[38] **viXra:1810.0520 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-31 09:30:28*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A proof of the invariance of Maxwell‟s equations for inertial reference frames, making use of the Galilean Transformations.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[37] **viXra:1810.0507 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-30 11:50:23*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 1 Page. I wish to thank ViXra.org for incorporating one of my key numbers, 224, in my last note's identity number.

Abstract: Identification and separation can be made between broken and unbroken E8 symmetry time in MHCE8S universe theory thanks to the Z(4430) tetraquark

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[36] **viXra:1810.0505 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-30 12:55:20*

**Authors:** Valentín Ibáñez Fernández

**Comments:** 45 Pages.

ABSTRACT.
In this PAPER, present a new theory of relativity of Galileo and discovery the new law of movement within moving system.
The more in depth analysis of the theory of relativity to move towards to explain the new special theory of relativity. The new special theory of relativity1-7,14 explained correctly the entire fundamental phenomenon that occur in mechanical and electromagnetic processes, inside of inertial moving systems and in the systems at rest. However, some statements in this papers1-7 did not reveal the full basic physics philosophical approach to the description of these phenomena. This paper eliminate this shortcoming14. It allowed objectively excluding all admitted errors in the development of the theory of relativity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[35] **viXra:1810.0470 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-12-01 06:34:30*

**Authors:** Pablo Hernan Pereyra

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An introduction to Total Relativity Theory as a measure theory of observable with potential fields energy distribution in 5 or more dimensions, with a natural deduction of the Planck-Einstein relation and the quantization of the Gravitational Field of the 1st Schwarzschild Solution. Are revealed the new Quantum tensor (instead of the energy momentum tensor) and the Photon rest mass as the fundamental particle mediating all forces of the Nature as a consequence of the existence of the 5th dimension for mass measurement. Also a reference to the concept of Local Experimental Physics in Scale.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[34] **viXra:1810.0453 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-27 23:27:52*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The arrow of time is considered from the point of view of the modified holographic principle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[33] **viXra:1810.0452 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-28 04:41:17*

**Authors:** Rodrigo de Abreu

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we analyse “a new and potentially important paradox related to Einstein’s theories of special relativity and relativity of simultaneity” introduced by Espen Gaarder Haug in a very interesting recent paper. Based in our previous work we show that there is no paradox since it is impossible that “one reference frame will claim that the train is moving and that the other frame must claim that the train is standing still in the time window “between” two distant events”. The world indeed is not “bizarre” since there is an indeterminacy in the standard formulation of the theory that disappear if we consider a third frame where the one-way speed of light is isotropic.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1810.0444 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-28 12:22:14*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Time is quite interesting phenomenon in physics, and it seems is relative; but what does it mean to be relative of time? What does to be fixed of light speed mean? Does to be fixed of light speed require observation at light speed? What if we can observe faster than light speed because of increased frame number? Is time effective for this imaginary effect or also time itself is dependent on another actual causative phenomenon? Is it possible to make a wrong conception for time and speed even if the phenomenon we advocate is actually true?

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[31] **viXra:1810.0429 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-25 10:33:55*

**Authors:** Mohammad Hadi Mohammadi, Hadi Ranjbari

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

In this paper we discuss on the geometrical reason that leading to expansion of the universe. This reason tells us that vector fields and tensor fields in the manifolds lead to accelerating the manifolds. If we accept this theory we can describe basis of the quantum mechanics. We mean that if we imagine atoms as manifolds because of that acceleration is so low, all the vector fields and tensor fields that exist in atoms will be curved. So, all the vectors treat like waves, and this is basic reason for quantum mechanics that tell us particle in the atoms like electron treat like wave. In this paper we evaluate 4-vector as vector that treats like wave and finally we will talk about unification of forces with tensor fields. Since tensor fields lead to accelerating the manifolds, fundamental forces lead too. As this approach we could unify our forces in one equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[30] **viXra:1810.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-25 10:49:02*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 7 Pages. The cosmological matrix is the original idea.

The starting point of modern theoretical cosmology were the
Einstein equations with the cosmological constant Λ which was
introduced by Einstein. The Einstein equations with the cosmological
matrix is introduced here.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[29] **viXra:1810.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-25 13:21:34*

**Authors:** Aurelian Dan Ivan

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The notions of length, mass and time are the result of sensory perception. Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm.
We evaluate the cosmic space in terms of objects, bodies and particles, dividing the universe into a macrocosm and a microcosm, and establishing absolute results for distances and relative masses, which is illogical.The multiverse is infinite and consists of an infinite number of universes
The multiverse is composed of multiverse elements
The multiverse elements are perceived by humans as a substance or field function within the human observation .
Multiverse space-time dimensions, tend to mathematically 0. Applying number 0 to physics formulas is erroneous, except for addition and drop operations, this being only a neutral element to add; the defining property of 0 is that 0 + a = a for all numbers a. The expressions "something / 0 = infinite" and "something x 0 = 0" can not describe the physical reality.
The multiverse contracted by changing the scale. The contraction takes place across the entire space and temporal scale, thus preserving our perception of the relative scale of the universe and of all the multiverse elements that make up at one point. The only way we perceive the multiverse is the reflection of interactions between multiverse elements at a particular moment of contraction. Any measurement of distances, masses and times is relative, which has a different value in each moment. Changing the scale by shrinkage is how the multiverse exists. The phenomenon can be observed because our sense organs and our measures and observation, are composed of elements multiverse that contracts with the same speed rate of contraction of the multiverse in physical vacuum is C = 299790000 m / s where m is the physical length unit of measurement and s is the physical measure of time.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[28] **viXra:1810.0416 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-24 08:02:16*

**Authors:** Evrim Ersin Kangal

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

One of the suitable theoretical idea for the polytrope in the Kaluza-Klein cosmology is discussed. Assuming a 5-dimensional (5D) spacetime model described by the Kaluza-Klein theory of gravity, we implement the energy density and pressure of the polytrope which is a self-gravitating gaseous sphere and still very useful as a crude approximation to more realistic stellar models. Next, we
obtain the best-fit values of the auxiliary parameters given in the model according to the recent observational dataset. Finally, we study some cosmological features and the thermodynamical stability of the model.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[27] **viXra:1810.0415 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-24 08:13:25*

**Authors:** Paul Schroeder

**Comments:** 5 Pages. presented to CNPS online discussion group

I have a number of ‘Universe is Otherwise’ papers that focus on giving gravity a physical nature and expanding its effects upon everything in our universe. The summary of my ‘paep’(1) gravity recognizes a pushing force applied by the flow of EM radiation such as light.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[26] **viXra:1810.0409 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-24 12:51:31*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The article shows that the paravector orthogonal transformation is invariant for the Klein-Gordon equation and for the Hamilton-Jacobi equation of the free particle. This confirms that the alternative theory of relativity, which we create in the complex space-time, does not conflict with other branches of physics. The complex space-time with its natural properties gives hope for ordering of the physics of the great speeds created by the revolution at the turn of the 19th and 20th century.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[25] **viXra:1810.0366 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-24 15:58:11*

**Authors:** Mesut Kavak

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

I have been working for a long time about basic laws of physics. During this time I noticed, that gravity does not work as Newtonian. Distance and gravitational force relation changes over distance. The attraction properties change for each point of free space, and have some limits. The attraction changes due to some values between 1/r and 1/r^2 even for the existent furthest distance. This work aims to analyze and discuss this phenomenon.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[24] **viXra:1810.0357 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-22 09:36:12*

**Authors:** Karan R.Takkhi

**Comments:** 3 pages

A new cosmological era began with the discovery of accelerating expansion of the Universe. The deviation of the Hubble diagram from exhibiting a linear distance-redshift relation at high redshifts provides the very crucial clue to support this discovery. In this paper I present a theory to account for the observed accelerating expansion of the Universe. I discuss that the Universe should attain a constant rate of expansion in future, given the linear distance-redshift relation being obeyed by the receding large-scale structures within the local Universe, suggesting constant recessional velocities. I compare the local Universe within which the receding large-scale structures exhibit the linear distance-redshift relation in accordance with the Hubble diagram, and the remote Universe within which the receding large-scale structures deviate from exhibiting the expected linearity. There may be a simple terminology termed by me as “acceleration phase” that would probably account for the observed acceleration, particularly for the receding large-scale structures belonging to the remote Universe that exhibit high redshifts.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[23] **viXra:1810.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-21 23:14:36*

**Authors:** Daehyeon KANG

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Length contraction and time expansion in special theory of relativity are much confused. In this paper, we will explain it easily and clearly by Lorentz transfor mation equation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[22] **viXra:1810.0341 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-25 08:05:44*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This paper presents an argument that the conventional analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment ( MMX) might be only approximately correct but not strictly accurate. Accurate classical analysis would require revision of the Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction formula. This new analysis may have even more far reaching consequences: if the new classical analysis requires different length contraction formulas for different experimental setups to give a null result, this would lead to absurdity of the whole concept of length contraction and Lorentz transformation. The standard ether analysis of the MMX implies a law of reflection of light from a moving mirror and this may not agree with the classical analysis. Accurate ether analysis of MMX should be based on the classical analysis of reflection of light from a moving mirror, which should be derived from fundamental classical wave principles, and not from the requirement that the Michelson-Morley experiment should give a null fringe shift.The significant divergence of the light beam has been neglected ( overlooked ) in the standard analysis. The fallacy in the standard analysis is that it presumes that the transverse light will not miss the observer/detector, which is possible only if we consider the finite divergence of the beam, but ignores the beam divergence in the analysis and goes on to extraordinary conclusions ( length contraction ). Michelson's analogy of a man swimming across a river is the original fallacy.The standard relativistic explanation is that length contraction of the beam splitter will compensate for the change in angle of reflection. However, even if the length contraction formula is applied to the whole apparatus, including the beam splitter, the Michelson-Morley experiment will never give a null result because the classical analysis and its result is complicated and cannot be compensated by the simple Lorentz contraction formula. The resulting complex formula for the difference in path lengths of the longitudinal and transverse light beams may not even allow the application of length contraction concept, and modification of the simple Lorentz-Fitzgerald length contraction formula. This will invalidate the whole concept of length contraction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[21] **viXra:1810.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-20 01:11:04*

**Authors:** Miroslav Pardy

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Keywords: Graviton, Schwinger source theory, spectrum of H-Atom, Coulomb potential,

The energy spectrum of graviton emitted by the black hole binary is calculated in the first
part of the chapter. Then, the total quantum loss of energy, is calculated in the Schwinger
theory of gravity.
In the next part we determine the electromagnetic shift of energy levels of H-atom electrons
by calculating an electron coupling to the black hole thermal bath. Energy shift of
electrons in H-atom is determined in the framework of nonrelativistic quantum mechanics.
In the last section we determine the velocity of sound in the black hole atmosphere, which
is here considered as the black hole photon sea. Derivation is based on the thermodynamic
theory of the black hole photon gas.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[20] **viXra:1810.0254 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-16 19:09:05*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 3 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of publication.

Based on conservation law of energy, Poynting vector describes the power per unit area in electromagnetic wave. The time-averaged power per unit area is independent of the wavelength and the frequency of the wave. One example is FM radio signal. In photoelectric effect, the incident light wave transfers energy to the electron. Light wave of higher frequency takes longer time to transfer more energy to the electron. The total energy absorbed by the electron is proportional to the area facing the incident light. From this area, the radius of the electron can be calculated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[19] **viXra:1810.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-14 11:09:36*

**Authors:** George R. briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages. The key number 155 appears on ViXra 1810.0155, Alexey V. Melkikh, Ural Fed. Univ.,Yekaterinburg, Russia

Abstract: 3 new finishing touches to Majoranic Holographic Cyclic E8 Symmetric universe theory are described which essentially complete the theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[18] **viXra:1810.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-12 09:46:45*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper uses the law, heat=constant vibration*time
And so the new law is time=universal heat/constant vibration
Time passing is decreased by vibrating more and increased by vibrating less by the universal heat and is increased by increasing heat while the vibration is constant and decreased by decreasing the heat while the vibration is constant

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[17] **viXra:1810.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 21:19:29*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 3 Pages. English; with Chinese translation.

Einstein made use of the concept of speed, a concept that is defined to be non-invariant under Galilean transformation, in a postulate to postulate a speed - the speed of light - to be invariant for all inertial reference frames. This is a direct trivial logical inconsistency within Newtonian mechanics which needs no further discussion and deliberation. As such, special relativity is a theory that is mutually independent from Newtonian mechanics. The physical reality as found in the Newtonian world has no connection whatsoever with the physical reality as found in special relativity. Any experiment done and interpreted through special relativity has no relevance in the physical world as observed and
represented by Newtonian mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[16] **viXra:1810.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 21:25:48*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 2 Pages. English; with Chinese translation.

The author has discovered very recently (April 2016) that the formula E = mc^2 is invalid; energy is fictitious in the formula. The proof is simple and involves no high mathematics.Any good high school students taking physics as a subject could easily come to a definite understanding of
the analysis and decides for himself whether the author’s claim is correct; there is no need to rely on the words of any physics professor to
know whether the formula E = mc^2 is valid or invalid.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[15] **viXra:1810.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 21:29:13*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Contemporary mainstream physics has accepted special relativity to be a fully tested and verified theory. The internet has been full
of references for experiments that purportedly verified special relativity. This article argues that many of these experiments purportedly verifying special relativity are irrelevant as evidence; a commonly quoted example being the Kaufmann, Bucherer and Neumann experiments. On the
contrary, there is only one lone uncorroborated experiment that shows some evidence of the validity of special relativity - the 1964 experiment of William Bertozzi of the MIT; for the matter, the experiment provides only a weak evidence with 10% accuracy. If a lone experiment were sufficient as evidence in science, then the 1989 Pons & Fleischmann experiment could have won the experimenters a Nobel Prize in physics - they did not. The author proposes a simple experiment that could decide incontrovertibly between the two competing mechanics, the old Newtonian mechanics or the “newer” special relativity - by just directly measuring the velocity of electrons ejected in natural beta decay. To date, despite the simplicity of the experiment, no one has performed the experiment.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[14] **viXra:1810.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 21:34:37*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 4 Pages. English; with Chinese translation.

A central feature of special relativity is the increase of mass with velocity - mass going to infinity when a body approaches the speed limit of light. This feature is of the utmost importance
as special relativity has been accepted by modern physics to have clearly proven Newtonian mechanics to be wrong fundamentally; Newton’s mechanics has mass to be an invariant property of matter. As it is expected that students would not easily accept a dismissal of Newton’s monumental work, the Principia, the physics academia tries to have a way to convince students that indeed this central feature of mass increasing with velocity could even be verified through experiments done in the usual laboratory of a university. The fact of the matter is otherwise - that even the original ex-
periments by Kaufmann (1901), Bucherer (1908) that attempted to show mass increasing with velocity are flawed as the author has shown. The proposed simplified experiments are tantamount to fraud propagated on unsuspecting students who may not have the time to delve into the issues more thoroughly.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[13] **viXra:1810.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 22:53:55*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper, time is formulated through the entropy of space entanglement at the boundary. From this definition, gravitational time dilation is immediately obtained.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[12] **viXra:1810.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-10 09:40:31*

**Authors:** Alexey V. Melkikh

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The assumption that the early universe was not hot but in a pure quantum state allowed the main problems of cosmology to be solved from a single point: the flatness and homogeneity of the universe, in addition to the predominance of matter over antimatter and the absence of monopoles. A model according to which this quantum state itself was formed under large compression as a result of a quantum phase transition is proposed. In this case, a Big Bounce can be treated as quantum scattering, as a result of which more than one universe can form. The properties of the universe, on the basis of which life arose within it, were encoded in topological states before the Big Bounce (scattering). At later stages, life evolved directly. Dark matter and dark energy can be used to control the lifetime of the universe. The universe itself can be considered to be a superorganism.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[11] **viXra:1810.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-21 03:56:57*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 6 Pages. version 3 has a rewritten chapter 4

This article shows how Electro-Magnetic source and wave are related and why the propagation velocity of light in vacuum is c, exclusively relative to its source.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[10] **viXra:1810.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-06 09:41:00*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Stable particles of the Universe - protons and electrons - are in constant motion (there is a
background component of their velocity), which is the source of the vacuum energy, explains the
non-Newtonian vacuum potential and the curvature of space and determines the values of the
gravitational and cosmological constants. This follows from the balance of interactions between
a free electron and a proton, provided that there are no electrical forces and external influences.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[9] **viXra:1810.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-06 14:52:16*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

What happens if two equal masses hit each other at the same velocity and as they try to rebound the two masses are not let to do so and are pushed again to each other from behind
And then the whole energy of momentum is turned into either sound or light
It’s a momentum collision that is totally depleted and the time of energy depletion is very small and the balls are not let to rebound at all you could make this doable by making several bigger masses hit push each other whenever the balls colliding try to rebound

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1810.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-08 07:29:06*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

We define a unique geometrical Poisson bracket for classical physics of point particles and generalize this to the commutator algebra of quantum theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[7] **viXra:1810.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-05 14:57:31*

**Authors:** Sjaak Uitterdijk

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This article describes the behavior of the Sagnac interferometer, based on irrefutable physics. It also shows that the fiber optic gyroscope does not operate like this interferometer.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1810.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-03 10:29:12*

**Authors:** John Hodge

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The need for a paradigm shift is growing. Many ad hoc models and outlandish speculations abound to model many unexplained observations. The Scalar Theory Of Everything (STOE) audacious claim of a new paradigm is supported by corresponding to relativity and quantum mechanics; by explaining many problematical observations; and by making and fulfilling several predictions. It posits 2 components of the universe emerge to form everything. It models the universe as composed of cells with Sources (spiral galaxies) and Sinks (elliptical galaxies and matter). It forms the Universal Equations, one equation to define the potential at all points and one equation that uses the potential to exert forces on matter. These equations are applied the microwave background temperature, rotation curves, asymmetric rotation curves, galaxy redshift and discrete redshift, the pioneer anomaly, light interference, etc. The wave model of light is rejected by 2 experiments predicted by the STOE. Maxwell's Equations are modified. Life and society application of the STOE principles is suggested.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[5] **viXra:1810.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-02 12:42:47*

**Authors:** Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

E=mc^2
we could take this relation to celestial systems to know the energy of a system.
to do this we can make the difference between mass of the star and mass of planet's difference as in this relation (m1-m2)c^2
where m1 is the mass of a the star and m2 is the mass of the planet and one of the c is equal to orbit speed + gravitational pull at one sec and the other c or the other speed of light is multiplied by the difference between the masses and that is equal to the quantity of time in seconds that the system is at existence

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[4] **viXra:1810.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-02 21:38:36*

**Authors:** Doug Marett

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Einstein in 1905 introduced the constancy of the speed of light as a postulate, but in so doing removed the 19th century idea that the speed of light can be explained physically. So one might ask the question, why is the speed of light the speed that it is, and not something else? Einstein’s theory provides no answer for this question. As a philosophical exercise, we consider if relativity genuinely disproved the alternative hypothesis, that light can be modeled as a wave propagating through a medium that is static with respect to the universe. We further consider if this alternative model can remain consistent with the experimentally observed speed of light. We examine herein the mathematical arguments of Herbert Ives regarding slow clock transport with respect to such a hypothetical “preferred frame” for the velocity of light, and find that this leads to a prediction of clock biases which obfuscate any one-way speed of light differences expected from a Galilean addition of velocities. As such the Lorentzian model followed by Ives can be seen as equivalent to relativity, but differing in the conventions regarding the synchronization of clocks. Finally, we explore how clocks positioned in a static frame of reference might be used to make the anticipated one-way speed of light visible experimentally.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[3] **viXra:1810.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-02 02:34:49*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The relativistic mechanics of contemporary physics does not have a defined unit of force. Its definition of force as F=d/dt(mv/√(1-v²/c²))
does not define a real standard unit of force. A
Newtonian unit of force, e.g. the SI newton, may not be used in any of the relativistic formulas; it is a real unit of force only with Newtonian mechanics which observes Newton’s second law of motion as an axiom defining a unit of force as mass × acceleration. Without a unit of force, the application of the work-energy theorem produces only a formula that evaluates only to a pure number which has no association with any real unit of energy. All values of energy from relativistic mechanics are, therefore, fictitious. The implication is grave. The well known equation:
E = mc² and the central identity of relativistic mechanics: E² = (pc)² + m²c⁴ are now invalidated. The quantum electrodynamics, the Standard
Model of particle physics are now highly questionable. At the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of CERN where protons are propelled to near the speed of light, the purported energy of the relativistic protons is 6.5TeV, but the real value is only 470MeV - the reported energy being inflated by a factor of 15,000. The Kaufmann-Bucherer-Neumann experiments were not evidence for a mass varying with speed; they showed only a contradiction between the Lorentz force law with Newton’s force law. The correct conclusion is not a failure of invariant mass of Newtonian mechanics, but evidence of failure of the Lorentz force law at relativistic speed conditions. Nature
does not seem to favor any relativistic mechanics. We may have to fall back on our old Newtonian mechanics.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[2] **viXra:1810.0004 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-08 13:34:11*

**Authors:** chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 12 Pages. English; with Chinese translation

The Bucherer experiment of 1908 was not experimental proof of a relativistic mass varying with speed, but proof that electromagnetism and the Lorentz force law fail under relativistic speed conditions. Our conclusions come from a novel re-examination of the experiment based on three different interpretations of New ton’s second law as applied to the experiment and to analyze the
implications for each of:
(1) force∝dp/dt
(2) force=relativistic_mass×acceleration
(3) the classical f = ma
The new interpretation now shows a constant charge-mass ratio for all relativistic speed; both charge and mass would be speed invariant. New relativistic force laws had to be proposed to be
consistent with the experimental findings; the Lorentz force law is now:
F = q((1+v²/c²)√(1-v²/c²) E + √(1-v⁴/c⁴) (v x B) );
the Coulomb’s law is: F = (1+v²/c²)√(1-v²/c²) (1/4πε₀)q₁q₂R/r²;
The Coulomb’s law has an additional scalar factor dependent on the relative velocity between the charges; for small speed, the form is:
F = (1+½v²/c²)(1/4πε₀)q₁q₂R/r²;
This enables the formula for the force between parallel current-carrying conductors:
F_dl = μ₀/(2πR)i₁i₂dl, be derived free of the concept of the magnetic field. A real possibility exists for a formulation of a revolutionary Newtonian electric theory free of magnetism and the Biot-Savart law.Also,the Bucherer experiment could have been an experimental verification of the relativistic Lorentz force law if the predicted speeds of the electrons had been verified through direct time-of-flight measurements.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[1] **viXra:1810.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-10-02 02:56:40*

**Authors:** Chan Rasjid Kah Chew

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The notion of mass-energy equivalence and its mathematical expression through the famous equation E = mc² predates Einstein when he introduced special relativity in 1905. It has to be noted that E = mc² has no rigorous theoretical basis; it is only a pure hypothesis not related to any physical theory. The thesis of this paper is that there is no incontrovertible experimental verification of mass-energy equivalence. The Year_Of_Physics_2005 ‘Direct Test Of E = mc²’ published in Nature 2005 claims a verification of the equation to an accuracy of 0.00004%. The experimenters misunderstood the very nature of the experiment that they carried out. It was not a verification of E = mc², but just another experiment to deduce the mass of the neutron. To date,we have not measured the true mass of the neutron to any degree of accuracy; we only have a deduced estimate of the neutron mass based on the mass-energy equivalence of E = mc² .

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology