[25] **viXra:1409.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-03 11:57:06*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 27 Pages. contact genebarbee@msn.com

Black holes are interesting to the scientific community. Observations indicate that remnants of stars that become black holes range from about 4 solar masses through about 20 solar masses. A supermassive black hole with mass 4.2e40 Kg has also been observed. Astronomers use x-ray emission and the bending of light around massive objects to study them and observations to date challenge physicists to extend their knowledge.
A layer by layer model of pressure, temperature, density and fusion power (MeV/sec) of the sun was developed and compared to a supermassive black hole with similar density and fusion kinetics. To simulate smaller black holes, the author developed a method to determine the pressure and density as a function of radius. Conditions at the core of small black holes are extreme enough to cause degenerate (relativistic) behavior of know forces. It was unknown however, whether collapse actually occurs. The author uses a cellular model of gravity, space, time, expansion, kinetic and potential energy at the quantum level [6]. Quantum gravity indicates that black holes do not involve a singularity. Gravitational kinetic energy resists the pressure at the core of black holes similar to the way electromagnetic kinetic energy controls the thermodynamics of gases.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1409.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 18:24:30*

**Authors:** James R Johnson

**Comments:** 13 Pages. email jrj2222@aol.com

Discovering hidden relationships, relationships that may reveal the secrets of nature, is a difficult if not impossible goal. This is primarily because the models of the two worlds, the Standard Model of Particle Physics (SMPP) and the Standard Model of Cosmology (SMC) have no elements in common, they are completely disjoint. Thus, relationships are hidden and finding them, may prove to be unattainable. However, attempts to identify "hidden relationships" must be based on dimensionless numbers and include constants and equations from both models. This article, by defining the dimensional and dimensionless constants within the SMPP and the SMC, illustrates the difficulty of finding relationships. Familiar ratios and a select group of ratios using Planck and Hubble constants are analyzed. The Schwarzschild black hole equation explains key relationships.
Keywords: Particle Physics, Cosmology, Dimensionless Numbers, Constants of Nature, Black Hole

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1409.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 06:45:21*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The general relativity might be ruled out using the Fatio-Le Sage idea with the cosmic microwave background radiation. The special relativity might be ruled out because in it the wave equation for the light in the vacuum cannot be used.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1409.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-29 06:28:49*

**Authors:** Mahgoub Salih

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this work we found a correction of special relativity and verified the relation between inertial mass, gravitational mass and rest mass. Also we found a generalization of Newton’s law of gravitation and the Logarithmic gravitational potential responsible for the flat tendency of the rotation curves in spiral galaxies. We found the cosmological constant and the vacuum energy density in term of gravitational radius .we found spatial mass distribution of dark matter haloes and the condition appears in the circular velocity curve predicted from Navarro–Frenk–White, and the planets mass defect (sun-earth). We found new equation to Hawking radiation in term of curvature. We found the geodetic drift of the planets and the value of θ=6.67528 arc sec for the earth. Finally we explained the notion of Hypermass and Hyperscale and how it can be used to find MOND.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1409.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-27 15:37:45*

**Authors:** Jeremy Dunning-Davies

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In view of some fairly recent comments in the literature, well-known facts concerning systems capable of achieving both positive and negative absolute temperatures are reviewed. These considerations are shown to raise serious unanswered questions concerning the widely accepted expression for the entropy of a Schwarzschild black hole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1409.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 15:26:27*

**Authors:** Mahgoub Salih

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This model shows the relation between microscopic scale and macroscopic scale and the idea of time and mass in both scales. The equations of energy time equivalence and mass time equivalence are verified. Also we found the equation of cosmic microwave background radiation temperature (CMBRT). The diagram shows the multiverse and how it can be constructed in seven loops and eleven dimensions without a big bang dogma.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1409.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-26 06:47:14*

**Authors:** Matti Pitkänen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

BICEP2 team has announced a detection of gravitational waves via the effects of gravitational waves on the spectrum on polarization of cosmic microwave background (CMB). The findings - if true - have powerful implications for cosmological models. In this article the findings are discussed in the framework of TGD based cosmology in which the flatness of 3-space is interpreted in terms of quantum criticality
rather than inflation. The key role is played by gradually thickening cosmic strings carrying magnetic monopole flux, dark energy as magnetic energy and dark matter as large h_{eff} phases at cosmic strings. Very thin cosmic strings dominate the cosmology before the emergence of space-time as we know it and quantum criticality is associated with the phase transition between these two phases. Later cosmic strings serve as seeds of various cosmological structures by decaying partially to ordinary matter somewhat like inflaton fields in inflationary cosmology. Cosmic strings also explain the presence of magnetic fields in cosmos difficult to understand in standard approch. The crucial point is that - in contrast to ordinary magnetic fields - monopole fluxes do not require for their creation any currents coherent in long scales.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1409.0181 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-08-19 16:21:32*

**Authors:** Valery Zhukov

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The application of the Poisson’s equation solutions in the Neumann-Seeliger paradox for an infinite universe is incorrect. Also it is incorrect to use the metric and all the equations of the Big Bang theory for distances greater than the age of the universe, i.e. outside the event horizon for any point of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1409.0164 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-26 03:50:25*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 12 Pages. 12

If the orbits of close binary stars are circular, and the light speed is NOT influenced by the speed of the stars, we have to expect that the light curves are symmetrical between moments of eclipse or even conjunction.
However, This is mostly not the case and still an ongoing debate in astronomy and called the
“O ‘Connell effect”.
According to Quantum FFF Theory, however I assume that the local light speed around the stars is gravity related for a mass related distance from the source (star) called LASOF ellipsoid, (Local Asymmetrical Oscillating vacuum Frame)
As a result the so called O ‘Connell effect can easily be explained as a logic result of additional redshift or blueshift by the local lightspeed variation.
At the same time also planets should show such lightspeed extinction effects, which is already measured but not understood by I.I.Shapiro (see “radar astronomy” edition by Evans and Hagfors, 1964).
As a consequence, Einstein’s Special relativity rules do not hold.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1409.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-21 21:42:59*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Requesting an unbiased review....

If one is willing to consider the current cosmic microwave back ground temperature as a quantum gravitational effect of the evolving primordial cosmic black hole general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics can be combined into a ‘scale independent’ true unified model of quantum gravity. It can be suggested that, universe may or may not be a black hole, Hubble volume can be considered as a growing and light speed rotating black hole at 99% confidence level. With this proposal galactic rotational curves, cosmic dynamic stability can be understood. By considering the ‘Stoney mass’ as the initial mass of the baby Hubble volume, past and current physical and thermal parameters of the cosmic black hole can be understood. Isotropy and anisotropy of CMB can be understood. If rate of decrease in current ‘Hubble’s constant is very small and is beyond the scope of current experimental verification, then the two possible states are: a) current ‘Hubble’s constant is decreasing at a very slow rate and current universe is expanding at a very slow rate and b) at present there is no ‘observable’ cosmic expansion or acceleration. To understand the ground reality of current cosmic rate of expansion, sensitivity and accuracy of current methods of estimating the magnitudes of current CMBR temperature and current Hubble constant must be improved and alternative methods must be developed. If it is true that galaxy constitutes so many stars, each star constitutes so many hydrogen atoms and light is coming from the excited electron of galactic hydrogen atom, then considering redshift as an index of 'whole galaxy' receding may not be reasonable. During cosmic evolution, at any time in the past , in hydrogen atom emitted photon energy was always inversely proportional to the CMBR temperature. Thus past light emitted from older galaxy’s excited hydrogen atom will show redshift with reference to the current laboratory data. As cosmic time passes, in future, the absolute rate of cosmic expansion can be understood by observing the rate of increase in the magnitude of photon energy emitted from laboratory hydrogen atom. Past cosmic high temperature may be the root cause of observed super novae dimming. Like ILLUSTRIS, with advanced mathematics and computer simulation technology this model can be virtually developed for further study and analysis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1409.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-18 22:22:20*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper has been published by Bulletin of Society of Mathematical Services and Standards (www.ijmsea.com)

As we know there are two main paradigms concerning the origin of the Universe: the first is Big-Bang Theory, and the other is Creation paradigm. But those two main paradigms each have their problems, for instance Big Bang Theory assumes that the first explosion was triggered by chance alone, therefore it says that everything emerged out of vacuum fluctuation caused by pure statistical chance. By doing so, its proponents want to avoid the role of the Prime Mover (God). Of course there are also other propositions such as the Steady State theory or Cyclical universe, but they do not form the majority of people in the world.
On the other side, Creation Theory says that the Universe was created by God in 6x24 hours according to Genesis chapter 1, although a variation of this theory says that it is possible that God created the Universe in longer period of thousands of years or even billions of years. But such a proposition seems not supported by Biblical texts.
To overcome the weaknesses of those main paradigms, I will outline here another choice, namely that the Universe was created by Logos (Christ in His pre-existence). This is in accordance with the Prolegomena of the Gospel of John, which says that the Logos was there in the beginning (John 1:1).
I describe 3 applications of the classical wave equation according to Shpenkov, i.e. hydrogen energy states, periodic table of elements, and planetary orbit distances. For sure, Shpenkov derived many more results beside these 3 phenomena as discussed in his 3 volume books and many papers, but these 3 phenomena are selected to give clear examples of what can be done with the classical wave equation. And then I extend further the classical wave equation to fractal vibrating string.
While of course this outline is not complete, this article is written to stimulate further investigations in this direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1409.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-18 06:36:56*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages. This paper pertains to: http://viXra.org/abs/1409.0072

Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics, Editor-in-Chief of the journal Foundations of Physics, has again brought attention to my work on black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and General Relativity, by means of his personal website, providing me thereby with the opportunity to address his most recent comments, particularly on black holes. Black hole universes are either asymptotically flat or asymptotically curved, by definition, and so there can be no universe containing multiple black holes. All alleged big bang universes are not asymptotically anything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1409.0117 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-30 09:30:08*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 172 Pages. Spanish

El libro "Teoría de campo relativista" expone de forma clara las técnicas físico-matamáticas usadas en el estudio de los campos clásicos relativistas. Este libro cumple una función pedagógica, estando dirigido a aquellos, que teniendo un conocimiento básico de electromagnetismo y relatividad, quieran profundizar en los aspectos formales de la teoría de campo. Índice Introducción 1.- Geometría diferencial 2.- Formulación lagrangiana de la teoría de campos 3.- Campo electromagnético 4.- Campo gravitatorio 5.- Teoría de campo unificado de Weyl Apéndice 1 Apéndice 2.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1409.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-13 12:42:17*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Along with presently the believed black holes that are expected to be formed by gravitational collapse of a massive star, there may exist primordial evolving black holes. By absorbing the hidden vacuum energy primordial evolving black holes become massive. Planck mass can be considered as the basic mass of any black hole and can be called as the baby Planckion. Very high temperature of the baby Planckion is the heat source for the evolving black hole’s or evolving Planckion’s decreasing temperature. Considering the current cosmic microwave back ground temperature as a quantum gravitational effect of the evolving primordial cosmic black hole, general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics can be combined into a ‘scale independent’ true unified model of quantum gravity. Considering cosmic black hole’s light speed rotation and galactic revolution, observed galactic rotational curves can be understood. In the past, decreasing high cosmic black hole temperature forced hydrogen atom to emit increasing photon energy resulting in the observed redshift. Aged super novae dimming may be due to the effect of past high cosmic black hole temperature. As cosmic time passes, decreasing current cosmic black hole temperature makes hydrogen atom to emit increased quanta of energy causing the future redshift. In future, with reference to laboratory hydrogen atom, decreasing current cosmic temperature and measured rate of increase in emitted photon energy - true rate of future cosmic expansion can be understood. With reference to the decreasing current Hubble constant and decreasing current cosmic black hole temperature, true rate of future cosmic expansion can also be understood. Foundations of Quantum mechanics and General theory of relativity may be reviewed in this unified way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1409.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-12 06:18:51*

**Authors:** Lubomir Vlcek

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Relationship for kinetic energy derived from the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge. To derive it we do not need Lorentz's transformations equations, we do not need SPACE-TIME.
We do not need local time, or covariant equations or physical simultaneity definition or invariant interval. In other words, in physics we do not need Einstein's theory of relativity. From the asymmetrical form of the intensity of the moving charge we can derive Gauss law, Faraday's law and derive the 4th Maxwell's equation ( fictional by Maxwell and up to now was not derived).Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values: in direction of motion as own kinetic energy of charge and against direction of motion of charge represents the wave energy, which charge creates in transmision medium.
Kaufmann's experiment, Fizeau's experiment, Harres's Experiment, Kirchner, Perry, Chaffee experiments are reviewed.
Three objections to modern physics:
1. Form of the interference field is non-linear,
2.Form of Intensity of the Moving Charge Electric Field is asymmetrical,
3. Kinetic energy of a charge moving at the velocity of v has two different values:
Kinetic energy of electron , (proton)
Tkin id =mc2 [ln |1-v/c|+ (v/c) / (1-v/c) ] in direction of motion of electron, (proton)
where v is velocity of electron, (proton).
Kinetic energy of electron , (proton)
Tkin ad = mc2 [ln |1+v/c|- (v/c) / (1+v/c) ] against direction of motion of electron, (proton)
where v is velocity of electron, (proton).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1409.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-09-16 02:16:49*

**Authors:** Ángel Blanco Nápoles

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Language is not English. Refers to works of John A. Gowan

Where we from, where we go? or how we are travel back to future looking only to past. New Theory of everything or Super Relativity, Final Theory. Gravity is the most powerful force in the Universe. New dimensions in our present past virtual reality and new dimensions in our Universe. Real Origin of all "electromagnetics forces". Quantum theory. Real Geometry of Space-time in our Universe. There is not Big-Bang and/or Big-Crunch, only Black Holes. What is Black Hole? What is the function of Black Holes? New entities named alpha and beta, origin of everything. New vectors for Physic, new velocities and accelerations. Final Model: two entities and one Force. Our Universe is 12-D: 8 spatial dimensions and 4 time. The most important 2 time dimensions. Antigravity is possible. Inertial and gravitational mass is the same. Origin of mass. Travels to Star is possible. Travel in Time is Theoretical possible. Parallel Universes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1409.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-10 07:09:16*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

I extend my thanks to Professor Gerardus ‘t Hooft, Nobel Laureate in Physics, for making more widely known my work on black hole theory, big bang cosmology, and Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, by means of his personal website, and for providing me thereby with the opportunity to address the subject matter - supported by extensive references to primary sources for further information - in relation to his many comments, by means of this dedicated paper. The extensive mathematical appendices herein are not prerequisite to understanding the text.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1409.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-09 04:22:54*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We determine nonlinear transformations between coordinate systems which are mutually
in a constant symmetrical accelerated motion. The maximal acceleration limit follows from
the kinematical origin and it is an analogue of the maximal velocity in special relativity. We
derive the dependence of mass, length, time, Doppler effect, Cherenkov effect and transition
radiation angle on acceleration as an analogue phenomena in special theory of relativity. The
last application of our method is the Thomas precession by uniform acceleration which can
play the crucial role in modern particle physics and cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1409.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-07 15:17:09*

**Authors:** Serge Miatovich

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Physical matter has certain apparent information content. We explore here the amount and the role of this information content. The method of doing so will minimize the role of presently known laws of physics, in order to explore the effects of information content alone, and thus avoid potentially isomorphic conclusions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1409.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 14:07:24*

**Authors:** Victor Vaguine

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

It is recognized that foundational science is the key for the development of applied science and technology. In the final analysis, foundational science is the driving force for the progress and transformation of mankind. As a "compass", four Pointers are proposed to validate any particular direction in foundational science research. The Pointers are: P1 (Philosophy and Mindset), P2 (Mankind as an Emerging Intelligence), P3 (The Principle of Fine Tuning), and P4 (The General Copernican Principle). The Pointers are subjected to a verification test in four specific foundational situations: fundamental nature of quantum laws, unification of fundamental forces, the string theory, and the multiverse theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1409.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-28 08:13:18*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky

**Comments:** English version pages 1-13, Russian one – pages 13-25. Practically the same as the V2, additionally a simple experiment for measurement of the clocks’ tick rate dependence on gravity potential is suggested – see modified “Conclusion” section.

n a number of our arXiv papers it was rigorously shown that Matter in our Universe – and Universe as a whole - are some informational systems (structures), which exist as uninterruptedly transforming [practically] infinitesimal sub-sets of the absolutely infinite and fundamental set “Information”. The conception enables to suggest a reasonable physical (“informational”) model that is based on the conjecture that Matter is some analogue of computer (more correct – some analogue of a [huge] number of mutually weakly connected automata). The conjecture, in turn, allows introducing in the model the basic logical elements that constitute the material structures (e.g., particles) and support the informational exchange - i.e. the forces - between the structures. The model yet now makes clearer a number of basic problems in physics; and, besides, enables to put forward rather reasonable model of the gravity force. In this paper more detailed and corrected version of the model is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1409.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-04 04:36:31*

**Authors:** Jacky Jerome, Paul Amoros, Al Bacconnier

**Comments:** Main article = 9 pages, mathematical demonstration = 73 pages

Eintein’s General Relativity does not explain recent enigmas of astrophysics such as dark
energy or accelerating universe. A thorough examination of the Einstein Field Equations (EFE)
highlights four inconsistencies. Solving these inconsistencies and bringing closer the EFE to
the Higgs mechanism fully explains the mass and gravity phenomena. The main interest of this
study is to propose a formula of mass in 4D, m=f(x,y,z,t), that solves several basic enigmas
fully demonstrated with mathematics but still not explained with logic and good sense, such as
“How spacetime can be curved by mass?”, or ‘What is the nature of the gravitational force?”, or
“What is the mechanism of conversion of mass into energy (E =mc2)?”. This paper also solves
the main enigmas of astrophysics and leads to interesting explanations of quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1409.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-30 10:11:00*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 5 Pages. this new version does not contain all the development which the outhor made in the idea since the last version because this is found in other papers

In this paper , a new and very simple cosmological model is introduced . It is shown how the model can explain some observations including Habble's law and dark energy and affect our understanding of some concepts .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1409.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 06:49:37*

**Authors:** Robert Nazaryan, Haik Nazaryan

**Comments:** Short Communication Article in English and 4 pages

By using the principle of relativity (first postulate), together with new defined nature of the universal speed (our second postulate) and homogeneity of time-space (our third postulate), we derive the most general transformation equation of relativity in one dimensional space. According to our new second postulate, the universal (not limited) speed c in Armenian Special Theory of Relativity is not the actual speed of light but it is the speed of time which is the same in all inertial systems. Our third postulate: the homogeneity of time-space is necessary to furnish linear transformation equations. We also state that there is no need to postulate the isotropy of space. Our article is the accumulation of all efforts from physicists to fix the Lorentz transformation equations and build correct and more general transformation equations of relativity, which obey the rules of logic and fundamental group laws, without internal philosophical and physical inconsistencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1409.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-02 04:18:54*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The physical behavior of elementary particles, massive and energetic, in force fields is studied in this paper. In particular let us consider the gravitational field and the electrostatic field and relative to the electrostatic field, as already it was done for the gravitational field, we demonstrate the theoretical validity of an electrostatic perturbation due to the motion of an electric charge into the electrostatic field generated by a pole charge. This electrostatic perturbation, on a pair with the gravitational perturbation, has characteristics of continuity differently from electromagnetic radiation, emitted by accelerated charges, free or constrained in complex structures, that instead has quantum characteristics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology