[46] **viXra:1512.0489 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-05 00:33:45*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 13 Pages. v5 modifies section 4 to cover electrodynamics with non-zero electric charge sources.

We develop a linear metric element ds in ordinary four-dimensional spacetime which, when held stationary under worldline variations, leads to the gravitational equations of geodesic motion extended to include the Lorentz force law for both abelian and non-abelian gauge fields. We see that in the presence of an electromagnetic vector potential A^µ, all that is needed to obtain this result is to follow the well-known gauge theory prescription of replacing the kinetic momentum p^µ with a canonical momentum π^µ=p^µ+eA^µ in the mass / momentum relationship m^2=p_σp^σ, and then to apply variational calculus to obtain the motion of charged particles in this potential. We also show how by this same prescription, Maxwell’s classical source-free field equations become embedded within canonical extensions of the Riemann tensor and the gravitational field equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1512.0462 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-28 03:24:27*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

Special Relativity derived by Einstein presents time and space distorsions and paradoxes. This paper presents an approach where the Lorenz transformations are build on equations with speed variables instead of space and time variables as done by Einstein. The result are transformation rules between inertial frames that are free of time dilation and length contraction for all relativistiv speeds. Particles move according to Galilei relativity and the transformed speeds (virtual speeds) describe the non linearity of the physical magnitudes relative to the Galilei speeds. All the transformation equations already existent for the electric and magnetic fields, deduced on the base of the invariance of the Maxwell wave equations are still valid. The present work shows the importance of including the characteristics of the measuring equipment in the chain of physical interactions to avoid unnatural conclusions like time dilation and lengthcontraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1512.0449 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-27 06:23:11*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Published: Theoretical Physics, Vol. 4, No. 1, March 2019, 22-25. https://dx.doi.org/10.22606/tp.2019.41002

I give new relativistic formulas for kinetic, rest and total energies. The change in kinetic energy of a particle will be determined as the work done by the spatial part of the Minkowski four-force. I present a new relation between the relativistic kinetic energy and the spatial part of the four-momentum also interpretation of the temporal component of the Minkowski four-force.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1512.0444 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-26 14:13:27*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: Dark energy cannot be negative-energy radiation: it is generated by annihilation of redundant negative mass in our broken-E8 symmetry epoch in which new negative energy is not allowed

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1512.0412 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-17 21:40:44*

**Authors:** Claude Latourre

**Comments:** 5 Pages. En français

For more than a century, the equations of general relativity have evolved according to the observations of the universe. These changes are expressed through the cosmological constant (Λ), which was first added on the space-time part to account for a stationary universe, then removed when the expansion of the universe was observed. More recently, the constant reappeared on the energy-momentum part to describe an accelerated expansion of the universe. However, their contractions can express exactly the value of the cosmological constant: Λ = -1/4 (R + κ T) and fully define the equations of General Relativity: (Rµ√ -1/4 gµ√ R) = κ (Tµ√ -1/4 gµ√ T) without using other concepts: Dark energy, Quintessence...

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1512.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-22 19:57:16*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Dark energy is a negative-energy form of radiation invisible to our eyes in our epoch of broken E8 symmetry. It is generated by annihilation of negative-mass H and Z bosons left over from their use in bringing fermonic matter into the new universe following the big bang. The dark energy radiation eventually cancels the big bang radiation before it can leave the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1512.0399 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-22 05:06:15*

**Authors:** Tibor Endre Nagy

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The addition of acceleration in the form of redshift to the Earth, which in turn complements the notion of an expanding universe, may be used to calculate both distances and time periods. Using this information, if redshift to the color change of blood in living creatures’ depending on respiration and circulation is also added, the theory of general relativity and rules of Euclidean geometry can be combined to define the biological evolutionary time of life. When the value of this physical redshift matches with the periodical reflexion color changes within a living creatures’ blood, the information can estimate the average time period needed to develop a species in the Darwinian evolutionary process. Based upon this chronology, life may have started 4 billion years ago. The evolution time of man and vertebrates is between 1.93-3.53 billion years, while mollusca developed about 560-599 million years and plants developed in the range of 1.82-2.35 billion years. These values correlate well with the results of the today’s radiometric geological dating.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1512.0397 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 16:01:18*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Conventional Science Locally Measured At High Speed

Conventional equations of energy and momentum are rearranged to show how the components change during prolonged acceleration. Mass is shown to be a constant when light speed is constant, and a variable when light speed is variable.
Relations are developed among total energy, mass energy, and momentum energy, with conclusions that mass energy approaches zero at high speed, giving favorable predictions for Deep Space Transport .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1512.0380 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-20 13:24:26*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Predictions for prolonged acceleration

Predictions are made for properties of space and time at increasing speed related to Deep Space Transport using a combination of Vacuum Partition with Polarizable Vacuum Theory as modified for high velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1512.0373 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-18 21:27:02*

**Authors:** Yiyuan Wang

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

British physicist Paul Dirac, using Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity, and Erwin Schrodinger's theory, clever reasoning obtained the behavior of electrons and positrons, and predicted antiparticles presence. In the standard model Higgs field at the center of the thought lies in: even if is in a state of lowest energy, space is not empty. Through particle in the space will be more or less with the Higgs field, the effect to make particles in motion produced a "sticky" characteristics, namely mass, as a result of the Higgs field is not carrying a net electric charge or colors, photon and gluons don't interact with it, so there is still no mass, for the mass of the neutrinos. Based on these use quaternion, matrix method and linear combination of relationship, combined with Albert Einstein's special theory of relativity, and Louis de Broglie's thought, it is concluded that there are the three kinds of changes in the mass of moving objects, the relativistic state, the phase state, the relativistic state and phase state superimposed "superposition state", and through the use of de Broglie theory of phase harmony theorem，deduced the mass of moving object, regardless is in the relativity state ,or in the phase state, the same wavelength of matter waves, according to their different frequency propagation, their momentum is equal, and predicted that the mass of a moving object, in the relativistic state and the phase state "superposition state" ，the same wavelength of matter waves, according to a different frequency propagation, momentum is equal, and research the relationship between mass and energy of moving objects, obtained the evolution models of particles and anti-particles, and the mass model of elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1512.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 06:17:45*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I NEED SIGNATURE OF ANY PROFESSOR TO PUBLISH IT

BUT I NEED SIGNATURE OF ANY PROFESSOR TO PUBLISH IT IN PHYSICAL REVIEW, PLEASE HELP.
What did Einstein? He took action S and by varying metric of spacetime and by varying matter functions, he found in the minimum of S the Einstein Equations. What we suggest? Simply fix the metric, do not vary it, but vary the matter functions. In result we can describe what ever Dark Matter case of observations. Hereby Dark Matter is not matter, but a chosen form of metric. This is not trivia. Because one can hard calculate within this theory. You can study the evolving dust cloud, but holding arbitrary metric fixed. The number of dust particles is fixed. Then in the zero of energy-momentum covariant divergence, one can check is Martila's idea correct or not. Martila's idea can be verified, thus, it is very scientific.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1512.0346 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 06:22:00*

**Authors:** Dmitri Martila

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I NEED SIGNATURE OF ANY PROFESSOR TO PUBLISH IT

Using the conservation of the Metrology Standards (it is their definition), one gets new insights into the singular nature of the black hole Universe. BUT I NEED SIGNATURE OF ANY PROFESSOR TO PUBLISH IT IN PHYSICAL REVIEW, PLEASE HELP. How much has been said in the media, that Earth-man never sees the body B fall into a black hole. Reason: time dilation. But researcher A with rocket has full control of the situation, he can come close to Black Hole, almost to contact and observe everything. Therefore, the distance between A and B may be zero. It does not depend on when in the past the body B was shut into a black hole. Therefore, the black hole horizon has one big collision of bodies. Conclusion: The falling body is flattened on the horizon like by a concrete wall. Reason: on the horizon is singularity. Therefore, near the horizon even the most powerful engine can not operate and will fall into a black hole, reaching relativistic velocities of the fall. However, the space outside the ship becomes shorten through the Lorentz contraction of lengths. And therefore it is more likely to catch B than when A was in safety. A vector and a tensor consist not only of the components, but of the basis vectors. Therefore, multiplying basis vectors on the tensor itself, I get a scalar. Singular scalar, to conclude that even when the singularity were removed from the components, it is moved to the base of the curvature tensor. Therefore "removable" "coordinate singularity" of the curvature tensor is actually real and is not removable by coordinate transformations!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1512.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-17 01:51:21*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The strict "unified theory" cannot exist. Referring to documents structure of public library, and applying least square method, "partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far" including all the equations of natural science so far can be established. In this way, the theory of everything to express all of natural laws, described by Hawking that a single equation could be written on a T-shirt, is partially and temporarily realized in the form of "partial and temporary unified variational principle of natural science so far".
Key words: Unified theory, partial and temporary unified theory of natural science so far, partial and temporary unified variational principle of natural science so far, Hawking, T-shirt

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1512.0314 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 16:49:39*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Stress energy of general relativity is developed from interference patterns of electromagnetic waves where all of the electric and magnetic components are canceled out, but the Poynting vectors are not canceled.
Curved space in the vicinity of the transport vehicle is shown to be equivalent to an induced gravitational field off set from the center of mass in the vehicle.
A proposal is made that high acceleration can be achieved by field effect gravitational free fall in deep space transport removing traditional limits on acceleration for the vehicle and crew.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1512.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-20 20:03:46*

**Authors:** Ramzi Suleiman

**Comments:** 67 Pages.

We consider inertial physical systems in which signals about physical measurements conducted in one reference frame are transmitted to a receiver moving with relative constant velocity v, by an information carrier with a constant velocity v_c with respect to the transmitter's rest frame. To render the model relevant to reality, we assume v_c> v. We make no other assumptions. For systems of this type, we derive the relativistic time, distance, mass, and energy transformations, relating measurements transmitted by the information sender, to the corresponding information registered at the receiver. The sender and receiver need not be human or animate observers. The resulting relativistic terms are beautiful and simple. They are functions only of the normalized velocity β = v/v_c , implying they are scale independent with respect to the velocity of the information carrier, and to the mass and spatial dimensions of the observed bodies. The model's scale independency renders it applicable for all physical systems, irrespective of their size, and the velocity of the information carrier used in the system. For β << 1, all the derived transformations reduce to Galileo-Newton physics.
The derived transformations disobey the Lorentz invariance principle. The time transformation predicts relativistic time dilation for distancing bodies and time contraction for approaching bodies. The distance transformation predicts relativistic length contraction for approaching bodies and length extension for distancing bodies. The mass transformation is inversely proportional to the distance transformation, implying an increase in relativistic mass density for approaching bodies and a decrease of mass density for distancing bodies, due to respective length contraction or extension along the body's travel path. For distancing bodies, the relativistic kinetic energy as a function of β displays a monotonic pattern, with a unique maximum at β = Φ, where Φ is the golden ratio (≈ 0.618). At sufficiently high normalized velocities, the relativistic extension can maintain spatial locality between distanced particles, suggesting quantum entanglement is not "spooky," because it is a proximal action.
For the special case of v_c = c, where c is the velocity of light, application of the proposed model yields new important insights and results and reproduces several important predictions of Special Relativity, General Relativity, observationally based ΛCDM models, and quantum theory. The model makes excellent predictions for the Michelson-Morley's "null" result, the relativistic lifetime of decaying muons, the Sagnac effect, and the neutrino velocities reported by OPERA and other collaborations. Application of the model to cosmology, without alteration or addition of free parameters, is successful in accounting for several cosmological findings, including the pattern of recession velocity predicted by inflationary theories, the amounts of matter and dark energy in various segments of redshift, reported in recent ΛCDM cosmologies, the GZK energy suppression phenomenon, and the radius of gravitational black holes. More interestingly, we show that the model, despite being deterministic and local, reproduces the predictions of quantum theory for key quantum phenomena, including matter-wave duality, quantum criticality, quantum entanglement, and the formation of Bose-Einstein condensate.
The multiplicity and range of the proposed epistemic model predictions suggests that for inertial systems, mere comparison between physical observations taken at the rest of reference and the information received about the same measurement from another moving reference frame is a potent tool for extracting the laws of nature as they are revealed to us. Put metaphorically, we contend that the hidden secrets of the book of Nature often disclose themselves by leaving fingerprints on the book's cover. From observing the fingerprints, humans and other beings can reconstruct information valuable for their survival.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1512.0292 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-12 06:20:32*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Every individual section (particle) of the space has tension and can release energy back into space.

But you cannot add the individual particle energies together and create a massive sum -- because all of the supposed different (individual) energies are all one and the same -- coming from space as a whole.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1512.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-10 14:30:54*

**Authors:** Kyriakos Kefalas

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The selfvariating universe (SVU) is the cosmological model of the Theory of Selfvariations (TSV) proposed by Manousos in
(Manousos 2007) and (Manousos 2013 b). The Theory of Selfvariations (TSV) relies on the selfvariation principle and on the
zero arc length propagation principle (Manousos 2013 b, 2013 d). The selfvariation principle predicts a slight increase of the
rest mass of material particles and of the absolute electric charge of particles of matter. The selfvariating universe (SVU) is a
static and flat universe, where cosmological redshift is explained without the need of the expansion. It predicts an exponential
law for the cosmological redshift / distance relation (Manousos 2013 b, 2014 a) and a variation of the fine structure constant
(Manousos 2013 c, §9), which has been measured by Webb (2011). In this paper we
investigate the consequences of a larger set for the SV parameters than the one used by Manousos in (Manousos 2014 a, §1, 3).
The investigation leads to a narrow set of possible values. However to accurately fix all SV parameters, a precise determination
of the distance of astronomical objects, independent of any cosmological model and a more accurate measurement
of the variation of the fine structure constant is needed. The discovery of the variation of α, is a strong support for the TSV,
as no other mainstream theory can explain it. We have found that in one case, the SV universe (which begun with almost zero
rest masses) is heading to a reversal procedure where the SV rest mass unit will become infinite. After that, it enters a reversed
phase where SV rest mass unit acquires negative values. The reversal time TR, lies in the future and can be no less than 13 Bill
years from now. We also predict an anisotropy of cosmological redshift, for objects of the same distance and peculiar velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1512.0271 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-14 12:32:48*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez

**Comments:** 102 Pages.

Se revisan de manera crítica las bases de la relatividad, presentando evidencia matemática y diversos experimentos mentales nuevos.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1512.0270 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-04 14:16:53*

**Authors:** Emiro Díez

**Comments:** 51 Pages.

Se presenta una revisión crítica de los principios relativistas, con fundamentación matemática y numerosos experimentos mentales.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1512.0264 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-17 00:39:49*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the name of the author.

The present paper compares two different approaches to Relativity. One is the approach made by Einstein at the beginning of the 20th century which postulates that light moves with light speed c independent of its emitting source. The proposed approach postulates that light moves with light speed c relative to its emitting source, which also includes the reflecting and refracting surfaces. Einstein interpreted the constancy of light speed in all inertial frames as a time and space problem resulting time dilation and length contraction, while the new approach considers it a speed problem where time and space are absolute variables. The result of the proposed approach is a theory where particles move according Galilei relativity, and speeds calculated with the transformation equations are virtual speeds that allow the calculation of magnitudes like momentum, energy, Doppler effect, etc., which are not linear functions of the Galilean speeds.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1512.0256 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-18 06:28:53*

**Authors:** Bodo Lampe

**Comments:** 127 pages, 7 figures

This review summarizes the results of a series of recent papers, where a microscopic structure underlying the physics of elementary particles has been proposed. The ’tetron model’ relies on the existence of an internal isospin space, in which an independent physical dynamics takes place. This idea is critically reconsidered in the present work. As becomes evident in the course of discussion, the model not only describes electroweak phenomena but also modifies our understanding of other physical topics, like gravity, the big bang cosmology and the nature of the strong interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1512.0249 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-07 09:54:12*

Мнимые парадоксы СТО. Парадокс близнецов.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus

The paradox of the twins, the paradox of Langevin, who is also known as the paradox of hours - this is the first and most well-known paradox SRT, based on thesis, formulated by Einstein in a seminal paper "On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies". Status "paradox" become later. In the present work it is shown that the problem of twins is not a paradox, it is an ordinary task of the special theory of relativity, which has in it unambiguous, consistent solution.

Парадокс близнецов, он же парадокс Ланжевена, он же парадокс часов – это первый и наиболее известный парадокс СТО, основанный на тезисе, сформулированном Эйнштейном в основополагающей работе «К электродинамике движущихся тел». Статус «парадокса» появился позднее. В предлагаемой работе показано, что задача о близнецах не является парадоксом, это рядовая задача специальной теории относительности, имеющая в ней однозначное, непротиворечивое решение.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1512.0247 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-07 00:39:47*

Мнимые парадоксы СТО. Подобия принципа относительности.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. rus

Opponents of the theory of relativity regularly invent various thought experiments to discover his internal contradictions. But a careful analysis of those arguments, were identified always seeming contradictions. Most often subjected to attacks the second principle of SRT - an invariant speed of light. But first postulate - the principle of relativity also did not go unnoticed. Attempts are being made to show her illusory nature.

Противники теории относительности регулярно изобретают различные мысленные эксперименты, чтобы обнаружить её внутренние противоречия. Но при внимательном анализе такие выявленные противоречия всегда оказывались кажущимися. Чаще всего атакам подвергается второй принцип СТО – об инварианте скорости света. Но и первый постулат - принцип относительности также не остался без внимания. Предпринимаются попытки показать его иллюзорность.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1512.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 09:40:25*

Мнимые парадоксы СТО. Парадокс арбалета.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 11 Pages. rus

In this article is consider the paradox of the crossbow arrows. The arrow from metal pierces the capacitor plates. In the inertial reference system of arrow capacitor is discharged, but In the inertial reference system of capacitor - the arrow is too short. Here is there, as it seems to the author of a paradox SRT. It is shown that the wording of the paradox is wrong. Paradox is not.

Рассмотрен парадокс арбалетной стрелы. Металлическая стрела пробивает обкладки конденсатора. В ИСО стрелы конденсатор разряжается, в ИСО конденсатора – стрела слишком коротка. Возникает, как кажется автору парадокс СТО. Показано, что формулировка парадокса ошибочна. Парадокса нет.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1512.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 22:41:33*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 85 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether

In this book, we present a new physical theory, derived by us, which we called the Special Theory of Ether (STE).
The Special Theory of Ether describes the kinematics and dynamics of bodies in space. It implies that there is a universal reference system in which the universe is located.
We have discovered the truth about the Special Theory of Relativity which is considered to be one of the most important physical theories. We demonstrate that this theory is self-contradictory. It is based on erroneous assumptions on the constancy of the velocity of light in any reference system and equivalence of all reference systems. We present internal contradictions of this theory and show how the Lorentz transformation, on which it is based, should be interpreted. We demonstrate, among others, that the most famous physical formula E=mc2 is misinterpreted because in reality it has no connection with the internal energy of matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1512.0236 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-26 14:42:58*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 93 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Polish).

Fragmenty książki 'Szczególna Teoria Eteru'. W książce tej przedstawiamy wyprowadzoną przez nas nową teorię fizyczną, którą nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru (STE). Szczególna Teoria Eteru opisuje kinematykę oraz dynamikę ciał w przestrzeni. Wynika z niej, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia, w którym umiejscowiony jest wszechświat. Odkryliśmy prawdę o Szczególnej Teorii Względności, która jest uważana za jedną z najważniejszych teorii fizycznych. Wykazujemy, że jest to teoria wewnętrznie sprzeczna. Przede wszystkim oparta jest na błędnych założeniach o stałości prędkości światła w każdym układzie odniesienia oraz równoważności wszystkich układów odniesienia. Przedstawiamy wewnętrzne sprzeczności tej teorii oraz wskazujemy jak należy interpretować transformację Lorentza, na której jest oparta. Między innymi wykazujemy, że najsłynniejszy wzór fizyczny E=mc2 jest błędnie interpretowany, gdyż w rzeczywistości nie ma związku z energią wewnętrzną materii.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1512.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-06 04:51:13*

Происхождение рукавов галактики Млечный Путь.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rus

The observed rotation curve of stars of the Milky Way, formed under the influence of dark matter leads to some surprising conclusions. This rotation curve could not form a sleeve of the galaxy, what today we imagine them. The hypothesis about of the origin of sleeves of the galaxy.

Наблюдаемая кривая вращения звёзд Млечного Пути, сформированная под влиянием темной материи приводит к некоторым неожиданным выводам. Эта кривая вращения не могла сформировать рукава галактики, какими сегодня мы их себе представляем. Рассмотрена гипотеза о происхождении рукавов галактики.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1512.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 12:58:43*

Мнимые парадоксы СТО. Парадокс транспортера.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. rus

In this article is consider the conveyor's paradox of special relativity and its well-known solution. Here provides links to the animations.

Рассмотрен парадокс транспортера специальной теории относительности и его известное решение. Приведены ссылки на анимации.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1512.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 14:13:53*

Путешествие под горизонт черной дыры с возвратом.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rus

We know that to get under the horizon of a black hole is possible, but you can not then go back. In the present paper examines some inconsistencies in these submissions. There is a real physical ability to go to the center black hole closer than almost half of her gravitational radius, and then unchecked go back.

Известно, что попасть под горизонт черной дыры можно, но нельзя затем вернуться обратно. В предлагаемой работе рассматриваются некоторые противоречия в таких представлениях. Существует реальная физическая возможность приблизиться к черной дыре ближе, чем почти на половину её гравитационного радиуса, после чего беспрепятственно покинуть её.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1512.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 05:04:44*

Итак, парадокса (близнецов) больше нет!

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. rus

As the paper title is taken a phrase from the book by Marder "The clock paradox". It is widely believed that in the general relativity twin paradox is not a paradox, and has the clearly informed decision. The article analyzes one of the variants of the solution using dynamic charts Minkowski.

Названием статьи взята фраза из книги Л.Мардера «Парадокс часов». Распространено мнение, что в общей теории относительности парадокс близнецов не является парадоксом, а имеет четко обоснованное решение. В статье анализируется один из вариантов такого решения с использованием динамических диаграмм Минковского.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1512.0221 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 20:49:59*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

They used to think light needed a medium to propagate. That is actually correct. The only mistake they made was thinking the medium was fixed in space and the Earth must be rushing through it (that is what they call an erroneous constraint).

The medium is actually a lattice-type string particle field.

One particle field can explain everything.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1512.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-05 02:29:57*

Мнимые парадоксы СТО. Парадокс Белла.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 4 Pages. rus

Bell's paradox - it is unreasonably increased of the name is quite the ordinary tasks of SRT. The article provides links to the Minkovsky's dynamic diagrams (animations).

Парадокс Белла – необоснованно усиленное название вполне рядовой задачи СТО. Приведены ссылки на динамические диаграммы задачи (анимации).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1512.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 09:51:26*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

We show that a 3-sphere, whose surface volume matches the volume of the observable universe, has a radius of 27.6 billion light years, meaning it would be expanding into the fourth dimension at exactly twice the speed of light. We claim this observation has deep significance. Although the whole universe is much larger than this 'observable hyperverse', the 2c expansion rate is the actual expansion rate we experience, and this is due to the increase in the duration of the unit of quantum time as the universe expands. A model of the universe based on the 2c radial expansion rate produces equations stating that both energy and matter are continuously created with expansion, starting at the time of the Big Bang. Placing these equations into the Friedmann equation also gives a constant rate of expansion. The continuous creation of matter and energy, starting with the Big Bang, is distinct from the Steady State model, which has no Big Bang. The universe as an expanding 3-sphere is not an FRW model, as energy and matter both change with one over the scale factor squared. This negates most arguments against constant-rate expansion, as they are based on the FRW model. A 2c-hyperverse cosmology provides a new, powerful model for exploring the nature of the universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1512.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 10:23:00*

Радиус видимой Вселенной.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus

In the article on base of generally accepted data is defined of visible radius of the universe, which is different from generally accepted.

В предлагаемой работе на основе общепризнанных данных приводится прямое, численное определение видимого радиуса Вселенной, который отличается от общепризнанного.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1512.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 12:58:20*

Происхождение рукавов галактики Млечный Путь с наблюдаемой кривой вращения.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. rus

The observed rotation curve of stars of the Milky Way, formed under the influence of dark matter, suggests to some unexpected conclusions. With such a rotation curve of the arms of the galaxy, as we they today imagine, could arise only in extremely dubious circumstances.

Наблюдаемая кривая вращения звёзд Млечного Пути, сформированная под влиянием темной материи, наталкивает на некоторые неожиданные выводы. С такой кривой вращения рукава галактики, какими сегодня мы их себе представляем, могли возникнуть только при крайне сомнительных условиях.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1512.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 06:47:39*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

● Space-time is a lattice type string particle field in space.

● Empty space is completely empty / null / void. There is a big difference.

Space-time must be made out of something.

Space-time is NOT empty space.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1512.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 08:45:38*

Реликтовое излучение – день, когда оно погаснет.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rus

The universe is expanding and someday relict photons become invisible, unable to reach Earth from the horizon of the universe.

Вселенная расширяется и однажды реликтовые фотоны станут невидимы, не смогут достичь Земли от горизонта Вселенной.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1512.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-04 04:03:10*

Сверхсветовая граница СТО.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 18 Pages. rus

Special relativity was formulated on the basis of the invariant speed of light, so if use it to superluminal signals leads to the paradox of causality, mutually exclusive and false predictions. The principle of reinterpretation and tachyon mechanics based on it leads instead of solving these paradoxes to the create new ones. In dynamic Minkowski's charts shown the paradox the "duality of speed" of the tachyon and the impossibility of its solution within the framework of special relativity.

Специальная теория относительности была сформулирована на основе инварианта скорости света, поэтому применение её к сверхсветовым сигналам приводит к парадоксам причинности, взаимоисключающим и ложным предсказаниям. Принцип реинтерпретации и основанная на нём тахионная механика вместо решения этих парадоксов создают новые. На динамических диаграммах Минковского показан парадокс дуальности скорости тахиона и невозможность его решения в рамках СТО.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1512.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 22:22:45*

**Authors:** Chalmers Wayne Macleod

**Comments:** 19 pages, 5600 words, no references cited

Gravity is essentially caused by an unequal flow of time. Just as the constant speed of light is integral to the Special Theory of Relativity, so is the constancy of electron angular momentum integral to this theory on cancelling gravity. Although quantum 'spin' cannot be an actual rotation, it explains electron magnetism and precession and may explain by analogy a possible macro property as if it were. That property is time dilation produced by a rotating magnet. If the 'spin' of magnet and electrons of the magnet are in opposite directions, a detachment between the time regimes of Earth and magnet might occur and levitation achieved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1512.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 09:52:42*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** This paper is published: American Journal of Modern Physics, Volume 5, Issue 1-1 , February 2016, Pages:33-39,

A number of methods have been employed by cosmologists to effect what they call an ‘extension’ of their ‘Schwarzschild solution’, to remove the singularity at their ‘Schwarzschild radius’ rs = 2Gm/c^2; the latter they maintain is the radius of the ‘event horizon’ of a black hole. They call the singularity at the Schwarzschild radius a coordinate singularity. The method of extension most often employed by cosmologists is the Kruskal-Szekeres extension, but sometimes the Painlevé-Gullstrand extension is used. The quantity r appearing in all these metrics is invariably treated by cosmologists as the radial distance, most evident in their ‘Schwarzschild radius’. Intuitively, radial distance is ≥ 0 and so, on their false assumption that r is the radial distance in the ‘Schwarzschild solution’, the cosmologists seek to drive it down to zero where they say there is a physical singularity . Although cosmologists have devised mathematical-like methods to seemingly do this, to produce their black hole, all their methods violate the rules of pure mathematics and so they are inadmissible. Consequently, the Painlevé-Gullstrand ‘extension’ is invalid. Moreover, since material sources cannot be both present in and absent from Einstein’s field equations by the very same mathematical constraint, the whole theory of black holes is fallacious.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1512.0086 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-16 08:01:21*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages. version 2 is published: Progress in Physics, v.12, Issue 1, pp. 68-69. No copyright limitations., 2016

Over a number of years there have been some attempts to answer the Catt Question within the context of classical electromagnetic theory. None of the authors of these attempts agree on the answer to the Catt Question, even though they all invoke the very same theory. An attempt at answering the Catt Question appeared in the journal Physics Education in 2013, penned by M. Pieraccini and S. Selleri, as a mathematical rendition of their earlier non-mathematical version published in IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, 2012. The explanation by these two Authors contains violations of classical electromagnetic theory, although they claim to have satisfactorily answered the Catt Question by means of classical electromagnetic theory. The arguments adduced by Pieraccini and Selleri are therefore invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1512.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-03 11:17:25*

Специальная теория относительности неприменима к сверхсветовым сигналам.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 22 Pages. rus

Almost all physicists relativists believe that the provisions of the special theory of relativity can be extended to superluminal phenomenon. This in no way is estimated that the theory was originally formulated on the basis of the principle of the constancy of the speed of light, which directly led to the recognition of its ultimate. The use superluminal signals in the special theory of relativity forces her to do false predictions. Journey into the past superluminal signals - is a specific feature of this theory due to incorrect interpretation unacceptable to her signals. The superluminal signals in relativity destroyed all of its kinematic effects - Lorentz transformations, time dilation, reducing lines and the relativity of simultaneity. Application of the theory of relativity to superluminal signals turns theory into nonsense. Apart from the physical superluminal carriers, unobserved directly superluminal "quantum information" leads the theory to contradictions and allows the synchronization of clock. It is shown the thought experiment based on the quantum "nonlocal cubes"
Практически все физики-релятивисты считают, что положения специальной теории относительности могут быть распространены на сверхсветовые явления. При этом никак не оценивается, что теория изначально была сформулирована на основе принципа постоянства скорости света, что напрямую вело к признанию её предельности. Использование сверхсветовых сигналов в специальной теории относительности вынуждает её делать взаимоисключающие, ложные предсказания. Движение в прошлое сверхсветовых сигналов – это специфическая особенность этой теории, вызванная ошибочной интерпретацией недопустимых для неё сигналов. Сверхсветовые сигналы в теории относительности разрушают все её кинематические эффекты – преобразования Лоренца, замедление времени, сокращение отрезков и относительность одновременности. Применение теории относительности к сверхсветовым сигналам превращает её в абсурд. Помимо физических сверхсветовых носителей к противоречиям приводит теорию и ненаблюдаемая непосредственно сверхсветовая «квантовая информация», позволяющая осуществить реальную сверхсветовую синхронизацию часов. Рассмотрен мысленный эксперимент на основе предлагаемых квантовых «нелокальных кубиков».

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1512.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-25 07:53:30*

**Authors:** Tiger Zhang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Construct the concept of medium body and point out the internal independence and external dependence of medium body. Construct the model of two trains and quantitatively analyze the Doppler effect of wave in medium body. Construct the theory of objective motions of wave source and receive in medium body. Apply the theory in astronomy. Point out the edge convex lens characteristics of celestial medium bodies. Make clear the objectivity of time and medium space. Point out the theory of relativty is wrong in the concept of spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1512.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 14:58:18*

Темная материя Млечного Пути.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. rus

It is considered that the rotation curve of stars of the Milky Way under the influence of dark matter looks different from keplerian curve. However, the hypothesis of dark matter does not resolve the contradictions of the themselves rotation curves. With measured rotation curves for the Milky Way the galaxy cannot be of the observed species. On the flash animations shows a galaxy at different stages of its development.

Принято считать, что кривая вращения звёзд Млечного Пути под влиянием темной материи имеет вид, отличающийся от кеплеровской кривой. Однако, гипотеза о темной материи не устраняет противоречий самих кривых вращения. С измеренной для Млечного пути кривой вращения галактика не может иметь наблюдаемого вида. На флэш-анимациях показан вид галактики на различных этапах её развития.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1512.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-02 05:15:16*

Нарушение причинности в СТО. Теорема об изохронном тахионе.

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. rus

The theory of relativity does not apply to superluminal signals, because it inevitably leads to a violation of causality. For this reason, the theory of relativity does not apply to the tachyons. You can always find an inertial reference system, in which the speed of tachyon is infinite, which means instant signal at any distance. Let's prove the this theorem. The hyperbolic curve on the diagram Minkowski, which crosses the world lines of inertial reference frames in the points with equal of the times, is called isochrone. The tachyon called as the isochronous tachyon, if his the world line connects two points on one isochrone, and two corresponding them inertial reference systems.
Теория относительности неприменима к сверхсветовым сигналам, поскольку она неизбежно приводит к нарушению причинности. По этой же причине теория относительности неприменима и к тахионам. Всегда можно найти такую ИСО, в которой скорость тахиона равна бесконечности, что означает мгновенную передачу сигнала на любое расстояние. Докажем эту теорему. Гиперболическая кривая на диаграмме Минковского, пересекающая мировые линии ИСО в точках с равными показаниями часов, называется изохроной. Тахион, мировая линия которого связывает две точки на одной изохроне и две соответствующие им системы отсчета, называется изохронным тахионом.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1512.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-12-01 11:39:37*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Unbroken E8 symmetry is required for negative mc^2 bosonic matter and supersymmetry to exist and a flat cyclic universe to form. Our present epoch is of broken E8 symmetry, which prohibits SUSY. Study of dark matter/dark energy can show that fossil negative mc^2 bosonic matter formed before the big bang still exists, however

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology