[41] **viXra:1806.0465 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-30 11:33:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 8th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown incorporating the Z(4430) tetraquark in an improved way

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1806.0441 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-09-18 04:29:53*

**Authors:** Szostek Roman, Góralski Paweł, Szostek Kamil

**Comments:** 20 Pages. From the General Theory of Relativity do not result any gravitational waves, but just ordinary modulation of the gravitational field intensities caused by rotating of bodies.

The most important conclusion from this article is that from the General Theory of Relativity do not result any gravitational waves, but just ordinary modulation of the gravitational field intensities caused by rotating of bodies. If the LIGO team has measured anything, it is only this modulation, rather than the gravitational wave understood as the carrier of gravity. This discussion shows that using too complicated mathematics in physics leads to erroneous interpretation of results (in this case, perhaps the tensor analysis is guilty). Formally, various things can be calculated, but without knowing what such analysis means, they can be attributed misinterpreted.
Since the modulation of gravitational field intensities has been called a gravitational wave in contemporary physics, we have also done so, although it is misleading.
In the article it was shown, that from the Newton’s law of gravitation resulted an existence of gravitational waves very similar to these, which result from the General Theory of Relativity (GTR).
The article shows differences between the course of gravitational waves that result from Newton’s gravitation, and the course of gravitational waves that result from the General Theory of Relativity, which measurement was announced by the LIGO (Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory).
According to both theories, gravitational waves are cyclical changes of the gravitational field intensities.
The article proposes a method of testing a laser interferometer for gravitational wave measurement used in the LIGO Observatory. Criticism of results published by the LIGO team was also presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1806.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-28 15:29:38*

**Authors:** G.N.N.Martin

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

General relativity does not offer a meaning to ‘at the same time in a different place’. This paper examines what might be implied or inferred from the use of the present tense. I start by looking at Schwarzschild space to show that the oft made statement that “There is a singularity at the centre of a black hole” is misleading. I use this as a starting point for exploring the notion of a moment in time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[38] **viXra:1806.0413 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-27 17:28:19*

**Authors:** Thomas Heiko Günther

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

McVittie's model [10], which interpolates between a Schwarzschild Black Hole and an expanding global (FLRW) spacetime, can be constructed by a simple coordinate replacement in Schwarzschild's isotropic intervall. Analogously, one gets a similarly generated exact solution of Einstein's equations based on a static transformation of de Sitter's metric, cf. [6]. The present article is concerned with the application of this method on the AdS (Anti de Sitter) spacetime. Multiplying the radial coordinate and it's differential by a function a(t) gives the basic line element. Einstein's equations for the modified interval reduce to a system of two differential equations, which are solved in the article. The resulting solution is classified depending on the value of the cosmological constant. Several promising theories like String theorie and AdS/CFT correspondence [11] include spacetimes with higher dimensions. Thereby motivated, the previous results of this article are generalized to D dimensions in the last section.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1806.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-26 13:33:04*

**Authors:** Gary Nash

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The $\Lambda $ Cold Dark Matter cosmological model assumes general relativity is correct. However, the Einstein equation does not contain a symmetric tensor which describes the energy-momentum of the gravitational field itself. Recently, a modified equation of general relativity was developed which contains the missing tensor and completes the Einstein equation. An exact static solution was obtained from the modified Einstein equation in a spheroidal metric describing the gravitational field outside of its source, which does not contain dark matter. The flat rotation curves for a class of galaxies were calculated and the baryonic Tully-Fisher relation followed directly from the gravitational energy-momentum tensor. The Newtonian rotation curves for galaxies with no flat orbital curves, and those with rising rotation curves for large radii were described as examples of the flexibility of the orbital rotation curve equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1806.0377 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-26 04:23:07*

**Authors:** Thierry Delort

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. We then study according to our new theory of dark matter the different possible distributions of dark matter in galaxies and in galaxy clusters, and the velocities of galaxies in galaxy clusters.
Then using the new model of dark matter we are naturally led to propose a new geometrical model of Universe, finite, that is different from all geometrical models proposed by the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM). Despite that our Theory of dark matter is compatible with the SCM, we then expose a new Cosmological model based on this new geometrical form of the Universe and on the interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF), that has not physical interpretation on the SCM and that we will call local Cosmological frame. We then propose 2 possible mathematical models of expansion inside the new Cosmological model. The 1st mathematical model is based on General Relativity as the SCM and gives the same theoretical predictions of distances and of the Hubble’s constant as the SCM. The 2nd mathematical model of expansion of the Universe is mathematically much simpler than the mathematical model of expansion used in the SCM, but we will see that its theoretical predictions are in agreement with astronomical observations. Moreover, this 2nd mathematical model of expansion does not need to introduce the existence of a dark energy contrary to the mathematical model of expansion of the SCM. To end we study the evolution of the temperature of dark substance in the Universe and we make appear the existence of a dark energy, due to our model of dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1806.0351 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-25 05:07:40*

**Authors:** Amal Pushp

**Comments:** 6 pages, Currently in Peer Review

Quantum fluctuations in the cosmic microwave background radiation reveal tiny fluctuations in the average temperature of the universe. This corresponds to differences in photon energies of Cmb in different regions of the universe. So initially, assuming two black holes with exactly same macroscopic properties, located in two different regions of the universe in accordance with Cmb anisotropy, i.e. one in a region with higher energy per photon and the other in a region with lower photon energy, it is found that this brings about inhomogeneity in the mass, temperature (event horizon) and entropy of the two black holes at the microscopic level. The final calculations show the deviation in properties of one black hole from the other on the microscopic scale. The arguments and calculations form the basis for a new effect in black hole physics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1806.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-22 15:01:00*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 8th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle is shown incorporating the Z(4430) tetraquark both as normal matter and DM

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1806.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-21 10:46:36*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

-relative to Bell’s theorem
-and more

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1806.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-21 01:19:56*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

the theoretical development of temporal curvature, the theory required for the notion of temporal elasticity in gravitation, physics

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1806.0281 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-20 15:30:42*

**Authors:** Vincenzo Nardozza

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We present some formulas and calculations worked out while studying the Schwartzschild Solution. Nothing new!

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1806.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-15 14:28:37*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In Polish.

Radialna składowa przyspieszenia grawitacyjnego w Czarnodziurowym Wszechświecie dla małych odległości od centrum w stosunku do promienia Wszechświata pokrywa się z radialną składową przyspieszenia wynikającą z grawitacyjnego prawa Gaussa.
###
The radial component of gravitational acceleration in the Black Hole Universe for small distances from the center in relation to the radius of the Universe coincides with the radial component of the acceleration resulting from the Gauss’ Law for Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1806.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-15 14:31:48*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The radial component of gravitational acceleration in the Black Hole Universe for small distances from the center in relation to the radius of the Universe coincides with the radial component of the acceleration resulting from the Gauss’ Law for Gravity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1806.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-16 11:22:35*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

a brief review of unification inspired by relativity and some relevant personal thoughts

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1806.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-16 17:29:10*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

a brief letter to Dr. Hawking asking for help

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1806.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-17 10:50:13*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

a sweet dedication to Stephen Hawking, one of my spirtual mentors / inspirators

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1806.0242 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-17 13:28:07*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

primordial antimatter black holes: their unique characteristics define the early cosmos and evolution of it

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1806.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-18 00:41:02*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A new explanation of the Michelson-Morley experiment is presented in this paper. This paper reveals the subtle nature of light that has eluded physicists for centuries. It is revealed that the puzzle of the speed of light is solved only by a new theory that is a fusion of the classical theories: ether theory and emission theory of light, the two theories that have been wrongly seen as rivals for centuries.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1806.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-18 04:05:22*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

an explanation of baryon asymmetry, accelerating expansion rate, and dark energy via PABHs, primordial antimatter black holes – and – their interactions

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1806.0210 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-07-16 12:05:31*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 18 pages, 16 tables, 5 graphs, 2 figures

The value of the cosmological constant obtained according to the quantum field theory is 10^120 times greater than the observed small value of the cosmological constant. Such huge discrepancy with the cosmological constant would cause a vacuum catastrophe. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is unimaginably very large, therefore, molecular diffusion model has been introduced in this paper as an alternative to dark energy in order to explain the accelerated expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large-scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the paper emphasizes upon the actual recession of large-scale structures. Since the discrepancy involved with the cosmological constant is very large, therefore, instead of considering that empty space possesses energy, it would be much more prudent to consider that large-scale structures possess energy by the virtue of which they recede, quite similar to a molecule that recedes by the virtue of energy that it possesses, after all, “the diffusion or free expansion of gas molecules inside a vacuum chamber by the virtue of vacuum energy or dark energy” has never been heard of; such claim, if true, would only suggest that gas molecules do not possess any energy. The study conducted in this paper finds the recessional behaviour of large-scale structures to be consistent with the recessional behaviour of molecules, thereby proving the molecular diffusion model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1806.0208 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-20 03:23:59*

**Authors:** T. Yarman, A.L. Kholmetskii, C. Marchal, O. Yarman, M. Arik

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Eötvös experiment has been taken as basis for metric theories of gravity and particularly for the general theory of relativity (GTR), which assumes that gravitational and inertial masses are identical. We highlight the fact that, unlike the long lasting and reigning belief, the setup by Eötvös experiments and its follow-ups serve to demonstrate no more than a mere linear proportionality between said masses, and not ineludibly their exclusive equality. So much so that, as one distinct framework, Yarman–Arik–Kholmetskii (YARK) gravitation theory, where a purely metric approach is not aimed, makes the identity between inertial and gravitational masses no longer imperative while still remaining in full conformance with the result of the Eötvös experiment, as well as that of free fall experiments. It is further shown that Eötvös experiment deprives us of any knowledge concerning the determination of the proportionality coefficient coming into play. Henceforward, the Eötvös experiment and its follow-ups cannot be taken as a rigorous foundation for GTR. In this respect, we suggest a crucial test of the equality of gravitational and inertial masses via the comparison of the oscillation periods of two pendulums with different arm lengths, where the deviation of the predictions by GTR and by YARK theory represents a measurable value.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1806.0198 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-17 16:07:50*

**Authors:** Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman

**Comments:** 21 Pages. The new physical theory called the Special Theory of Ether (in Russian).

В статье выведен целый класс преобразований времени и положения. Эти преобразования выведены на основе анализа эксперимента Майкельсона-Морли и его усовершенствованной версии – эксперимента Кеннеди-Торндайка. На основе каждого из этих преобразований можно вывести другую кинематику тел. Таким способом мы продемонстрировали, что Специальная теория относительности (СТО) не является единственной теорией, объясняющей результаты экспериментов со светом. Существует целый континуум теорий кинематики тел, которые правильно объясняют эксперимент Майкельсона-Морли, а также другие эксперименты, в которых измеряют скорость света.
На основе выведенных преобразований получаем общий вид выражения для скорости света в вакууме, измеренной в произвольной инерциальной системе отсчета (ИСО). Мы объясняем, почему эксперименты Майкельсона-Морли и Кеннеди-Торндайка не смогли выявить наличие эфира. Представляем и обсуждаем три примера конкретных преобразований. В заключение объясняем явление анизотропии реликтового излучения (РИ) с использованием представленной теории.
Представленную в данной работе теорию мы назвали Специальной теорией эфира (СТЭ) – с произвольным поперечным сокращением. Статья содержит лишь оригинальные исследования, поведенные ее авторами.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1806.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-13 09:41:10*

**Authors:** Tarzan Graystone

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

The scope of this exercise is not to propose any initiation mechanism1 for proband systems but rather to follow the latter components of an emergent system event and extrapolate a timeline, to connect the dots, in a lineage of multi-object systems from , primordial emergent anlage to a fission system. These taxonomic classifications will resolve multi-object morphological dilemmas. The next publication will include discussions of larger family groups.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1806.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-11 09:17:00*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 1 Page.

the explanation for baryon asymmetry

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1806.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-11 10:39:19*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English

As often in discussions of the theory of relativity denied the existence of the twin paradox, there is a need to dwell on this again. It is shown that the formal means of SRT and GRT a paradox twins are not resolved.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1806.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-11 21:15:18*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Chinese Version

Abstract: The theory of electrodynamic space-time relativity (TESTR) is the study of the transformation of time and space between two electrodynamic inertial frames of reference, which have both inertial velocity difference and electric potential difference. It is a fundamental space-time theory of theoretical physics based on the Einstein’s special theory of relativity (STR), the electric potential limit postulate and the high-precision experimental facts of the inversion proportional square law of Coulomb’s force.
It also proposed new basic physical concepts, such as electric potential limit, quaternion velocity, quaternion electric potential, etc. The two basic physical quantities, electric potential, and velocity are unified through the form of quaternions. It revealed the inherent relationships between the quaternion velocity or the quaternion electric potential and space-time. In mathematical form, it starts with the special theory of relativity in the real form and develop into the complex form and then further into the quaternion form. In the physical sense, it expands the special relativity from having an only inertial frame of reference to having both the inertial frame of reference and electric equipotential frame of reference.
This paper discusses in detail the process of establishing the theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity and theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity as well as their various conversions and transformations. With the use of the new concept of system time, it leads to the expression of the fundamental equations of TESTR to be as concise as the form of Galilean transformation. Also, its content is also more symmetrical and universal. It can correctly derive a set of more complex equations of the special three-dimensional theory of relativity. At the same time, proved that the special theory of relativity is a special case of TESTR, and found another important new special case: the theory of electric potential relativity (TEPR). The basic effects of TESTR were also discussed. It predicts some important new space-time change effects, for example, the electric potential time expansion effect. Such proposed effects would provide some theoretical basis for the experimental validation of TESTR. The appendix of the paper proves mathematically that the basic equations of the theory are consistent with the hypothesis.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1806.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-11 21:36:15*

**Authors:** Yingtao Yang

**Comments:** 18 Pages. English Version

Abstract: The theory of electrodynamic space-time relativity (TESTR) is the study of the transformation of time and space between two electrodynamic inertial frames of reference, which have both inertial velocity difference and electric potential difference. It is a fundamental space-time theory of theoretical physics based on the Einstein’s special theory of relativity (STR), the electric potential limit postulate and the high-precision experimental facts of the inversion proportional square law of Coulomb’s force.
It also proposed new basic physical concepts, such as electric potential limit, quaternion velocity, quaternion electric potential and etc. The two basic physical quantities, electric potential and velocity, are unified through the form of quaternions. It revealed the inherent relationships between the quaternion velocity or the quaternion electric potential and space-time. In mathematical form, it starts with the special theory of relativity in the real form and develop into the complex form and then further into the quaternion form. In the physical sense, it expands the special relativity from having an only inertial frame of reference to having both the inertial frame of reference and electric equipotential frame of reference.
This paper discusses in detail the process of establishing the theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity and theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity as well as their various conversions and transformations. With the use of the new concept of system time, it leads to the expression of the fundamental equations of TESTR to be as concise as the form of Galilean transformation. In addition, its content is also more symmetrical and universal. It can correctly derive a set of more complex equations of the special three-dimensional theory of relativity. At the same time, proved that the special theory of relativity is a special case of TESTR, and found another important new special case: the theory of electric potential relativity (TEPR). The basic effects of TESTR were also discussed. It predicts some important new space-time change effects, for example, the electric potential time expansion effect. Such proposed effects would provide some theoretical basis for the experimental validation of TESTR. The appendix of the paper proves mathematically that the basic equations of the theory are consistent with the hypothesis.
Keyword: special theory of relativity, postulates of electric potential limit, the theory of electric potential relativity，theory of complex electrodynamic space-time relativity, the theory of quaternion electrodynamic space-time relativity,

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1806.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-10 15:57:07*

**Authors:** Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It can be shown that the anomalously high rates of rotation of the outer regions of galaxies follow from the constancy and finiteness of the rate of gravitational interaction, which is equal to the speed of light in accordance with general relativity of A. Einstein. Since the speed of propagation of the gravitational interaction is constant and equal to the speed of light, then for compensation of lag of the gravitational field, an increase in the mass velocity will always be used, since the metric tensor according to general relativity of A. Einstein is depends on to both geometry and kinematics of masses.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1806.0135 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-10 16:52:51*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. Excuse confusion between X and Z tetraquarks

Abstract: The development of HCE8S theory has advanced to a point that a connection can be discerned between the prolific tetraquark Z(4430) and HCE8S theory

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1806.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-10 04:02:18*

**Authors:** Salvatore Gerard Micheal

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

a brief informal discussion of gravistrong, gravitation + strong-force, unification

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1806.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-07 09:44:26*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

In an inertial frame of reference, a body with zero net force acting on it does not accelerate. [28] A team led by researchers María José Caturla and Carlos Untiedt, from the University of Alicante Department of Applied Physics, have studied the importance of relativistic effects on long-range interactions between objects. [27] The theory of the Breit-Wheeler process says it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing two particles of light (photons) together to create an electron and a positron. However, past attempts to do this have required the addition of other high-energy particles. [26] Dr. Pascal Del'Haye and his team at NPL have created an optical version of a diode that transmits light in one direction only, and can be integrated in microphotonic circuits. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18]

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1806.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-07 10:15:31*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages. In Polish.

Przedstawiono istotne różnice dotyczące właściwości pola grawitacyjnego Ziemi i pola grawitacyjnego Czarnodziurowego Wszechświata.
###
Significant differences regarding the properties of the Earth's gravitational field and the gravitational field of the Black Hole Universe are presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1806.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-07 10:19:45*

**Authors:** Zbigniew Osiak

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Significant differences regarding the properties of the Earth's gravitational field and the gravitational field of the Black Hole Universe are presented.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1806.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-07 14:28:07*

**Authors:** Bill Tantalos

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The writer finds solutions, with simple mathematics, of the famous mass-energy equation of Einstein. By generalizing this equation, so that it also includes the physics of the microcosm, quantum mechanics, it discovers a new equation which unifies the General Relativity Theory with quantum mechanics. A fundamental equation, in a simple form, which explains the Big Bang, the beginning of the universe creation and describes the physics of both the macrocosm and the microcosm. It is the Theory of Everything or otherwise Quantum Gravity. The behavior of an exotic particle, the tachyon, is mentioned, and its relation with the Big Bang.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1806.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-27 23:22:33*

**Authors:** Jay R. Yablon

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

We require all components of the Kaluza-Klein metric tensor to be generally-covariant across all five dimensions by deconstructing the metric tensor into Dirac-type square root operators. This decouples the fifth dimension from the Kaluza-Klein scalar, makes this dimension timelike not spacelike, makes the metric tensor inverse non-singular, covariantly reveals the quantum fields of the photon, makes Kaluza-Klein fully compatible with Dirac theory, and roots this fifth dimension in the physical reality of the chiral, pseudo-scalar and pseudo-vector particles abundantly observed in particle physics based on Dirac’s gamma-5 operator, thereby “fixing” all of the most perplexing problem in Kaluza-Klein theory. Albeit with additional new dynamics expected, all the benefits of Kaluza-Klein theory are retained, insofar as providing a geometrodynamic foundation for Maxwell’s equations, the Lorentz Force motion and the Maxwell-Stress energy tensor, and insofar as supporting the viewpoint that the fifth dimension is, at bottom, the matter dimension. We find that the Kaluza-Klein scalar must be a massless, luminous field quantum to solve long-standing problems arising from a non-zero scalar field gradient, and we suggest multiple pathways for continued development.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1806.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-05 12:35:05*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Abstract: A forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 8th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the energy cycle is shown incorporating my latest ideas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1806.0048 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-06 03:29:53*

**Authors:** V.A. Kasimov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. English

The question of whether the necessary postulate of the constancy of the speed of light for the construction of the Special Theory of Relativity was raised and discussed, at least two independent authors [1, 2]. The answer to this question is methodologically very important in recognition of the fact that the foundations of the output of the Galilean transformations and Lorentz are the same basic properties of substantial space and time of Newton. It turned out that in the classical physics "hiding" a contradiction in the substantial properties of space and time. What is the essence of this contradiction? The article attempts to answer this question.
Note that the authors of the mentioned works have received their findings generally avoiding mention of the words "light" and "the speed of its spread".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1806.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-05 03:00:03*

**Authors:** Giorgio Capezzali

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The observations of the M87 jet with the STIS instrument mounted on board the Hubble Space Telescope revealed that an outburst originating in the HST-1 knot occurred. Measuring the dimensions of the outburst in the epochs between 2001 July 30 and 2003 July 27 and correcting for optical illusion an expansion velocity v/c = 0.99893 ± 0.00007 is found. However, the relativistic model fails to correctly predict the dimensions of the source and the outburst brightness. For this reason, as the apparent motion suggests, a superluminal mechanical model where even the light rays travel faster than light is introduced. By applying this model to correct for optical illusion an expansion velocity v/c = 21.8 ± 0.7 is found along with reasonable source dimensions and brightness. This result, the study of the apparent motion of features in the M87 jet and the time-of-flight measurements of muonic neutrinos seem to confirm the possibility to travel faster than light. That does not imply a refusal of special relativity. Instead only the dogmatic interpretations of it are refused. Without them, the so-called twin paradox does not have any reason to exist. Further developments of physics, for example in the superluminal world, will be forbidden as long as the religious view of special relativity is continuously provided by mainstream science.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1806.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-03 10:58:15*

**Authors:** Edward G. Lake

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Radar guns provide an excellent and inexpensive means of explaining and demonstrating some of Einstein’s theories in a very simple and undeniable way. Specifically, radar guns demonstrate how the speed of the emitter cannot add to the speed of the light being emitted, but the speed of light can be combined with the speed of the receiver. In practice, this appears to conflict with a basic tenet of mathematicians who believe that motion is reciprocal, and therefore radar guns must show that motion is reciprocal. A step by step analysis of how radar guns work shatters that basic tenet.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1806.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-04 05:09:51*

**Authors:** Trevor W. Marshall

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In a previous article it was shown that the end state for the dust metric of Oppenheimer and Snyder has most of its mass concentrated just inside the gravitational radius; it is proposed that the resulting object be considered as an idealized \emph{shell collapsar}. Here the treatment is extended to include the family of interior metrics described by Weinberg, and involving the curvature parameter of a Friedmann metric. The end state is again a shell collapsar, with a shell which becomes more concentrated as the curvature parameter increases, which shows that the details of the shell structure are dependent on the initial density profile at the beginning of the collapse. What is lacking in most previous commentaries on the Oppenheimer-Snyder article is the recognition that their matching of the time coordinate at the surface implies a finite upper limit for the comoving time coordinate. A collapse process having all the matter going inside the gravitational radius would require comoving times which go outside that limit.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1806.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-06-02 22:06:08*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 165 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Moon and Earth gravitational interaction explained with Gravitons
“I explained the Gravitational force between Earth and Moon, mediated by Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
Distance from the center of the earth to the center of the moon is 384,400,000 m
Gravitational force between Moon and Earth: 1.9 × 10^20 N
The gravitational potential energy between Moon and Earth: 7.6 × 10^28 J
What is the energy of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon?
I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz
I consider the Moon made of electrons.
The Moon is made of 8 × 10^52 electrons
Each electron emits a Graviton.
The energy of each Graviton: 9.5 × 10^(-25) J
Graviton energy: a×f
This means the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon: 5.9 × 10^51 Hz
I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth, Moon must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^51 Hz
This is another proof that Ferent Gravitation theory is right!
One argument against my Gravitation theory was that the Gravitons are too small to mediate the gravitational force between planets.
“I explained the Gravitational force between Earth and Moon, mediated by Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from Einstein gravitation theory, from your professors that Gravitation is caused by the spacetime curvature.
There are also waves of the spacetime curvature, the gravitational waves.
This is another proof that Ferent gravitation theory is right and Einstein gravitation theory, String theory, LQG… are wrong theories.
The massless Gravitons have infinite range:
“Gravitons mediate the Gravitational force between planets, between stars, between galaxies…”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the graviton flux emitted by the Earth is bigger than the graviton flux emitted by the Moon, the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth, Newton’s third law is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
80. I am the first who explained Moon and Earth gravitational interaction with Gravitons
81. I am the first who explained because the graviton flux emitted by the Earth is bigger than the graviton flux emitted by the Moon, the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth
82. I am the first who explained because the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth, Newton’s third law is wrong

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology