[39] **viXra:1501.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-31 13:07:08*

**Authors:** Pierre Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** English, 7 pages, also in French, Web site: http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/index.html .

We review Hubble’s law formulation, we reduce Ho to a combination of three fundamental constants and define the Hubble surface σH.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1501.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-29 06:32:12*

**Authors:** Valery B. Smolensky

**Comments:** Pages.

the article presents the purpose of creation and the original principle of PI-Theory of fundamental physical constants.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1501.0245 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-06 05:10:38*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We emphasize the need for more experiments to measure the variation of the speed of light in a gravitational field. Indicate an experimental procedure on the surface of the Earth that can provide a reasonable estimate of the true value of the speed of light in the absence of gravitational field. The speed of light in the absence of gravitational field is greater than we now know, and in the presence of gravitational field can vary throughout the day, for example in the Earth's surface, this according to General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1501.0233 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-02 18:09:07*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Informally we explain the concept of space-time, we calculate the changes in space and time in a static gravitational field and with spherical symmetry (Schwarzschild solution) and, the most importantly, we obtained the corresponding variability of the speed of light in this field. Can be great the loss of speed of light in a gravitational field, which may explain the dark matter (and perhaps also complement the theory of sunspots). More experiences with the speed of light must be made.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1501.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-25 04:34:01*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Submitted to EJP

The dependence of free fall acceleration on speed in the Schwarzschild space-time is obtained. It is confirmed that gravitation mass coincides with inertial mass

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1501.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 23:57:21*

**Authors:** Lutz Kayser

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

The Einstein Postulates of Special Relativity (SR), namely the invariance of the speed of light c relative to the observer, the symmetry of relative velocities, and the Galilean Principle independent of velocity and gravitational potential are falsified. The replacement is Law 1: There exists an absolute universal velocity reference (Cosmic Velocity Reference, CVR) and Law 2: The speed of light c is invariant and isotropic only relative to absolute universal space CVR. Experimental evidence like Smoot’s anisotropy of the cosmic microwave radiation background CMB and the one-way measurements of the speed of light are given. From the new Laws it follows (in vector notation) c_rel = c - v_CVR This results in the elimination from physics the Minkovski four-vector spacetime symmetry, time dilation, length contraction, velocity and acceleration symmetrical Lorentz transformation, Einstein vector addition, covariance, invisible and unphysical net of monolithic worldlines, and other weird mathematical constructs without physical meaning resulting from Special Relativity SR and General Relativity GR. The mass increase of particles with speed by the so-called Lorentz Factor 〖ϒ=(1-v^2 /c^2 )〗^(-1/2) is so often cited by Relativists as empirical proof of SR. ϒ was fraudulently smuggled into SR without mathematical proof applying it to relative velocities which gives wrong results. We show that the Lorentz Factor is a simple part of the system of classical dynamic equations. But it is only valid with absolute cosmic velocity v_CVR . The increases of mass, momentum, and energy with an object’s velocity are correct but not part of or caused by SR. This is true also for the change of clock rate as a function of velocity and Newtonian gravity potential.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1501.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-24 11:19:26*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 9 pages. This paper is the French version of «MARS BLUE CLEARING AND ALLAIS EFFECT» on viXra.org/abs/1501.0219.

Une flambée de luminosité et des tempêtes se produisent sur Mars lorsque la Terre se trouve entre le Soleil et Mars. L’atmosphère et les nuages peuvent alors être vus et photographiés à la lumière bleue par des télescopes sur Terre équipés d’un filtre Wratten 47. Il arrive que l’écran bleu du filtre se mette soudain à disparaître et que la surface martienne devienne visible. Nous estimons que l’« effet Allais de syzygie » peut expliquer ce phénomène appelé « blue clearing ». L’opposition causerait une « tension gravito-électromagnétique ». Ce qui provoquerait des fluctuations dans le potentiel gravitationnel de Mars. En supposant que la gravité martienne diminue un tant soit peu, une diffusion Raman Stokes se manifesterait au niveau intramoléculaire de l’atmosphère martienne. Dès lors, ce sont surtout les ondes qui correspondent aux régions spectrales jaune, orange ou rouge qui sont diffusées, ce qui écarte les ondes courtes. On déduit que les dimensions des inhomogénéités résultant de l’animation thermique s’avèrent supérieures à la longueur des ondes lumineuses des régions violette ou bleue du spectre.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1501.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 16:21:09*

**Authors:** Russell Bagdoo

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An outbreak of brightness and storms occur on Mars when the Earth is between the Sun and Mars. The atmosphere and clouds can then be seen and photographed at short wavelengths by Earth-based telescopes equipped with a Wratten 47 filter. It happens that the blue screen of the filter suddenly begins to disappear and that the Martian surface becomes visible. We believe that the "Allais syzygy effect" may explain this phenomenon known as "blue clearing". The opposition would generate a "gravito-electromagnetic tension", which would spawn fluctuations in the gravitational potential of Mars. Assuming that the Martian gravity decreased slightly, a Stokes Raman scattering would manifest at intramolecular level of the Martian. Therefore, it is mainly the waves corresponding to the spectral regions yellow, orange or red that are diffused, what eliminates short wavelengths. We deduce that the size of the inhomogeneities resulting from thermal excitation turns out to be greater than the length of the light waves of blue or purple regions of the spectrum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1501.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 17:20:04*

**Authors:** Timkov V. F., Timkov S.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Sources and physical nature of dark energy and dark matter can be explained, to find and to determine if it is assumed that after the Big Bang expanding spherical space of the Universe revolves around one of their central axes. Under this condition, loses its meaning and the concept of dark energy, and the imaginary phenomenon of divergence of the objects of the Universe, which is registered as a red shift based on the Doppler effect due to the increase of the linear velocity of these objects with increasing distances from the observer in a rotating spherical space of the Universe. The kinetic energy of the rotating Universe may be the source of dark matter. The energy of the accelerated expansion of the Universe by the pressure of the vacuum does not depend on the absolute value of the vacuum pressure, but it depends on the relative value. Relative value vacuum pressure is equal to the difference between the values of vacuum pressure at the boundary of the Universe to expand and beyond. Since this difference is equal to zero, then does not exist of dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1501.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-03-09 10:28:00*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron

**Comments:** Pages.

Impedance may be defined as a measure of the amplitude and phase of opposition to the flow of energy. Impedance is a fundamental concept, of universal validity. Classical or quantum impedances, geometric or topological, scale invariant or scale dependent, fermionic or bosonic, mechanical or electromagnetic or gravitational - impedance matching governs the flow of energy. This is a universal principle. As such, it is not surprising to find that quantized impedances provide an interesting sensibility when taken as a template for the Big Bang, presenting a detailed perspective on the first few zeptoseconds

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1501.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-21 05:33:04*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Ten page paper

Louis Marmet, in a paper titled: “On the Interpretation of Red-Shifts: A quantitative comparison of red-shift mechanisms-II” Dated 4th December 2014, [1] has briefly compiled around 59 candidate mechanisms, including the standard Big Bang Cosmology, attempting to explain the observation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’. This paper proposes some criteria for short-listing the most likely explanations; and adds some more explanations to the list. The need for considering alternative mechanisms arises because the Big Bang cosmology is based on the assumption of homogeneity and isotropy of space at 100 M pc scale, for the explanation of the ‘cosmological red-shift’, whereas linear Hubble law is observed even at 1 M pc distances, where distribution of matter and energy is clearly not homogeneous. And Big Bang Cosmology demands 95 % ‘dark-energy’ which is not yet found. Alternative explanations for ‘cosmological red-shift’ are rejected under a pre-text that they are not compatible with the observation of ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’; but a paper by Tank, titled “Wave-theoretical insight into the Relativistic Length-contraction and Time-dilation of Super novae Light-curves” [2] has shown that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super novae light-curves’, so every possible mechanism needs to be considered without any bias. The criteria for short-listing proposed here is: that the loss in energy of cosmologically red-shifting photon is proportional to the strength-ratio of gravitational and electric forces ( G me mp / e^2), which suggests that the energy of inter-galactic photon seems to get branched-out into gravitational and electrostatic potential-energy parts, and gravitational potential-energy-part is getting subtracted from the energy of the photons.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1501.0186 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-20 08:36:06*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 5 pages. [v2] added further contradictions emerging from the speed of light principle.

The relativistic Doppler shift formula is shown to be based on a contradictory equation, revealing the unviability of the Special Relativity. In addition, the light speed postulate is shown to result in contradictions with the Special Relativity equations, when expressed in terms of the light wave characteristics, with the relativistic Doppler shift formula being applied in the resulting expression. An absurd relation between the wave frequency and wave period would emerge to satisfy the Special Relativity time dilation. An actual time dilation factor emerging from the speed of light principle is revealed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1501.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-17 11:23:46*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

I agree with the Hartranft's (see viXra 1501.0163) that a cosmological model based on + and - mass symmetry is entirely possible but only under unbroken E8 symmetry conditions. Unfortunately in the present epoch E8 symmetry is now broken by U(1) with the result that negative mass-energy can no longer be produced. Nevertheless its real effects in our epoch including the effects of dark energy and dark matter are observable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1501.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-16 17:24:18*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. History of submitting is presented

It is shown that the Einstein-Eddington-Tolman's concept of gravitation energy is wrong as a whole because their pseudotensor contributes a POSITIVE term to the total energy of an isolated system, and therefore this standard pseudotensor breaks the conservation law. The original result is the proving of the positiveness, which buries the Einstein-Eddington-Tolman's pseudotensor. So, no works using the pseudotensor can provide a well-defined notion of the gravitational energy no matter what conditions are considered. The Tolman's formulas are demonstrated in the paper as formulas containing arithmetic mistakes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1501.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-16 08:43:46*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez

**Comments:** 14 Pages. 14

Abstract
In this paper, it is proposed the phenomenon of contradiction of the Michelson-Morley experiment and the Lorentz Transformations .This contradiction is resolved by new special theory of relativity viXra: 1501.0037. A new interpretation of experiment proposed. The paper gives a historical overview of the development of interpretation of this experiment. The contradiction is resolved by this new theory and this may lead to understanding clear its postulates.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1501.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-15 15:06:05*

**Authors:** Robert M. Hartranft, Scott W. Hartranft

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Just as the universe contains balanced positive and negative electric charges and balanced north and south magnetic poles, so it also has balanced amounts of positive and negative mass-energy. Understanding this allows consistent and natural explanations for the birth, early behavior, growth, present appearance, and future of the universe. Cosmic inflation and dark energy, while intellectually clever, are unnecessary and non-existent in the real universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1501.0158 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-01 10:57:52*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The limits of applicability of Planck's constant are brought into question in the context of the framework of quantum mechanics. The possibility is raised that gravitational quanta may be scaled by a more diminutive "action" whose detection requires sensitivities beyond the standard quantum limit. An experiment that could unequivocally test this possibility is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1501.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-21 09:02:55*

**Authors:** chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 5 Pages. English; with Chinese translation

The Lorentz transformation will always remain only
as an abstract mathematical transformation that cannot be incorporated into any theory of physics. The reason being there is no natural principle that a mathematical transformation carries over
association of physical units with real numbers from the domain space to the image space. Any application of the Lorentz transformation will only result in space and time that have no relation to our physical world. On the other hand, there is no such issue with the Galilean transformation as the rulers and clocks calibrated
at time zero reads in the same non-distorted units at all times. All physical theories founded on the Lorentz transformation are invalid. These include Einstein’s special relativity, particle physics,
electromagnetism of the Maxwell-Heaviside equations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1501.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-13 12:33:54*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. In this article we analyze the second of the purely affine theories Schrödinger (Schrödinger-II), where he used a semi-symmetric connection and therefore with torsion, capable of accommodating the unification of the three fields.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1501.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-10 14:39:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star' - unlike anything we have seen. [4]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1501.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-08 15:44:02*

**Authors:** Pier Paolo Lisi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

the simplest model of universe, comprehending electromagnetic and gravity forces, entropy, space dimensions, blak/white holes (bidirectional between two timelines), singularities (monodirectional, faced to no spacetime: big bang/big crunch, 'external' holes); infinity and contraddiction remain out of the system, they are possible only in no spacetime

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1501.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-09 01:34:53*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Basheir

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that the spacetime has wave properties and wave equation while Lorentz transformations represent the Doppler effect for that wave, and also shows the derivation of the correct relativistic factor and shows its consequences. It also shows the refutation of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction and the refutation of the relativistic mass and how the relativistic factor becomes equal to the principle quantum number

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1501.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-08 06:48:51*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 3 pages

Analysis of the Einstein’s general formula for the relativistic Doppler shift, derived in his 1905 paper On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies, revealed for the case of relative circular motions a critical contradiction with the relativistic time dilation prediction obtained in the same paper for reference frames in a relative rectilinear, uniform motion (i.e., relatively moving inertial frames). The time dilation under consideration was obtained for the traveling frame motion over an extremely small fraction (to the order of one light wavelength) of the circular path, so as the respective relative motion could be approximated with a rectilinear one.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1501.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-08 09:36:29*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Most of the experiments and phenomena on the speed of light can be explained either by the ether theory or the emission theory. The emission theory can explain the Michelson-Morley experiment. The ether theory can explain the Sagnac and Michelson-Gale experiments, moving source experiments, the Silvertooth experiment and Bradely Stellar Aberration. Therefore, it is highly likely that a single theory can be formulated which is a fusion of the emission theory and the ether theory. Neither does the ether exist, nor is the ballistic theory correct. The emission theory and the ether theory are not wrong but incomplete separately. This paper proposes a theory which seamlessly fuses the two into one. The speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. A consequence of this is that it is impossible to detect absolute motion by phase comparison using a single light source. The fallacy with the Michelson Morley experiment was that a single light source was used. Modern Michelson Morley experiments use two light sources but then compare frequencies (not phases) which will not change for co-moving source and observer[3]. All of the known light speed experiments agree with this theory. We call the new theory the Apparent Source Theory. A direct evidence of the two-source claim made above is Ronald de Witte’s experimental detection of absolute motion by comparing the phases of two independent Cesium clock stabilized signal sources.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1501.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-11 07:21:25*

**Authors:** Pier Paolo Lisi

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

a simple solution of relationships between gravity and electromagnetism

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1501.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-10 17:36:35*

**Authors:** D. G. Taylor

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Copyright#: 1-1190626511

Presently, the decreasing frequency of Electromagnetic radiation from Galactic/Cluster objects as their distance from the Milky Way [MW] increases is taken as an absolute declaration of their motion away from the Solar system. An alternate explanation would be that the frequency reduction of the signal could be due to interfering effect of inter-Galactic gases. It makes mathematic and logic arguments against the invalid reasoning of the proposed hyper-Relativistic velocity of Universe expansion demanded by the current Big Bang theory. It offers a mathematical Relativity argument for how matter could come to be from nothing but free Boson energy. The formation of the “Big Bang” remains completely unexplained, and is simply regarded as an unchallengeable theory because that is the only possible explanation for the reality we know. That is an invalid scientific postulation, and current observed phenomenon could be argued to be part of the process of Boson transformation into matter.
EM frequency shifts downward are evidence of Dark Matter throughout the Universe. A simple parallel to the reddening of solar radiation as it travels through a greater thickness of the atmosphere during both Sunrise and sunset.
Support for this alternate supposition is that in current Hubble Theory, the M31 Galaxy and the NGC 300 Galaxy are at distances inconsistent with their recession velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1501.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-07 13:25:41*

**Authors:** Fernando Loup

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

Warp Drives are solutions of the Einstein Field Equations that
allows superluminal travel within the framework of General
Relativity. There are at the present moment two known solutions:
The Alcubierre warp drive discovered in $1994$ and the Natario
warp drive discovered in $2001$. However the major drawback
concerning warp drives is the huge amount of negative energy
density able to sustain the warp bubble.In order to perform an
interstellar space travel to a "nearby" star at $20$ light-years
away in a reasonable amount of time a ship must attain a speed of
about $200$ times faster than light.However the negative energy
density at such a speed is directly proportional to the factor
$10^{48}$ which is $1.000.000.000.000.000.000.000.000$ times
bigger in magnitude than the mass of the planet Earth!!. With the
correct form of the shape function the Natario warp drive can
overcome this obstacle at least in theory.Other drawbacks that
affects the warp drive geometry are the collisions with hazardous
interstellar matter(asteroids,comets,interstellar dust etc)that
will unavoidably occurs when a ship travels at superluminal speeds
and the problem of the Horizons(causally disconnected portions of
spacetime).The geometrical features of the Natario warp drive are
the required ones to overcome these obstacles also at least in
theory. Some years ago starting from $2012$ to $2014$ a set of
works appeared in the current scientific literature covering the
Natario warp drive with an equation intended to be the original
Natario equation however this equation do not obeys the original
$3+1$ Arnowitt-Dresner-Misner($ADM$) formalism and hence this
equation cannot be regarded as the original Natario warp drive
equation.However this new equation satisfies the Natario criteria
for a warp drive spacetime and as a matter of fact this equation
must be analyzed under a new and parallel $3+1$ $ADM$ formalism.
We compare both original and parallel $3+1$ $ADM$ formalisms using
the approach of Misner-Thorne-Wheeler($MTW$) and Alcubierre and
while in the $3+1$ spacetime the parallel equation differs
radically from the original one when we reduce both equations to a
$1+1$ spacetime both equations becomes equivalent.We discuss the
possibilities in General Relativity for this new equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1501.0087 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-08 07:33:02*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Eight page paper

This letter begins with some questions which do not seem to have satisfactory explanations in the current Big-Bang Cosmology. Then it points out a paper [1] which shows that any mechanism which can cause ‘cosmological red-shift’ will also cause ‘time-dilation of super-novae light-curves, so any alternative explanation of the cosmological red-shift’ is not incompatible with the observations of super-novae light-curves. Rather, non-observation of time-dilation in the case of some super-novae needs further works. Then, based on the coincidences noticed by Nobel laureate physicists, and authentic text-books, a derivation is presented showing that every piece of matter and energy is expected to feel the ‘cosmic gravitational force’. This derivation leads to a prediction that not only photons, but all other bodies are expected to feel this ‘cosmic gravitational force’ causing deceleration of their inertial-motion. It is shown that the so called ‘Pioneer-anomaly’ is very much expected based on this derivation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1501.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-07 07:39:38*

**Authors:** Martin Lopez-Corredoira

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Accepted to be published in Proceedings of Science (SISSA), talk in the conference "Frontiers of Fundamental Physics 14", 15-18 July 2014, Marseille (France)

Almost all cosmologists accept nowadays that the redshift of the galaxies is due to the expansion of the Universe (cosmological redshift), plus some Doppler effect of peculiar motions, but can we be sure of this fact by means of some other independent cosmological test? Here I will review
some recent tests: CMBR temperature versus redshift, time dilation, the Hubble diagram, the Tolman or surface brightness test, the angular size test, the UV surface brightness limit and the
Alcock–Paczýnski test. Some tests favour expansion and others favour a static Universe. Almost all the cosmological tests are susceptible to the evolution of galaxies and/or other effects. Tolman or angular size tests need to assume very strong evolution of galaxy sizes to fit the data with the standard cosmology, whereas the Alcock–Paczynski test, an evaluation of the ratio of observed angular size to radial/redshift size, is independent of it.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1501.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-07 08:10:37*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 1 Page.

There have been many proposals to use alternative theories of gravity in lieu of the general theory of relativity (GR). In this paper [1], we propose something different: a new interpretation of the GR. We propose here to use the concept of the effective mass tensor to describe gravitational phenomena instead of usual metric tensor. This paper discusses the implications arising from the use of this concept.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1501.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-15 12:25:51*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We calculate the angle of the deflection suffered by the light passing near a large mass M, the Sun, using the asymptotic behavior of exact solution of the equation for the light movement according to the General Relativity (Schwarzschild space-time). The resulting angle is practically constant of about 65°.4, minus the deflection obtained with Newtonian mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1501.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-05 20:18:43*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Reference: On the Evolving Black Holes and Black Hole Cosmology- Scale Independent Quantum Gravity Approach. Frontiers of Astronomy, Astrophysics and Cosmology, vol. 1, no. 1 (2014): 1-15.

By considering the Stoney scale and current cosmic back ground temperatures the authors proposed a unified model mechanism for understanding the cosmological light emission mechanism in cosmologically ‘strengthening hydrogen atom’. In this proposed model ‘gravitational potential energy of proton’ and ‘ (2n^2) states of electron’ both seem to play a major role. Throughout the cosmic evolution, Planck’s constant seems to be a constant whereas the currently believed ‘reduced Planck’s constant’ seems to be a cosmological decreasing variable. With this new proposal - Hubble’s redshift interpretation, Super novae dimming and currently believed cosmic acceleration can be reviewed at fundamental level and a correct model of cosmology can be developed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1501.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-05 23:16:42*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Copyright #1-2035274031

The current favorite in Cosmology for the formation of this Universe from a single “Big Bang” purports the idea that there was an object of Planck dimensions that exploded at a hyper-Relativistic velocity. It proposes that single body (call it the “Cosmic Egg”) was initially pure energy. Later in its expansion the energy of that Big Bang became disperse enough to form matter. Though the degree of that dispersion necessary for that formation is largely undefined. Even the proposals that offers/purports some definitions do not meet in logic.
This paper reasons from the Classic Relativity equations a mechanism for that formation and offers a source of the energy needed for that formation. While it makes a very specific presumption that our Space-Time reality is infinite, that is surely more reasonable than assigning it the limits modern science does. Assigning limits to our Universe – in Space and Time – have been proven incorrect for the entire history of Science. It is unreasonable to presume the limits of our observations now are the same limits we will have for the rest of eternity. We must always remember that the data we obtain is from whatever Local area can be observed with the current technology – it is never infinite.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1501.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-05 14:19:26*

**Authors:** Lori Gardi

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Presented at SPIE, The Nature Of Light: What are Photons? San Diego, 2013

“There is always another way to say the same thing that doesn’t look at all like the way it was said before.” Richard Feynman. In this essay, a novel approach to cosmology is presented that mathematically models the Universe as an iterated function system (IFS) analogous to the famous Mandelbrot Set IFS (M): z=z2+c, where z and c are complex numbers. In theoretical physics, wavefunctions are functions of a complex space that are commonly used to model the dynamics of particles and waves. In the IFS framework presented herein, complex dynamical systems are generated via the iteration process, where the act of iteration corresponds to 1) a change in the state of the system and 2) a change to the wavefunction itself. In this manner, M can be considered a wavefunction generator. In this framework, all observables, including gravity and time, are thought to be generated by the iteration process. Feynman understood that there are many ways of looking at the Universe that are equivalent in nature but different psychologically. Understanding cosmology in terms of fractals and iterated function systems requires a paradigm shift in the way we approach cosmology. This is an evidence based dissertation and does not contradict the standard model; rather, it attempts to reconstruct it using the principles of the fractal paradigm as outlined in this essay. It is the contention of the author that in order to understand the true nature of light, the universe and everything, we must first understand the important role that fractal cosmology plays in the study of our complex dynamical universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1501.0064 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-05 06:41:40*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Spanish

In 1943 Erwin Schrödinger began a series of publications on Unitary Field Theory, with which wanted to unify the gravitational, electromagnetic and mesonics fields on a geometric basis. His investigation is based on the purely affine theory, which considers the affine connection as the main geometric element and the metric tensor as a derived quantity. In this paper we analyze the first Schrödinger theory. This is the first of a series of articles that expose the entire research Schrödinger in unitary field theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1501.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-04 11:24:27*

**Authors:** Andrew Wutke

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper discusses the most notorious paradox of Special Relativity. The reciprocity of Lorentz transformation applied to a one way scenario is demonstrated on the first leg of the journey, however the only reason of reciprocity is that two systems use two different sets of events resulting naturally from relative simultaneity caused by Lorentz transformation. The actual problem which twin ages less cannot be resolved within the Special Relativity. The relative simultaneity seems to be only an artificial effect of clock synchronisation convention. If it was for real, it would cause violation of causality in some cases, which is demonstrated. There seems to be a possibility that the absolute simultaneity and preferred inertial reference frame are valid concepts, but the Special Relativity still has predictive power without the need of finding them if at all possible.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1501.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-03 17:13:17*

**Authors:** Valentin Ibañez Fernandez

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The paper present the essence of the Michelson Experiment and give a historical overview of the development of treatments of this experiment wich affected all subsequent development of the special theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1501.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-02 18:06:45*

**Authors:** Udo E. Steinemann

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Many outhors told that various solutions of nonlinear dynamical systems can change their stability-behavior as soon as certain system-parameters are modified appropriately. Caused by these so called bifurcations very often the topology of the original solution-structures will change significantly. Similar effects in connection with linear structures could not be observed so far. But for specific space-time transformations similar phenomena will become existent too.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1501.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-01 14:54:32*

**Authors:** Tobias Richter

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

it is the explanation of the gravitational constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology