[30] **viXra:1412.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-31 19:44:21*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In 1803 the L'aigle meteor fall was studied by the physicist Baptiste Biot in France who concluded that it was of extraterrestrial origin but by 1930 meteorites were generally thought to be of terrestrial volcanic origin. Similarly, in the 1960's group theory and symmetry were thought to be of overriding importance in developing new physical theories but this has fallen out of favor and has resulted in the present-day disbelief that our universe existed before the big bang and could be governed by symmetry of any sort.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1412.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-13 23:48:23*

**Authors:** Victor Paromov

**Comments:** 19 pages, 3 figures

It has long been expected that a quantum field theory (QFT) “beyond the Standard Model” (SM) will eventually unify gravitation with particle interactions. Unfortunately, this “Theory of everything” remains elusive. Alternatively, full unification could be based on a philosophical concept termed hereby as the General Principle of Interaction (GPI), which extends the Einsteinian understanding of vacuum and matter proposing the spacetime geometry-based unification. Assuming that geometry of the four-dimensional (4D) spacetime governs only gravitational forces, a geometry-based description of other forces is possible only with the assumption of undetectable compact extra dimensions, e.g. Kaluza-Klein approach. The assumption of extra dimensions being compactified down to microscopic radii would explain their undetectability and quantization of the forces they govern. The fifth dimension compactified down to an atomic size would be sufficient to explain the electromagnetism with the 5D spacetime geometry. Further addition of a set of three extra dimensions compactified down to a nuclear size would explain the nuclear forces. The 8D spacetime containing hidden subspaces of compactified dimensions, the geometry of which governs forces other than gravitation, comprises the fractal spacetime concept (FSC). Surprisingly, this simple unification approach remains undeveloped.
The GPI-based approach is expected to find a connection between the classical Kaluza-Klein theory and the two most fundamental QFTs, quantum electrodynamics (QED) and quantum chromodynamics (QCD). Generally, the leptons and photons should be understood as the elementary electric charge-induced wave-like 5D spacetime deformations with the “shadow” deformations (projections) in the ordinary 4D spacetime (induced masses); the quarks and gluons should be understood as the color charge-induced wave-like 8D spacetime deformations with the “shadow” deformations in the 5D spacetime (induced electric charges) and the “shadow” ordinary 4D spacetime deformations. The number of the fundamental field types should be reduced to three: strong, electroweak, and gravitational fields. The dark matter is hypothesized as the wave-like 4D spacetime deformations induced by yet unknown gravitational charges. The dark energy is the 4D spacetime background curvature defined by its size and shape. In general, it seems possible to describe all the four types of interaction with the fractal geometry of the multidimensional spacetime. However, the two methods (the GR and the SM) describing the two different geometries (large and compact, respectively) likely cannot be combined in a single unified framework.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1412.0280 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-01 15:59:47*

**Authors:** R. Garner-Tetlow

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The concept of vacuum energy challenges some basic assumptions of astronomy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1412.0271 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2019-01-31 03:21:51*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 10 pages

Analysis of the Einstein’s Special Relativity equations derivation, outlined from his 1905 paper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, revealed several contradictions. It imposed, through the speed of light principle, particular values on the space and time coordinates that, when used explicitly in Einstein’s own equation substitutions, led to fundamental contradictions. Furthermore, the space and time coordinates used in the derived transformation equations to obtain the time dilation and length contraction predictions were found to be incompatible with the method used in the derivation to perform the time calculations; no such predictions were deemed feasible. The Special Relativity was hence found to be self-refuted.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1412.0270 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-22 15:03:37*

**Authors:** Steven L Coleman

**Comments:** 8 Pages. removed insitution

This paper attempts to show that General Relativity (GR) is incomplete as a physical theory of the gravitational process due to the first law of thermodynamics. A theoretical modification to General Relativity is offered to correct for this deficit, and is based on the first principals of thermodynamics. This new theoretical framework allows GR to not only be compatible with Quantum Mechanics (QM), but it is now interdependent with both QM and Special Relativity. The new framework predicts most if not all of our cosmological observations which had previously necessitated the creation of both Dark Matter and Dark Energy. Several other previously unexplained gravitational phenomena are also discussed in this new theoretical context.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1412.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-29 10:23:07*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 15 pages, 41 references

World – Universe Model is based on three primary assumptions:
1) The World is finite and is expanding inside the Universe with speed equal to the electrodynamic constant c . The Universe serves as an unlimited source of energy that continuously enters into the World from the boundary.
2) Medium of the World, consisting of protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles, is an active agent in all physical phenomena in the World.
3) Two fundamental parameters in various rational exponents define all macro and micro features of the World: Fine-structure constant α, and dimensionless quantity Q. While α is constant, Q increases with time, and is in fact a measure of the size and the age of the World.
In this paper, we introduce Cosmic Large Grains whose mass about equals to Planck mass, and their temperature is in the neighborhood of 29 K. These grains are Bose – Einstein condensates of cosmic dineutrinos, and are indeed responsible for the far-infrared background radiation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1412.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-08 23:45:53*

**Authors:** Kenneth Dalton

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Journal-Ref: Hadronic J. 39(3), 303-313 (2016)

The linear field equations are solved for the metrical component $g_{00}$.
The solution is applied to the question of gravitational energy transport.
The Hulse-Taylor binary pulsar is treated in terms of
the new theory. Finally, the detection of gravitational waves is discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1412.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-28 00:13:01*

**Authors:** Bertrand Wong

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The phenomenon of quantum entanglement involving two particles has puzzled us for a long time. This article presents some possible solutions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1412.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-26 05:33:24*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Seven page paper

As soon as any author proposes alternative interpretation of the cosmological red-shift, it is opposed saying that tired-light explanations are not compatible with the observations of time-dilation of super novae light-curves. So this author had shown [1] that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves’. Still the alternative interpretations are not taken seriously. So this author is constrained to show some limitations of the current big-bang cosmology, like: (i) the general relativity theory predicts ‘expansion of space’ between the galaxies; but the space within the galaxy is not expanding, because galaxy is a gravitationally-bound-structure. The question raised here is: If so, then what happens at the edge of a galaxy whose external space is expanding but the space within is not expanding? Is there a smooth transition from expanding to non-expanding space? If expanding-space can stretch the wavelength of a cosmologically red-shifting photon, then less and less expanding space, at the boundary of the galaxy, should shrink the wavelength back to its original length, isn’t it? (ii) According to general relativity the planets, like the earth, orbit around the Sun, because the space around the Sun has got curved; and the planets are in inertial-motion traveling along the geodesic path. Now the question raised here is: Inertial-motion of a body can be at any speed. Can the planets travel along the geodesic-path at any speed they like? Can they take a coffee-brake and then proceed further? (iii) According to general relativity there is a radial-distance at which rate of expansion of space is equal to the speed of light, so the wave-front of light beyond this radius is not able to enter the sphere of observable universe. This means that the speed of light is the same, 3 x 108 meters per second. The question raised here is: Since the speed of light is the same in expanding as well as non-expanding space; and f . λ = c , i.e. the product of frequency (f) and wavelength (λ) is always equal to the speed of light (c); then the wavelength (λ) can increase only when frequency (f) gets reduced; and not because of expansion of space. Then a new ‘self-gravitational-acceleration based explanation for the cosmological red-shift is proposed. And it is shown that reduction in energy of ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’ matches strikingly with this new explanation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1412.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-24 20:31:38*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Happy Christmas 25 Dec 2014

During evolution, cosmic thermal energy density is always directly proportional to the critical mass-energy density. The product of cosmic ‘critical density’ and ‘critical Hubble volume’ can be called as the ‘critical mass’ of the evolving universe. With reference to Mach’s principle, cosmic ‘critical density’, ‘critical volume’ and ‘critical mass’ can be considered as the quantified back ground dynamic properties of the evolving universe. By considering the Planck mass as the critical mass connected with big bang, Planck scale Hubble constant and critical density can be defined. Observed redshift can be reinterpreted as a cosmological light emission phenomenon connected with cosmologically reinforcing or strengthening hydrogen atom. Super novae dimming can also be understood in this way. To understand the ground reality of cosmic rate of expansion, accuracy of the current methods of estimating the magnitudes of current Hubble’s constant and current CMBR temperature must be improved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1412.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-23 18:59:03*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

R136a1 is a monstrous-sized star 165,000 light years away in the Large Magellanic Cloud, one of our Milky Way’s satellite galaxies. It currently has 265 times the mass of the Sun and may have been 320 solar masses when it first formed. It’s the most massive and most luminous star ever found, being 10 million times brighter than the Sun. "Owing to the rarity of these monsters, I think it is unlikely that this new record will be broken any time soon," said (English astrophysicist Paul) Crowther.
The primary purpose of this article is not the description of R136a1, or of stellar mass. These are merely tools employed to clarify how the Unified Field permits a mathematical route from any idea conceived by the brain to that idea’s fulfilment in reality. In other words, to reconcile the anthropic principle with unified theories in physics. And to show a strong version of that principle - that a direct link exists between human existence and the actual form of the laws of nature. Incidentally, the article concludes that there cannot be a multiverse of many universes since the universe as a whole (not the observable cosmos) is infinite and eternal.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1412.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-20 16:48:16*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Using frequency gauged clocks on a free fall grid we look at gravitational phenomena as they appear for observers on a stationary grid in a central field of gravity. With an approach based on Special Relativity, the Weak Equivalence Principle and Newton's gravitational potential we derive first order correct expressions for the gravitational red shift of stationary clocks and of satellites. We also derive first order correct expressions for the geodetic precession, the Shapiro delay basis and the gravitational index of refraction, so phenomena connected to the curvature of the metric. Our approach is pragmatic and inherently limited but, due to its simplicity, it might be useful as an intermediate in between SR and GR.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1412.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 16:55:20*

**Authors:** Bill Porter

**Comments:** Pages.

Some cosmological theories, such as many versions of eternal inflation and ΛCDM
involve creation processes which continue indefinitely with no defined termination.
Such processes can only occur in a temporally unbounded but finite universe. This requirement imposes serious constraints on many theories but the issue is often ignored.
I propose an eternal steady state cosmological model in which past- or future-incomplete processes with no defined beginning or end are not permitted.
Much well regarded theory is incompatible with this model; however there are viable alternatives.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1412.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 19:56:48*

**Authors:** V.B. Smolenskii

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In the article, within the PI-Theory of fundamental physical constants, presents the theoretical basis and experimental confirmation of the author's perspective on the dynamics of evolution of the Universe and the criterion of existence of protein life on the planets of the solar system.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1412.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-19 04:10:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.”
This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1412.0200 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-12-20 07:56:36*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A seven-page letter

This paper raises some questions regarding general theory of relativity like: (i) the theory predicts ‘expansion of space’ between the galaxies; but the space within the galaxy is not expanding, because galaxy is a gravitationally-bound-structure. The question raised here is: If so, then what happens at the edge of a galaxy whose external space is expanding but the space within is not expanding? Is there a smooth transition from expanding to non-expanding space? And what happens to the cosmologically red-shifted inter-galactic-photons when they enter our milky-way galaxy from expanding outer-space to less-and-less expanding space within our galaxy? (ii) According to general relativity the planets, like the earth, orbit around the Sun, because the space around the Sun has got curved; and the planets are in inertial-motion traveling along the geodesic path. Now the question raised here is: Inertial-motion of a body can be at any speed. Can the planets travel along the geodesic-path at any speed they like? Can they take a coffee-brake and then proceed further? (iii) According to general relativity there is a distance at which rate of expansion of space is equal to the speed of light; and the speed of light is always the same, 3 x 10^8 meters per second. The question raised here is: Since the speed of light is the same in expanding as well as non-expanding space; and f . λ = c , i.e. the product of frequency (f) and wavelength (λ) is always equal to the speed of light (c); then the wavelength (λ) can increase only when frequency (f) gets reduced; and not because of expansion of space. Then in the second part of the paper it is shown that reduction in energy of ‘cosmologically red-shifting photons’ is strikingly equal to (G me mp / e^2) times the reduction in electrostatic potential-energy of an electron at the same distance D.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1412.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 11:24:55*

**Authors:** Grzegorz Ileczko

**Comments:** 59 Pages. eBook (Part 1)

This book is composed of two parts. Both parts combine into a single theory, but for easier description of phenomena, they were presented as independent of each other. This book is an attempt to show the Theory of Relativity in “different” light. That is, so to speak, physics without relativism. Each experiment described in the book comprises visual, mathematical and numerical analyses. All possible cases of setting the light source on-board a very fast vehicle were analysed. The conclusions are indeed surprising.
Part_1
Two experiments, to find and precisely define absolute vehicle velocity, have been described. Establishment of total lack of contact of vehicle’s interior with the outside world is in both cases fulfilled. According to the Theory of Relativity such experiment does not exist and vehicle’s absolute velocity cannot be determined.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1412.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-17 11:33:01*

**Authors:** Grzegorz Ileczko

**Comments:** 64 Pages. eBook (Part 2)

This book is composed of two parts. Both parts combine into a single theory, but for easier description of phenomena, they were presented as independent of each other. This book is an attempt to show the Theory of Relativity in “different” light. That is, so to speak, physics without relativism. Each experiment described in the book comprises visual, mathematical and numerical analyses. All possible cases of setting the light source on-board a very fast vehicle were analysed. The conclusions are indeed surprising.
Part_2
It is a modified version of a well-known experiment with light clock. The experiment has been improved in relation to the original. Optical clock was replaced with a laser. Laser beam may depart laser’s interior thus becoming observable (not just in theory). Experiment – L has been designed as a “broad” angular analysis. Various laser positions on-board the vehicle were thoroughly examined. One can literally say that laser’s beam is analysed in terms of every angle. As a result of the analyses performed, the “true” nature of time has been discovered. A mathematical proof that time has absolute nature has been presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1412.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-13 09:07:49*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

An original thought experiment “interlinking” time between relatively moving frames through belt drive clocks offers concrete evidence on the unviability of the time dilation predicted by the Special Relativity. It also shows that the Special Relativity length contraction gives contradictory time results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1412.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-12 13:27:46*

**Authors:** Alfredo G. Oliveira

**Comments:** 25 pages, 10 figures

The first model of the past hot Earth’s climate consistently indicated by isotopic and biologic data is here established. This model, here named Evolving Climate Model (ECM), accurately matches a 3 Gy long compilation of isotope ^{18}O data. An important consequence of the model is the fast increase of oxygen atmospheric level between 2 and 1 Ga (Gy ago); this is a well-known but until now mysterious occurrence, the Great Oxygenation Event. A solution is presented for the two centuries old “dolomite problem” and new explanations arise for a number of long lasting problems, such as the origin of petroleum or of proto-continents. Differently from the usual climate scenarios, the ECM presents ideal conditions for the massive production of long organic molecules. Critical occurrences of life evolution, such as the Cambrian explosion, are explained and fitted by the ECM, exposing a previously unknown connection between the evolution of life and climate. The most likely cause for this hot past is the expansion of orbits; it is verified that this phenomenon can explain the ECM, the receding of the Moon and the water on early Mars for the same value of *H*_{0} = 48 km s^{-1} Mpc^{-1}, which, if not a coincidence, is a non-negligible result.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1412.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-11 18:54:14*

**Authors:** Richard A Peters

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The geometric interpretation of time dilation concludes that the geometric relation between moving objects is the cause of time dilation between the objects. The thesis of this paper is that the imposing edifice of the geometric interpretation rests on a flawed foundation. That foundation denies the existence of any fundamental (natural, physical, real) frame of reference for motion. Therefore the position, velocity and acceleration of an object may be reckoned to an arbitrary frame of reference. If space has no properties other than dimensionality, motion relative to that space is undefined and meaningless and can have no influence on any ongoing process. Accordingly I propose a model in which a field of particles occupies and permeates all of space, including the space of atoms. In this model the phenomenon of time dilation demands the existence of a field that supports the propagation of photons. I label this field the temporal-inertial field (TI field). Time dilation occurs when an ongoing process moves relative to space, relative to this TI field. The greater the velocity of the process relative to the TI field the greater is the time dilation experienced by that process. The rate at which a process is slowed or accelerated is intrinsic, absolute and depends solely on the velocity of the process relative to the TI field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1412.0151 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-08 10:13:16*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

How much has been said in the media, that Earth-man never sees the body B fall into a black hole. Reason: time dilation. But researcher A with rocket has full control of the situation, he can come close to Black Hole, almost to contact and observe everything. Therefore, the distance between A and B may be zero. It does not depend on when in the past the body B was shut into a black hole. Therefore, the black hole horizon has one big collision of bodies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1412.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-07 13:34:35*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

According to a distant observer, a Fly escaping towards a black hole never reaches the event
horizon. Let “Fly” be a synonym for a space ship with food while “Bat” stands for a space ship
with starving astronauts. The question then arises, how long the Bat has to wait before reaching
the Fly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1412.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-07 05:34:40*

**Authors:** Stanislav Podosenov, Jaykov Foukzon, Alexander Potapov, Elena Men’kova

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

On the basis of the theory of bound charges the calculation of the motion of the charged particle
at the Coulomb field formed with the spherical source of bound charges is carried out. Such motion is
possible in the Riemanniam space-time. The comparison with the general relativity theory (GRT) and
special relativity theory (SRT) results in the Schwarzshil'd field when the particle falls on the
Schwarzshil'd and Coulomb centres is carried out. It is shown that the proton and electron can to create a
stable connection with the dimensions of the order of the classic electron radius. The perihelion shift of
the electron orbit in the proton field is calculated. This shift is five times greater than in SRT and when corrsponding substitution of the constants it is 5/6 from GRT. By means of the quantization of adiabatic invariants in accordance with the method closed to the Bohr and Sommerfeld one without the Dirac equation the addition to the energy for the fine level splitting is obtained. It is shown that the Caplan's stable orbits in the hydrogen atom coincide with the Born orbits.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1412.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 16:13:48*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A fundamental theorem underpinning Einstein's gravity theory is that the contraction of a tensor is itself a tensor of lower rank. However this theorem is not an identity; its demonstration cannot be extended beyond space-time points where the space-time transformation in question has a Jacobian matrix with exclusively finite components and that matrix' inverse also has exclusively finite components. Space-time transformations therefore cannot be regarded as physical except at such points; indeed in classical theoretical physics nonfinite entities don't even make sense. This, taken together with the Principle of Equivalence, implies that metric tensors can be physical only at space-time points where they and their inverses have finite components exclusively, and as well have signatures which are identical to the Minkowski metric tensor's signature. For metric-tensor solutions of the Einstein equation there can exist space-time points where these physical constraints on the solution are flouted, just as there exist well-known solutions of the Maxwell and Schroedinger equations which also defy physical constraints -- and therefore are always discarded. Instances of unphysical solutions of the Maxwell or Schroedinger or Einstein field-theoretic equations can usually be traced to subtly unphysical initial inputs or assumptions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1412.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-28 09:46:26*

**Authors:** Kabir Adinoyi Umar

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Presented at the 6th Annual Conference of the Astronomical Society of Nigeria and at the 39th Annual Conference of the Nigerian Institute of Physics.

A cosmological constant (Λ) dark energy capable of early universe inflation is described within the frame work of the Rotating Universe interpretation of Time and Energy (RUTE). RUTE is a model of spacetime consistent with entropic gravity and has a key dimensional symmetry that doubles the number of spacetime dimensions with microscopic dimensional partners. Its energy density constraint provides a spill model of dark energy sensitive to matter and radiation presence and a Gravitational Wave Reheating (GWR) mechanism. Recent observational constraints for gravitational wave and gamma ray counterpart are consistent with RUTE’s GWR – a shake-spill mechanism of vacuum energy extraction. In this scenario, gravitational waves of a given frequency with strain above a threshold are predicted to release Standard Model (SM) photons from vacuum energy. Verifiable predictions are briefly discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1412.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-06 05:43:30*

**Authors:** S.A. Podosenov

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

An exact solution for the field of a charge in a uniformly accelerated noninertial
frame of reference (NFR) alongside the "Equivalent Situation Postulate"allows one to
find space-time structure as well as fields from arbitrarily shaped charged conductors,
without using Einstein’s equations. In particular, the space-time metric over a charged
plane can be related to the metric being obtained from an exact solution to Einstein-
Maxwell’s equations. This solution describes an equilibrium of charged dust in parallel
electric and gravitational fields. The field and metric outside a conducting ball have
been found. The method proposed eliminates divergence of the proper energy and makes
classical electrodynamics consistent at any sufficiently small distances. An experiment is
proposed to verify the approach suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1412.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-05 07:49:40*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 16 pages

In a recent research study entitled “Test of Time Dilation Using Stored Li+ Ions as Clocks at Relativistic Speed” (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 120405 – Published 16 September 2014), an Ives–Stilwell type experiment, it was claimed that a conducted time dilation experiment using the relativistic Doppler effect on the Li+ ions resonance frequencies had verified, with a greatly increased precision, the relativistic frequency shift formula, derived in the Special Relativity from the Lorentz Transformation, thus indirectly proving the time dilation predicted by the Special Relativity. The test was based on the validation of an algebraic equality relating a set of measured frequencies, and deduced from the relativistic Doppler equations. In this study, it was shown that this algebraic equality, used as a validation criterion, did not uniquely imply the validity of the relativistic Doppler equations. In fact, using an approach in line with the referenced study, it was revealed that an infinite number of frequency shift equations would satisfy the employed validation criterion. Nonetheless, it was shown that even if that claim was hypothetically accepted, then the experiment would prove nothing but a contradiction in the Special Relativity prediction. In fact, it was clearly demonstrated that the relativistic blue shift was the consequence of a time contraction, determined via the light speed postulate, leading to the relativistic Doppler formula in the case of an approaching light source. The experiment would then be confirming a relativistic time contraction. It was also shown that the classical relativity resulted in perceived time alterations leading to the classical Doppler Effect equations. The “referenced study” result could be attributed to the classical Doppler shift within 10 % difference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1412.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-12-04 21:12:41*

**Authors:** Robert Bennett

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Belief that the Sagnac test of 1913 only applied to rotational motion was discounted
when Ruyong Wang found the same results for linear motion in 2004. The Sagnac
result has never been credibly explained, despite its wide application in modern
technology. In turn the Wang paper has been virtually ignored in the last ten years, but
remedied by this paper, which establishes the test as a critical signal of striking new
concepts.
Kinematic and dynamic motions are carefully distinguished here and the neglected
topic of covariance is reviewed and applied to the Galilean dynamical law of velocity
addition.
Analysis of Wang’s result in the conveyor and lab frames with the premise of aether
drag logically leads to identification of preferred motion in an absolute frame of
reference … the earth-bound laboratory frame!
That light speed in the lab frame will be the same as for the conveyor is a testable
prediction of this paper….. the same as the Doufour-Prunier test.
Discovery of the absolute lab reference frame and a flexible aether – the ALFA model –
refutes relativity and its alleged consequences, such as: both postulates of special
relativity – general covariance in general relativity - Lorentz transformations -
Minkowski space – length contraction - time dilation…. All disproven by ALFA via the
Wang and Sagnac tests.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1412.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-08 17:19:45*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 27 pages, Français & English, web site: http://phrenocarpe.org/cgi-bin/zhp/fra/0_0_couverture.pl,

We lay down the fundamental hypothesis that any electromagnetic radiation transforms progressively, evolving towards and finally reaching after an appropriate distance the value of the cosmic microwave background radiation, a 1,873 mm wavelength. This way we explain the cosmic redshift Z of far away Galaxies using only Maxwell’s equations and the energy quantum principle of the photons. Hubble’s law sprouts out naturally as the consequence of this transformation. According to this hypothesis we compute the constant Ho (84,3 Km/s/Mpc) using data from the Pioneer satellite and doing so deciphering the enigm of its anomalous behaviour. This hypothesis is confirmed by solving some cases that are still enigmatic for the standard cosmology. We review the distance modulus formula and comment on the limits of cosmological observations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology