[40] **viXra:1510.0516 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-31 06:37:27*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Taking into account the energy in the beam of light between the source and the observer which increases with the expansion of the universe one can easily and conclusively prove that the total energy is conserved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1510.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 13:14:52*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 27 pages. Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 92, No. 10, P. 1074 – 1081 (2014). http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjp-2013-068.

In the weak-field approximation of the covariant theory of gravitation the 4/3 problem is formulated for internal and external gravitational fields of a body in the form of a uniform ball. The dependence of the energy and the mass of the moving body on the energy of the field accompanying the body, as well as the dependence on the characteristic size of the body are described. Additions in the energy and the momentum of the system, defined by the energy and momentum of the gravitational and electromagnetic fields, associated with the body, are explicitly calculated. The conclusion is made that the energy and the mass of the system can be described through the energy of ordinary and strong gravitation and through the energies of electromagnetic fields of particles that compose the body.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1510.0497 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-29 13:27:55*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 31 pages. Canadian Journal of Physics, Vol. 93, no. 11, P. 1335-1342 (2015). http://dx.doi.org/10.1139/cjp-2015-0134.

The difference of equations of motion in the covariant theory of gravitation and in the general theory of relativity is used to explain the Pioneer anomaly. Calculation shows that the velocities of a spacecraft in both theories at equal distances can differ by several centimetres per second. This leads also to a possible explanation of the flyby anomaly and comet disturbances which are not taken into account by the general theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1510.0445 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-30 20:56:06*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Five pages

The unnecessary confusion about Dr. Einstein’s Special Relativity and why E = mc^2 is incorrect is discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1510.0443 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-31 11:54:54*

**Authors:** Steven Kenneth Kauffmann

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Adapted from a contributed talk at HTGRG-2, 11 August 2015, Quy Nhon, Vietnam.

Thirring and Feynman showed that the Einstein equation is simply a partial differential classical field equation, akin to Maxwell's equation, but it and its solutions are required to conform to the GR principles of general covariance and equivalence. It is noted, with examples, that solutions of such equations can contravene required physical principles when they exhibit unphysical boundary conditions. Using the crucially important tensor contraction theorem together with the equivalence principle, it is shown that metric tensors are physical only where all their components, and also those of their inverse matrix, are finite real numbers, and their signature is that of the Minkowski metric. Thus the "horizons" of the empty-space Schwarzschild solution metrics are unphysical, which is traced to the boundary condition that arises from the minimum energetically-allowed radius of a positive effective mass. It is also noted that "comoving" ostensible "coordinate systems" disrupt physical boundary conditions in time via their artificial "composite time" which can't be registered by the clock of any observer because it is "defined" by the clocks of an infinite number of observers. Spurious singularities ensue in such unphysical "coordinates", which fall away on transformation of metric solutions to non-"comoving coordinates".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1510.0412 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 07:28:11*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus (русский)

It is proposed a physical experiment to determine the speed of propagation of quantum information of the collapse of the wave function of entangled photons. To transfer the information need the carrier. Because the speed of the carrier faster than light, this role can perform the tachyon.

Предложен физический эксперимент по определению скорости распространения квантовой информации при коллапсе волновой функции запутанных фотонов. Для переноса информации необходим носитель. Поскольку скорость носителя выше скорости света, в этой роли может выступить тахион (tachyon).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1510.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-27 07:34:18*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 15 Pages. rus (русский)

The article provides a relativistic solution to the Ehrenfest’s paradox . It is shown the consistency of the predictions of special relativity to the rotating wheel.

Приводится решение парадокса колеса - парадокса Эренфеста. Показано, что парадокс является мнимым. В отношении вращающегося колеса специальная теория относительности делает непротиворечивые предсказания. Формулировки парадокса имеют ошибки.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1510.0410 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-26 17:24:09*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

This article describes two of the major errors of Einstein's reasoning in his 1905 document which founded the Special Theory of Relativity. Einstein contradicted himself by using both the principle of the constancy of speed of light, and a variable speed of light, along with a wrong synchronization method. A 3D animated simulation accompanies and demonstrates the statements of this article, and it is available at: www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZOjNwuQUOAM

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1510.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-23 18:46:39*

**Authors:** Basudeba Mishra

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The concept of black-hole firewall postulated by J. Polchinski and others in July 2012
(http://arxiv.org/abs/1207.3123) was extended to suggest that typical black holes
with field theory duals have firewalls at the event horizon (10.1103/
PhysRevLett.111.171301). This argument makes no reference to entanglement between the
black hole and any distant system; hence it is not evaded by identifying degrees of freedom
inside the black hole with those outside. During the last one year, more than 100 papers and conferences/workshops have addressed the idea of firewalls and examined different
aspects. We present three different empirical solutions to the paradox by revisiting the
foundational principles in each case. In this paper, we reexamine foundations of the
Equivalence Principle (EP) using Russell’s paradox of set theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1510.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-24 00:01:52*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

中国年底发射暗物质卫星是最大错误

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1510.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-22 09:23:43*

**Authors:** Hasmukh Bhailal Patel

**Comments:** 150 Pages.

Ether Flux Theory (EFT) has been put forward to explain many physical phenomena of nature, employing a single assumption, the existence of ether. The theory explains gravity, inertial mass, diffraction, interference, quantum mechanics (double slit experiment), and radioactive decay. It has been developed based on logical deduction for the existence of ether (aka aether). Supportive evidence are provided, in places, by which one can verify the assumptions and axioms used in EFT. The EFT is a logical framework, a first step for any physical theory, rather than a system of equations as it is believed that a complete theory based on EFT may not be provided by a set of equations, rather a computer simulation model is thought necessary. There are also some experimentally verifiable predictions, arising from this theory, which when confirmed will provide proof for EFT. Using EFT gravity and quantum mechanics explained, with a single assumption, which has been a long standing problem in physics. It is hoped that based on EFT a more rigorous physico-mathematical theory will be developed by the physicists and mathematicians (uniting gravity and quantum mechanics) which has been a long standing problem in modern physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1510.0345 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-27 08:17:12*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Research has shown that an analogy exists between potential vortex flow and the generation of space-time curvature around massive objects as predicted by Einstein’s theory of General Relativity (GR). The analogy between GR and potential vortex flow is based on results from potential vortex experimentation, GP-B researcher statements, free-surface shape extracted from Schwarzschild’s metric, a unit analysis of the curvature and energy-momentum components of potential vortex flow and the analogous components from Einstein’s Field Equations and black hole dynamics compared to potential vortex dynamics. This research indicates that gravity control and rudimentary warp drive is possible if space-time possesses the properties of a superfluid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1510.0344 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-02 09:59:46*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This discussion refers to the June 2015 Discover magazine article, “Tomorrow Never Was. A conscientious cosmologist rejects Einstein’s notion that time is an illusion and the future is already written”. This article concerns George Ellis’s ideas about time and space and how time interacts with the quantum nature of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1510.0329 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-23 01:38:57*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Dust-cloud collapse gives in Moller's formula the E=0 as energy. Therefore, if such cloud flies towards a wall, the thermal energy won't be released after the impact. But warm must be (cloud of machine gun bullets).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1510.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-30 15:04:43*

**Authors:** Kamal Barghout

**Comments:** 10 pages

The change of the state of motion of physical systems is characterized by the change of its velocity; an important aspect of Relativity Theory (RT). Quantum mechanics (QM) implies space-time itself may be quantum in nature if QM is to comply with RT geometrically; i.e. Loop quantum gravity theory (LQG) as a quantum space-time. The nature of time and its intimate relationship with space as described by RT is not so obviously defined but dealt with as an abstract entity that exists in physical reality. But physical reality demands similar dynamical space-time notion as mostly expressed by LQG. Here, following the concept of quantum space-time, I describe time as a numerical value of space such that the rules of RT are satisfied. Length contraction, time dilation and the forward arrow of time are explained accordingly. The intention here is to add dynamical aspect to the notion of time by defining it as a property of the dynamical space itself under the rules of RT but adding a dynamic aspect to it as LQG requires.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1510.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-17 02:50:28*

**Authors:** Chunxuan Jiang

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

本文理论上证明暗物质是不存在的

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1510.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 12:27:32*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Three pages

A new unique reference frame that Dr. Einstein missed is carefully defined and discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1510.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 05:25:40*

**Authors:** Sudesh Kumar Arora

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Any comments negative or positive are welcome and it will be really nice if someone can endorse this on arxiv.

Dirac equation for curved space-time is solved in Cartesian coordinates giving a result which is contrary to the generally accepted notion in cosmology that space expansion does not impact size of atoms. The solution shows that size of atoms reduces in proportion to the square of scale factor in an expanding universe. Work of McVittie, who solved the same equation with a different result is reviewed, highlighting his mistake and why he got an incorrect result. As the result is completely counter-intuitive a correction to the Dirac equation for curved space-time is attempted, which is desired due to many other reasons as well. The corrected equation when solved, shows that size of atoms changes in proportion to square of scale factor. Same result has been reported earlier as well using Schrödinger equation indicating that correction proposed is in right direction. Gravitational redshift formula is derived using the new equation, which matches with general relativistic prediction. The new equation proposed in this paper is thus indeed correct Dirac equation for curved space-time. Validity of standard model of cosmology is questioned due to this discovery.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1510.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 05:30:58*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 87 Pages.

The alternative theory to the General Relativity of Einstein

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1510.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 05:34:28*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 63 Pages.

Deduction of the new Lorentz transformation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1510.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 05:57:28*

**Authors:** Xavier Terri Castañé

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

The gravitational motion equations are not geodesics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1510.0132 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-16 03:36:35*

**Authors:** Miroslav Súkeník, Jozef Šima

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

It follows of the Expansive Nondecelerative Universe (ENU) model that the Universe is infinite both in time and space due to changes in some constants. We are able to determine the causal future, i.e. the maximum time which can be influenced at present. An analogous result is obtained introducing the real logarithmic time. Putting the curve of logarithmic time and the Universe worldline identical, an illusive acceleration of our universe expansion appears. This acceleration may, however, be related just to the observed past of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1510.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-15 01:54:04*

**Authors:** Mojtaba mahmoudi Fard

**Comments:** 14 pages

We choose to work with a simplified toy model for cosmological background as pre-space ether consisting of indivisible particles in the ground state of zero point energy, which satisfies the holographic structure of universe. Through the vacuum energy density we can find an effective cosmological constant and the dark energy effect of background, which yields the holographic dark energy (HDE) model based on the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy bound.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1510.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 10:52:37*

**Authors:** Patrick Driessen

**Comments:** 55 Pages.

When interpreted in terms of a particular fractal model, regularities in the ratio of typical lengths and times between particles and galaxies are found which suggest that self-similarity between these two scales could exist.
To establish the fractal model, we first review briefly some of the evidence *pro* and *contra* the local quasar hypothesis (LH).
Forceful arguments have been advanced on both sides, whence we suggest, after others, that two classes of objects should be distinguished.
A first class would be constituted of face-on giant elliptical radio galaxies and face-on Seyfert galaxies, with slight to moderate excess redshift, mimicking quasars.
The second class would contain much smaller, faint and compact "true" quasars with large excess redshift. The latter would be emitted by the nuclei of spiral and giant elliptical galaxies.
A single quasar ejection scheme (QES) could possibly unify many observations related to active galactic nuclei (AGN's), namely Seyferts, Liners and extended radio sources (ERS's).
When the relationship between (true) quasars and galaxies is so understood, a possible link between galaxies and particles emerges:
if galaxies not only emit quasars but are also able to absorb them by a mechanism seen as the time-reversal of the ejection process, then they should interact with each other via quasar exchange.
This process would be similar to photon exchange between electrons, where spiral galaxies and quasars are considered as cosmic scale electrons and photons respectively.
Giant elliptical and super-giant cD galaxies would reproduce atomic-like nuclei, also interacting with their electron-like spiral satellites through quasar exchange.
Such a fractal model relating particles to galaxies allows the computation of scaling factors with respect to length, time, velocity, mass and angular momentum, with relatively good agreement between various tests of the model.
The velocity scaling factor is close to
a
»
1/137,
which suggests that
a
may be a characteristic constant of the fractal for which we also find a mass dimension
D »
2.09.
The quasar speed with respect to the intergalactic medium (IGM) should be a constant and fall in the range 1000-4000 km/s,
with a more probable value of 2188 km/s if the velocity scaling factor is indeed
a
.
The quanta of galactic scale charge (for quasar exchange) and angular momentum are computed. The latter is found to be about 5 10^{76} gcm^{2}s^{-1}
which is considerably larger than the values usually quoted for the angular momentum of spiral galaxies, so there seems to be an acute missing angular momentum problem.
Finally, the quasar exchange force between two spiral galaxies is evaluated and it is shown to be greater than the conventional gravitational interaction.
In analogy with the particle scale it should be repulsive between two spirals and attractive when acting between a spiral and an elliptical.
New gravitational constants must be defined for each scale, and with the value found for the particle scale, the particle Planck mass, length and time fall respectively very close to the proton mass,
the proton Compton length and the proton *Zitterbewegung* characteristic time.
This suggests that the particle scale gravitational constant is a redundant definition of the basic (proton) mass, and hence that
a
should remain as the unique dimensionless constant of a future unified
theory able to describe particles and galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1510.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-14 08:59:14*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

It is generally believed that Einstein derived special relativity from two postulates, the principle of relativity and the constancy of the speed of light, without paying much attention to the results of the Michelson-Morley experiment and Lorentz’s interpretation. In this study, the minimum conditions for deriving the Lorentz transformation are investigated, and one of Einstein’s derivations and one textbook derivation of the Lorentz transformation analyzed. It was found that Einstein’s two postulates are not sufficient for deriving the Lorentz transformation and at least 4 postulates are necessary. In order to obtain the Lorentz transformation, Einstein made several logical mistakes by using same symbols for different quantities and variables. When these symbols are made unequivocal, Einstein’s derivation cannot lead to the Lorentz transformation. Therefore, it is a false assertion that Einstein derived special relativity from only two postulates. This study demonstrates that there are an infinite number of linear and non-linear transformations that are consistent with the principle of relativity and the constancy of the speed of light. Having four postulates for deriving the Lorentz transformation is effectively equivalent to postulating the Lorentz transformation directly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1510.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-10-29 21:15:16*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Einstein has been credited with deriving special relativity from two postulates, the principle of relativity and the constancy of the speed of light, in his first paper on special relativity in 1905. However, the existence of the Voigt transformation suggests that more than two postulates are needed for deriving the Lorentz transformation. In this study, Einstein’s derivation of the Lorentz transformation is examined for logical consistency and implicit assumptions. It was found that Einstein’s two postulates are insufficient for deriving the Lorentz transformation and essential additional assumptions were used. Because Einstein did not postulate all the necessary conditions, he arrived at the Lorentz transformation due to several logical mistakes caused by using same symbols for different quantities and variables. Therefore, Einstein did not derive special relativity from only two postulates in 1905. Einstein’s most important real contribution to special relativity in his first relativity paper in 1905 is the expulsion of the medium of light waves from modern physics and the reinterpretation of the Lorentz transformation with relative velocity between reference frames instead of velocity relative to ether.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1510.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 08:48:53*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Comments are Welcomed

We propose a cosmological constant that changes according to the scale of the application of the field equation. This proposal is found to resolve the cosmological constant problem , flatness problem and horizon problem and remove the contrived quantities and concepts such as dark matter , dark energy and Inflation. The proposal does not involve any modification of general relativity or any other theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1510.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 04:42:52*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The present study examined the relativistic interpretation of the increased lifetime of high speed elementary particles, which is an important experimental evidence of time dilation. It is found that the principle of relativity cannot be upheld for both the distance and the velocity between the particle frame and the earth frame in special relativity. For the particle frame, the velocity obtained by directly using the principle of relativity is different from that computed from the distance and the time interval of the particles’ proper lifetime, hence a velocity paradox. The relativistic interpretation needs to stipulate that the distance between the earth and the particles observed by the earth frame is larger than the same distance observed by the particle frame, which contradicts the principle of relativity. The aim of the present study is to present this velocity paradox to researchers and teachers in physics, in order to find a satisfactory solution.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1510.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-12 05:18:02*

**Authors:** Qing-Ping Ma

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The present study has examined the prevalent explanations of the twin paradox and found that they are incorrect because they failed to follow the spirit and the logic of special relativity in their application of the Minkowski space-time diagrams. Applying Minkowski diagrams strictly according to special relativity reveals that the overall effect of the frame changes or accelerations is to return the clock of the travelling twin to the same reading as the other twin’s clock in the earth frame. Therefore, within the framework of special relativity, there is no age difference between the twins when they meet again.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1510.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-10 22:23:28*

**Authors:** Gianluca Perniciano

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A solution of general relativity is presented that describes an Alcubierre propulsion system in which it is possible to travel at superluminal speed while reducing the components of the energy-impulse tensor, which turn out to be positive, by an arbitrary value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1510.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-10 11:55:03*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A simple explanation to dark matter within the framework of general relativity is given . The explanation is shown to be a result of a new proposed definition for the cosmological constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1510.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-10 08:04:34*

**Authors:** Alexander Unzicker

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is shown that the paper `Gravitation without a principle of equivalence' by American Astrophysicist Robert Dicke (1916-1997) contains a simple, but consequential, technical mistake. The purpose of this comment however is not to blame Dicke, but to bring to mind the intriguing idea exposed in his article. The cosmology proposed by Dicke would have been in full agreement with Dirac's Large Number Hypothesis, had Dicke not gone astray at that decisive step.
Instead of igniting the dispute with Dirac that followed (R. Dicke, Nature 192 (1961), p. 440; P. A. M. Dirac, Nature 192 (1961) p.441), the two researchers could have joined forces in creating an alternative cosmology that incorporated Mach's principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1510.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-14 11:08:52*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The article was reconstructed. Added new elements.

In this paper was presented description of gravity without the geometry of the space-time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1510.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-24 16:50:55*

**Authors:** Evgeny A. Novikov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Mass and electric dipole moment of graviton, which is identified as dark matter particle, are estimated. This change the concept of dark matter and can help to explain the baryon asymmetry of the universe. The calculations are based on quantum modification of the general relativity with two additional terms in the Einstein equations, which takes into account production/absorption of gravitons. In this theory, there are no Big Bang in the beginning (some local bangs during the evolution of the universe are probable), no critical density of the universe, no dark energy (no need in cosmological constant) and no inflation. The theory (without fitting) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmic data.
Key words: graviton; cosmology; age of the universe; interface between gravitons and ordinary matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1510.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-06 07:45:29*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Will be a basis of inquiry if quantum processes play a role in Dark Matter formation.

This document goes to the Friedman equation and initially gives an argument as to a
quantum bounce , for a modified consideration of the inflaton. Once an inflaton for a non zero
initial starting point is established we look at the ratio of the Numerical E folds for when there
is a quantum bounce, to the Numerical E folds for when classical GR is assumed. This rests upon
looking at M. Bojowald’s reformation of the Friedman equation, with some profound physics
coming from a defined length, as given by Banerjee and Date, as of 2005. A tie in with initial
production of DM is suggested as a compliment to work L. Randall and others have initiated
with the synthesis of DM.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1510.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-04 20:13:36*

**Authors:** Roald C Maximo

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Things behave differently in Wonderland and, to make sense of experiments made over there, they must be conveniently processed by some kind of artifice in order to make sense in the real world.
In Wonderland there are no fixed reference frames and therefore it becomes very easy to choose a wrong model in trying to describe a given physical phenomenon. In a confused landscape you never know for sure where you are located and how to move about. One can eventually build a working description of a natural phenomenon starting from a wrong model, however at the cost of subsequent application of some ugly prostheses or patches as required to make the freak viable in real life. An emblematic example has been the ancient description of the astronomical orbits through the "epicycles" created by Aristotle and Ptolemy where they arbitrarily chose the Earth as a universal reference frame. It was not much different in the case of the many experiments of the Michelson and Morley type that also started up putting the Earth as the reference frame to build a model for a theory of the ether and light, a model that had to be patched by the physicist Hendrik Lorentz to justify its final outcome. In this case, that prosthesis became a magic wand in the hand of physicists to explain other phenomena related to the speed of light in space such as the relativistic time dilation and the relativistic mass increase, also to be revisited in this paper, which, as it happens, are also flawed concepts that have brought pitiful consequences for the modern scientific knowledge.
Start with the wrong question and you don't get the right answer!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1510.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-04 11:29:22*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper I continue with the elementary particle Dark Matter halo model. The first few sections will shortly repeat the basics of this model. In section II I take a better look at the modified Newtonian potential as a consequence of the changed source mass. In section VI the effect of the modified potential on Einstein lensing is touched briefly. In sections VII and VIII the order stored in the frequency gauge of the de Broglie time devices in the outer galactic disks due to Dark Matter is related to entropy. The study of order stored in frequency synchronized or desynchronized time devices is called chronodynamics and this is added to the thermodynamics part of entropy. We show that in the inner galactic range thermodynamic entropy dominates chronodynamic entropy but that in the outer flat rotation curve part of the galactic disks the chronodynamic entropy dominates by far. We show that the chronodynamic entropy of a galaxy is lowest in its outer fringes and highest in its luminous center. This creates an inward entropic force and that is how the Dark Matter halo, through the intermediate of chronodynamic entropy, stabilizes galaxies. The frequency gauge of the de Broglie elementary time devices in the outer range of galactic disks creates a sort of a gauged time bubble in a cosmic time sea, a gauge regulated by the BTF relation. In the last section we relate this galactic gauged time bubble to GR as a reference frame independent theory of gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1510.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-04 09:38:02*

**Authors:** D.G. Taylor

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Reality is argued to be fundamentally different from a Relativistic Perspective and not a simple Time slow-down

This paper formulates additional relativistic equations examining Dr. Einstein’s deductions from a Relativistically Distorted Perspective. The equations derived from a theoretic ideal “non-Relativistic” velocity distorted in the same manner as length, time, and mass – into an apparent “Relativistic” velocity. Absolute velocity is a necessary logic component for all Relativity equations – its actual determination is unimportant. Relativity physics equations presume ideals. The equations that are formulated here examine the absolute/real (no Special Relativistic Perspective Distortion, noSRPD) velocity and use it to determine the distorted (Special Relativistic Perspective Distortion, or SRPD) velocity. For an observer moving at a Relativistic Speed, some aspects of everything outside that traveller’s immediate environment would appear sped up. That would include the traveller’s movement through space: meaning an apparently higher Relativistic velocity.
Two equations developed in this paper show this relationship. Independent variables have no relativistic deformation [VelocitynoSRPD||Time], the dependent variable is |Time’| because of relativistic deformation. Existence/non-existence of ideal values for absolute non-relativistic velocity values are not contested, they are indeterminate real ideals. Velocity is one of the valid, theoretic ideals that Classic relativity (all of Physics) relies upon. Two examples of Relativistic Perspective equations are:
Time’ = Time/(1 - VelocitynoSRPD^2/c^2)^.5
This paper reasons an inverse relationship: when an independent variable is the observed velocity from the Relativistically Distorted viewpoints. The parallel equation from that Relativistic Perspective is:
Time = Time’ /(1 + VelocitySRPD^ 2/c^2)^.5
Time’ is the increase in Time units passing on an undistorted Clock, but observed from the distorted viewpoint. |Time| is what the value would be were there no distortion. The above relationship allows for the additional development of eight formulae/equations for the velocity, mass, time, and linear deformations. This paper also reasons the Relativistic significance of the Uncertainty Principle.
Relativistic Perspective equations have been confirmed to be consistent with the Classic equations to 2000 significant digits for 37 velocity values ranging from 1.0E-500m/s to (c–(1.0E-500))m/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1510.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-01 16:34:52*

**Authors:** Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The detectability of the zero-point vacuum energy in quantum mechanics and general relativity is discussed and its shown that the geometry also has a non-zero ground state which is independent from the ground state of energy density and that the principles of general relativity imply that the field equation should relate the deviation from these ground states rather than the absolute values of energy density and curvature.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1510.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-10-01 07:18:55*

**Authors:** Omar Shabsigh

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Part II of discussing SciAm September 2015 issue

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology