[46] **viXra:1602.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 00:40:14*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The Michelson-Morley experiment was flawed in that it was meant to detect something that never existed: the ether. The ether hypothesis should have been subjected to a thorough conceptual test even before doing a physical experiment. The Michelson-Morley experiment was capable to detect the ether, but was/is incapable to detect absolute motion. The terms ‘absolute motion’ and ‘motion relative to ether’ were always wrongly presumed to be the same. Despite the failure of Michelson-Morley experiment, absolute motion was detected with several other kinds of experiments, such as the Sagnac, the Michelson-Gale, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte experiments. A new interpretation of absolute motion and the speed of light is proposed in this paper: the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. The effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the position (distance and direction) of a light source relative to the observer, for absolutely co-moving source and observer. For absolutely co-moving source and observer, the effect of absolute motion is to create a change in the path length, and not the speed, of light. Apparent Source Theory ( AST) consistently explains the Michelson- Morley experiment, Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. Any true theory of the speed of light should convincingly explain both the Michelson-Morley and Sagnac experiments before making any other claims. AST hints on the fundamental nature of light itself. Light is a dual phenomenon : local and non-local.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[45] **viXra:1602.0353 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 00:41:14*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Passion averaging led to what was rejected the possibility of considering different velocities of light in opposite directions relative to the observer. Homogenization is obtained automatically when you set the clock for the introduction of Einstein. But without a direct calculation of the velocity and consideration of different speeds obtained by the gravitational force of attraction on the strength of the electric field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[44] **viXra:1602.0352 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 01:07:32*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Installation Method hours Einstein always gives the result as the mean speed of light in any experiment. But in the real physical world not measured speed of light. Therefore, there may arise the forces due to the different speeds of light in one direction. Change the way to set the clock to the speed of light in one direction. We estimate the results in different directions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1602.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 13:04:54*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we want to show some aspects of quantum entanglement in the space-time geometry .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[42] **viXra:1602.0331 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-01 09:36:05*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The speed of light was and still is a great puzzle that remains unsolved to date, despite all claims made by mainstream physics. The blunder in the conception of the Michelson-Morley experiment was that they considered light as ordinary, material waves. This led to Lorentz and Fitzgerald length-contraction hypothesis, which was another mistake. Einstein tried to correct all mistakes, by introducing one of the biggest mistakes in science: Special Relativity. A series of mistakes building on one another. The Michelson-Morley experiment was flawed in that it was conceived to detect something that never existed: the ether. The ether hypothesis should have been subjected to a thorough conceptual test even before doing a physical experiment. The Michelson-Morley experiment was/is incapable to detect absolute motion. The terms ‘absolute motion’ and ‘motion relative to ether’ were always wrongly presumed to be the same. The argument in this paper is that absolute motion exists, but the ether does not exist. Despite the failure of Michelson-Morley experiment, absolute motion was detected with several other kinds of experiments, such as the Sagnac, the Michelson-Gale, the Marinov, the Silvertooth, the Roland De Witte experiments. In this paper a new interpretation of absolute motion and the speed of light is proposed that can be stated in a few words: the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. The effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the position (distance and direction) of a light source relative to the observer. For co-moving source and observer, the effect of absolute motion is to create a change in the path length, and not the speed, of light. Thus an apparent change in the position of the light source ( relative to the detector) in the Michelson-Morley experiment will not create any significant fringe shift for the same reason that a real/physical change of the source position will not create any significant fringe shift. This is the subtle trick of nature that has eluded physicists for one hundred years. Apparent Source Theory (AST) consistently explains the Michelson- Morley experiment, Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. Any true theory of the speed of light should convincingly explain both the Michelson-Morley and Sagnac experiments before making any other claims. AST hints on the fundamental nature of light itself. Light is a dual phenomenon : local and non-local.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[41] **viXra:1602.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-06 06:36:02*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Version 2 in English

In special relativity, this article presents kinematic quantities that are invariant under Lorentz transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1602.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-25 09:42:45*

**Authors:** Andrzej Lechowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A brief explanation of the notion of time

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1602.0313 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 13:47:12*

**Authors:** Andrzej Lechowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The article shows a simple way in explaining gravity and magnetism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1602.0303 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-23 05:34:34*

**Authors:** Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Revised version

In the present paper we consider the massless fields described by two types of potentials with different
space-time properties and different Lorentz transformations. In particular, we discuss the consequences of such approach in application to the electromagnetic field and weak gravity. The possible application for the description of dark matter and dark energy is discussed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1602.0297 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-24 10:24:30*

**Authors:** Wenceslao Segura González

**Comments:** 63 Pages. Spanish

In 1945 Einstein returns to theory of field unified asymmetric that had investigated in 1925. A theory with metric tensor and affine connection both asymmetrics, with what he wanted to achieve the unification of gravitation and electromagnetism. The procedure used by Einstein was to find equations that generalize the relativistic equations of gravitation. Until his death in 1955, Einstein published fourteen deductions of the equations of field unified asymmetric, which are gathered and studied in this article.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1602.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 07:42:38*

**Authors:** Miroslav Barnev

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A theory, that gives new assumption to what energy, mass, motion, space-time and gravity could be

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1602.0282 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 09:04:47*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this paper, I try to combine Electromagnetic and Gravitation into one theory, using hidden parameters of Special Relativity.
Assumption
The electron charge cannot be separated from the electron mass. Both are "connected "to the same particle. This is true for all other "elementary particles". In electricity and electronic we can accumulate charge only on capacitors, so I assume that particle mass is the capacitor mass that hold the particle charge.
Of course, such an assumption must agree with all other theories like Relativity Gravitation Electromagnetic etc
I paid attention that "Transmission lines" behave mathematically according to Special Relativity, (3D electromagnetic cavity also) , hence I used the Transmission line to explain why "Space Time" is the "capacitor" of particle charge. The final conclusion was that the entire universe is an electromagnetic cavity. The electromagnetic waves create AC currents in the "mass capacitance" and the mass move according to professor Einstein equations. But Gravitation waves does not exists.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1602.0268 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-20 17:13:18*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 17 Pages. A predection soon to be tested.

On Feb. 2016 the Ligo team announced the detection of gravitational waves from a collapsing Black Hole that occurred on Sept 14 2015. This definitively answers the question of the existence of gravitational radiation, and confirms the pulsar radiation energy measured by Hulse, & Taylor [1,2]. Although the loss of energy in orbiting binaries is indicative of radiational loss, it does not automatically follow that the energy being radiated is gravitational, there is the possibility proposed by several theorists, that the waves are electromagnetic [3-9]. The Ligo experiment has developed impressive measures to reduce electromagnetic signals, but at the levels of strain being measured, it is not certain that the momentum transfer can be completely avoided. Electromagnetic signals diffracted around the limb of the earth vs. gravitational waves passing freely through, yield timing and attenuation differences that can clearly distinguish between the two, but as of yet that has not happened. There can only be certainty when the three Ligo Virgo observatories simultaneously triangulate signals through the earth with proper timing and attenuation. This paper will explore the aspects of the measurements that will define the difference.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1602.0267 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-27 10:00:18*

**Authors:** Glenn A. Baxter

**Comments:** Eight pages

Look at a space as a simple volume and approximate void[2] with ordinary scalar dimensions of x, y, and z. It has the property of conducting light, radio, X, Gamma, Delta, etc., at the speed of light, which can be calculated as c = 1/square root of (permeability)(permittivity). Energy is “shoved” into and “retrieved” from such a space when light, etc. travels. Space thus has a “springiness” property which controls the indeed constant speed of light c. A gravity field through this volume of space affects both permeability, an inductance, and permittivity, a capacitance. No surprise here since light seems to have both electric and magnetic components.
Dr. Einstein’s General Relativity incorrectly models space as an entity he called space-time that is somehow warped by the prese, 10:54Ance of mass. The time thing of his space-time comes out of incorrect Special Relativity time dilation: t = t’[square root of (1 – v^2/c^2)].
LIGO is a giant interferometer that has light going in two different arms at right angles with each other. The tiny gravity force coming from a system of black holes and moving down one of these arms will affect the speed of the laser light in that arm. A “blip” in this black hole gravity strength caused by the collision of these black holes is what the current LIGO data allegedly measured. www.k1man.com/LIGO160213A.pdf This has nothing whatsoever to do with alleged Dr. Einstein “gravity waves” through his incorrectly postulated space-time fabric.
The gravity “blip” measured at LIGO was about 0.45 seconds in duration. Since gravity travels 20 billion times faster than the speed of light[3], the “blip” at the black hole system would have been (0.45)(20 billion) seconds duration, = 3.8 years.
The gravity “blip” measured at LIGO was about 0.45 seconds in duration. Since gravity travels 20 billion times faster than the speed of light[3], the “blip” at the black hole system would have been (0.45)(20 billion) seconds duration, = 3.8 years. This gravity “blip,” 1.3 billion light years distant, taking [1.3 billion light years]/40 billion = [.035][365] = 11.86 days to reach the earth from the black hole system. Thus the black hole crash happened at a distance of 11.86 gravity days.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1602.0223 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-11 09:44:27*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Due to the sensitive nature of clean unlimited energy sources from gravitational radiation, the full paper is available only upon request.

As an epitaph of the project for so-called GW astronomy, I suggest the famous saying by Confucius: "The hardest thing of all is to find a black cat in a dark room, especially if there is no cat". Specific examples are drawn from GW150914 and LISA Pathfinder, to explain why GW astronomy was born dead from the outset. Since the issue of energy transport by gravity is crucial to General Relativity, in the second part of the paper I offer a hypothesis about the origin of gravitational radiation in Relative Scale (RS) spacetime, and outline hypothetical applications of spacetime engineering for producing ecologically clean and unlimited energy by polarization of the so-called light vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1602.0221 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-31 05:46:47*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 22 Pages. This paper was submitted to the Electronic Journal of Theoretical Physics on 18 February 2016; the journal that published Corda's paper. Accepted for publication: Hadronic Journal Vol. 39, 2016.

A paper by C. Corda (A Clarification on the Debate on ''the Original Schwarzschild Solution'', EJTP 8, No. 25 (2011) 65-82) purports equivalence of Schwarzschild's original solution (1916) and Hilbert's subsequent solution (1917), the latter commonly but incorrectly called 'Schwarzschild's solution’. The derivation of Schwarzschild's actual solution by Corda is, in fact, a copy of Schwarzschild's original derivation with only changes in notation and equation numbering. It adds nothing new to the problem. Corda's subsequent arguments on gravitational collapse follow those advanced by Misner, Thorne, and Wheeler for Hilbert's solution, in their book 'Gravitation', and suffer thereby from the very same shortfalls. Consequently, Corda has failed to prove his alleged equivalence of the Schwarzschild and Hilbert solutions. Moreover, it is not difficult to prove that these are not equivalent. Furthermore, all methods employed to otherwise 'extend' Droste's solution into Hilbert’s solution thus producing a black hole constitute a violation of the rules of pure mathematics and are invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1602.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-18 03:21:21*

**Authors:** Carles R Paul, Albert Serra

**Comments:** 2 pages

There are theories related to the time dependence of the speed of light that predict that the speed of light is not constant but depends on the time. But they are not verifiable or demonstrable physically or mathematically with concrete results. In this study, based on simple assumptions on the microwave background and thermal electrons, a model of the time varying speed of light is presented, which is fully compatible with currently accepted results for the speed of light and the Hubble constant theories.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1602.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 14:22:00*

**Authors:** L.F. Escamilla-Herrera, E. Mena-Barboza, J. Torres-Arenas

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Thermodynamic formalism for rotating black holes, characterized by noncommutative
and quantum corrections, is constructed. From a fundamental thermodynamic relation,
equations of state and thermodynamic response functions are explicitly given and the
effect of noncommutativity and quantum correction is discussed. It is shown that the
well known divergence exhibited in specific heat is not removed by any of these
corrections. However, regions of thermodynamic stability are affected by
noncommutativity, increasing the available states for which the system is
thermodynamically stable.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1602.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 11:09:50*

Темная материя Млечного Пути – парадокс создателя

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 5 Pages. rus

The article analyzes the galaxy rotation curve of the Milky Way, which is believed to be formed under the influence of dark matter. The sleeves of the galaxy with the observed rotation curve have the form that does not correspond to the natural evolution of the curve.<br.
Приведён анализ кривой вращения галактики Млечный Путь, которая как принято считать, сформировалась под влиянием темной материи. Рукава галактики с наблюдаемой кривой вращения имеют вид, не соответствующей естественной эволюции с этой кривой.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1602.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 11:15:43*

**Authors:** Lukas A. Saul

**Comments:** 6 Pages. EJTP 12, No. IYL15-34 (2015) 205–210

The propagation of light is well described by Maxwell’s field equations of electromagnetism in relativistic space; its emission and absorption by quantum mechanics. However, some open questions remain. For example, is there a means to break gauge symmetry? Do any surprises await us at high energies or unexplored scales? Are there further interactions between fundamental forces? Many authors have suggested that a deeper understanding can be achieved through a statistical model of the continuous electromagnetic media in which light can propagate. In such an approach the electromagnetic fields are of the same nature as more familiar force fields: statistical averages of underlying physical quantities. The goals of this approach are not only to explain why Maxwell’s equations of propagation and the quantum
theory of emission and absorption apply, but also to explore new predictions as well. Here we
briefly review the approach, and demonstrate its utility in allowing a derivation of the Lorentz
boost factors of Special Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1602.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-15 05:59:50*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 Pages. Text in Portuguese, 02 references, 01 figure.

WE describe equal masses black holes merging, in a very simple way.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1602.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-08 13:51:23*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 4 Pages. LIGO Uncertainties Updated On Figure 1

LIGO published data of mass energy conversion to momentum energy at high speed was found to be in agreement with modified Polarizable Vacuum Theory in deep space at high speed. The observed conversion of mass energy to momentum energy was in agreement with predictions of modified PV theory for high speed interactions of massive objects with the vacuum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1602.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-14 13:35:14*

**Authors:** Leonardo Rubino

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This is simply a collection of sharp numerical relations among physical constants of the Universe, which need to be explained in all possible ways.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1602.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 10:47:27*

**Authors:** Ulrich Berger

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

An alternative cosmological concept of space and matter (Net Charged Universe – NCU) is presented. The concept aims to give an alternative explanation of the phenomena that have forced scientists to assume Dark Energy (DE) and Dark Matter (DM). This means that the DM and DE concepts should be avoided.
The basic idea of the NCU is the existence of electrical charge asymmetry in the entire universe bringing about the effects that are currently attributed to DE and DM respectively.
Some calculations show the plausibility of the NCU. The calculations were used to estimate the rates of electrical charge asymmetry required by the NCU concept in galactic systems (Xnp_S(r)) as well as extragalactic regions (Xnp_U). These calculations have revealed that the required net charge rates (Xnp_S(r) and Xnp_U) are both of a very small magnitude. This means that the current physical observations do not appear to be able to prove or to disprove the NCU theory explained here.
For this reason, the NCU concept can be regarded as possible and plausible – until it can be verified by observations that could possibly rule it out. This is very similar to the current situation regarding the concepts of DM and DE.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1602.0146 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-04 15:45:43*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This article very briefly criticises the phenomenon “gravitational waves” and shows why this concept is mere fantasy, just like the concepts: space-time, black holes and matter waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1602.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 00:27:20*

**Authors:** Valentin Danci

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

A recent 3D computer simulation demonstrated that two inertial reference frames (IRFs) show the same count of time units by employing various methods of time sharing. This article explains those methods, the underlying concepts, and the conclusions on the common nature of time across IRFs. Multiple clocks of two different IRFs can be made to mark and count the same time units, concluding that measuring time across different IRFs is technically possible and it proves that Einstein’s Special Relativity theory is wrong in its claims about a dilation of time in frames which are equivalent to each other. The Einsteinian relativistic application of the Lorentz time transformations is hence proved wrong and useless.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1602.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 08:58:32*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is claimed that the LIGO and LISA projects will detect Einstein's gravitational waves. The existence of these waves is entirely theoretical. Over the past forty years or so no Einstein gravitational waves have been detected. How long must the search go on, at great expense to the public purse, before the astrophysical scientists admit that their search is fruitless and a waste of vast sums of public money? The fact is, from day one, the search for these elusive waves has been destined to detect nothing. Here are some reasons why.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1602.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 11:26:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1602.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-10 18:25:02*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Continuation Of Series On Polarizable Vacuum At High Speed

Lorentz Transformations of flat space were found to be inappropriate at high speed in deep space transport. Curvature of vacuum stress energy was predicted to accumulate from prolonged acceleration boosting of a space vehicle. Support was found for previous work on modifications of Polarizable Vacuum theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1602.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 12:07:16*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Four-page letter

Until the perfect connection between gravitational and electric forces in known, it is advisable to pay attention to various coincidences and clues. With this philosophy in mind this letter points out some interesting correlations among cosmological parameters, like Hubble’s constant H0, radius of the universe R0 and total-mass of the universe M0 which may be a clue to deeper understanding of the gravitational and electric forces. Earlier, this writer had presented some expressions of gravity without the gravitational constant big G [1]. This letter reports some further thinking in this direction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1602.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-09 04:41:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Scientists are set to make a major announcement Thursday on efforts to pinpoint the existence of gravitational waves, or ripples of space and time that transport energy across the universe. [6] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1602.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 16:42:53*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This monograph reexamines the basics on the motional properties of light and of material particles in an attempt to resolve as many of the questions and paradoxes posed by the different interpretational scenarios of Special Relativity (SR). The observational process is clarified and defined in terms of measurements by the use of standard rulers. Motion invariant rulers vs. motion variant rulers are considered under different interpretational scenarios of SR. The isotropy of the speed of light and particle trajectories in general are then considered under the different interpretational scenarios of SR to clarify their implications together with the behavior of de Broglie matter-waves, in reference to their motional geometry. In conclusion, a 3D spherical manifold (S3 hypersurface) is proposed for the motional geometry of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1602.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 06:24:26*

**Authors:** Ilija Barukčić

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Published by Journal of Modern Physics, Vol.7 No.6, Pub. Date: March 28, 2016. http://www.scirp.org/Journal/PaperInformation.aspx?PaperID=65063

Newton's gravitational constant Big G, appearing in both Newton's law of gravity and Einstein's general relativity, is essential for our todays understanding of gravity. Thus far, despite of the very long history of measurements of Newton's gravitational constant Big G, a definite value is still not in sight. Surprisingly, the results of different experiments have varied by much more than would be expected due to systematic or random errors. Why do measurements of Newton's gravitational constant Big G vary so much? It is the purpose of this publication is to provide a logically and mathematically self-consistent theoretical proof that Newton's gravitational constant Big G is not a constant.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1602.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 22:00:34*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The fourteenth paper based on Reality.

The galaxy-clusters move outwards in a synchronous manner, their speeds increasing at the expense of their internal energies; the process is self-limiting and reversible, and this puts the universe in an infinite-loop of pulsations. The model is based on the hypothesis that motion at speed 'c' is the fundamental property of matter, and hence the clusters can move at very high speeds. The model is complete in all respects, is in agreement with observational evidences, does not require any dark matter or dark energy, and predicts the Earth-moon distance correctly. Based on these, I claim that the proposed model is better than the existing LCDM model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1602.0064 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 10:58:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Physicists in England claim they have discovered how to create matter from light, by smashing together individual massless photons– a feat that was first theorized back in 1934, and has been considered practically impossible until now. If this new discovery pans out, the final piece of the physics jigsaw puzzle that describes how light and matter interact would be complete. No one's quite sure of the repercussions if matter can indeed be produced from photon-photon collision, but I'm sure something awesomely scientific will emerge before long. [4] This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1602.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-07 15:33:32*

**Authors:** Marcelo Carvalho

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

We provide a categorical interpretation for a model unifying the Galilei relativity and the special relativity, which is based on
the introduction of two times variables, one associated to the absolute time of the Galilei relativity, and the other to the local time of the special relativity. The relation between these two time variables is the key point for the construction of a natural transformation relating two functors $\ol G$ and $\ol L$ that translates to the framework of category the role of the Galilei and the Lorentz transformations bringing with them a decomposition of the Lorentz transformation in terms of the Galilei transformation, which in some sense unify both relativities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1602.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 08:18:36*

**Authors:** Tibor Endre Nagy

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

When applying the formula of light propagation in moving systems to the motion of the Earth (as a component of the Milky Way Galaxy), the radius of the universe and the time period required for the development of the cosmos can be estimated. With the rate of this expansion and the alterations in surface gravity, tilt, and motion of the Earth, a ‘short evolving distance’ can be determined. Knowledge of the entire plane angle (2π) and the deviating angle of a light beam (α) passing through different value of Earth’s surface gravity renders it possible to determine large distances by utilizing the rules of trigonometry. This ‘long evolving distance’ can be converted into ‘evolving time’ by dividing it by the speed of light. Based upon this dating method, at a figure of 3.1415 redshift, the universe may have been formed 13.6879 to 13.8498 billion years ago, with a mean value of around 13.7536 billion years. In this model the alterations in the parameters of the Earth affects the radius of cosmos, modifying its size and shape.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1602.0040 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-04 16:11:16*

**Authors:** Steven Sesselmann

**Comments:** 1 Page. Revision

The anomalous galaxy rotation curve is a well known problem in physics today and has given rise to speculation that some form of gravitating dark matter might exist within galaxies, thereby providing the additional force required to explain a flat non Keplerian rotation curve. In this paper an alternative explanation for a flat rotation curve is proposed, where the anomaly is caused by comparing incompatible measurement techniques.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1602.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 01:21:22*

**Authors:** Hilmi Yanar, Mustafa Salti, Oktay Aydogdu, Irfan Acikgoz, Erol Yasar

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Mod. Phys. Lett. A 31(6), 2016, 1650038

We use a Kaluza-Klein model with variable cosmological and gravitational terms to
discuss the nature of galactic entropy function. For this purpose, we assume a universe filled with dark fluid and consider five-dimensional field equations using the Gamma law equation. We mainly discuss the validity of the first and generalized second laws of galactic thermodynamics for viable Kaluza-Klein models.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1602.0028 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-18 11:13:19*

**Authors:** Ali Soheilbeigi Bazgir

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The main objective of this article is to derive transformation equations from new assumptions of relativistic. We assume that the Soul is an observer in both Dark Matter (DM) and Baryonic Matter (BM) by inserting imaginary equations in DM (a place of our dreams when we are sleeping) coordinates. By considering the Soul as an observer, the new transformation equations make relationship between space-time coordinates of an event for an observer in BM and space-time coordinates of another event in DM for the same observer. By this method, not only relativistic postulate remains valid but also the speed of the Soul corresponds to c/α^(D-4) would increase so much faster than light in additional dimensions that we are not able to observe them. The DM is assumed to be a place of events of our dreams, moreover, New Imaginary Transformation Equations (NITE) include transmitting the Soul from BM to DM, when we are dreaming in sleep, with a velocity so much faster than light. The Soul moves backward and forward in time in DM area, in fact, DM includes not only the end quantum state of particles of events our Soul have already observed in BM but also the end quantum state of particles of events our Soul have not been able to observe yet. NITE is based on the fact that the Soul is the end quantum state of human’s body that can be only observed in extra dimensions. The Soul can observe backward or forward of events in imaginary motion in DM or even the Soul would have non-local motion in the additional dimensions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1602.0018 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-10 06:09:35*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 18 Pages. a last version

It will be shown how the Micro-black-holes particles produced at the horizon entry into a
number of by quantum fluctuation as virtual micro-black holes pairs like e+ e- creation, stay at the base of: the origin and evolution of Universe, the pure gravity Dark Matter particles, of the free photons creation of near mass-less as by radiation decay that condensate later at Confinement in to the structure of gauge bosons (gluons) . Also, these ex-Micro-black-holes ( ) by merging release gravitons which deform the space-time, and also decay of all free photons as pure gravity Dark Matter particles , or if kipping someone else, as electrons, others leptons (quarks) and uncharged particles (neutrinos). After radiation decay, the heritage of gravitational charge (gravitons) quantized as inside (or on event horizon) into equilibrium with the inner field like electrostatic Coulomb field as being generated by the few photons remained, finally give the mass. Thus, is explained how the gravity (only few gravitons remaining at Confinement in nucleons) is embedded in matter particles, and in the pure gravity Dark Matter particles of gravitational charge only (gravitons), an old waited answer.
Also, in this context it results that an equal part of the ex-Micro-black-holes are generated at horizon entry that correspond to Electroweak period during Universe evolution
(1011 GeV; 10-29 s) .. A proof of the model is done by applying it to light bending due of Earth.
A very stranger result is obtained if we divide the gravitational charge to the Compton length for every particle, or in other words the gravitational energy of the particle distributed in their Compton length is just the particle energy or the “rest of mass”.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1602.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-10 06:12:03*

**Authors:** Stefan Mehedinteanu

**Comments:** 17 Pages. a last version

Based on the recently LGO discovery, respectively the merging of two black-holes as the base of the space-time deformation, I will advance another scenario for Universe creation and its evolution, respectively, when are created a huge number of Micro-black-holes (micro virtual black holes ) as generated due of Quantum fluctuations at Reheating (at 1011 GeV ;10-29 s) , and which further, during theirs merging its release gravitons which deform the space-time. Thus, at Confinement the become, firstly, via Quarks Gluons Plasma (QGP), the nucleons, and later, an others fractions becomes electrons (leptons) and, very later dark matter particles. Also, is proposed a new test for the finally proof of the model as the deduction of the lifetime value of the - decay of the free neutron.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1602.0015 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-02 08:06:44*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

They used to think light needed a medium to propagate. That is actually correct.

The only mistake they made was thinking the medium was fixed in space and the Earth must be rushing through it (that is what they call an erroneous constraint).

Everyone believes the MM experiment without question and they pass the information on through generation after generation.

It is actually bringing modern physics to a standstill.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1602.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 21:55:14*

**Authors:** James A. Tassano

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Observation: Treating the observable universe as the surface volume of a 3-sphere allows us to produce a simple equation for the radius of the observable universe. By taking the ratio of the standard three dimensional volumes for the observable universe to the Hubble volume, and setting it equal to the ratio of the corresponding volumes derived using the equations for the surface volume of a 3-sphere, we can solve for the radius of the observable universe. We find that this radius to be the cube root of 12 pi, times the Hubble radius, or 46.27 billion light years, which matches the accepted figures. The volume of the observable universe is shown to be larger than the Hubble volume by a factor of 12 pi. This gives us a simple expression for the radius and volume of the observable universe, derived from the geometry of a 3-sphere.
Explanation: But the whole universe is vastly larger than the observable, and the observable universe is not a 3-sphere, forcing us to explain how this artificial 3-sphere, clearly smaller than what the true 3-sphere would be, can show such behavior. We use the argument from another hyperverse paper, on quantum time, that the relative increase in the unit of quantum time cancels the rapidly increasing growth rate of the whole hyperverse, resulting in a constant, 2c radial expansion rate. This allows the observable universe to be treated, in many respects, as a stand-alone hyperverse, a time-scaled version of the whole. This time-scaling gives the observable universe many of the properties of a 3-sphere.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1602.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 02:31:07*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: an introduction and appreciation of spacetime rainbow

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1602.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 09:22:47*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Submitted for publication

In this paper was presented a description of the gravitational phenomena in the new medium, different than the curved spacetime, which merges the Minkowski spacetime and the mass density into the single idea. The new description of the gravitational phenomena is kept in the spirit of Mach, in opposite to the Newtonian gravity and GR. All phenomena of gravity are expressed in terms of the relationship between a bodies and not between the body and surrounding the spacetime.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology