[33] **viXra:1505.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-16 08:46:25*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Changed title and made other improvements.

Time Dilation has been repeatedly confirmed via experiments to be a real, natural phenomenon which can be easily demonstrated and verified in any laboratory capable of obtaining two sufficiently accurate atomic clocks. Yet, many physicists insist on viewing Time Dilation as nothing more than an “illusion,” a solution to a mathematical problem which has no meaning without the problem. Understanding that Time Dilation is a real, natural phenomenon is the “key” to understanding and resolving some of the greatest mysteries in science, and also to correcting some of the greatest misunderstandings in science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1505.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-07 09:59:55*

**Authors:** Todd Sicklinger

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The Universe is contracting, which causes the radii of all massive objects in the Universe to decrease with time and which causes the energy density at all points in the Universe to increase with time. The contraction of the Universe causes the rest mass of all massive objects to increase with time and it causes the g00 element of the metric tensor to decrease with time for all points. The reduction of the g00 element causes the velocity away from the Earth of all massive objects to increase with time and to decrease with distance from the Earth. The increasing velocity of massive objects with time causes an error in calculating distances using Hubble’s law such that nearby galaxies that are not gravitationally bound to the Milky Way are actually much closer to the Earth than believed, which implies that nearby galaxies have much smaller radii than is believed. If the correct galactic velocity and galactic radii are used to calculate galactic distance, then Dark Energy and Dark matter are no longer needed. Type 1A supernovae observations confirm that the supernovae velocity away from the Earth is increasing with time. Increasing differential galactic redshift is proposed as further test.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1505.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-29 14:09:19*

**Authors:** Randolf Rolff

**Comments:** 12 pages; German language – Deutsch: Theorie der 4-dimensionalen Materiewellen

This paper describes relativistic effects in the absolute, but 4-dimensional geometric space and with an absolute world time.
According to the special relativity theory (SRT) matter moves continuously in the space-time-continuum, in case of zero kinetic energy along the time axis. This is illustrated clearly in the Epstein-diagram [Epstein, Lewis C. Relativitätstheorie anschaulich dargestellt. Basel: Birkhäuser Verlag, 1988]. Hence an absolute base point doesn’t exist. All movements are relative.
In contrast to this motion, the theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave presented here postulates a particle (e.g. an electron) is as a real matter wave in a 4-dimensional and absolute space. In accordance to this theory matter is moving always as a wave with the speed of light. In case of zero kinetic energy this movement runs along the 4th geometric dimension.
The resulting relativistic effects of movement in the space-time-continuum versus movement in the 4-dimensional space are nearly identical due to the similarity of these movements. However the theory of the 4-dimensional matter wave postulates a 4-dimensional and always Euclidean space.
The result of this work is an alternative but still mathematically exact point of view of relativistic physics. In contrast to the SRT, it is not dominated by abstract, mathematical axioms. Typical difficulties for intuitive understanding of SRT like the inhomogeneity of the time-axis in comparison with the space-axes or the curved space are avoided in this theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1505.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-27 13:30:24*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In the present note, we consider the relativistic effects, according to SR, on the "travelling" twin's body dimensions and weight.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1505.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 17:36:05*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Recent work (see ref. 1) of the ATLAS collaboration indicates that fermibosonic entities basic to the new theory of a cyclic universe of E8 symmetry exist (ttH process entities). It may be impossible to show the negative mc^2 character of the Higgs component crucial to a complete theory, however.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1505.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-26 11:33:16*

**Authors:** Jonathan Tooker

**Comments:** 25 Pages. Unpublished, unfinished draft published now because posterity, diagrams and stuff, etc.

It is widely accepted that a new paradigm is needed to unify the standard cosmological model (SCM) and the minimal standard model (MSM). The purpose of this article is to construct a modified cosmological model (MCM) that can serve as an entirely new paradigm in physics. Following the program of Penrose, geometry rather than differential equations will be the mathematical tool. Where possible, well-defined thought experiments are employed. Analytical methods from loop quantum cosmology are examined in the context of the Poincare conjecture. A new boundary condition is proposed for perturbative gauge theory as a string theory in twistor space. This new degree of freedom allows a reformulation of string theory without reference to any dimensionful parameter. An external time with which to evolve quantum gravity is derived. The MCM predicts dark energy, parity violation, finite vacuum energy density, and a preferred cosmological axis. Observable predictions specific to the MCM are offered for unified investigative effort.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1505.0192 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-05 14:11:55*

**Authors:** Javier Bootello

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Comments are welcome

This article checks a perturbing gravitational potential, with the energy of elliptic
orbits. This potential produces a permanent decrease of the eccentricity and the semi-major axis
however it is a conservative angular momentum motion. Results have consistent accuracy with the
detected magnitudes of the unexplained perturbations of the Astronomical Unit and also with
eccentricity of the Moon, but with the opposite sign. Perturbing potential is also consistent with the
relativistic precession of planets

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1505.0191 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-09-23 01:35:24*

**Authors:** Juergen Eibisch

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Contrary to the big bang theory a model is introduced starting out from a universe with coherent energy level. The start of the material cosmos took place by forming one seed with subsequent growth. Necessary elementary particles are defined. The well-known natural laws hold on the basis of Planck length, Planck time, and Planck mass. The cosmic background radiation is used to determine more precisely the value of the Hubble’s parameter (Hubble’s constant). Coming into being and passing away of cosmoses in the universe can be understood as a cyclic process.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1505.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 16:13:55*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 8 Pages; 4 References

Since its final version and publication in 1916, it is widely reported in several specialized
textbooks and research articles that General Relativity theory reduces to Newton's theory of gravity in the limit of a weak gravitational field and slowly moving material bodies. In the present paper, the so-called reducibility of Einstein's geodesic and field equations, to Newton's equation of motion and Poisson's
gravitational potential equation, respectively, is scrutinized and proven to be mathematically, physically and dimensionally incorrect, and that the geometrization of gravity is unnecessary.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1505.0172 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-24 09:23:56*

**Authors:** sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, if we use Einstein’s gravity field equation, we can discover the General Robertson-Walker solution and new solution in the cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1505.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-21 11:29:29*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Some of the massless fermibosonic entity fundamental to E8 symmetry universe theory failed to develop its fully massless character (i.e. the ttH process entity) during the prior unbroken E8 symmetry epoch before the big bang and now be observed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1505.0145 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-11 07:38:33*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Version 2 contains one time the word “observer”. This has been replaced in version 3 by the word “receiver”.

This article shows the calculations of the Doppler shift in all possible situations and compares the result of one of these situations with the result as predicted by the STR in this same situation. An astonishing contradiction between this predicted result by the STR and the hypothesis on which the STR is built shows up.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1505.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 22:27:07*

**Authors:** Sasongko Raharjo

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Velocity of an object can affect the gravitational acceleration. Black hole is an example where the light can form a circular orbit in the strong gravitational field. This light is moving around that causes the observer where is not in the path of the light orbit see the black hole as total darkness. In addition, when there is a high velocity of an object has been interacting with the gravitational acceleration, the object is in the micro or zero gravity relative to massive object therefor the gravitational acceleration does no longer exist.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1505.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-07-26 00:00:43*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 65 Pages. British Journal of Mathematics & Computer Science, ISSN: 2231-0851,Vol.: 13, Issue.: 6 DOI : 10.9734/BJMCS/2016/19235

The vacuum energy density of free scalar quantum field with a distributional background spacetime also is considered.It has been widely believed that, except in very extreme situations, the influence of gravity on quantum fields should amount to just small, sub-dominant contributions. Here we argue that this belief is false by showing that there exist well-behaved spacetime evolutions where the vacuum energy density of free quantum fields is forced, by the very same background distributional spacetime such BHs, to become dominant over any classical energydensity component. This semiclassical gravity effect finds its roots in the singular behavior of quantum fields on curved spacetimes. In particular we obtain that the vacuum fluctuations <Ф^2> has a singular behavior on BHs horizon r_+: <Ф^2>~|r−r_+|^−2.We argue that this vacuum dominance may bear importent astrophysical implications.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1505.0110 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-19 21:19:29*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In a recent paper [1] I proposed a novel relativity theory termed Information Relativity (IR). Unlike Einstein's relativity which dictates as force majeure that relativity is a true state of nature, Information Relativity assumes that relativity results from difference in information about nature between observers who are in motion relative to each other. The theory is based on two axioms: 1. the laws of physics are the same in all inertial frames of reference (Special relativity's first axiom); 2. All translations of information from one frame of reference to another are carried by light or by another carrier with equal velocity (information-carrier axiom). For the case of constant relative velocities, I showed in the aforementioned paper that IR accounts successfully for the results of a class of relativistic time results, including the Michelson-Morley's "null" result, the Sagnac effect, and the neutrino velocities reported by OPERA and other collaborations. Here I apply the theory, with no alteration, to cosmology. I show that the theory is successful in accounting for several cosmological findings, including the pattern of recession velocity predicted by inflationary theories, the GZK energy suppression phenomenon at redshift z ̴ 1.6, and the amounts of matter and dark energy reported in recent ΛCDM cosmologies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1505.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-13 08:35:14*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There are enough unknowns for not considering the special relativity as true.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1505.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 12:06:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: The recent finding by CERN of the rare process of Higgs-boson production in association with two top quarks and a Higgs makes one wonder if this process, like the tetraquark particle, serves a marker function, in this case for the existence of fermibosonic entities of E8 symmetry.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1505.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 08:47:22*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The concept of mass is usually introduced through Newton’s Laws. Associated to the concepts of force and acceleration in the second law of Newton f = m a , valid, it is affirmed, in inertial frames. Since Newton's laws does no define force and inertial frame in a logical unobjectionable manner (Eisenbud, 1957) the concept of mass must be introduced in a way consistent with previous established concepts that we assume a priori. The concepts of space and time permits the introduction of two concepts that define motion – velocity and acceleration. If we admit symmetry properties to space the mass concept emerge as a relation of distances of the centres of two spheres with mass m and mp (standard mass) and another point designated mass centre, at rest, the spheres describe a central motion. Mass is defined by motion. The spheres gravitate around the mass centre with accelerations in the same relationship of the masses, the relationship of the distances to the mass centre. Initially we admit a classical approximation since time is the same everywhere independently of the frame of reference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1505.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 13:46:06*

**Authors:** Roald C Maximo

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

A serious conceptual error has been committed along with the experiment performed by Michelson and Morley in the year 1887 conceived in order to detect the existence of an ether and whose null outcome gave rise to far-fetched speculations regarding the nature of light and the properties of space and time. The resulting fuss caught the attention of the physicist Hendrik Lorentz who, to cope with that result, suggested the introduction of an arbitrary correction factor to the equations describing the devised experimental model. In fact, this factor was introduced to suit an ill-conceived premise to an unexpected outcome and, since then, it has become a spook that's persistently being applied as a panacea to explain other little understood phenomena in the Physics and even the Cosmology domain, not to mention Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1505.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-10 09:56:06*

**Authors:** Paul R. Gerber

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The zero-mass limit for quantum-fields is performed. The resulting field-quanta consist of equal components of positive and negative frequency, which result in a conserved zero 4-vector of mass current. The transformation behaviour of a field's spin variables shows that only states of zero total twist survive this limit process. As a consequence neutrinos must have non-zero mass. Static fields are the classical interpretation of stationary mass-currents which consist of positive- and negative-frequency components of equal spatial k-vector (opposite for quanta!). Such objects, which require sources and sinks, do not occur in conventional quantum field theories, but are central to the case of gravitation. Consequently, static fields have a flow-nature with corresponding retardation effects, which provided a 19th century explanation of Mercury's perihelion shift.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1505.0072 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-04 04:39:51*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In version 3 a consideration about the Doppler effect of binary pulsars is added to version 2.

One of the claims that the Special Theory of Relativity is a valid theory is that experiments seem to prove that the velocity of astronomical light reaching the surface of our earth is always c. This article shows that such a conclusion is fully wrong and it also shows that, applying the so-called ballistic theory to light, a sinusoidal shaped Doppler shift of binary pulsars will be detected.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1505.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-08 11:57:51*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 1 Page. EPS 12 Trends in Physics, Budapest (2002).

Lorentz Transformation is reinterpreted. It is shown that by admitting the existence of a frame of reference with synchronized clocks, we conclude that any other frame of reference that moves related to the first has desynchronized clocks. From this conclusion we will arrive at a new expression to relate the time of different frames of reference. We will also arrive at a new expression to relate the contraction of different frames. We will show that if the maximum speed on the frame with synchronized clocks is the speed of light, then the speed of light varies accordingly to the velocity of the frame of reference. The new interpretation of Lorentz Transformation explains and solves Relativity’s paradoxes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1505.0053 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-25 08:00:06*

**Authors:** Yaroslav Grushka

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this comment some incorrect results published in the article "Extended Linear and Nonlinear Lorentz Transformations and Superluminality" are refuted. The article "Extended Linear and Nonlinear Lorentz Transformations and Superluminality" can be found in the journal "Advances in High Energy Physics", Volume 2013 (2013), article ID 760916.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1505.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 08:01:51*

**Authors:** M. Askin, H. Abedi, M. Salti

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Rom. J. Phys. 60 (2015) 44-55

In the present study, we discuss a non-equilibrium picture of thermodynamics at
the apparent horizon of flat Friedmann-Roberton-Walker universe in f(T;) theory of
gravity, where T is the torsion scalar and is the trace of the energy-momentum tensor.
Mainly, we investigate the validity of the first and second laws of thermodynamics in
this scenario. We consider two descriptions of the energy-momentum tensor of dark
energy density and pressure and discuss that an equilibrium picture of gravitational
thermodynamics can not be given in both cases. Furthermore, we also conclude that
the second law of gravitational thermodynamics can be achieved both in phantom and
quintessence phases of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1505.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-06 08:04:01*

**Authors:** H. Abedi, M. Salti

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Pramana-J. Phys. 84 (2015) 503

In the present study, using the time-like fractal theory of gravity, we mainly focus on the ghost
dark energy model which was recently suggested to explain the present acceleration of the cosmic
expansion. Next, we establish a connection between the quintessence scalar field and fractal ghost
dark energy density. This correspondence allows us to reconstruct the potential and the dynamics
of a fractal canonical scalar field (the fractal quintessence) according to the evolution of ghost dark
energy density.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1505.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-10 04:44:07*

**Authors:** Brian Coleman

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Equation (9) typo remedying

Eastward and westward orbiting plane time dilation formulae envisaged for Hafele&Keating’s 1971 equatorial clocks experiment were incorrectly derived in the 2004 textbook Relativity in Rotating Frames although exact analytic expressions actually result directly from velocity composition—provided gravitational effects are disregarded. Nevertheless the same idealised equations together yield the classic formula for Sagnac’s analogous 1913 experiment where interference fringe patterns from monochromatic light waves emitted in opposite directions around a rotating wheel, shifted in accordance with rotation rate—an observation misinterpreted by some as challenging special relativity theory. Although only approximately correct for the 1971 experiment, the resulting formulae also yield—independently of general relativity theory—a notable exact formula for a rotating satellite’s clock dilation. The factor’s inverse equals the versed sine of the angle whose sine equals the satellite’s peripheral speed scaled for unit limit speed—the cubic root of the product of the Earth’s mass, the universal gravitational constant and the orbit’s rate of rotation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1505.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-05 13:08:13*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: A cycling-universe theory based on cycles of E8 and E8 x U(1) symmetry is proposed. Non-quantum fermibosonic matter entities play a critical role. Three new gauge bosons are also used, for a total of 8 (the 8-fold symmetry of life). Unobservable particles of negative intrinsic energy (-mc^2) play roles of dark energy (spin 0) and dark matter (spin 1).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1505.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-04 14:41:54*

**Authors:** Jaykov Foukzon

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

In this paper we leave the neighborhood of the singularity at the origin and turn to the singularity at the horizon.Using nonlinear super distributional geometry and super generalized functions it seems possible to show that the
horizon singularity is not only a coordinate singularity without leaving Schwarzschild coordinates.However the Tolman formula for the total energy E of a static and asymptotically flat spacetime,gives E=m, as it should be.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1505.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-25 13:21:58*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 10 pages, 18 references

In 1983, Paul S. Wesson developed 5D Space-Time-Mass theory that associates the fifth dimension with rest mass. The gravitational constant serves as the dimension-transposing parameter.
This paper puts the World-Universe Model (WUM) onto the theoretical basis developed by Prof. Wesson, with the following modifications: the fifth dimension is associated with the total energy of the Medium of the World, and the gravitomagnetic parameter of the Medium serves as the dimension-transposing parameter.
The Medium of the World composed of massive particles (protons, electrons, photons, neutrinos, and dark matter particles) is the manifestation of the 5D Space-Time-Energy WUM.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1505.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-03 10:39:03*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

English (translation): We study here a possible cause of the intrinsic precession of the planetary orbits in terms of the sets of stars ["Reality elements'' Vixra.org: 1407.0107], compared with classic atomic model, which, together with the wave-particle duality, it leads to the conclusion that the thermodynamic energy is continuously being created and destroyed.
Based on the above two machines capable of generating electric power by precession resonant circuits are exposed.
Español (original): Se estudia aquí una posible causa de la precesión intrínseca de las órbitas planetarias en función de los conjuntos de estrellas ["Reality elements'' Vixra.org: 1407.0107], comparándola con la del modelo atómico clásico, que, junto con la dualidad onda-corpúsculo, da lugar a considerar que la energía termodinámica está continuamente creándose y destruyéndose.
En base a todo lo anterior se exponen dos máquinas capaces de generar energía eléctrica mediante la precesión en circuitos resonantes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1505.0026 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-11-23 09:02:43*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Spanish

During 1923 Einstein wrote three articles that developed the first purely affine field theory with which he tried to unify the gravitational and electromagnetic fields. The theory was not satisfactory, but research of Einstein, first forgotten and then recovered in the forties by Schrödinger, provides interesting ideas that may serve to construct a generalization of the theory of gravity. In this research we analyze Einstein's theory, detailing the missing calculations in the work original.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1505.0011 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-21 12:16:05*

**Authors:** Daniel Cordero Grau

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this Article I lay down the Theory of Relativistic Quantum Physical Biochemistry which unify Lamarck Relativistic Quantum Radiation Physical Biochemical Evolutive Genetics, Pasteur Relativistic Quantum Physical Biochemical Genetic Pathological Immunology & Jenner Relativistic Quantum Physical Biochemical Radiation Virus Genetic Pharmacology

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1505.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-01 06:56:12*

**Authors:** S.Kalimuthu

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Readers comments are most welcome.

The Un Manifested Supre Space ( UMSS) is holding our Manifested Physical Space.( MPS ) There are infinity of singularity particles in UMSS.Two or three of the singularity paricles of UMSS collided and this is the big bang.Both time and space were created at this event.Also, the universe started to expand right from the collission of singularity particles.All the singularity particles and the manifested universes are all in elliptical motion in the UMSS. When one or more a singularity partiles come very closer to the manifested space, the end of the manifested space occurs. i.e the singularity particles of the UMSS) will either swallow or torn apart the manifested physical spaces. This is the origin and end of manifested physical spaces in the UMSS.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology