General Science and Philosophy

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[828] viXra:1702.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-16 09:33:37

Corrig 2

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

corr
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[827] viXra:1702.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-15 06:19:13

Corrigendum 1702.0059v1

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 0 Pages.

error corrections
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[826] viXra:1702.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-13 21:08:13

Effect of Slope and Packing Ratio on the Behavior of Matchsticks Burnings

Authors: Priya Karna, Sunil Karna
Comments: 5 Pages.

The experiment was conducted to demonstrate the behavior of fire propagation on wildland using matchsticks forest model. A model forest was designed on a flame resistance clay, on top of which matchsticks were inserted and kept vertical to the ground by keeping spacing between them constant with the help of aluminum grid. The data for distance traveled by fire with time was taken at wide range of slopes from downhill of -25^o to uphill of 45^o on model forests of packing ratios of 0.08 and 0.04. The minimum rate of fire spread was observed around 15^o downhill. The data collected from this experiment follows nature of tan^2(theta) and agrees with Rothermel mathematical model of fire propagation except at high elevation above 35^o for low packing ratio.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[825] viXra:1702.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-11 23:42:13

A Training System with a Machine for a Ball Game

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is a system which simulates a ball game and a machine is substituted for one player in it.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[824] viXra:1702.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-10 01:45:24

Future of Humankind in Light of New Science

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Some aspects of the future of humankind are considered based on application of the quantum modification of general relativity. Particularly, the energy supply from the vacuum and a new form of communication are discussed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[823] viXra:1702.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 05:22:32

Possible Pathway

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

pathway
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[822] viXra:1702.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 06:20:29

1

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

1
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[821] viXra:1702.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 21:25:56

Star Trek is War-Like

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

An exploration of the star trek universe in relation to the theme of conflict and self-actualization.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[820] viXra:1702.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 05:06:04

General Ideas

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

General ideas
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[819] viXra:1701.0638 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-27 14:30:51

Lessons from our Solar System

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 5 Pages.

The charges of matter are symmetry debts of light. Gravity is matter's memory it once was light.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[818] viXra:1701.0613 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 14:41:49

Links of Gravity with Electromagnetic and Weak Couplings at Low Energies

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 09 pages, 12 references.

– Electrons interacting with the QED vacuum and distorting the space-time tissue are considered as a means to express the gravitational constant in terms of electromagnetic parameters. The link between gravity and weak interactions is also worked out in this paper. Finally we extend the first treatment to hadrons, in order to evaluate the strong interaction coupling at low energies (at the energy scale of the proton mass).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[817] viXra:1701.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 08:44:58

Avrocar: um Verdadeiro Disco Voador

Authors: Desire Francine Gobato, Ricardo Gobato, Jonas Liasch
Comments: 1 Page. Panel presented at the XVI Week of Physics of the State University of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, September 2011..

One of the most unusual V / STOL military aircraft programs was the Avro VZ-9 "Avrocar". Designed to be a true flying saucer, Avrocar was one of the few V / STOL to be developed in complete stealth. Despite significant design changes, during flight trials, Avrocar was unable to achieve its objectives, and the program was eventually canceled after spending $ 10 million between 1954 and 1961. Raise data and information related to the Avrocar project carried out during World War II, which was directly linked to the advances of the aircraft that were built after it. Also study the data obtained and correlate them with the turbo fan engines used today.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[816] viXra:1701.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-11 23:10:52

Mathematical Logic, Temporal Knowledge and the Arrow of Causation

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 5 Pages.

The teleology of economic knowledge and causality is discussed, in terms of mathematical and temporal aspects.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[815] viXra:1701.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-09 16:56:48

The Tabernacle Geometry

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 73 Pages. the study interest for the tabernacle geometry only

This Study interest for the Tabernacle Geometrical details where the geometrical data isn't clearly complete in the Holy Bible (Exodus Book) So I had to conclude many geometrical details logically for that the study is interesting because it depends basically on the geometrical logic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[814] viXra:1701.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-08 18:10:20

Matter and Energy in a Non-Relativistic Approach Amongst the Mustard Seed and the ”faith”. a Metaphysical Conclusion

Authors: Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 14 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education, v.2, n.3, March 10, 2016 PJSE, ISSN 2447-6153, c 2015-2016

The work is the result of a philosophical study of several passages of the Holy Bible, with regard to faith. We analyzed verses that include mustard seed parables. The study discusses the various concepts of faith as belief and faith as a form of energy. In this concept of faith as energy, we made a connection and this matter. We approach the gravitational field using the Law of Universal Gravitation and the equation of equivalence between energy and matter not to relativistic effects. Of Scriptures, we focus on Matthew 17:20, and according to the concept of faith as a form of energy, we calculate the energy needed to raise a mountain, for the conversion of matter to energy in a mustard seed and we compare a massive iron mountain, Mount Everest and Mount Sinai. We conclude with these concepts and considerations that energy ”faith” can move a mountain.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[813] viXra:1701.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-08 14:31:48

A Study in the Holy Bible

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 279 Pages.

This study devoted to the tabernacle & Great pyramids geometries in addition to analyze the church icons Also the study offers an interpretation for the tabernacle with some deep philosophy for the dualism.. The study in Arabic Language (Part Two)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[812] viXra:1701.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-03 13:58:10

On IEEE 802.16: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

Authors: Rahul Singha Chowdhury, Sourangsu Banerji
Comments: 17 Pages.

Current wireless broadband technologies have now been providing omnipresent broadband access to wireless subscribers which were only confined to the wire line users till sometime ago. Traditionally, the wireless technologies have been categorized based on their area of coverage. The IEEE 802.11 and ETSI HiperLAN standards are the de facto standards of wireless access in local areas. Whereas IEEE 802.16 and 802.22, ETSI HiperACCESS and HiperMAN, WiBro, and HAP technologies has been predominantly used for providing service in metropolitan and cosmopolitan areas.

There have been many papers written in the recent past covering various types of wireless broadband access technologies, ranging from WLANs to satellite communications. But the study carried out previously never captured the entire spectrum of all such technologies, and even if one particular family of the wireless broadband access technology was scrutinized, the authors somehow concentrated only on certain aspects. In this paper, we aim to bridge that gap by summarizing one of the emerging wireless broadband access technologies i.e. IEEE 802. 16: WiMAX family in detail. Though some of the earliest versions of this family date back to the early decade and some are even out of practice, still we have included them in our study for the sake of completeness and a sense of insight.


Category: General Science and Philosophy

[811] viXra:1701.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-03 01:45:00

Topology of P vs NP

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper describes about P vs NP by using topological approach. We modify computation history as “Problem forest”, and define special problem family “Wildcard problem” and “Maximal complement Wildcard problem” to simplify relations between every input. “Problem forest” is directed graph with transition functions edges and computational configuration nodes with effective range of tape. Problem forest of DTM is two tree graph which root are accepting & rejecting configuration, which leaves are inputs, trunks are computational configuration with effective range of tape. This tree shows TM's interpretation of symmetry and asymmetry of each input. From the view of problem forest, some NTM inputs are marged partly, and all DTM inputs are separated totally. Therefore NTM can compute implicitly some type of partial (symmetry) overrap, and DTM have to compute explicitly. “WILDCARD (Wildcard problem family)” and “MAXCARD (Maximal complement Wildcard problem family)” is special problem families that push NTM branches variations into inputs. If “CONCRETE (Concrete Problem)” that generate MAXCARD is in P-Complete, then MAXCARD is in PH, and these inputs have many overrap. DTM cannot compute these overrap conditions implicitly, and these conditions are necesarry to compute MAXCARD input, so DTM have to compute these conditions explicitly. These conditions are over polynomial size and DTM take over polynomial steps to compute these conditions explicitly. That is, PH is not P, and NP is not P.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[810] viXra:1612.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 16:18:02

Use of Bayesian Belief Networks in Predicting Contamination of Drinking Water with e. Coli in Rural Vietnam.

Authors: David C. Hall, Quynh Ba Le
Comments: 11 Pages.

A Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) was designed to describe association between various deterministic and probabilistic variables gathered from 600 small scale integrated (SSI) farmers in Vietnam. The variables relate to E. coli content of their drinking water, sourced on-farm from wells and rain water. Sensitivity analysis of the model revealed that choice variables were particularly likely to influence endpoint values, reflecting the highly variable and impactful nature of preferences, attitudes, and beliefs relating to mitigation strategies. This BBN model of SSI farming in Vietnam is helpful to understanding the complexity of small scale agriculture as well as for identifying and estimating impact of policy options, particularly where combined with other analytical and policy tools. With appropriate knowledge translation, the model results will be particularly useful for helping SSI farmers understand their options for engaging in water public health mitigation strategies that do not disrupt their chosen livelihoods.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[809] viXra:1612.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 16:39:19

Mitigation of Water Related Zoonotic Diseases on Small-Scale Integrated Farms in Vietnam.

Authors: Quynh Ba Le, David C. Hall
Comments: 23 Pages.

The goals of this study were to 1) assess basic microbial and other quality indicators of drinking and domestic water and 2) identify factors associated with E. coli contamination of drinking and domestic water on 600 small-scale integrated (SSI) farms in the provinces of Thai Binh and An Giang in Vietnam. The cross-sectional study relied on questionnaires and on-farm water samples analyzed using standard methods from the Vietnam national protocol for water quality testing. Our results showed that SSI farmers frequently used water of poor quality contaminated with E. coli for domestic purposes. In Thai Binh for example, well water had a mean E. coli count of 356.5 cfu/100 mls. There were significant differences in the frequencies of use and the levels of E. coli contamination regarding water for domestic purposes between the two provinces. Analysis of associated factors revealed that socioeconomic status of farmers and their perceptions of risk factors for water related zoonotic disease (WRZD) transmission were significantly associated with E. coli contamination of domestic water. These findings would be informative in the course of formulation of water related interventions and policies, particularly for improving farmer awareness of risk factors for WRZD transmission and improvement of SSI farm water quality in general. Further research should explore farmers’ strategies to mitigate WRZD transmission and factors that may influence those strategies.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[808] viXra:1612.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 23:35:30

Why is there Something Rather Than Nothing?

Authors: Roger Granet
Comments: 13 Pages.

A solution to the question "Why is there something rather than nothing?" is proposed that also entails a proposed solution to the question "Why do things exist?". In brief, I propose that a thing exists if it is a grouping or relationship defining what is contained within. This grouping/relationship is equivalent to a surface, edge or boundary defining what is contained within and giving "substance" and existence to the thing. This thinking is used to resolve several mereological (study of parts and wholes) issues . Next, in regard to the question "Why is there something rather than nothing?", when we get rid of all existent entities including matter, energy, space/volume, time, abstract concepts, laws or constructs of physics and math as well as minds to consider this supposed lack of all, we think what is left is the lack of all existent entities, or "absolute nothing". But, try to visualize this situation. This "absolute lack-of-all", would be it; it would be the everything. It would be the entirety, or whole amount, of all that is present. That's it; that's everything. Is there anything else besides that "absolute nothing"? No. It's "nothing", and it is the all. An entirety, whole amount or "the all" is a grouping defining what is contained within and is therefore an enclosing surface and an existent entity. In other words, the supposed "absolute lack of all" defines all that is present and is, therefore, an existent entity. It defines itself and is the beginning point in the chain of being able to define existent entities in terms of other existent entities. The grouping/ edge of the absolute lack-of-all is not some separate thing; it is just the "entirety", or "the all" relationship, inherent in this absolute lack-of-all, that defines what is contained within. Finally, I use this conclusion to build a primitive model of the universe, which is made of existent entities, via what I refer to as a metaphysics-to-physics approach or philosophical engineering. It is argued that this type of thinking will allow faster progress towards a deeper understanding of the universe than the more top-down approach that physicists currently use.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[807] viXra:1612.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 10:42:16

HEIDEGGER’S Being and Quantum Vacuum

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 5 Pages.

A dialogue between Martin Heidegger and a theoretical physician, namely Richie, unveils the striking relationships between the philosophical concept of Being and the experimentally detectable quantum vacuum. We provide an account of long-standing theoretical issues, such Being, Entity, Existence and the unique role of the human Thoughts in the world, and expound their possible physical counterparts.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[806] viXra:1612.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:28:49

Operations on Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: S. Broumi, F. Smarandache, M. Talea, A. Bakali
Comments: 24 Pages.

Combining the single valued neutrosophic set with graph theory, a new graph model emerges, called single valued neutrosophic graph. This model allows attaching the truth-membership (t), indeterminacy–membership (i) and falsity- membership degrees (f) both to vertices and edges. Combining the interval valued neutrosophic set with graph theory, a new graph model emerges, called interval valued neutrosophic graph. This model generalizes the fuzzy graph, intuitionistic fuzzy graph and single valued neutrosophic graph. In this paper, the authors define operations of Cartesian product, composition, union and join on interval valued neutrosophic graphs, and investigate some of their properties, with proofs and examples.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[805] viXra:1612.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:29:50

Role of Neutrosophic Logic in Data Mining

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents a data mining process of single valued neutrosophic information. This approach gives a presentation of data analysis common to all applications. Data mining depends on two main elements, namely the concept of similarity and the machine learning framework. It describes a lot of real world applications for the domains namely mathematical, medical, educational, chemical, multimedia etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[804] viXra:1612.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:30:49

Selection of Automated Guided Vehicle using Single Valued Neutrosophic Entropy Based Novel Multi Attribute Decision Making Technique

Authors: Nital P. Nirmal, Mangal G. Bhatt
Comments: 10 Pages.

Selection of material handling equipment for typical conditions and handling environment is one of the multi attribute decision making problem. The objective of the research paper is to implement and validate multi attribute selection of automated guided vehicle for material handling purpose. The present paper proposes a single valued neutrosophic set with entropy weight based multi attribute decision making technique. A proposed technique also works with more uncertainty, imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent information. The proposed methodology follows with the example for selection and ranking of automated guided vehicle and in validation and sensitivity analysis of the novel multi attribute decision making technique carried out. The result of the study builds assurance in suitability of single valued neutrosophic set entropy based novel multi attribute decision making for selection of automated guided vehicle alternatives.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[803] viXra:1612.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:31:57

Several Trigonometric Hamming Similarity Measures of Rough Neutrosophic Sets and their Applications in Decision Making

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

In 2014, Broumi et al. (S. Broumi, F. Smarandache, M. Dhar, Rough neutrosophic sets, Italian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 32 (2014), 493-502.) introduced the notion of rough neutrosophic set by combining neutrosophic sets and rough sets, which has been a mathematical tool to deal with problems involving indeterminacy and incompleteness. The real world is full of indeterminacy. Naturally, real world decision making problem involves indeterminacy. Rough neutrosophic set is capable of describing and handling imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent and incomplete information. This paper is devoted to propose several new similarity measures based on trigonometric hamming similarity operators of rough neutrosophic sets and their applications in decision making. We prove the required properties of the proposed similarity measures. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed similarity measures in decision making, an illustrative problem is solved.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[802] viXra:1612.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:33:45

Smooth Neutrosophic Preuniform Spaces

Authors: M. K. El Gayyar
Comments: 13 Pages.

As a new branch of philosophy, the neutrosophy was presented by Smarandache in 1998. It was presented as the study of origin, nature, and scope of neutralities; as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of smooth neutrosophic preuniform space, smooth neutrosophic preuniform subspace, and smooth neutrosophic preuniform mappings. Furthermore, some properties of these concepts will be investigated.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[801] viXra:1612.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:34:46

Some Distance Measures of Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Sets and Their Applications to Multiple Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 8 Pages.

Single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set is a merged form of single-valued neutrosophic sets and hesitant fuzzy sets. This set is a useful tool to handle imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent information existing in multi-attribute decision making problems. In multi-attribute decision making, distance measures play an important role to take a decision regarding alternatives. In this paper we propose a variety of distance measures for single valued neutrosophic sets. Furthermore, we apply these measures to multi-attribute decision making problem with singlevalued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set environment to find out the best alternative. We provide an illustrative example to validate and to show fruitfulness of the proposed approach. Finally, we compare the proposed approach with other existing methods for solving multi-attribute decision making problems
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[800] viXra:1612.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:38:11

The Alexandrov-Urysohn Compactness On Single Valued Neutrosophic S∗Centered Systems

Authors: Saeid Jafari, I. Arockiarani, J. Martina Jency
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper we present the notion of the single valued neutrosophic S∗ maximal compact extension in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered system. Moreover, the concept of single valued neutrosophic S∗ absolute is applied to establish the Alexandrov -Urysohn compactness criterion. Some of the basic properties are characterized.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[799] viXra:1612.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:39:19

TOPSIS Approach for Multi Attribute Group Decision Making in Refined Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Durga Banerjee, B. C. Giri
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper presents TOPSIS approach for multi attribute decision making in refined neutrosophic environment. The weights of each decision makers are considered as a single valued neutrosophic numbers. The attribute weights for every decision maker are also considered as a neutrosophic numbers. Aggregation operator is used to combine all decision makers’ opinion into a single opinion for rating between attributes and alternatives. Euclidean distances from positive ideal solution and negative ideal solution are calculated to construct relative closeness coefficients. Lastly, an illustrative example of tablet selection is provided to show the applicability of the proposed TOPSIS approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[798] viXra:1612.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:40:29

TOPSIS for Solving Multi-Attribute Decision Making Problems under Bi-Polar Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 13 Pages.

The paper investigates a technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method to solve multi-attribute decision making problems with bipolar neutrosophic information. We define Hamming distance function and Euclidean distance function to determine the distance between bipolar neutrosophic numbers. In the decision making situation, the rating of performance values of the alternatives with respect to the attributes are provided by the decision maker in terms of bipolar neutrosophic numbers. The weights of the attributes are determined using maximizing deviation method. We define bipolar neutrosophic relative positive ideal solution (BNRPIS) and bipolar neutrosophic relative negative ideal solution (BNRNIS). Then, the ranking order of the alternatives is obtained by TOPSIS method and most desirable alternative is selected. Finally, a numerical example for car selection is solved to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach and comparison with other existing method is also provided.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[797] viXra:1612.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:09:57

A New Order Relation on the Set of Neutrosophic Truth Values

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Huda E. Khalid, Ahmed K. Essa
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we discuss all possible cases to construct an atom of matter, antimatter, or unmatter, and also the cases of contradiction (i.e. impossible case).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[796] viXra:1612.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:11:06

Applications of Neutrosophic Sets in Medical Image Denoising and Segmentation

Authors: Deepika Koundal, Savita Gupta, Sukhwinder Singh
Comments: 19 Pages.

In medical science, diagnosis and prognosis is one of the most difficult and challenging task because of restricted subjectivity of the experts and presence of fuzziness in medical images. In observing the severity of several diseases, different professional experts may result in wrong diagnosis. In order to perform diagnosis intuitively in the medical images, different image processing methods have been explored in terms of neutrosophic theory to interpret the inherent uncertainty, ambiguity and vagueness. This paper demonstrates the use of neutrosophic theory in medical image denoising and segmentation where the performance is observed to be much better.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[795] viXra:1612.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:12:17

Distance and Similarity Measures for Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Information

Authors: Ridvan Şahin, Peide Liu
Comments: 20 Pages.

With respect to a combination of hesitant sets, and single-valued neutrosophic sets which are a special case of neutrosophic sets, the single valued neutrosophic hesitant sets (SVNHFS) have been proposed as a new theory set that allows the truth-membership degree, indeterminacy membership degree and falsity-membership degree including a collection of crisp values between zero and one, respectively. There is no consensus on the best way to determine the order of a sequence of singlevalued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy elements. In this paper, we first develop an axiomatic system of distance and similarity measures between single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy sets and also propose a class of distance and similarity measures based on three basic forms such that the geometric distance model, the set-theoretic approach, and the matching functions. Then we utilize the distance measure between each alternative and ideal alternative to establish a multiple attribute decision making method under single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy environment. Finally, a numerical example of investment alternatives is provided to show the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed approach. The advantages of the proposed distance measure over existing measures have been discussed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[794] viXra:1612.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:15:01

Extended Projection Based Models for Solving Multiple Attribute Decision Making Problems with Interval Valued Neutrosophic Information

Authors: Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 14 Pages.

The paper develops two new methods for solving multiple attribute decision making problems with interval – valued neutrosophic assessments. In the decision making situation, the rating of alternatives with respect to the predefined attributes is described by linguistic variables, which can be represented by interval - valued neutrosophic sets. We assume that the weight of the attributes are not equal in the decision making process and they are obtained by using maximizing deviation method. We define weighted projection measure and propose a method to rank the alternatives. Furthermore, we also develop an alternative method to solve multiple attribute decision making problems based on the combination of angle cosine and projection method. Finally, an illustrative numerical example in Khadi institution is solved to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[793] viXra:1612.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:17:03

From Linked Data Fuzzy to Neutrosophic Data Set Decision Making in Games vs. Real Life

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 11 Pages.

In our lives, reality becomes a game, and in the same way, the game becomes reality, the game is an exercise, simulation of real life on a smaller scale, then it extends itself into reality. This article aims to make a connection between decision making in game which comprises all the issues that intervene in the process and further making a connection with real life. The method for identification involved, detected or induced uncertainties is a jointing process from linked data fuzzy to neutrosophic data set on a case study, EVE Online game. This analysis is useful for psychologists, sociologists, economic analysis, process management, business area, also for researchers of games domain.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[792] viXra:1612.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:18:08

GRA Method of Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Set Information

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 9 Pages.

Single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set has three independent parts, namely the truth membership hesitancy function, indeterminacy membership hesitancy function, and falsity membership hesitancy function, which are in the form of sets that assume values in the unit interval [0, 1]. Single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set is considered as a powerful tool to express uncertain, incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information in the process of multi attribute decision making problems. In this paper we study multi attribute decision making problems in which the rating values are expressed with single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[791] viXra:1612.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:19:00

Hausdorff Extensions in Single Valued Neutrosophic S∗ Centered Systems

Authors: J. Martina Jency, I. Arockiarani
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper explores the concept of single valued neutrosophic S∗ open sets in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered system. Also the characterization of Hausdorff extensions of spaces in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered systems are established.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[790] viXra:1612.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:20:11

Logistics Center Location Selection Approach Based on Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Decision Making

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Shyamal Dalapati, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 14 Pages.

As an important and interesting topic in supply chain management, the concept of fuzzy set theory has been widely used in logistics center location in order to improve the reliability and suitability of the logistics center location with respect to the impacts of both qualitative and quantitative factor. However fuzzy set cannot deal with the indeterminacy involving with the problem. So the concept of single – valued neutrosophic set due to Wang et al. (2010) is very helpful to deal with the problem. A neutrosophic approach is a more general and suitable approach in order to deal with neutrosophic information than fuzzy set. Logistics center location selection is a multi-criteria decision making process involving subjectivity, impresion and fuzziness that can be easily represented by single-valued neutrosophic sets. In this paper, we use the score and accuracy function and hybrid score accuracy function of single- valued neutrosophic number and ranking method for single- valued neutrosophic numbers to model logistics center location problem. Finally, a numerical example has been presented to illustrate the proposed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[789] viXra:1612.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:21:05

Multi Criteria Decision Making Method in Neutrosophic Environment Using a New Aggregation Operator, Score and Certainty Function

Authors: Kanika Mandal, Kajla Basu
Comments: 20 Pages.

Neutrosophic sets, being generalization of classic sets, fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, can simultaneously represent uncertain, imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information existing in the real world. Neutrosophic theory has been developed in twenty first century and not much of arithmetic has been developed for this set. To solve any problem using neutrosophic data, it is desirable to have suitable operators, score function etc. Some operators like single valued neutrosophic weighted averaging (SVNWA) operator, single valued neutrosophic weighted geometric (SVNWG) operator are already defined in neutrosophic set (NS). In this paper an improved weighted average geometric (IWAG) operator which produces more meaningful results has been introduced to aggregate some real numbers and the same has been extended in neutrosophic environment. We further generalize this to include a wide range of aggregation operators for both real numbers and neutrosophic numbers. A new score function and certainty function have been defined which have some benefit compared to the existing ones. Further comparative study highlighting the benefit of this new approach of ranking in neutrosophic set has been presented. A multiple-attribute decision-making method is established on the basis of the proposed operator and newly defined score function.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[788] viXra:1612.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:21:59

Neutrosophic Applications in E-learning: Outcomes, Challenges and Trends

Authors: Nouran M. Radwan
Comments: 8 Pages.

There has been a sudden increase in the usage of elearning to support learner's learning process in higher education. Educational institutions are working in an increasingly competitive environment as many studies in elearning are implemented under complete information, while in the real world many uncertainty aspects do exist. This has resulted in emerging various approaches to handle uncertainty. Neutrosophic logic has been used to overcome the uncertainty of concepts that are associated with human expert judgments. This paper presents current trends to enhance elearning process by using neutrosophic to extract useful knowledge for selecting, evaluating, personalizing, and adapting elearning process.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[787] viXra:1612.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:25:24

On a Model of Love Dynamics: a Neutrosophic Analysis

Authors: Santanu Ku. Patro
Comments: 9 Pages.

This study is an application of neutrosophy to the dynamics of love, the most interesting social phenomena. The love dynamics were studied earlier by Strogatz (Strogatz, 1994), Radzicki (Radzicki, 1993), Rapport (Rapport, 1960), etc. Although Strogatz’s model (Strogatz, 1994) was originally intended only to motivate students, it makes several interesting and plausible predictions, and suggests extensions that produce even wider range of behavior. This paper has been written in the Strogatz’s spirit, and it has extended Romeo & Juliet model (Sprott, 2004) to the neutrosophic domain. A love impact factor (LIF) has been proposed, and analyzed using neutrosophic logic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[786] viXra:1612.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:27:25

On Neutrosophic Sets and Topology

Authors: Francisco Gallego LupiaÑez
Comments: 9 Pages.

Recently, F.Smarandache generalized the Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets and other kinds of sets to neutrosophic sets. Also, this author defined the notion of neutrosophic topology on the non-standard interval. One can expect some relation between the intuitionistic fuzzy topology on an IFS and the neutrosophic topology. We show in this work that this is false.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[785] viXra:1611.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 20:49:24

Establishing The Second Task of PHPR

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 10 Pages.

Problems, objectives, and resolution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[784] viXra:1611.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 15:18:26

Abc of the Meaning of Life. Scale Andreus.

Authors: Andreus A.I.
Comments: 18 Pages. In English by Google

Life. ABC of the meaning of life, the meaning of life - life - the meaning of life. Will be discontinued the notion of the meaning of life, the life eternal, infinite, isotropic, but the local, rather than homogeneous properties. The person needs to learn how to consist of regular isotopes and live with the correct isotopes, including eliminating radioactive isotopes, and of his environment to care, and use it all of his life.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[783] viXra:1611.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 08:49:32

Cosmology and Cancer in the Post-Star-Trek Centuries

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 24 Pages.

This is definitely not a work of science fiction. It's a serious 9,000 words detailing what today's philosophy and science (in areas like physics, computer science, cosmology, biology and mathematics) are likely to evolve into. I've always been totally fascinated by the future – the more distant, the better! So the adventures of the Star Trek movies and TV shows, based in the 23rd and 24th centuries, are a good starting point. They're not documentaries by any stretch but are a tremendous boost to the sense of wonder about the universe. Superman and Doctor Who are also great at making a person wonder about new possibilities in other centuries and other parts of the cosmos. Putting together the marvels of science fiction and the marvels of science results in the following picture of what lies in store for humanity and the cosmos. In the end, this new science and philosophy is my opinion and only time can determine its accuracy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[782] viXra:1611.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 07:08:26

U.s. Voted for Change in Approach to Politics – I Vote for Change in Approach to Science

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 13 Pages.

What kind of President will Donald Trump be? I don't know. It's possible that in the 22nd century, virtually nobody will remember his name. It's also possible that he'll be called a great man who gave America and the world exactly the kind of change the world of this time required. In an article for the 1967 World Book Encyclopedia ("How to Prepare for the Presidency"), President John F. Kennedy said, "… greatness depends on the times as well as the man." By the way - I once saw a photo of Bill Clinton, the former President and husband of the losing candidate Hillary Rodham Clinton, shaking hands with President Kennedy in the early 1960's. In his article, John has this advice for Hillary: "… if some chance keeps you from the presidency, you will still know that you are prepared to serve well your nation as a citizen." The President-elect has no previous experience in politics. Neither does he feel obligated to conform to political traditions. Little me has no formal qualifications in science – while I recognize the necessity of using the various branches of science and mathematics as an indispensable guide, there is no feeling that scientific tradition must be followed because the centuries show that today's science is often tomorrow's obsoleteness. I'm in the mood to stop taking baby steps, and to try and explain much of the universe in one message. I know it isn't considered scientific to try and explain so much in one sitting. But I'm not a professional scientist, so me and my intuition are free to explore all the outrageous ideas I feel like – they satisfy my curiosity and imagination and are interesting, if nothing else.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[781] viXra:1611.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 18:25:17

Andreus A.I.

Authors: ABC of the meaning of life. Scale Andreus.
Comments: 19 Pages. In Russian

Life. ABC of the meaning of life, the meaning of life - life - the meaning of life. Will be discontinued the notion of the meaning of life, the life eternal, infinite, isotropic, but the local, rather than homogeneous properties. The person needs to learn how to consist of regular isotopes and live with the correct isotopes, including eliminating radioactive isotopes, and of his environment to care, and use it all of his life. Жизнь. Азбука смысла жизни, смысл жизни - в жизни - смысл жизни. Будет снято понятие смысл жизни, жизнь вечная, бесконечная, изотропная, но локальная, вместо свойства однородная. Человеку нужно учиться, как состоять из правильных изотопов, и жить с правильными изотопами, в том числе, исключая радиоактивные изотопы, и об окружающей его среде заботиться, и применить всё это в своей жизни.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[780] viXra:1611.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 01:53:14

L'inéluctable Effondrement D'une Science Officielle Sans éthique

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 1 Page. in French

Dramatic violations of basic ethics result in the crash of the Modern Scientific System through elementary scientific refutations of the Big Bang model, directly checkable, even by the layman.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[779] viXra:1610.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 08:35:48

Damnation Risk: Possibility of Eternal Torment

Authors: Anti Procreation
Comments: 5 Pages.

Roko’s Basilisk is an idea that was suggested by Roko in LessWrong.com in 2010, that an AI would be motivated to eternally torture people who have not helped to bring it into existence. The more likely possibility of eternal torment is, I think, a sadistic AI. A Reddit user TheFaggetman suggested the possibility of a sadistic AI in 2015, Brian Tomasik suggested a possibility of sadists take control of an AI. Although the major focus on AI research is an existential risk, I think human extinction only bad as much as an annihilation of the people thereby annihilated is bad. Although there's no knock-down argument to prove eternal torment is worse than annihilation, as we can see on 'Better red than dead' v. 'Better dead than red' debate, if we at least think that whereas eternal torment may be infinite times worse than annihilation, annihilation may be only finite times (e.g. 10 times) worse than eternal torment, perhaps moral priority shall be given to prevention of eternal torment caused by AI-molecular-assembler than annihilation caused by AI. (This Paper was originally published as a part of a book called 'Procreation Is a Murder: Why Procreation Is the Root of All Evils)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[778] viXra:1610.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 01:11:51

The Formal Systems

Authors: Max Null, Sergey Belov
Comments: 3 Pages.

A Formal System is something created that allow you to answer some questions or to solve some problems. A Classic Formal System (Strongly Deterministic Formal Systems) is a system in which the answer to any ques- tion we can get a finite number of steps. In the article we consider some properties of the Formal Systems.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[777] viXra:1610.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 14:05:21

The Ordinalcy & Residuality Foundations: And Now for Greater Simplicity

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 6 Pages. new foundations

The proposed distinct yet intertwined notions or programmed of Orduality and Residuality embark on how completeness begets asymmetry, duality, and simplicity while extending beyond the previous conjugation of Azimuthality and Gradiency. Higher-order relationships are deemed capable of revisiting functionality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[776] viXra:1610.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 17:26:52

Gradiency: A Two-Tier Introduction

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 5 Pages.

The present paper sketches a dichotomy of Gradiency versus Azimuthality referring to how the positivist tradeoffs can be mitigated or revisited
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[775] viXra:1610.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 07:35:10

The Dark Side of the EM Drive

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 4 Pages.

The EM Drive, if validated, offers the possibility of interstellar travel by obtaining higher speeds in much shorter times than current propulsion techniques. The same energy acquired by an EM Drive can also be a significant concern at a global level.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[774] viXra:1610.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 17:24:52

Estimating Remaining Lifetime of Humanity

Authors: Yigal Gurevich
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we estimate the remaining time for human existence, applying the Doomsday argument and the Strong Self-Sampling Assumption to the reference class consisting of all members of the Homo sapiens, formulating calculations in traditional demographic terms of population and time, using the theory of parameter estimation and available paleodemographic data. The remaining lifetime estimate is found to be 170 years, and the probability of extinction in the coming year is estimated as 0.43%.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[773] viXra:1610.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 18:36:54

Wolpert, Chaitin and Wittgenstein on Impossibility, Incompleteness, the Limits of Computation, Theism and the Universe as Computer-the Ultimate Turing Theorem

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 5 Pages.

I have read many recent discussions of the limits of computation and the universe as computer, hoping to find some comments on the amazing work of polymath physicist and decision theorist David Wolpert but have not found a single citation and so I present this very brief summary. Wolpert proved some stunning impossibility or incompleteness theorems (1992 to 2008-see arxiv.org) on the limits to inference (computation) that are so general they are independent of the device doing the computation, and even independent of the laws of physics, so they apply across computers, physics, and human behavior. They make use of Cantor's diagonalization, the liar paradox and worldlines to provide what may be the ultimate theorem in Turing Machine Theory, and seemingly provide insights into impossibility, incompleteness, the limits of computation,and the universe as computer, in all possible universes and all beings or mechanisms, generating, among other things,a non- quantum mechanical uncertainty principle and a proof of monotheism. There are obvious connections to the classic work of Chaitin, Solomonoff, Komolgarov and Wittgenstein and to the notion that no program (and thus no device) can generate a sequence (or device) with greater complexity than it possesses. One might say this body of work implies atheism since there cannot be any entity more complex than the physical universe and from the Wittgensteinian viewpoint, ‘more complex’ is meaningless (has no conditions of satisfaction, i.e., truth-maker or test). Even a ‘God’ (i.e., a ‘device’ with limitless time/space and energy) cannot determine whether a given ‘number’ is ‘random’ nor can find a certain way to show that a given ‘formula’, ‘theorem’ or ‘sentence’ or ‘device’ (all these being complex language games) is part of a particular ‘system’.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[772] viXra:1610.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 03:40:21

Special Relativity: Scientific or Philosophical Theory?

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this article, we argue that the theory of special relativity, as formulated by Einstein, is a philosophical rather than a scientific theory. What is scientific and experimentally supported is the formalism of the relativistic mechanics embedded in the Lorentz transformations and their direct mathematical, experimental and observational consequences. This is in parallel with the quantum mechanics where the scientific content and experimental support of this branch of physics is embedded in the formalism of quantum mechanics and not in its philosophical interpretations such as the Copenhagen school or the parallel worlds explanations. Einstein theory of special relativity gets unduly credit from the success of the relativistic mechanics of Lorentz transformations. Hence, all the postulates and consequences of Einstein interpretation which have no direct experimental or observational support should be reexamined and the relativistic mechanics of Lorentz transformations should be treated in education, academia and research in a similar fashion to that of quantum mechanics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[771] viXra:1610.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 20:17:39

The Harmonic Principle

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages. in French

The Harmonic Principle explains the Universe existence by making concrete mathematical beauty. This means Art and Science strong interconnections, in particular a steady-state Cosmology (no Big Bang), implying matter to be a 10^104 Hz matter-antimatter oscillation leading to an interpretation of Black Matter,and visible Universe to be only a tiny fraction (10^-120) of an underlying tachyonic world. This favors an egyptian origin for Science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[770] viXra:1609.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 10:24:35

The CNO Cycle and Proton-Proton Chain Reaction Powering Stars is Pseudoscience

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Carbon-Nitrogen-Oxygen (CNO) cycle and the Proton-Proton Chain Reaction processes supposedly powering stars are pseudoscientific.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[769] viXra:1609.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 15:42:49

The Majority of the Beginnings of Life Evolution have no Evidence on Earth

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stars are the locations for the beginning of life. In this paper it is reasoned that no real evidence for the earliest of life evolution can be found on Earth, as the processes begin in early star evolution, when the Earth was vastly more alien.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[768] viXra:1609.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 15:44:40

Changing Worldview due to New Stellar Evolution Theory

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis the worldview of the objects in the galaxy, the Earth, and life and humans is very different than what is accepted by modern scientists.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[767] viXra:1609.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 10:23:45

Seeing With the Two Systems of Thought—a Review of ‘Seeing Things As They Are: a Theory of Perception’ by John Searle (2015)

Authors: Michael R Starks
Comments: 34 Pages.

As so often in philosophy, the title not only lays down the battle line but exposes the author’s biases and mistakes, since whether or not we can make sense of the language game ‘Seeing things as they are’ and whether it’s possible to have a ‘philosophical’ ‘theory of perception’ (which can only be about how the language of perception works), as opposed to a scientific one, which is a theory about how the brain works, are exactly the issues. This is classic Searle—superb and probably at least as good as anyone else can produce, but lacking a full understanding of the fundamental insights of the later Wittgenstein and with no grasp of the two systems of thought framework, which could have made it brilliant. As in his previous work, Searle largely avoids scientism but there are frequent lapses and he does not grasp that the issues are always about language games, a failing he shares with nearly everyone. After providing a framework consisting of a Table of Intentionality based on the two systems of thought and thinking and decision research, I give a detailed analysis of the book.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[766] viXra:1608.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 03:49:12

The Scientific Age: Protocol

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

Protocol
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[765] viXra:1608.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:50:00

Analysis of DSm Belief Conditioning Rules and Extension of Their Applicability

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 22 Pages.

Analysis of belief conditioning rules (BCRs) is presented in this chapter. Some simplifications of formulas for BCRs are suggested. A comparison of BCRs with classic rules of conditioning is performed. Finally, definition domains and applicability of BCRs are extended. Full formal definition of the extended version of BCR12 is presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[764] viXra:1608.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:51:33

Attribute Information Evaluation in C&C Systems

Authors: Ksawery Krenc, Adam Kawalec
Comments: 25 Pages.

This chapter describes what particular pieces of information about a source should be taken into account in order to get a reasonable assessment of an attribute information retrieved based on the sensor data or human originated information. It has been proven that actual sensor weights and hypotheses masses do not change randomly, but they vary in time according to tracked target motion, however not directly to the target position. It is postulated that the knowledge about target position only is insufficient and at least two dynamical coordinates target state vectors are required to reflect the target orientation, which has an influence on actual hypotheses assessment formed, on the basis of the sensor data or visual sightings.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[763] viXra:1608.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:52:34

Automatic Goal Allocation for a Planetary Rover with DSmT

Authors: Massimiliano Vasile, Matteo Ceriotti
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose an approach for assigning an interest level to the goals of a planetary rover. Assigning an interest level to goals, allows the rover to autonomously transform and reallocate the goals. The interest level is defined by data-fusing payload and navigation information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[762] viXra:1608.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:53:24

Definition of Evidence Fusion Rules Based on Referee Functions

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 32 Pages.

This chapter defines a new concept and framework for constructing fusion rules for evidences. This framework is based on a referee function, which does a decisional arbitrament conditionally to basic decisions provided by the several sources of information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[761] viXra:1608.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:55:18

Fusion of Esm Allegiance Reports Using DSmT

Authors: Pascal Djiknavorian, Pierre Valin, Dominic Grenier
Comments: 17 Pages.

Electronic Support Measures consist of passive receivers which can identify emitters coming from a small bearing angle, which, in turn, can be related to platforms that belong to 3 classes: either Friend, Neutral, or Hostile.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[760] viXra:1608.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:56:33

Implementing General Belief Function Framework with a Practical Codification for Low Complexity

Authors: Arnaud Martin
Comments: 58 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose a new practical codification of the elements of the Venn diagram in order to easily manipulate the focal elements. In order to reduce the complexity, the eventual constraints must be integrated in the codification at the beginning.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[759] viXra:1608.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:57:25

Improvement of Multiple Ground Targets Tracking with Fusion of Identification Attributes

Authors: Benjamin Pannetier, Jean Dezert
Comments: 31 Pages.

Multiple ground targets (MGT) tracking is a challenging problem in real environment. Advanced algorithms include exogeneous information like road network and terrain topography.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[758] viXra:1608.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:58:42

Information Fusion for Natural Hazards in Mountains

Authors: Jean-Marc Tacnet, Mireille Batton-Hubert, Jean Dezert
Comments: 96 Pages.

From a real case application based on snow-avalanche risk management, an integrated framework mixing evidential reasoning and multi-criteria decision analysis (ER-MCDA) is proposed. This methodology considers a simplified decision sorting problem based on qualitative and quantitative criteria on which more or less reliable sources provide uncertain and imprecise evaluations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[757] viXra:1608.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:00:15

Map Regenerating Forest Stands Based on DST and DSmT Combination Rules

Authors: Brice Mora, Richard A. Fournier, Samuel Foucher
Comments: 20 Pages.

Our results demonstrated the ability of the Free Dezert-Smarandache (DSm) model to improve thematic classification of forest regeneration overthe use of Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and a classical Maximum Likelihood Algorithm (MLA).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[756] viXra:1608.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:01:45

Multimodal Information Retrieval Based on DSmT. Application to Computeraided Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Gwenole Quellec, Mathieu Lamard, Guy Cazuguel, Beatrice Cochener, Christian Roux
Comments: 33 Pages.

We propose in this chapter a content-based information retrieval framework to select documents in a database, consisting of several images with semantic information. Information in these documents is not only heterogeneous, but also often incomplete.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[755] viXra:1608.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:02:46

Multiple Cameras Fusion Based on DSmT for Tracking Objects on Ground Plane

Authors: Esteban Garcia, Leopoldo Altamirano
Comments: 15 Pages.

This chapter presents comparative results of a model for multiple cameras fusion, which is based on Dezert-Smarandache theory of evidence. Our architecture works at the decision level to track objects on a ground plane using predefined zones, producing useful information for surveillance tasks such as behavior recognition.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[754] viXra:1608.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:03:42

Non-Numeric Labels and Constrained Focal Elements

Authors: Christophe Osswald, Arnaud Martin
Comments: 24 Pages.

The theory of belief functions allows to build a large family of combination operators, based mostly on intersections and unions between the focal elements expressed by the experts, and multiplications and additions on the masses affected to these focal elements.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[753] viXra:1608.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:04:41

Performance Evaluation of a Tracking Algorithm Including Attribute Data

Authors: Jean Dezert, Albena Tchamova, Ludmil Bojilov, Pavlina Konstantinova
Comments: 14 Pages.

The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of the quality of attribute data source on the performance of a target tracking algorithm.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[752] viXra:1608.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:05:48

Satellite Image Fusion Using Dezert-Smarandache Theory

Authors: Abdenour Bouakache, Aichouche Belhadj-Aissa, Gregoire Mercier
Comments: 17 Pages.

Free and hybrid models of multisource satellite images fusion are developed using the plausible and paradoxical reasoning theory of Dezert-Smarandache. The aim of this work is to show the contribution of these fusion models for improving the thematic classification and the quantification of change.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[751] viXra:1608.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:06:53

Utilizing Classifier Conflict for Sensor Management and User Interaction

Authors: Willem L. van Norden, Catholijn M. Jonker
Comments: 17 Pages.

This chapter describes how the conflict encountered by the PCR6 rule can be utilized in sensor management. We therefore discuss the classification model that is used in the fusion problem and two different types of conflict. To enable operators to exert constraints on singletons we propose a (slightly) altered PCR6 rule, dubbed PCR6a. We show how the algorithm works and we illustrate how the amount of conflict can be used for sensor management and/or for operator feedback by using an example.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[750] viXra:1608.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:15:19

A Class of Fusion Rules Based on the Belief Redistribution to Subsets or Complements

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Arnaud Martin, Jean Dezert
Comments: 24 Pages.

In this chapter we present a class of fusion rules based on the redistribution of the conflicting or even non-conflicting masses to the subsets or to the complements of the elements involved in the conflict proportionally with respect to their masses or/and cardinals. At the end, these rules are presented in a more general theoretical way including explicitly the reliability of each source of evidence. Some examples are also provided.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[749] viXra:1608.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:16:34

An Introduction to DSmT

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 72 Pages.

The management and combination of uncertain, imprecise, fuzzy and even paradoxical or highly conflicting sources of information has always been, and still remains today, of primal importance for the development of reliable modern information systems involving artificial reasoning. In this introduction, we present a survey of our recent theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning, known as Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT), developed for dealing with imprecise, uncertain and conflicting sources of information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[748] viXra:1608.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:19:03

Fusion of Qualitative Information Using Imprecise 2 Tuple Labels

Authors: Xinde Li, Xinhan Huang, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Li Duan
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this chapter, Herrera-Mart´ınez’ 2-tuple linguistic representation model is extended for combining imprecise qualitative information using fusion rules drawn from Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) or from Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) frameworks.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[747] viXra:1608.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:20:08

New Fusion Rules for Solving Blackman’s Association Problem

Authors: Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages.

This chapter presents a new approach for solving the paradoxical Blackman’s association problem. It utilizes a new class of fusion rules based on fuzzy T-conorm/T-norm operators together with Dezert-Smarandache theory and the relative variations of generalized pignistic probabilities measure of correct associations defined from a partial ordering function of hyper-power set.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[746] viXra:1608.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:21:22

Object Identification Using T-Conorm/norm Fusion Rule

Authors: Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages.

This small chapter presents an approach providing fast reduction of total ignorance in the process of target identification. It utilizes the recently defined fusion rule based on fuzzy T-conorm/Tnorm operators, as well as all the available information from the adjoint sensor and additional information obtained from the a priori defined objective and subjective considerations, concerning relationships between the attribute components at different levels of abstraction. The approach performance is estimated on the base of the pignistic probabilities according to the nature of the objects considered here.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[745] viXra:1608.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:22:28

Probabilistic PCR6 Fusion Rule

Authors: Frederic Dambreville, Francis Celeste, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 25 Pages.

This chapter defines and implements a non-Bayesian fusion rule for combining densities of probabilities, derived from imprecise knowledge.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[744] viXra:1608.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:23:17

Target Type Tracking with DSmP

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Albena Tchamova, Pavlina Konstantinova
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this chapter we analyze the performances of a new probabilistic belief transformation, denoted DSmP, for the sequential estimation of target ID from classifier outputs in the Target Type Tracking problem (TTT).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[743] viXra:1608.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:27:29

Transformations of Belief Masses Into Subjective Probabilities

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 53 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose in the DSmT framework, a new probabilistic transformation, called DSmP, in order to build a subjective probability measure from any basic belief assignment defined on any model of the frame of discernment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[742] viXra:1608.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:00:20

Comparison Between DSm and Minc Combination Rules

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 20 Pages.

Both DSm and minC rules of combination endeavor to process conflicts among combined beliefs better. The nature of conflicts as well as their processing during the belief combination is sketched. An presentation of the minC combination,an alternative to Dempster’s rule of combination, follows. Working domains, structures and mechanisms of the DSm and minC combination rules are compared in the body of this chapter. Finally, some comparative examples are presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[741] viXra:1608.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:01:33

Conflict Free Rule for Combining Evidences

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 29 Pages.

Recent works have investigated the problem of the conflict redistribution in the fusion rules of evidence theories. As a consequence of these works, many new rules have been proposed. Now, there is not a clear theoretical criterion for a choice of a rule instead another. The present chapter proposes a new theoretically grounded rule, based on a new concept of sensor independence. This new rule avoids the conflict redistribution, by an adaptive combination of the beliefs. Both the logical grounds and the algorithmic implementation are considered.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[740] viXra:1608.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:04:50

Florentin Smarandache: Mă Consider om de știință, Dar în Aceeași Măsură și om de Cultură

Authors: Ion Paraianu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Să vorbești despre Florentin Smarandache, trebuie să ai curajul unui luptător,care, când intră în ring, să fie sigur de victorie, ceea ce, în cazul de față, nu se poate. Florentin Smarandache nu poate fi învins !
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[739] viXra:1608.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:08:08

Generalized Data Association for Multitarget Tracking in Clutter

Authors: A. Tchamova, T. Semerdjiev, P. Konstantinova, Jean Dezert
Comments: 23 Pages.

The objective of this chapter is to present an approach for target tracking in cluttered environment, which incorporates the advanced concept of generalized data (kinematics and attribute) association (GDA) to improve track maintenance performance in complicated situations (closely spaced and/or crossing targets), when kinematics data are insufficient for correct decision making. It uses Global Nearest Neighbour-like approach and Munkres algorithm to resolve the generalized association matrix.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[738] viXra:1608.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:09:26

Generalized Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rule Applied to Sonar Imagery and Radar Targets Classification

Authors: Arnaud Martin, Christophe Osswald
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this chapter, we present two applications in information fusion in order to evaluate the generalized proportional conflict redistribution rule presented in chapter [7]. Most of the time the combination rules are evaluated only on simple examples. We study here different combination rules and compare them in terms of decision on real data. Indeed, in real applications, we need a reliable decision and it is the final results that matter. Two applications are presented here: a fusion of human experts opinions on the kind of underwater sediments depicted on a sonar image and a classifier fusion for radar targets recognition.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[737] viXra:1608.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:11:56

Neutrosophic Frameworks for Situation Analysis

Authors: Anne-Laure Jousselme, Patrick Maupin
Comments: 34 Pages.

In situation analysis, an agent observing a scene receives information from heterogeneous sources of information including for example remote sensing devices,human reports and databases.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[736] viXra:1608.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:13:14

On Conjunctive and Disjunctive Combination Rules of Evidence

Authors: Hongyan Sun, Mohamad Farooq
Comments: 31 Pages.

In this chapter, the Dempster-Shafer (DS) combination rule is examined based on the multi-valued mapping (MVM) and the product combination rule of multiple independent sources of information. The shortcomings in DS rule are correctly interpreted via the product combination rule of MVM. Based on these results, a new justification of the disjunctive rule is proposed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[735] viXra:1608.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:15:25

Power and Resource Aware Distributed Smart Fusion

Authors: Shubha Kadambe
Comments: 28 Pages.

Large distributed sensor networks (DSN) with disparate sensors, processors and wireless communication capabilities are being developed for a variety of commercial and military applications.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[734] viXra:1608.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:16:28

Pre-Boolean Algebra, Ordered DSmT and DSm Continuous Models

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 24 Pages.

When implementing the DSmT, a difficulty may arise from the possible huge dimension of hyper-power sets, which are indeed free structures. However, it is possible to reduce the dimension of these structures by involving logical constraints. In this chapter, the logical constraints will be related to a predefined order over the logical propositions.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[733] viXra:1608.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:17:22

Probabilized Logics Related to DSmT and Bayes Inference

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 28 Pages.

This work proposes a logical interpretation of the non hybrid Dezert Smarandache Theory (DSmT). As probability is deeply related to a classical semantic, it appears that DSmT relies on an alternative semantic of decision.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[732] viXra:1608.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:18:31

Reducing DSmT Hybrid Rule Complexity Through Optimization of the Calculation Algorithm

Authors: Pascal Djiknavorian, Dominic Grenier
Comments: 67 Pages.

The work covered here had for objective to write a MatlabTM program able to execute efficiently the DSmT hybrid rule of combination. As we know the DSmT hybrid rule of combination is highly complex to execute and requires high amounts of resources. We have introduced a novel way of understanding and treating the rule of combination and thus were able to develop a MatlabTM program that would avoid the high level of complexity and resources needs.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[731] viXra:1608.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:20:33

Scientia Magna

Authors: A. A. K. Majumdar
Comments: 59 Pages.

Scientia Magna is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles in all areas of mathematics and mathematical sciences. However, papers related to Smarandache’s problems will be highly preferred.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[730] viXra:1608.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:21:52

Scientia Magna, International Book Series (Vol. 11, No. 1)

Authors: Huaning Liu
Comments: 60 Pages.

Scientia Magna international book series publish original research articles in all areas of mathematics and mathematical sciences. However, papers related to Smarandache’s problems will be highly preferred.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[729] viXra:1608.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:09:46

Quantization of Photonic Energy and Photonic Wave Length

Authors: Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Assuming that space is quantized by Planck-length, we show that Mass and Velocity of elementary particles as well as photonic energy must be also quantized. Furthermore, since the photonic energy is quantized it is a type of discrete function and might be measured from observations of energetic cosmological photonic radiations or even with the Large Hadron Collider in CERN (LHC). Such successful measurements can prove that space is quantized. Once assuming that space-time is quantized it obviously raises the question what is there between the Planck-length quanta pieces of space. We suggest a new theory claiming that between the quantum cells there are extra non local grid like dimensions that divide space and connect all the pieces together. These non-local new dimensions might explain today's Quantum Theory's non-local phenomena’s like Schrodinger’s probability wave instant collapse all over space, entanglement, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[728] viXra:1608.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-14 18:16:50

Beauty

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

An attempt of a general definition of beauty
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[727] viXra:1608.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-11 19:49:53

The Mobility, Volume and Gravity Principles of Life Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Three Principles of life formation are presented according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[726] viXra:1608.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 22:33:54

The Logical Structure of Philosophy, Psychology, Mind and Language as Revealed in the Writings of Ludwig Wittgenstein and John Searle

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 74 Pages.

I provide a critical survey of some of the major findings of Wittgenstein and Searle on the logical structure of intentionality (mind, language, behavior), taking as my starting point Wittgenstein’s fundamental discovery –that all truly ‘philosophical’ problems are the same—confusions about how to use language in a particular context, and so all solutions are the same—looking at how language can be used in the context at issue so that its truth conditions (Conditions of Satisfaction or COS) are clear. The basic problem is that one can say anything but one cannot mean (state clear COS for) any arbitrary utterance and meaning is only possible in a very specific context. I begin with ‘On Certainty’ and continue the analysis of recent writings by and about them from the perspective of the two systems of thought, employing a new table of intentionality and new dual systems nomenclature.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[725] viXra:1608.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 05:30:59

The Phenomenon of a Transfer of the Consciousness Structure by View and the Concept of Alive Matter

Authors: Yu. N. Bratkov
Comments: 8 pages, Russian. Consciousness and physical reality, 2004, v. 9, N 4, p. 51-56.

The event of a transference of the consciousness structure from one person to another using the sight is described. A detected side result is discussed: by some people matter is perceived as alive.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[724] viXra:1608.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 05:56:56

Computing Machinery, Intelligence and Undecidability

Authors: P. Castro
Comments: 6 Pages.

In 1950 Alan Turing proposed a decision criteria for intelligence validation in a computer. Most simply if a human judge was incapable of deciding from two witnesses which was the computer and which was the human, the machine would have acquired artificial intelligence. In this paper I will argue that the Turing test has a fundamental problem, making it impossible to provide human intelligence validation. Furthermore I will reason that all empirical tests destined to identify intelligence behavior cannot provide an answer and that consequently artificial intelligence identification is an undecidable problem. Since this must mean that there is no algorithmic procedure tolist humanely intelligent systems, it must also mean that human intelligence is not computable and therefore that there is no pragmatic theory one can write to build an humanely intelligent robot.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[723] viXra:1607.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:40:47

Degrees of Membership > 1 and < 0 of the Elements With Respect to a Neutrosophic OffSet

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

We have defined the Neutrosophic Over-/Under-/Off-Set and -Logic for the first time in 1995 and published in 2007. During 1995-2016 we presented them to various national and international conferences and seminars ([16]-[37]) and did more publishing during 2007-2016 ([1]-[15]). These new notions are totally different from other sets/logics/probabilities
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[722] viXra:1607.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:52:18

Neutrosophic Crisp Probability Theory & Decision Making Process

Authors: A. A. Salama, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 Pages.

Since the world is full of indeterminacy, the neutrosophics found their place into contemporary research. In neutrosophic set, indeterminacy is quantified explicitly and truth-membership, indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership are independent.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[721] viXra:1607.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 01:55:43

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Book Series

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Mumtaz Ali
Comments: 144 Pages.

This volume is a collection of seventeen papers, written by different authors and co-authors (listed in the order of the papers): F. Smarandache, K. Bhutani, M. Kumar, G. Garg, S. Aggarwal, P. Biswas, S. Pramanik, B.C. Giri, J. Ye, A. Mukherjee, M. Datta, S. Sarkar, N. Shah, M. K. EL Gayyar, S. K. Patro, B. C. Cuong, P. H.Phong, A. A. Salama, I. M. Hanafy, H. Elghawalby and M. S. Dabash, R. Roy, P. Das, D. Mandal, Santhi R.,Udhayarani N., F. Yuhua, S. A. Akinleye, A.A.A. Agboola, and J. Chen.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[720] viXra:1607.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 21:58:38

Innovative and Increased Risks from CBR Disasters and Effective, Economical, Adaptive Countermeasures

Authors: Martin Dudziak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Ten years after 9-11 we are at a crucial junction point in our preparedness and defenses for chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) events initiated by terrorists, accidents or natural causes. Despite a decade of intensified work and significant expenditure aimed at providing more effective prevention as well as response to a variety of WMD-type incidents, society (USA and worldwide) is facing a higher probability for disruptive events, particularly “CBR” (chem.-bio-rad) that can cripple nations and their economies. This statement is in contradiction to common public opinions expressed on the subject. Why are CBRN risks in fact higher than before, and why are some of the types of countermeasures, particular those focused strongly upon terrorist-origin CBR threats, insufficient for preparing and responding in ways required for maintaining social resilience and sustainability? Included in our assessment are non-terrorist events that can be potentially of greater damage and consequence than terrorist acts. We also examine the diversity and unpredictability by which principally CBR threats can be brought into a large and mobile population and how such events can be amplified and made more destructive, not only by physical measures, but by psychological impact and caused by mass-panic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[719] viXra:1607.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 03:13:10

The Current Status of the Physicalist Program [PHPR]

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

Status of PHPR.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[718] viXra:1607.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:45:37

Aggregation of Triangular Fuzzy Neutrosophic Set Information and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 21 Pages.

This paper is devoted to propose triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic sets by combining triangular fuzzy numbers with single valued neutrosophic set and define some of its operational rules. Then, triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic weighted arithmetic averaging operator and triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic weighted geometric averaging operator are defined to aggregate triangular fuzzy number neutrosophic sets.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[717] viXra:1607.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:47:22

A Projection Model of Neutrosophic Numbers for Multiple Attribute Decision Making of Clay-Brick Selection

Authors: Jiqian Chen, Jun Ye
Comments: 4 Pages.

Brick plays a significant role in building construction.So we should use the effective mathematical decision making tool to select quality clay-bricks for building construction. The purpose of this paper is to present a projection model of neutrosophic numbers and its decision-making method for the selecting problems of clay-bricks with neutrosophic number information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[716] viXra:1607.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:49:28

Assessing it Projects Success with Extended Fuzzy Cognitive Maps & Neutrosophic Cognitive Maps in Comparison to Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Kanika Bhutani, Megha Kumar, Gaurav Garg, Swati Aggarwal
Comments: 11 Pages.

IT projects hold a huge importance to economic growth. Today, half of the capital investments are in IT technology. IT systems and projects are extensive and time consuming; thus implying that its failure is not affordable, so proper feasibility study of assessing project success factors is required. A current methodology like Fuzzy Cognitive Maps has been experimented for identifying and evaluating the success factors in IT projects, but this technique has certain limitations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[715] viXra:1607.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:52:13

Critical Review, Vol. Xii, 2016

Authors: Paul P. Wang, John N. Mordeson, Mark J. Wierman
Comments: 114 Pages.

We have proposed two multi-criteria decision making methods, Extended α-D MCDM and α-D MCDM-TOPSIS models that allow to work for consistent and inconsistent MCDM problems. In addition, three examples have demonstrated that the α-D MCDM-TOPSIS model is efficient and robust.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[714] viXra:1607.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:56:11

Nω –CLOSED Sets in Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Santhi R., Udhayarani N.
Comments: 4 Pages.

Neutrosophic set and Neutrosophic Topological spaces has been introduced by Salama. Neutrosophic Closed set and Neutrosophic Continuous Functions were introduced by Salama et. al.. In this paper, we introduce the concept of Nω- closed sets and their properties in Neutrosophic topological spaces.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[713] viXra:1607.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:57:38

Neutrosophic Crisp α-Topological Spaces

Authors: A.A.Salama, I.M.Hanafy, Hewayda Elghawalby, M.S.Dabash
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, a generalization of the neutrosophic topological space is presented. The basic definitions of the neutrosophic crisp α-topological space and the neutrosophic crisp α-compact space with some of their characterizations are deduced. Furthermore, we aim to construct a netrosophic crisp α-continuous function, with a study of a number its properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[712] viXra:1607.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 05:59:12

Neutrosophic Goal Programming Applied to Bank: Three Investment Problem

Authors: Rittik Roy, Pintu Das
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper represents a new multiobjective Neutrosophic goal programming and Lexicographic goal programming to solve a multiobjective linear programming problem. Here we describe some basic properties of Neutrosophic sets. We have considered a multi-objective Bank Three Investment model to get optimal solution for different weights.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[711] viXra:1607.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:00:21

Neutrosophic Hyperideals of Semihyperrings

Authors: Debabrata Mandal
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we have introduced neutrosophic hyperideals of a semihyperring and considered some operations on them to study its basic notions and properties.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[710] viXra:1607.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:03:25

Neutrosophic Sets and Systems, Vol. 12, 2016

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, W. B. Vasantha Kandasamy, Said Broumi, A.A.Salama
Comments: 144 Pages.

“Neutrosophic Sets and Systems” has been created for publications on advanced studies in neutrosophy, neutrosophic set, neutrosophic logic, neutrosophic probability, neutrosophic statistics that started in 1995 and their applications in any field, such as the neutrosophic structures developed in algebra, geometry, topology, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[709] viXra:1607.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:05:15

Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Sets and Restricted Interval Valued Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: Anjan Mukherjee, Mithun Datta, Sadhan Sarkar
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic sets (RIVNS in short). Some basic operations and properties of RIVNS are discussed. The concept of restricted interval valued neutrosophic topology is also introduced together with restricted interval valued neutrosophic finer and restricted interval valued neutrosophic coarser topology. We also define restricted interval valued neutrosophic interior and closer of a restricted interval valued neutrosophic set. Some theorems and examples are cites. Restricted interval valued neutrosophic subspace topology is also studied.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[708] viXra:1607.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:06:30

Smooth Neutrosophic Topological Spaces

Authors: M. K. EL Gayyar
Comments: 8 Pages.

As a new branch of philosophy, the neutrosophy was presented by Smarandache in 1980. It was presented as the study of origin, nature, and scope of neutralities; as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. The aim in this paper is to introduce the concepts of smooth neutrosophic topological space, smooth neutrosophic cotopological space, smooth neutrosophic closure, and smooth neutrosophic interior. Furthermore, some properties of these concepts will be investigated.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[707] viXra:1607.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:07:36

Some Studies in Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: Nasir Shah
Comments: 11 Pages.

The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the notion of neutrosophic graphs, weak isomorphisms, co-weak isomorphisms and isomorphisms between two neutrosophic graphs. It is proved that the isomorphism between the two neutrosophic graphs is an equivalence relation. Some other properties of morphisms are also discussed in this paper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[706] viXra:1607.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 06:09:08

Value and Ambiguity Index Based Ranking Method of Single-Valued Trapezoidal Neutrosophic Numbers and Its Application to Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 12 Pages.

The objective of the paper ARE to introduce single-valued trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers(SVTrNNs), which is a special case of single-valued neutrosophic numbers and to develop a ranking method for ranking SVTrNNs. Some operational rules as well as cut sets of SVTrNNs have been introduced.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[705] viXra:1607.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-16 23:01:22

Parallel Universes and Causal Anomalies: Links Between Science and Religion

Authors: Roman Sverdlov
Comments: 34 Pages. Original article was written in 2010, when I was in Raman Research Institute, but I am posting it in 2016 when I am at University of Mississippi (Spring) and University of New Mexico (Fall)

In [6] it was proposed to define "god" as a region of a universe that is subject to circular causality. While we do not adapt the exact definition of "god" that is being introduced in that paper, we do accept the concept that "god" has something to do with causal anomalies: either circular causality or else two competing causal structures. We will show that the presence of a causal anomaly (whatever it happens to be) might allow us to define trinity in non-contradictory way. That is, we will show how the members of trinity can be separate entities and, yet, have the same identity.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[704] viXra:1607.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 13:59:58

Art Definition

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

An attempt of definition of art
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[703] viXra:1607.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 21:36:52

The Human Connection: Part II

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 9 Pages. original paper revised and split into two parts due to length

As Carl Sagan famously said, we are "star stuff" exploring the stars. Life is the information pathway by which the universe achieves consciousness and self-awareness, and begins to explore itself, including evolving new modes of experience, creativity, and beauty. In terms of creativity, humans represent a fractal iteration of the creative energy of the Cosmos, as well as of its evolutionary powers. Because the entire material universe devolves from light, matter and life are a conserved form of the information content latent in the energy of light, expressed primordially through the broken symmetry of light - leading to our "matter-only" cosmos, charge conservation, atoms, the Periodic Table, chemistry, biology, and humanity. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem), and through these charges the energy of light is transformed into the information content of the world. Hence it is ultimately through the connection between light and matter (atoms), charge conservation and symmetry conservation, that humans retain their connection to the primordial creative energies and information content of the universe (and the multiverse). "We come trailing clouds of glory..." (Wordsworth)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[702] viXra:1607.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 23:34:54

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern, Biochemical Characteristics and Biotyping of Salmonella Paratyphi a: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Enteric fever is a major global problem. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens to render current treatments ineffective. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Salmonella paratyphi A (S. paratyphi A) in terms of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. S. paratyphi A strain were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9150). The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. paratyphi A. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. paratyphi A were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Revived treated cells was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while lyophilized treated cells assessed on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. paratyphi A showed significant (60%) alteration in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 as compared to control. The MIC values of S. paratyphi A also showed significant (53.12%) alteration in Gr. II and on day 10 while, no alteration was found in Gr. on day 5 as compared to control. It was observed that overall 18.18% biochemical reactions were altered in the treated groups with respect to control. Moreover, biotype numbers were substantially changed in Gr. II, on day 5 (53001040, S. paratyphi A), on day 10 (57101050, Citrobacter freundii complex) as compared to control (53001000, S. paratyphi A). Besides, biotype number was also changed in Gr. III (53001040, S. paratyphi A) as compared to control. The overall result suggested that biofield treatment had significant impact on S. paratyphi A in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC values and biotype number.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[701] viXra:1607.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 11:15:08

The Existence of Quantum Computer

Authors: Petr E. Pushkarev
Comments: 8 Pages.

We extend the empirically grounded theory of the existence of quantum computer. The main question that we are considering is a question about the possibility of existence and creation of quantum computer. As empirical evidence we use logic which we examine in cognitive perspective. For definition of the computer we use a formal definition of Turing machine. By formulating many definition abstract we go around the areas of quantum physics, quantum computing and other quantum-related fields of science which could give unambiguous answer for the question about the essence of quantum computer and which is developed so they can't. In many ways, it makes this theory about the existence of quantum computer universal for these areas, although less applied in them. We consider some corollary of the essences of quantum computer, including the refutation of possibility of the quantum computer for the human. The philosophical basis of the definition of human which we follow in our theory is scientific materialism.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[700] viXra:1607.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 05:17:58

Maternal Exercise During Pregnancy Increases BDNF Levels and Cell Numbers in the Hippocampal Formation But not in the Cerebral Cortex of Adult Rat Offspring

Authors: Sérgio Gomes da Silva
Comments: 15 Pages.

Clinical evidence has shown that physical exercise during pregnancy may alter brain devel- opment and improve cognitive function of offspring. However, the mechanisms through which maternal exercise might promote such effects are not well understood. The present study examined levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and absolute cell num- bers in the hippocampal formation and cerebral cortex of rat pups born from mothers exer- cised during pregnancy. Additionally, we evaluated the cognitive abilities of adult offspring in different behavioral paradigms (exploratory activity and habituation in open field tests, spatial memory in a water maze test, and aversive memory in a step-down inhibitory avoid- ance task). Results showed that maternal exercise during pregnancy increased BDNF lev- els and absolute numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the hippocampal formation of offspring. No differences in BDNF levels or cell numbers were detected in the cerebral cortex. It was also observed that offspring from exercised mothers exhibited better cognitive performance in nonassociative (habituation) and associative (spatial learning) mnemonic tasks than did offspring from sedentary mothers. Our findings indicate that maternal exer- cise during pregnancy enhances offspring cognitive function (habituation behavior and spa- tial learning) and increases BDNF levels and cell numbers in the hippocampal formation of offspring.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[699] viXra:1607.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 16:51:39

Applied Mathematics Studies

Authors: Giuseppe Rauti
Comments: 1 Page.

Studies in Applied Mathematics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

Replacements of recent Submissions

[192] viXra:1612.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-11 09:39:13

Lavelle's Dilemma: a Purposeful Life

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 15 Pages.

ABSTRACT: Science enriches us steadily with more and more knowledge about the workings of the universe, and it accomplishes this without invoking hypothetical gods as explanations. Still, it is a common assumption that the gods define what constitutes a purposeful life. Many followers of the gods are convinced that a purposeful life cannot exist without the gods to guarantee it; hence, denying the gods’ importance is equivalent to acknowledging that life is unpurposeful, an assumption that is here designated the Lavelle Consensus. Lavelle’s dilemma examines this consensus through the application of what is known as Euthyphro’s dilemma. The supporters of the Lavelle Consensus face a powerful dilemma: either a purposeful life rests on the gods’ arbitrary decisions, or the gods are not the originators of a purposeful life and life is therefore subject to an independent reality. Both horns of the dilemma compromise the need for the gods’ existence or reduce them to dictators without any right to command. Lavelle’s dilemma thus concerns itself with human beings’ freedom and purpose in life. If powerful beings command human beings, then they are not free; if powerful beings dictate purpose in life, then it is ipso facto not human beings’ purpose but their purpose. Thus, either an objective purposeful life exists, leaving science and philosophy to explain the content of this purpose, or a purposeful life is something all human beings are free to create themselves, which happens to be one of the purposes of philosophy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[191] viXra:1611.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-20 09:19:46

Азбука смысла жизни. Шкала Андреуса. Abc of the Meaning of Life. Scale Andreus.

Authors: Andreus A.I. Andreus A.I.
Comments: 19 Pages. In Russian

Life. ABC of the meaning of life, the meaning of life - life - the meaning of life. Will be discontinued the notion of the meaning of life, the life eternal, infinite, isotropic, but the local, rather than homogeneous properties. The person needs to learn how to consist of regular isotopes and live with the correct isotopes, including eliminating radioactive isotopes, and of his environment to care, and use it all of his life. Жизнь. Азбука смысла жизни, смысл жизни - в жизни - смысл жизни. Будет снято понятие смысл жизни, жизнь вечная, бесконечная, изотропная, но локальная, вместо свойства однородная. Человеку нужно учиться, как состоять из правильных изотопов, и жить с правильными изотопами, в том числе, исключая радиоактивные изотопы, и об окружающей его среде заботиться, и применить всё это в своей жизни.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[190] viXra:1608.0099 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-06 08:46:55

The Logical Structure of Philosophy Psychology, Mind and Language in Wittgenstein and Searle

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 81 Pages. newest version 11/6/16

I provide a critical survey of some of the major findings of Wittgenstein and Searle on the logical structure of intentionality (mind, language, behavior), taking as my starting point Wittgenstein’s fundamental discovery –that all truly ‘philosophical’ problems are the same—confusions about how to use language in a particular context, and so all solutions are the same—looking at how language can be used in the context at issue so that its truth conditions (Conditions of Satisfaction or COS) are clear. The basic problem is that one can say anything but one cannot mean (state clear COS for) any arbitrary utterance and meaning is only possible in a very specific context. I begin with ‘On Certainty’ and continue the analysis of recent writings by and about them from the perspective of the two systems of thought, employing a new table of intentionality and new dual systems nomenclature.
Category: General Science and Philosophy