemical elements may have been formed twice: first, in massive galaxy structures at the early universe, and second, in young galaxies in the recent history of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology