Relativity and Cosmology

1903 Submissions

[36] viXra:1903.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 08:32:46

Speed of Light in Slow Motion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

In the resulting footage, photons clearly streak through the milk in a blue blur as the laser travels across the screen from left to right. [30] Light-by-light scattering is a very rare phenomenon in which two photons interact, producing another pair of photons. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[35] viXra:1903.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 15:00:17

On Einsteins Spacetime

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

Einstein discovered the theory of relativity with the notion of space and time or spacetime he said that masses where making a curvature in spacetime its time to understand more about how space works and much importantly how time works space is the envelope of messages the larger the envelope the more messages you can put and the more the envelope can withstand rupture the more time it offers now this means that space is taking a limit of masses inside of it that it cant take more than without any more effects but if you add more masses inside space the spacetime effects start to appear spacetime starts to press on masses and they get compressed as in the form of the blackholes through gravity in other words there is much more mass than there is space and time acts up and gravity occurs because and so forget about dark matter and dark energy and that’s simply how the big bang started simply by existence of masses than the ability of universes space to contain and so the masses started to compress through time and so the curvature of spacetime is not towards the mass but enveloping the mass in a ball and since space is not simply a volume its space then I could assume this theory to be true
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[34] viXra:1903.0549 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-30 10:07:47

Super Accelerated Motion in Rindler Spacetime

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover formulas that the super accelerated matter moves with the acceleration a' about Rindler space-time. We can represent the super accelerated motion about coordinates x,ct.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33] viXra:1903.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-30 14:18:47

The Digit Count of a Particle's Mass Identifies the Cyclic Universe in Which the Particle Arose

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: If the digit count of a particle's mass is four or less the count indicates in which of the 4 cyclic universes the particie first appeared
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32] viXra:1903.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-29 10:17:55

Testing Einstein's Equivalence Principle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

The GRAVITY Collaboration, a team of researchers at several renowned institutes including the Max Planck Institute, LESIA Paris Observatory and the European Southern Observatory, has recently tested part of the Einstein Equivalence Principle, namely the local positon invariance (LPI), near the galactic center supermassive black hole. [12] A key aspect of Einstein’s general theory of relativity (GR) has been tested using the strongest gravitational field so far. The measurement was made by observing changes in optical absorption lines of a star orbiting close to Sagittarius A* – the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. [11]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[31] viXra:1903.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-28 15:38:22

A Timelapse of the Universe

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 30 Pages.

An examination of our universe's history and future, based on the theory of eternal infinity, and an examination of the evidence of this theory of cosmology. Additionally, also examining the new data from SIAII labs that adds now unquestionable support for the theory of "Quantum Pixels".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30] viXra:1903.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 08:38:01

A Neoclassical Framework That Reunifies Modern Physics

Authors: Alan M. Kadin
Comments: 36 Pages. Poster presented at American Physical Society meeting, Boston, Mass., Mar. 7, 2019

The unity of classical physics was broken by quantum uncertainty on the micro level and curved spacetime on the cosmic level. In contrast, a novel neoclassical picture is presented*, which incorporates key aspects of quantum and relativistic physics, while maintaining deterministic local reality at all levels. This is based on the following principles: 1) Real rotating vector fields self-organize into soliton-like wave packets with quantized spin; these represent elementary particles. 2) Characteristic frequency and wavelength of these wave packets define time and space, and are modulated by gravity. 3) Wave packets maintain constant frequency for both massive and massless particles, reproducing relativistic trajectories. 4) Transitions are due to continuous interactions between wave packets that conserve total frequency, wavevector, and spin. This approach maintains quantum discreteness without Hilbert space, and reproduces curved light without spacetime. But this also predicts sharp deviations from some simple predictions of orthodox quantum theory, such as the two-stage Stern-Gerlach experiment. *A.M. Kadin, “Fundamental Waves and the Reunification of Physics”, Foundational Questions Institute Essay Contest, 2017, available online at
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29] viXra:1903.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 14:06:22

THe Space

Authors: Sunil Thakur
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this article, we have analyzed the structure of ice and the behavior of electromagnetic and sound waves in the ice to show that the apparent emptiness is not really empty. The matter exists in imperceptible form as part of all the physical entities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[28] viXra:1903.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 16:17:14

Quantized Space-Time and Dark Matter

Authors: Eran Sinbar
Comments: 3 Pages.

Planck’s length is the scale in which the classical ideas of gravity and space-time cease to be valid and where uncertainty dictates the rules. This is the size of the information bits on the black holes event horizon and there is a good reason to assume that it is the size of the basic building blocks of the fabric of space. This article assumes three leading assumptions: 1. the quantization of space into a lattice (grid) of unit cells, which I will refer to as 3D voxels of space (voxels) in the size of Planck’s length in each dimension. 2. The quantization of time into Planck’s time sequences (pulses). 3. Light travels one space voxel for each time pulse. Based on these three assumptions, this article will show that the Newton gravitational constant (G) increases as the universe expands. This increase in the gravitational constant can illuminate some light on the mysterious dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[27] viXra:1903.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 19:42:42

Modeling Cosmic Expansion, and Possible Inflation, As a Thermodynamic Heat Engine

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 29 Pages. already published 26.Pilot, C, 2017, Modeling Cosmic Expansion, and Possible Inflation, as a Thermodynamic Heat Engine, Zeitschrift fuer Naturforschung A (ZNA) ZNA Vol:74 (2019) iss:01

If we assume a closed universe with slight positive curvature, cosmic expansion can modeled as a heat engine where we define the “system”, collectively, as those regions of space within the observable universe, which will later evolve into voids/ empty space. We identify the “surroundings”, collectively, as those pockets of space, which will eventually develop into matter-filled galaxies, clusters, super-clusters and filament walls. Using this model, we can find the energy needed for cosmic expansion using basic thermodynamic principles, and prove that cosmic expansion had as its origin, a finite initial energy density, pressure, volume, and temperature. Inflation in the traditional sense, with the inflaton field, may also not be required. We will argue that homogeneities and in-homogeneities in the WMAP temperature profile is attributable to quantum mechanical fluctuations about a fixed background temperature in the initial isothermal expansion phase. Fluctuations in temperature can cause certain regions of space to lose heat. Other regions will absorb that heat. The voids are those regions which absorb the heat forcing, i.e., fueling expansion of the latter and creating slightly cooler temperatures in the former, where matter will later congregate. Upon freeze-out, 2 this could produce the observed WMAP signature with its associated CBR fluctuation in magnitude. Finally, we estimate that the freeze-out temperature and the freeze-out time for WMAP in-homogeneities, occurred at roughly 3.02 * 1027 K and 2.54 * 10-35 s, respectively, after first initiation of volume expansion. This is in line with current estimates for the end of the inflationary epoch. The heat input in the inflationary phase is estimated to be Q = 1.81 * 1094 J, and the void volume increases by a factor of only 5.65. The bubble voids in the observable universe increase, collectively, in size from about .046 m3 to .262 m3 within this inflationary period.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[26] viXra:1903.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 19:47:48

Is Quintessence an Indication of a Time-Varying Gravitational Constant?

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 38 Pages. already published;Pilot, C, 2018, Is Quintessence an Indication of a Time-Varying Gravitational Constant?, , Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology (JHEPGC) JHEPGC Vol 5 No 1 (2019)

A model is presented where the quintessence parameter, w, is related to a time-varying gravitational constant. Assuming a present value of w = -.98, we predict a current variation of Ġ/G = - .06 H0, a value within current observational bounds. H0 is Hubble’s parameter, G is Newton’s constant and Ġ is the derivative of G with respect to time. Thus, G has a cosmic origin, is decreasing with respect to cosmological time, and is proportional to H0, as originally proposed by the Dirac-Jordan hypothesis, albeit at a much slower rate. Within our model, we can explain the cosmological constant fine-tuning problem, the discrepancy between the present very weak value of the cosmological constant, and the much greater vacuum energy found in earlier epochs (we assume a connection exists). To formalize and solidify our model, we give two distinct parametrizations of G with respect to “a”, the cosmic scale parameter. We treat G-1 as an order parameter, which vanishes at high energies; at low temperatures, it reaches a saturation value, a value we are close to today. Our first parametrization for G-1 is motivated by a charging capacitor; the second treats G-1(a) by analogy to a magnetic response, i.e., as a Langevin function. Both parametrizations, even though very distinct, give a remarkably similar tracking behavior for w(a), but not of the conventional form, w(a) = w0 + wa (1-a), which can be thought of as only holding over a limited range in “a”. Interestingly, both parametrizations indicate the onset of G formation at a temperature of approximately 7 *1021 degrees Kelvin, in contrast to the ΛCDM model where G is taken as a constant all the way back to the Planck temperature, 1.42 * 1032 degrees Kelvin. At the temperature of formation, we find that G has increased to roughly 4*1020 times its present value. For most of cosmic evolution, however, our variable G model gives results similar to the predictions of the ΛCDM model, except in the very early universe, as we shall demonstrate. In fact, in the limit where w approaches -1, Ġ/G vanishes, and we are left with the concordance model. Within our framework, the emergence of dark energy over matter at a scale of a ≈ .5 is that point where G-1 increases noticeably to its current value G0-1. This weakening of G to its current value G0 is speculated as the true cause for the observed unanticipated acceleration of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[25] viXra:1903.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 22:04:54

Solving the Mystery of Dark Energy

Authors: Tom Fuchs
Comments: 2 Pages.

I show how stars can accelerate away from us in the absence of dark energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[24] viXra:1903.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-25 11:55:19

General Relativity Supermassive Test

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A key aspect of Einstein’s general theory of relativity (GR) has been tested using the strongest gravitational field so far. The measurement was made by observing changes in optical absorption lines of a star orbiting close to Sagittarius A* – the supermassive black hole at the centre of the Milky Way. [11] Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[23] viXra:1903.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-25 13:04:26

Is the Recession of Galaxies Phenomenon a Proof that the Structure of Reality Differs from the Currently Accepted One?

Authors: Witold Nawrot
Comments: 4 Pages.

A new, incredibly simple justification of the Hubble’s law, which results from the recently published alternative model of reality, suggests that the shape of reality can be different than it has been assumed until now.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[22] viXra:1903.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 04:07:54

The History of the Universe in 1000 Words or Less

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 25 Pages.

The universe is made of stories, not of atoms.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[21] viXra:1903.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-21 22:01:37

Solving Incompatibility Between GR and QM re Black Holes

Authors: Tom Fuchs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Herein I derive a new metric for Schwarzschild geometry that doesn't predict black holes, thus is compatible with quantum mechanics re black holes and their singularities.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[20] viXra:1903.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-23 14:55:13

Violation of Conservation of Momentum by Lorentz Transformation

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages. All comments are welcome. Please include your email address and a short list of your publications.

An isolated physical system of elastic collision between two identical objects is chosen to verify the conservation of momentum in two inertial reference frames. In the first reference frame, the center of mass (COM) is stationary. In the second reference frame, the center of mass moves at a constant velocity. By applying Lorentz transformation to the velocities of both objects, total momentum before and during the collision in the second reference frame can be compared. The comparison shows that conservation of momentum fails to hold when both objects move together at the same velocity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1903.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-20 17:13:08

Mass and the Fifth Dimension

Authors: Hristu Culetu
Comments: 6 Pages.

A correlation between mass and a compact 5th dimension is proposed. The 5th coordinate appears to represent the gravitational radius of the black hole. The source of curvature of the spacetime turns out to be an anisotropic null fluid with no energy density and isotropic pressure but nonzero energy flux and anisotropic pressures.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18] viXra:1903.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-19 10:55:21

Thanks to the Heavy Majoranic Neutrino Collapse of the Universe is Avoided

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page. See recent paper by Bruce Wallman in ViXra cosmology and relativety

Abstract: The problem of the Hubble constant being so large that the universe is seemingly in danger of collapse is solved by the heavy Majorana neutrino proposed in MHCE8S theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[17] viXra:1903.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-19 10:44:34

A Mechanism for Gravitational Force and Observed Rotation in Spiral Galaxies

Authors: Nathaniel Julian
Comments: 2 Pages.

While general relativity provides an accurate description of spacetime and gravitational forces and effects, it does not provide a mechanism for gravity itself. By explaining the mechanism of gravitational force as a resistance of massive and high energy objects to the observed accelerating expansion of the universe, we simplify and provide a model that does not rely on unobserved particles or other hypothetical factors while staying in agreement with general relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[16] viXra:1903.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-28 15:24:28

Resolving the Tension Between Planck H0=66.93 and Riess et al H0=73.24

Authors: Bruce Wallman
Comments: 7 Pages.

There is an open question in cosmology about the significance of the difference between the 2016 Planck collaboration value H0=66.93±0.62 km/s/Mpc and the 2016 Riess et al value H0=73.24±1.74 km/s/Mpc. This paper shows that both the Planck collaboration and Riess et al values are valid. Tracing the cosmological redshift z from SN1a several thousand megaparsecs in the past to those that exploded closer to today describes an increase in our perception of Hv as distance to us lessens. A best fit power function of vr=73.227*Dp^0.9907 for recessional velocity versus proper distance (where vr is recessional velocity and Dp is proper distance) is derived connecting these two values of H0 using 1836 SN1a in the NED database. Taking the derivative of this formula to get Hubble slope gives the power function Hv=dvr/dDp= 72.546*Dp^(-0.0093). When this formula is used to describe an extrapolation of the universe from near the Milky Way galaxy to the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), it describes a change of about 7 km/s/Mpc in the Hubble value for the observable universe increasing smoothly from 66.4 for our measures at the CMB to 73.4 km/s/Mpc locally as the universe expands. Most of the increase occurs in the last 1000 Mpc as was stated in Riess, Perlmutter, and subsequent SN1a studies. This is consistent with ΛCDM cosmology. After converting distance in megaparsecs to light-seconds, it is possible to show Hv is an acceleration that varies from 6.45 angstrom/s/lt-s when measuring the CMB to 7.13 angstrom/s/lt-s in the local universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[15] viXra:1903.0312 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-17 19:06:59

Total Relativity and the Cosmology Fundamental Theorem

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Cosmology Fundamental Theorem is established based on Total Relativity and the total energy conservation of nature, using the testable consequences of the cosmological principle of isotropy and homogeneity and incorporating a new testable consequence, the redshift temporal on a large scale. It is shown that Cosmology must be cyclical.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:1903.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-15 11:16:54

The Most Accurate Method of Neutron Mass Calculation

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The mass of the neutron can be calculated simply yet accurately in MHCE8S theory by a method I outline in this note.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[13] viXra:1903.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-14 08:22:56

Complete Unification of Electromagnetic Field and Gravitational Field Based on New Starting Postulates

Authors: Ho Dong Jo, Chol Song Kim
Comments: 60 Pages.

We presented the difficulties of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory and Einstein’s gravitational theory in detail, established a new unified theory of field including consistent electromagnetic theory and gravitational theory on the basis of new starting postulates, and applied these theoretical methods to quantum electrodynamics. We accepted a new geometrical space in which metric tensor and all main physical functions become implicit functions, called “KR space” consistent to our starting postulates, and normalization of implicit functions in order to give physical meanings to all physical functions of implicit forms defined in this space. As a result, we naturally unraveled problem of radiation reaction, a historical difficult problem of Maxwell-Lorentz electromagnetic theory, built new quantum electrodynamics without renormalization procedure followed by quantum gravitational theory and also predicted new theoretical results which could not find in traditional theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[12] viXra:1903.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-14 10:41:54

Bi-Metric Description of Two Particles Gravitational Interaction

Authors: Lluís Bel
Comments: 10 Pages.

A bi-metric formalism is introduced to describe two bodies gravitational interaction using Whitehead's version of Schwarzschhild's original solution.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[11] viXra:1903.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-14 16:02:21

QSSC Model's Next Step is the Stoe

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Quasi-Steady State Cosmology (QSSC) posits a continuous creation at the center of galaxies. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) posits the components of the universe have a creation and an end. A Sink at the center of elliptical galaxies is added to the Source of the QSSC at the center of Spiral galaxies. This allows the explanation of many more anomalous cosmological observations and allows correspondence with quantum mechanics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1903.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-14 04:13:07

Universe Expansion Black Holes Nuclear Forces

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 9 Pages.

The accelerated expansion of Universe is caused by the Universal antigravity force, with which the Hubble’s Law is proved. The black holes are sustainable matter forms of the dynamic space that cannot disappear, because of the particulate antigravity force that prevents the further gravitational collapse. The inverse electric-nuclear field causes the nuclear forces, namely the strong nuclear force and the nuclear antigravity one, on which the architecture of the nuclei model is based.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[9] viXra:1903.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 11:12:05

Security Paths in the Universe

Authors: Timoteo Briet Blanes
Comments: 40 Pages.

If you want to explain how the Universe works, it is necessary to know how the clusters of matter that originate the galaxies and the clusters of galaxies that originate the large-scale geometry of the Universe are formed. On the other hand, it is also necessary to know the mechanisms by which galaxies evolve and interact among them, and also, what the process for mater aggregation are. Finally, it is also necessary, therefore, an explanation of dark matter in terms of properties and not its composition, since it is a majority part of the matter of the Universe. A series of mechanisms and numerical models are established, which explain all this.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1903.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-10 12:45:13

Simultaneity and Light Propagation in the Context of the Galilean Principle of Relativity

Authors: Attilio Colombo
Comments: Pages.

The intent of this work is to present a discussion of the Galilean Principle of Relativity and of its implications for what concerns the characteristics of light propagation and the nature of simultaneity. It is shown that by using a clock synchronization procedure that makes use of isotropically propagating signals of generic nature, the simultaneity of distinct events can be established in a unique way by different observers, also when such observers are in relative motion between themselves. Such absolute nature of simultaneity is preserved in the passage from a stationary to a moving reference frame also when a set of isochronous generalized coordinates is introduced. These transformations of coordinates can be considered as a generalization of the Lorentz transformations to the case of synchronization signals having characteristic speed different from the speed of light in vacuum. The specific invariance properties of these coordinate transformations with respect to the characteristic speed of propagation of the synchronization signals and of the corresponding constitutive laws of the underlying physical phenomenon are also presented, leading to a different interpretation of their physical meaning with respect to the commonly accepted interpretation of the Lorentz transformation as a space-time distortion. On the basis of these results, the emission hypothesis of W. Ritz, that assumes that light is always emitted with the same relative speed with respect to its source and that is therefore fully consistent with the Galilean Principle of Relativity, is then applied to justify the outcomes of the Michelson-Morley and Fizeau interferometric experiments by introducing, for the latter case, an additional hypothesis regarding the possible influence of turbulence on the refractive index of the fluid. Finally, a test case to verify the validity of either the Galilean or the Relativistic velocity composition rule is presented. The test is based on the aberration of the light coming from celestial objects and on the analysis of the results obtained by applying the two different formulas for the resultant velocity vector to process the data of the observed positions, as measured by a moving observer, in order to determine the actual un-aberrated location of the source.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1903.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-10 22:05:00

Time Travel in Past

Authors: Gaurav kumar
Comments: 8 Pages.

This pdf file is in hindi language
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1903.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-08 14:23:31

The Dimensionless Constant 273.55488 Indicates That Two New Quark Types Exist For Neutrons

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: The mysterious dimensionless constant 273.55488 signals that two new up and down quarks exist which accurately form neutrons: this makes 8 types of quark in all.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1903.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-09 05:00:16

String Theory. Material from Wikipedia the Free Encyclopedia (Build on 10.03.20019). in Russian.

Authors: Wikipedia
Comments: 19 Pages. In Russian

String theory is a branch of theoretical physics that studies the dynamics of interaction not of point particles, but of one-dimensional extended objects, the so-called quantum strings. String theory combines the ideas of quantum mechanics and the theory of relativity, so it may be based on the future theory of quantum gravity. Тео́рия струн — направление теоретической физики, изучающее динамику взаимодействия не точечных частиц, а одномерных протяжённых объектов, так называемых квантовых струн. Теория струн сочетает в себе идеи квантовой механики и теории относительности, поэтому на её основе, возможно, будет построена будущая теория квантовой гравитации.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[4] viXra:1903.0093 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-07 05:22:18

The Unified Theory Of Relativity

Authors: Warren Tancock
Comments: 7 Pages.

A unified description of acceleration that doesn't distinguish between straight geodesic worldlines in curved spacetime and curved worldlines in flat spacetime, thereby simplifying and unifying the special and the general theories of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:1903.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-04 02:45:32

Essential Factors for Light Kinematics and Special Relativity

Authors: Özgen Ersan
Comments: 4 Pages. If some factors are neglected, analyses may generate mystic inferences.

The present scientific paradigm does not allow cosmological analysis because of the non-simultaneity of data. However, a cosmological analysis was realized through a new method (the concept of Light Coordinate System). This new method also indicates that the theory of special relativity and light kinematics can be revised and improved to become more functional and useful. In this article, the essence and details of important/supplement factors (especially considering: the types of relativity, sequential chain of reference systems, prioritizing the method of co-reference frame, and relational holism) are explained.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1903.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-02 12:00:36

Anisotropic Gravity that Gives an Anisotropic Big G Inside the Codata Error Range

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

At least one observational study has claimed that Newton's gravitational constant seems to vary with the direction relative to the fixed stars, see [1]. We think this is unlikely, but such experiments should be repeated or at least investigated further. If it is the case that gravity is directionally dependent, then how could this be explained, and how could/should our gravity formulas be modified? In this paper, we introduce an anisotropic big G that is dependent on the direction relative to the fixed stars, and therefore on a given location on Earth, dependent on the Earth's rotation. A series of experiments claim to have found the anisotropic one-way speed of light when getting around Einstein-Poincare synchronization, although they have not received a great deal of attention. We do not question that the one-way speed of light is isotropic when measured with Einstein-Poincare synchronized clocks. We hypothesize here that gravity moves with the speed of light and that the true one-way speed of gravity is anisotropic. Based on this, we get an anisotropic gravitational ``constant," which, if calibrated to one-way light experiments, is inside two standard deviations of error as given by CODATA.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1903.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-03 05:25:27

Is There a Missing Lorentz Shift for Mass?

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

In special relativity, we operate with length contraction and length transformation; these are not the same thing even though they are related. In addition, we have time dilation and time transformation. However, when it comes to mass, we have only relativistic mass and no mass transformation. We will suggest here, based on a better understanding of mass at the quantum level, that there must also be a Lorentz mass transformation. Recent research strongly indicates that mass is directly linked to the Compton wavelength of the particle in question and since we can operate with both length contraction and length transformation, this means we should have corresponding masses. Length contraction of the Compton wavelength corresponds to what is known today as relativistic mass, while length transformation means we also need mass transformation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology