[32] **viXra:1604.0393 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 15:07:27*

**Authors:** Jerry L. Decker

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Removing a main cause of PV theory rejection

Frame dragging resulted from modifications of Polarizable Vacuum Theory that were done to bring high velocity terms into PV consistent with established science of energy and momentum at high speed.
It was found that velocity terms could not be brought into PV theory without formalism for exchange of kinetic energy with the vacuum space. Planck’s Law in general and Heisenberg Uncertainty in a specific case were used to develop a mechanism for continual exchange of kinetic energy with the local vacuum.
The mechanism calls for incurring equal exchange of energy with space when acceleration does not occur, and unequal exchange when a physical object is accelerating. Accumulating kinetic energy in space was found to polarize the vacuum in a way equivalent to the polarizing parameter K of Harold Puthoff.
Frame dragging results from the continual increase of vacuum stress energy trailing longitudinally and propagating transversely from an accelerating deep space vehicle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1604.0387 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-08 16:26:24*

**Authors:** Bernardo Sotomayor Valdivia

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This monograph was motivated by the following question posted by the author at the ResearchGate (RG) Website: In the context of Special Relativity (SR): is it time dilation, clock frequency increase, both of the above or none of the above?
At the writing of this document there were over 520 RG postings related to the above question by many different scholars/researchers, both proponents and dissenters of Special Relativity. The discourse of the answers clearly shows in my opinion that most of the apparent incongruencies mentioned in the posts about Special Relativity were not necessarily because of its formulation, but because of the different interpretations that arise from the physical effects that the Lorentz Transformation (LT) predicts. This is not to say that SR has or has not problems as a theory but that its general acceptability is hampered by the many interpretational paradoxes that can be formulated because of its notoriously ambiguous concepts regarding time dilation and length contraction. Not surprisingly, the concepts of relativistic momentum and energy were not subject to scrutiny, I suspect because of their already accepted relative nature and their established relativistic relation to motion as empirically demonstrated in particle accelerators and the like.
Needless to say, most of the so called incongruencies that were posted dealt with time dilation, as to its meaning or as to whether it is real or apparent. As usual on RG posts, many of the answers were diametrically opposed.
In this monograph, I propose a comparative scenario of SR that is shown to be free of incongruencies or paradoxes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1604.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 11:49:13*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

centrifugal force explains General Relativity and the elavator equivalent principle in 4 pages

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1604.0367 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 09:04:53*

**Authors:** Sangwha Yi

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover New Einstein’s gravity field equation. We treats New Einstein-Maxwell Equation. In this time, we can think Kaluza-Klein theory. We need 5 Dimension-New Kaluza-Klein theory that can express New Einstein-Maxwell Equation. Reissner-Nodstrom solution, Cosmology, etc in present Einstein gravity field equation are the same in new Einstein gravity field equation

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1604.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 04:05:01*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid, Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Although many experiments have been cited as empirical verification of special relativity, they are not experiments that could not have
questions raised about their validity as proofs. There is one simple experiment that could be carried out to put to rest, incontrovertibly, the controversies concerning the validity of special relativity - by a direct measurement of the speed
of beta particles from beta decay. If special relativity is correct, no electrons would be found to go faster than light speed. If special relativity is invalid, then kinetic energy obeys the old 1 / 2 mv2 formula. Some beta particles could be ejected with kinetic energy greater than 1 MeV; such electrons would be detected to travel at about twice the speed of light. Though it is one of the simplest experiment that many laboratories over the world could perform,until now, the experiment has yet to be carried out.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1604.0364 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-28 05:55:08*

**Authors:** Moninder Singh Modgil

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Notion of causality in G\"{o}del universe, is compared with what is implied by the Einstein-Podolski-Rosen (EPR) type experiments of quantum mechanics. Red shift of light from distant galaxies is explained by employing Segal's compact time coordinate - in the G\"{o}del universe - which indeed was considered by G\"{o}del in his seminal paper. Various possibilities for the rotation of the universe are discussed. It is note worthy that in recent years, the scope of research on G\"{o}del univese, has expanded to include topics in string theory, supersymmetry and embedding of black holes.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1604.0359 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-27 10:45:10*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Version 2 in English.

This article presents a relational formulation of special relativity whose kinematic and dynamic quantities are invariant under transformations between inertial reference frames. In addition, a new universal force is presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1604.0352 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-18 04:47:23*

**Authors:** Peter C. Morris

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 6 Figures. Some fixes and improvements.

In 2013 a paper was published which described detection of dynamical 3-space waves through correlation analysis of data from quantum Random Event Generator devices within the Global Consciousness Project network.
We found this discovery extremely interesting and decided to attempt similar analysis using different data from the same network. We were able to extract correlations such as those reported, estimate the velocities of 3-space waves and 3-space flow and observe Earth orbit aberration effects. Herein we describe our analysis and results.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1604.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-26 01:26:10*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In this paper, an interferometer experiment that can be highly sensitive to absolute motion is proposed. This has been possible because the new theory (Apparent Source Theory) already proposed by this author revealed the fallacy in conventional and modern Michelson-Morley experiments.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1604.0346 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-17 05:49:32*

**Authors:** Mamaev A.V.

**Comments:** 13 Pages. The article is published in the International Journal of Phisics, vol.4, No. 5 (2016), pp. 140-145

My purpose consisted in creation of a new relativistic space-time theory instead of Einstein’s Relativity Theory, but basing upon only one postulate. This could become feasible only if a law of light propagation in a moving inertial reference frame could be made a consequence of the relativity postulate. It was made a reality by P.M. Rapier’s discovery of a quadratic dependence of the light speed upon the light source speed. Considering various ways of making the second postulate superfluous the most short of them was through introducing into the theory of a new concept “light speed in a moving inertial reference frame” by means of usage of the known four-dimensional Minkovski’s formalism. This new light speed was defined as equal to a fourth component of a four-dimensional speed of any moving particle. Then using this newly introduced concept the time-measurement unit was calculated for a moving light clock that occurred to be equal to the time measurement unit of a stationary light clock. And as a very happy event the time dilation effect was deleted from the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1604.0329 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-24 14:06:02*

**Authors:** Alexander F. Jonkeren

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper describes a modification of the curvature in which spacetime is shaped under the influence of energy and matter. With this modified curvature it is possible to predict and probably explain many observed phenomena in Cosmology that cannot be accounted for by the generally accepted General Relativity spacetime curvature. Regarding all other aspects it does fully comply with General Relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1604.0328 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-18 06:59:50*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

About the twin paradox of special relativity theory, there are some resolutions. But these might not be the best fit resolution considering the core concept of special relativity theory. Here we will approach the concept of special relativity theory thinking the resolution of twin paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1604.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 10:18:42*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 5 Pages. original article

The motion of the mathematical extra-terrestrial pendulum is considered in
the spherical gravitational field. The potential energy of the pendulum bob is
approximated to give the nonlinear equation of motion. After solving it by the
Landau-Migdal method we obtain the frequency of motion and the swing amplitude.
The crucial point of our experiment is, that if the inertial mass m depends on
its distance from the reference body M, then the calculated frequuency of our
pendulum is not identical with the measured frequency. This crucial knowledge of
the pendulum project can have substantional
influence on the future development
of general relativity and physics of elementary particles.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1604.0314 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-23 06:08:37*

**Authors:** Hochecker, Hans-Joerg

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

I can show that gravitation is an electric effect. To this, it is necessary to better understand the qualities of the electric charges and their forces. I start by showing that the magnetic field can be represented as an angled electric field. To this, the electric field must have two qualities: the dependence of the electric force on the velocity, and the electric anti-field. All previous cognitions on electrodynamics stay with it untouched. Then, I apply these two new qualities to gravitation, and it turns out that gravitation is an electric effect if a third quality applies to the electric field: the quantization of the energy transfer of the electric field. These three new qualities complete our picture of electrodynamics. Finally, I go to the origins of the three new qualities with the help of the early quantum mechanics. This turns out well by representing the electric charge as a spacetime wave, in which its frequency corresponds to its mass.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1604.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-21 11:33:27*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Jason J. Sharples of the University of New South Wales wrote an undated article titled ‘On Crothers’ counter-examples to the Kruskal-Szekeres extension’, in which he asserted, “The claims relating to the counter-examples made by the author in [1] about the invalidity of the Kruskal-Szekeres extension and the Schwarzschild black hole are completely erroneous.” However, Sharples failed to understand the arguments I adduced and consequently committed serious errors in both mathematics and physics. In his endeavour to prove me ‘erroneous’, Sharples introduced what he calls “an inverted radial coordinate”. Contrary to Sharples’ allegation, there is no ‘inverted radial coordinate’ involved. Sharples simply failed to comprehend the geometry of the problem. Sharples’ mathematical proof that I am ‘erroneous’ violates the rules of pure mathematics. The Kruskal-Szkeres extension and the Schwarzschild black hole it facilitates are fallacious because they violate the rules of pure mathematics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1604.0286 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-22 08:33:41*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Version 2 in English.

In special relativity, this article presents a relativistic dynamics of massive and non-massive particles which can be applied in any inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1604.0285 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-14 07:18:37*

**Authors:** Tsuneaki Takahashi

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Regarding to the Ladder Paradox, there are some misunderstanding and insufficient understanding of the special relativity theory. Accurate recognition of the theory would make clear the core mechanism of both the theory and the paradox.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1604.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 02:48:29*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Motivated by the increasing significance of Indian Spirituality and its cornerstone, the Pranava Aum, the present article explores the results of a signal based nonlinear analysis of Aum recital. Aum is seen to possess a rich frequency profile, with an array of integral and non-integral harmonic components. The phase portrait of Aum is rich, dense and ornamental, typical of chaotic systems. Polar plots of Aum show a remarkable uniformity in phase distribution. The bispectrum shows ordered pattern of scintillations, ruling out random processes. Quantitative analyses of Aum assert the presence of chaos, while also revealing a high degree of uncertainty, instability and self-similarity in the underlying process. In comparisons with chaos observed in solar cell open circuit output voltage, the similarities between Aum and solar processes become apparent. It is hoped that the results discussed in the present article throw light on Aum, as an audio signal, helping to understand the underlying features and characteristics of this primordial signal. The chaotic nature of Aum speaks volumes about the intricacies and complexities underlying the universal primordial sound, suggesting that it indeed possesses the necessary complexity to be the universal wave function. The similarity with solar cell based signals indicates the ubiquity of this primordial chaos in natural systems, further accentuating the omnipresent nature of Aum.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1604.0261 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-01 13:24:52*

**Authors:** James R Johnson

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Version two

It is easy to confuse multiverse proposals because many divergent models exist. This overview defines the characteristics of ten popular multiverse proposals. The characteristics which are compared to our universe are: initial conditions, values of constants, laws of nature, number of space dimensions, number of universes, and fine tuning explanations. Multiverses are predictions based on theories. Focusing on each theory’s assumptions is key to evaluating a proposed multiverse. Future scientific experiments may validate selected assumptions. Using intuition as perspective, theories supporting multiverses have “strange” assumptions, but nature is not always intuitive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1604.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-14 19:32:47*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 5 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal

Science has become a religion of its own. Universities and colleges all around the world are its temples where people come to worship the "gods" of science. For example, the "gods" in physics include Planck, Einstein, Bohr, Schrodinger, Dirac, Heisenberg etc. There were many people who refused to worship these gods, and they were expelled or dismissed as "rebels" or "dissidents". The worst kind of those rebels are called "heretics." Here allow me to tell you a story of a dissident.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1604.0212 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-11-02 12:33:36*

**Authors:** James R Johnson

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Version 2

Space is something. Space inherently contains laws of nature: universal rules (mathematics, space dimensions, types of forces, types of fields, and particle species), laws (relativity, quantum mechanics, thermodynamics, and electromagnetism) and symmetries (Lorentz, Gauge, and symmetry breaking). We have significant knowledge about these laws of nature because all our scientific theories assume their presence. Their existence is critical for developing either a unique theory of our universe or more speculative multiverse theories. Scientists generally ignore the laws of nature because they “are what they are” and because visualizing different laws of nature challenges the imagination. This article defines a conceptual model separating space (laws of nature) from the universe’s energy source (initial conditions) and expansion (big bang). By considering the ramifications of changing the laws of nature, initial condition parameters, and two variables in the big bang theory, the model demonstrates that traditional fine tuning is not the whole story when creating a universe. Supporting the model, space and “nothing” are related to the laws of nature, mathematics and multiverse possibilities. Speculation on the beginning of time completes the model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1604.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 07:09:48*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In a recent paper [1] of this author, we generalized quantum ﬁeld theory to any curved spacetime. The key idea of the construction was to deﬁne a “universal” Fourier transform; we expand more on this theory here and use it to give an intrinsic deﬁnition of gravitational waves.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1604.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-09 06:25:57*

**Authors:** Chandra Raju Chintalapat

**Comments:** 10 Pages. (C) 2016, Chandra Raju Chintalapati, All rights resererved. Osamania Universtiy, Hyderabad, India.

Einstein’s tensor equation for a homogeneous, isotropic constant curvature universe is simplified to a scalar equation. It is a mass dominated universe. This equation is related to the Hubble’s constant and to a nucleus through the uncertainty principle and morphed gravitational interaction. The sizes of some nuclei are obtained and all nuclei have radii of the order of a femtometer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1604.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-07 20:47:45*

**Authors:** Jack Martinelli

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Keywords: relativity, speed of light, cosmic inﬂation, big bang, objective relativity, abstract rulers

We define a level of abstraction beyond typical units of measurement allowing abstract measurements to be incorporated within the context of a model. The approach is applied to the concept of time resulting in a radically different perspective of what time is and what it does. The results show consistency with modern views of time via derivations of Lorentz's time dilation, length contraction and coordinate transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1604.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-07 14:04:53*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper innovates the way we comprehend time and its relationship with space by proposing a new concept within General relativity and, to some extent, Quantum Mechanics in order to explain some of the natural aspects that still puzzle scientists that study the very nature of the Universe. Gravitation, the arrow of time, cosmic inflation and many more subjects that are crucial to modern day physics shall be debated within the most accurate theory, General relativity, but also with some concepts developed in terms of Quantum Mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1604.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-07 06:56:08*

**Authors:** Michael Spears

**Comments:** 25 Pages. A new theory of time, gravity and the infinite Universe. This is the first real challenge to Einstein in a century.

This paper forms the foundations of a new theory of time, gravity and the infinite Universe. In Part 1 I expose a mistake in the theory of General Relativity and then proceed to develop
new field equations for gravitational time dilation. The idea is that Einstein achieved the correct results with incorrect working. In Part 2 I propose a physical model of gravity based
on a network of strings. In Part 3 I propose an explanation for the big bang and probably the only working model of the infinite Universe. This is the first real challenge to Einstein in a
century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1604.0041 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-07 07:37:54*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Version 2 in English.

In special relativity, this article presents a new dynamics which can be applied in any inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1604.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 10:46:45*

**Authors:** Mourici Shachter

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper I correct a minor error in Einstein's theory of Special Relativity, and suggest a new approach to tackle problems in this area of physics. Propose of this paper is to understand what is mass. I suggest, to read this paper carefully because the minor error is in the foundation of physics. And a little part of the big structure that was built on those foundations is going to crash.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1604.0033 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-07 07:34:35*

**Authors:** A. Blato

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Version 2 in English.

In special relativity, this article shows that Newton's second law can be applied in any inertial reference frame.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1604.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-03 05:43:07*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

The question of fundamental interactions in nature, of their interpretation and of their interrelations isn't defined well yet and it regards whether interactions in the microscopic elementary universe or interactions in the macroscopic universe. It is very important then to can relate interactions to symmetries because these allow a simplification of the mathematical description of the physical reality and consequently a simplification of models. In this paper let us consider two group symmetries that regard respectively interactions that happen into the elementary universe and into the macroscopic universe, that aren't considered adequately in mainstream physics. The question in particular refers to the group symmetry relating to interactions between light and mass in the macroscopic and cosmological universe and to the group symmetry of interactions between charge and energy quantum in the microscopic and nanoscopic universe. The theoretical study of these interactions, connected with the existence of first experimental confirmations, allows then to define new physical effects.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1604.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 11:42:51*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages. This is not an April fool's joke

Abstract: The 68.3%/26.8%% dark energy/fermion ratio matches cyclic universe, E8 symmetry theory within 2% if experimental dark matter annihilation gamma radiation energy of 36 GEV is included. This finding determines the correct theory of the origin of the universe in the author's opinion: At present this very plausible theory is completely ignored.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1604.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-01 08:11:47*

**Authors:** Carles R Paul, Albert Serra, Ramon Serra

**Comments:** 9pages

Easy experiments carried out in the dawn of electromagnetism are still being a reason for scientific
articles, because its functioning contradicts some laws and rules of electromagnetic theory. Although
these experiments led Einstein to discover the relativistic electrodynamics and explained its working, the
scientific community had not understood this. They see in these experiments a proof against relativity and
prefer to look for the solution in the electromagnetics’ theory or accept that their are an exception.
By means of a long and detailed experimental study with a new design in electromagnetic engines and
improvements of these experiments that we call relativistic electrodynamics turbine, we managed to
explain its working using relativistic electrodynamics. The revision of these experiments had taken us to
discover the real law of induction, which does not have any exceptions.
The explanation of the relativistic electrodynamics turbine led us to discard the Faraday induction law
and argue that the true law of induction is a consequence of the conservation of the angular momentum of
the charges as the conservation of the angular momentum of the mass. Thus Einstein’s idea to unify
electromagnetism and mechanics is now clear and also opens the way for new research in science

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology