General Science and Philosophy

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[855] viXra:1705.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 18:57:51

Holy Cosmic Condensate of Dipolar Gravitons

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 8 Pages.

Quantum modification of general relativity (Qmoger) is supported by cosmic data (without fitting). Qmoger equations consist of Einstein equations with two additional terms responsible for production/absorption of matter. In Qmoger cosmology there was no Big Bang and matter is continuously producing by the Vacuum. Particularly, production of the ultralight gravitons with tiny electric dipole moment was started about 284 billion years ago. Quantum effects dominate interaction of these particles and they form the quantum condensate. Under influence of gravitation, the condensate is forming galaxies and producing ordinary matter, including photons. As one important result of this activity, it recently created us, the people, and continues to support us. Particularly, our subjective experiences are a result of an interaction between the background condensate and the neural system of the brain. The action potentials of neural system create traps and coherent dynamic patterns in the dipolar condensate. So, our subjective experiences are graviton-based, which can open new directions of research in biology and medicine.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[854] viXra:1705.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 23:12:56

The Theoretical Model of God: Proof of the Existence and of the Uniqueness of God

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 13 Pages.

The work is devoted to the 21st century’s most urgent problem: the problem of existence of God. The theoretical proof of the existence and of the uniqueness of God, based on the correct method of knowledge – unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics, – is proposed. This proof represents a theoretical model of God: a system of axioms from which the principle of existence and of uniqueness of God is deduced. The principle runs as follows: God exists as the Absolute, the Creator, the Governor of the essence (information) and of the phenomenon (material manifestation of information). The theoretical model of man and the formulation of the principle of development of Mankind – as consequences of the model of God – are proposed as well. The main conclusion is as follows: the principle of the existence and of the uniqueness of God represents absolute scientific truth and, consequently, should be a starting-point and a basis of the 21st century’s correct sciences.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[853] viXra:1705.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-24 00:04:07

Man Vs. Computer: Difference of the Essences. the Problem of the Scientific Creation

Authors: Temur Z. Kalanov
Comments: 26 Pages.

The critical analysis of the problem of creation of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and of Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) is proposed. The unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics is the methodological basis of the analysis. The main results of the analysis are as follows: (1) the model of man represents the unity of the two material aspects: “physiological body” (controllable aspect) and “psychical body” (controlling aspect); (2) the “psychical body” is the subsystem “subconsciousness + consciousness”; (3) in the comprehensive sense of the word, the thinking is an attribute of the complete system “physiological body + psychical body + environment”. (3) in the broad sense of the word, thinking and creativity are an essential feature of the subsystem “subconsciousness + consciousness”; (4) in the narrow (concise) sense of the word, thinking and creativity are the attribute of the instinct of the conservation (preservation, retention, maintenance) of life (i.e., the self-preservation instinct, the survival instinct); the instinct of the conservation of life exists in subconsciousness; (5) the instinct of the conservation of life is a system of elementary (basic) instincts; thinking is the attribute of the each elementary instinct; (6) the mechanism of thinking and the essence of creation cannot be cognized by man; (7) a computer as a device cannot think and create (in particular, it cannot prove theorems) because a computer does not have the subconsciousness; (8) the modeling of human thinking, Human Intellect, and the creation of AI and AGI are the impossible because the essential properties of the complete system “man + environment” cannot be cognized and modeled; (9) the existence of AI and AGI conflicts with the essence of the thinking; (10) the existence of AI and AGI contradict to formal-logical and rational-dialectical laws.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[852] viXra:1705.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 14:39:03

A Joint Language-Cognitive Computational Approach to WITTGENSTEIN’S Tractatus

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here we make clear a striking correlation between Wittgenstein’s Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus, that assesses the logical relationships between language and world, and the successful Perlovsky’s joint language-cognitive model, that assesses the relationships between language by one side, and the knowledge instinct correlated with basic and aesthetic emotions by another side. This allows us to appraise the invaluable but dismissed Tractatus’ content in terms of the neurocomputational, mathematical techniques at hand. Therefore, the second Wittgenstein, who abandoned his previous philosophical framework, was wrong: the human language and the cognitive world can still be assessed in terms on the logic armor described by the Tractatus.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[851] viXra:1705.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 23:04:19

Adam Smith: an Intellectual Giant Ignored in Latin America

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 33 Pages.

This philosophical essay contrasts the difference in industrial/social development between the Latin-American nations and those of the developed First World, and attributes the origin of such differences to the lack of relevance that the teaching of Adam Smith lessons have been given in such nations Academia. It starts with a good summary of Smith economic ideas as expressed in his book "The Wealth of Nations." Then some of them were extrapolated such as analyzing the survival value of the "trading gene" present in our species and no other, and also introducing the conception of modeling wide trading as a neural network leading to the concept of "supraintelligence" as the product of such network. Also, the philosophical battle with those that along history have sought to equate poverty with virtue is examined, as well as the philosophical duel at the times of the Economics Enlightenment between Jean-Jacques Rousseau and Voltaire, another intellectual giant rather ignored by Latin-American Academia. At the end we retake Adam Smith ideas as the conclusion of such philosophical duel.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[850] viXra:1705.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 17:00:31

Simplified Mathematical Method to Compare the Ordinary R&D Teams and Single Experts

Authors: Roman Vinokur
Comments: 4 Pages.

The human factor is very important if the high-level R&D skills are needed (“Intellectuals solve problems, geniuses prevent them.” - Albert Einstein). Many people believe more in the power of teamwork than in “myths” of the lone genius [1]. However, if a project goal can be successfully achieved just by one high-skilled professional, it is not wise to delegate this duty to a group of low-skilled persons (“A great engineer is worth 100 average engineers.” - Facebook CEO Mark Zuckerberg [2]). Generally, the dilemma “ordinary team or single expert” is of frequent interest for R&D organizations. In this paper, an approximate mathematical approach has been developed to estimate the critical (minimum) size of an ordinary R&D team that can be more successful than a single expert. As a result, this method could help to resolve the “hire or not hire” issue.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[849] viXra:1705.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 04:11:47

Open Peer Review to Save the World

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: 9 Pages.

Humanity faces many dangers from climate change and wars to asteroid impacts that could harm our future. Often logical reasoning does not seem to play a strong part in discussions on such subjects and even peer-review is flawed. I contend that the solution is a better system of open peer-review.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[848] viXra:1705.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-06 00:27:51

Fine Soccer

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 59 Pages.

We modify the present rule of soccer in order to be able to get points of plural kinds referring to the point system of rugby.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[847] viXra:1705.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-02 10:08:32

Morphing Triple Winglets

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 1 Page. NextGen aeronautics and aerodynamics

Morphing triple winglets enhance flight, reduce fuel consumption, increase flight range, negate turbulence effects, prevent stall and crash.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[846] viXra:1705.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-01 15:57:00

Rotorcraft

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 1 Page. NextGen helicopter

Amphibious VTOL hover (inflatable) tilt rotorcraft This is a multimodal land-sea-air rotorcraft, combining the properties of a hover craft and helicopter.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[845] viXra:1705.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-01 16:03:47

6th Generation Fighter Jet

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 1 Page. NextGen fighter jet

Fighter ramjet This is a 6th generation morphing fighter jet.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[844] viXra:1705.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-01 16:11:27

Superwing with Morphing Triple Winglets

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 1 Page. Nextgen aircraft wing and winglets design

Forward swept wing with morphing triple winglets. This is a superwing for NextGen superjet.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[843] viXra:1704.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 16:57:03

PHPR Preconditions

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 2 Pages.

A waiting period...
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[842] viXra:1704.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:13:45

A Neutrosophic Binomial Factorial Theorem with their Refrains

Authors: Huda E. Khalid, Florentin Smarandache, Ahmed K. Essa
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Neutrosophic Precalculus and the Neutrosophic Calculus can be developed in many ways, depending on the types of indeterminacy one has and on the method used to deal with such indeterminacy. This article is innovative since the form of neutrosophic binomial factorial theorem was constructed in addition to its refrains.Two other important theorems were proven with their corollaries, and numerical examples as well. As a conjecture, we use ten (indeterminate) forms in neutrosophic calculus taking an important role in limits. To serve article's aim, some important questions had been answered.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[841] viXra:1704.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 07:37:34

The Use of Known False Principles in Science

Authors: Clayton James Conway
Comments: 4 Pages.

A criticism of science and the unconscious manner that the Science Establishment use false logic and facts to uphold an adopted worldview to drive and stabilize the whole range of science endeavors. Human consciousness is the main component while the herd mentality is used to achieve popular consensus from the majority of societies non participants. An inability of scientists to accept basic facts and let go of a failed worldview as Kepler did. Illogics: Geologies use of two lengths of periods for one depth measurement. The use of Newton's one time corrective as a general procedure. Failure to use the rules of algebra in Einstein's equation. Faster than light gravity. Materialism requiring solidity that does not exist. The use of attraction that requires charge in a universe denied of having active charge. Denial of repelling that does not require charge. The Earth and Moon having the same charge facing each other that requires charged repelling. The sun and inner planets acting as a unit ignoring Jupiter's mass. Circular logic used to defend the adopted worldview.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[840] viXra:1704.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 17:50:53

Le Comete

Authors: P.F. Nali
Comments: 14 pages, in Italian. This article derived from a school homework written in the late 70s and posted on the author's webpage in 2005. It is now posted here in order to ensure wider diffusion.

As a result of a school homework some historical and physical issues on comets are presented at an amateur level.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[839] viXra:1704.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 01:33:53

A 100 Year Task That Involve Seven Impossible Tasks

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 6 Pages.

The First Task.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[838] viXra:1704.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 20:26:30

Scienza e Complessità: W. Weaver 1947

Authors: Warren Weaver, P.F. Nali
Comments: 11 pages, in Italian, reproduced under permission of Am. Sc. on Jan. 23, 2004 on the SISSA online magazine "Biblioteca dei 500" in website "ULISSE - nella rete della scienza". It is posted at this time as the website has discontinued service in Jan. 2011.

It is proposed here in the Italian version the seminal paper in which Weaver introduced the concept of complexity in modern science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[837] viXra:1704.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 21:05:19

The Armageddon Scenario: War-Game

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

And its resolution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[836] viXra:1704.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 00:49:16

The Omega-Kardeschev Scale

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

An interplay.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[835] viXra:1704.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 10:33:52

Animatus

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 189 Pages.

Philip M. Emrus er taget på en sidste rejse til Firenze. Den verdenskendte palæoantropolog er lige så skarp og åndsfrisk som han altid har været. Men hans krop er gammel, og helbredet skrøbeligt efter at have levet et langt og rigt liv. Emrus har ingen illusioner om, at hans dage er talte, og det havde han egentlig affundet sig med. Men en bekendt fra fortiden har sat ham stævne her i Renæssancens oprindelsessted. En bemærkelsesværdig kvinde fra fortiden ønsker at give ham et tilbud der kan forandre alt. Det er et dristigt tilbud, der ikke alene kan redde ham og give en ny chance i livet. Det er også et tilbud, der vil rokke ved manges opfattelse af hvad det vil sige at være menneske. Emrus kan genvinde livets gave, men også vende op og ned på mange indgroede forestillinger om det levede liv. Det vil udfordre manges opfattelse af grænser, og hvor langt mennesker egentlig har ret til at gå med at bestemme over egne liv.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[834] viXra:1704.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 13:45:25

The New Socioeconomic Formation “Solidarism” Would in 2015-25 Years

Authors: Feliks Royzenman
Comments: 6 Pages.

As it is shown by the author on basis of the discovered law of acceleration of development in the nature and society, the financial crisis getting underway is a prologue to a fundamental crisis of the mankind related to the latest changeover of socioeconomic formations which, according to the formula acceleration of public development, shall occur in 2015-25. But if the formations changeover occurs sporadically, as before, it may turn out into a bloody revolution which can lead to extinction of the human civilization. To avoid it, a model of the new society and strategy of urgent construction of this model were developed. Key words: acceleration of development, systemic crisis, socioeconomic formation, model of the future formation, strategy of formation construction.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[833] viXra:1704.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 23:15:57

Quint-Mode Square Ring Resonators and It’s Applications to Various Bandpass Filters

Authors: Jinli Zhang, Haihua Chen, Ming He, Lu Ji, Xinjie Zhao, Xu Zhang
Comments: 18 Pages.

A new type of quint-mode square ring resonator is proposed in this paper. Due to the symmetry of the resonator, the classical odd- and even-mode method is used to analyze the characteristics of the proposed resonator ,which shows that it has five resonant modes and three transmission zeros. As an example, a dual-band BPF with central frequencies (CFs) at 1.78/3.04 GHz and 3-dB fractional bandwidths (FBWs) of 10.1/18.1% is designed and fabricated. By tuning the widths of the microstrip sections, we can control the bandwidth of the second passband of the above BPF on a large scale and two single band bandwidth controllable BPFs with FBWs of 19.86% and 15.9% and CFs both at 3.5 GHz are designed and fabricated. In addition, asymmetric interdigital coupled line (AICL) is utilized to general proper couplings in these filters. What’s more, the five TPs can be divided into three groups by the TZs as the lengths of the specific microstrip sections changes. Therefore, we design a dual-band BPF with good band-in-band isolation between first and second passbands, which is better than that with 26.3 dB. All of the BPFs in this paper are fabricated on the Rogers 4003C substrate with h=0.508 mm, εr=3.38 and tanδ=0.0027. The results of the simulation and measurement are in good agreements.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[832] viXra:1704.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 08:35:16

“The Information as Absolute” Conception: a Couple of Applications in Philosophy

Authors: Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky
Comments: 15 Pages.

In the paper a more detailed consideration in framework of the “The Information as Absolute” conception of two philosophical problems “QM and the observer”, and “Has human evolution purpose?” is presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[831] viXra:1703.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-25 22:11:43

PHPR Protocol

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

Extension of Procedural Protocol.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[830] viXra:1703.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-19 12:38:08

Dissecting Human Social Purpose

Authors: Roger Schlafly
Comments: 9 Pages.

The concept of purpose used to be central to science, but has faded away because of the successes of materialist reductionism and of the failures to understand consciousness and freedom. The concept is still important, and new technology, data, and social developments present opportunities to make progress. Science is remarkably successful on many fronts, but has failed miserably on matters of freedom, consciousness, and purpose. Maybe these matters are outside the scope of science, but they are essential to finding meaning in our lives, so we ought to look seriously at what science can do. Perhaps science can help explain how individual agents can contribute to collective purpose, and in particular how personal decisions can lead to human social purpose. Submitted to the FQXi.org 2016 Essay Contest answering: “Wandering Towards a Goal: How can mindless mathematical laws give rise to aims and intention?”
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[829] viXra:1703.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-18 16:18:44

Belief

Authors: Roger Munday
Comments: 1 Page.

An opinion on scientific beliefs.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[828] viXra:1703.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-14 19:40:30

The Philosophy of Perception: an Explaination of Realism, Idealism and the Nature of Reality

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 50 Pages.

This paper investigates the nature of reality by looking at the philosophical debate between realism and idealism and at scientific investigations in quantum physics and at recent studies of animal senses, neurology and cognitive psychology. The concept of perceptual relativity is examined and this involves looking at sense perception in other animals and various examples of perceptual relativity in science. It will be concluded that the universe is observer dependent and that there is no reality independent of the observer, which is knowable to the observer. The paper concludes by an investigation of what an observer dependent universe would be like and that recognition of an observer dependent world would lead to a more open minded and tolerant world.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[827] viXra:1703.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-14 10:57:39

Diamond: from Wedding Ring to Eye Retina

Authors: Sunil Karna
Comments: 2 Pages. leaflet

310 College st Box# 897
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[826] viXra:1702.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-27 06:53:57

Exploring the Combination Rules of D Numbers From a Perspective of Conflict Redistribution

Authors: Xinyang Deng, Wen Jiang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Dempster-Shafer theory of evidence is widely applied to uncertainty modelling and knowledge reasoning because of its advantages in dealing with uncertain information. But some conditions or requirements, such as exclusiveness hypothesis and completeness constraint, limit the development and application of that theory to a large extend. To overcome the shortcomings and enhance its capability of representing the uncertainty, a novel model, called D numbers, has been proposed recently. However, many key issues, for example how to implement the combination of D numbers, remain unsolved. In the paper, we have explored the combination of D Numbers from a perspective of conflict redistribution, and proposed two combination rules being suitable for different situations for the fusion of two D numbers. The proposed combination rules can reduce to the classical Dempster's rule in Dempster-Shafer theory under a certain conditions. Numerical examples and discussion about the proposed rules are also given in the paper.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[825] viXra:1702.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-26 20:02:42

The Scientific Age and the Scientific Process

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 7 Pages.

A delicate distinction.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[824] viXra:1702.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-25 08:47:21

Corrig Idx

Authors: Prado, Pf et al
Comments: 1 Page.

1
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[823] viXra:1702.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-22 11:27:57

Corrig 4

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

corrig references
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[822] viXra:1702.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-21 05:24:34

Another Pathway

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

invest.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[821] viXra:1702.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-16 09:33:37

Corrig 2

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

corr
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[820] viXra:1702.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-15 06:19:13

Corrigendum 1702.0059v1

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 0 Pages.

error corrections
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[819] viXra:1702.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-13 21:08:13

Effect of Slope and Packing Ratio on the Behavior of Matchsticks Burnings

Authors: Priya Karna, Sunil Karna
Comments: 5 Pages.

The experiment was conducted to demonstrate the behavior of fire propagation on wildland using matchsticks forest model. A model forest was designed on a flame resistance clay, on top of which matchsticks were inserted and kept vertical to the ground by keeping spacing between them constant with the help of aluminum grid. The data for distance traveled by fire with time was taken at wide range of slopes from downhill of -25^o to uphill of 45^o on model forests of packing ratios of 0.08 and 0.04. The minimum rate of fire spread was observed around 15^o downhill. The data collected from this experiment follows nature of tan^2(theta) and agrees with Rothermel mathematical model of fire propagation except at high elevation above 35^o for low packing ratio.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[818] viXra:1702.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-10 01:45:24

Future of Humankind in Light of New Science

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 2 Pages.

Some aspects of the future of humankind are considered based on application of the quantum modification of general relativity. Particularly, the energy supply from the vacuum and a new form of communication are discussed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[817] viXra:1702.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 05:22:32

Possible Pathway

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

pathway
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[816] viXra:1702.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 06:20:29

1

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

1
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[815] viXra:1702.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 21:25:56

Star Trek is War-Like

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

An exploration of the star trek universe in relation to the theme of conflict and self-actualization.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[814] viXra:1702.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 05:06:04

General Ideas

Authors: Prado, PF et al
Comments: 1 Page.

General ideas
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[813] viXra:1701.0638 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-27 14:30:51

Lessons from our Solar System

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 5 Pages.

The charges of matter are symmetry debts of light. Gravity is matter's memory it once was light.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[812] viXra:1701.0613 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 14:41:49

Links of Gravity with Electromagnetic and Weak Couplings at Low Energies

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 09 pages, 12 references.

– Electrons interacting with the QED vacuum and distorting the space-time tissue are considered as a means to express the gravitational constant in terms of electromagnetic parameters. The link between gravity and weak interactions is also worked out in this paper. Finally we extend the first treatment to hadrons, in order to evaluate the strong interaction coupling at low energies (at the energy scale of the proton mass).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[811] viXra:1701.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 08:44:58

Avrocar: um Verdadeiro Disco Voador

Authors: Desire Francine Gobato, Ricardo Gobato, Jonas Liasch
Comments: 1 Page. Panel presented at the XVI Week of Physics of the State University of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, September 2011..

One of the most unusual V / STOL military aircraft programs was the Avro VZ-9 "Avrocar". Designed to be a true flying saucer, Avrocar was one of the few V / STOL to be developed in complete stealth. Despite significant design changes, during flight trials, Avrocar was unable to achieve its objectives, and the program was eventually canceled after spending $ 10 million between 1954 and 1961. Raise data and information related to the Avrocar project carried out during World War II, which was directly linked to the advances of the aircraft that were built after it. Also study the data obtained and correlate them with the turbo fan engines used today.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[810] viXra:1701.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-11 23:10:52

Mathematical Logic, Temporal Knowledge and the Arrow of Causation

Authors: Stephen I. Ternyik
Comments: 5 Pages.

The teleology of economic knowledge and causality is discussed, in terms of mathematical and temporal aspects.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[809] viXra:1701.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-09 16:56:48

The Tabernacle Geometry

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 73 Pages. the study interest for the tabernacle geometry only

This Study interest for the Tabernacle Geometrical details where the geometrical data isn't clearly complete in the Holy Bible (Exodus Book) So I had to conclude many geometrical details logically for that the study is interesting because it depends basically on the geometrical logic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[808] viXra:1701.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-08 18:10:20

Matter and Energy in a Non-Relativistic Approach Amongst the Mustard Seed and the ”faith”. a Metaphysical Conclusion

Authors: Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 14 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education, v.2, n.3, March 10, 2016 PJSE, ISSN 2447-6153, c 2015-2016

The work is the result of a philosophical study of several passages of the Holy Bible, with regard to faith. We analyzed verses that include mustard seed parables. The study discusses the various concepts of faith as belief and faith as a form of energy. In this concept of faith as energy, we made a connection and this matter. We approach the gravitational field using the Law of Universal Gravitation and the equation of equivalence between energy and matter not to relativistic effects. Of Scriptures, we focus on Matthew 17:20, and according to the concept of faith as a form of energy, we calculate the energy needed to raise a mountain, for the conversion of matter to energy in a mustard seed and we compare a massive iron mountain, Mount Everest and Mount Sinai. We conclude with these concepts and considerations that energy ”faith” can move a mountain.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[807] viXra:1701.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-08 14:31:48

A Study in the Holy Bible

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 279 Pages.

This study devoted to the tabernacle & Great pyramids geometries in addition to analyze the church icons Also the study offers an interpretation for the tabernacle with some deep philosophy for the dualism.. The study in Arabic Language (Part Two)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[806] viXra:1701.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-03 13:58:10

On IEEE 802.16: Worldwide Interoperability for Microwave Access

Authors: Rahul Singha Chowdhury, Sourangsu Banerji
Comments: 17 Pages.

Current wireless broadband technologies have now been providing omnipresent broadband access to wireless subscribers which were only confined to the wire line users till sometime ago. Traditionally, the wireless technologies have been categorized based on their area of coverage. The IEEE 802.11 and ETSI HiperLAN standards are the de facto standards of wireless access in local areas. Whereas IEEE 802.16 and 802.22, ETSI HiperACCESS and HiperMAN, WiBro, and HAP technologies has been predominantly used for providing service in metropolitan and cosmopolitan areas.

There have been many papers written in the recent past covering various types of wireless broadband access technologies, ranging from WLANs to satellite communications. But the study carried out previously never captured the entire spectrum of all such technologies, and even if one particular family of the wireless broadband access technology was scrutinized, the authors somehow concentrated only on certain aspects. In this paper, we aim to bridge that gap by summarizing one of the emerging wireless broadband access technologies i.e. IEEE 802. 16: WiMAX family in detail. Though some of the earliest versions of this family date back to the early decade and some are even out of practice, still we have included them in our study for the sake of completeness and a sense of insight.


Category: General Science and Philosophy

[805] viXra:1701.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-03 01:45:00

Topology of P vs NP

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper describes about P vs NP by using topological approach. We modify computation history as “Problem forest”, and define special problem family “Wildcard problem” and “Maximal complement Wildcard problem” to simplify relations between every input. “Problem forest” is directed graph with transition functions edges and computational configuration nodes with effective range of tape. Problem forest of DTM is two tree graph which root are accepting & rejecting configuration, which leaves are inputs, trunks are computational configuration with effective range of tape. This tree shows TM's interpretation of symmetry and asymmetry of each input. From the view of problem forest, some NTM inputs are marged partly, and all DTM inputs are separated totally. Therefore NTM can compute implicitly some type of partial (symmetry) overrap, and DTM have to compute explicitly. “WILDCARD (Wildcard problem family)” and “MAXCARD (Maximal complement Wildcard problem family)” is special problem families that push NTM branches variations into inputs. If “CONCRETE (Concrete Problem)” that generate MAXCARD is in P-Complete, then MAXCARD is in PH, and these inputs have many overrap. DTM cannot compute these overrap conditions implicitly, and these conditions are necesarry to compute MAXCARD input, so DTM have to compute these conditions explicitly. These conditions are over polynomial size and DTM take over polynomial steps to compute these conditions explicitly. That is, PH is not P, and NP is not P.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[804] viXra:1612.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 16:18:02

Use of Bayesian Belief Networks in Predicting Contamination of Drinking Water with e. Coli in Rural Vietnam.

Authors: David C. Hall, Quynh Ba Le
Comments: 11 Pages.

A Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) was designed to describe association between various deterministic and probabilistic variables gathered from 600 small scale integrated (SSI) farmers in Vietnam. The variables relate to E. coli content of their drinking water, sourced on-farm from wells and rain water. Sensitivity analysis of the model revealed that choice variables were particularly likely to influence endpoint values, reflecting the highly variable and impactful nature of preferences, attitudes, and beliefs relating to mitigation strategies. This BBN model of SSI farming in Vietnam is helpful to understanding the complexity of small scale agriculture as well as for identifying and estimating impact of policy options, particularly where combined with other analytical and policy tools. With appropriate knowledge translation, the model results will be particularly useful for helping SSI farmers understand their options for engaging in water public health mitigation strategies that do not disrupt their chosen livelihoods.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[803] viXra:1612.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 16:39:19

Mitigation of Water Related Zoonotic Diseases on Small-Scale Integrated Farms in Vietnam.

Authors: Quynh Ba Le, David C. Hall
Comments: 23 Pages.

The goals of this study were to 1) assess basic microbial and other quality indicators of drinking and domestic water and 2) identify factors associated with E. coli contamination of drinking and domestic water on 600 small-scale integrated (SSI) farms in the provinces of Thai Binh and An Giang in Vietnam. The cross-sectional study relied on questionnaires and on-farm water samples analyzed using standard methods from the Vietnam national protocol for water quality testing. Our results showed that SSI farmers frequently used water of poor quality contaminated with E. coli for domestic purposes. In Thai Binh for example, well water had a mean E. coli count of 356.5 cfu/100 mls. There were significant differences in the frequencies of use and the levels of E. coli contamination regarding water for domestic purposes between the two provinces. Analysis of associated factors revealed that socioeconomic status of farmers and their perceptions of risk factors for water related zoonotic disease (WRZD) transmission were significantly associated with E. coli contamination of domestic water. These findings would be informative in the course of formulation of water related interventions and policies, particularly for improving farmer awareness of risk factors for WRZD transmission and improvement of SSI farm water quality in general. Further research should explore farmers’ strategies to mitigate WRZD transmission and factors that may influence those strategies.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[802] viXra:1612.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 23:35:30

Why is there Something Rather Than Nothing?

Authors: Roger Granet
Comments: 13 Pages.

A solution to the question "Why is there something rather than nothing?" is proposed that also entails a proposed solution to the question "Why do things exist?". In brief, I propose that a thing exists if it is a grouping or relationship defining what is contained within. This grouping/relationship is equivalent to a surface, edge or boundary defining what is contained within and giving "substance" and existence to the thing. This thinking is used to resolve several mereological (study of parts and wholes) issues . Next, in regard to the question "Why is there something rather than nothing?", when we get rid of all existent entities including matter, energy, space/volume, time, abstract concepts, laws or constructs of physics and math as well as minds to consider this supposed lack of all, we think what is left is the lack of all existent entities, or "absolute nothing". But, try to visualize this situation. This "absolute lack-of-all", would be it; it would be the everything. It would be the entirety, or whole amount, of all that is present. That's it; that's everything. Is there anything else besides that "absolute nothing"? No. It's "nothing", and it is the all. An entirety, whole amount or "the all" is a grouping defining what is contained within and is therefore an enclosing surface and an existent entity. In other words, the supposed "absolute lack of all" defines all that is present and is, therefore, an existent entity. It defines itself and is the beginning point in the chain of being able to define existent entities in terms of other existent entities. The grouping/ edge of the absolute lack-of-all is not some separate thing; it is just the "entirety", or "the all" relationship, inherent in this absolute lack-of-all, that defines what is contained within. Finally, I use this conclusion to build a primitive model of the universe, which is made of existent entities, via what I refer to as a metaphysics-to-physics approach or philosophical engineering. It is argued that this type of thinking will allow faster progress towards a deeper understanding of the universe than the more top-down approach that physicists currently use.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[801] viXra:1612.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 10:42:16

HEIDEGGER’S Being and Quantum Vacuum

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 5 Pages.

A dialogue between Martin Heidegger and a theoretical physician, namely Richie, unveils the striking relationships between the philosophical concept of Being and the experimentally detectable quantum vacuum. We provide an account of long-standing theoretical issues, such Being, Entity, Existence and the unique role of the human Thoughts in the world, and expound their possible physical counterparts.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[800] viXra:1612.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:28:49

Operations on Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: S. Broumi, F. Smarandache, M. Talea, A. Bakali
Comments: 24 Pages.

Combining the single valued neutrosophic set with graph theory, a new graph model emerges, called single valued neutrosophic graph. This model allows attaching the truth-membership (t), indeterminacy–membership (i) and falsity- membership degrees (f) both to vertices and edges. Combining the interval valued neutrosophic set with graph theory, a new graph model emerges, called interval valued neutrosophic graph. This model generalizes the fuzzy graph, intuitionistic fuzzy graph and single valued neutrosophic graph. In this paper, the authors define operations of Cartesian product, composition, union and join on interval valued neutrosophic graphs, and investigate some of their properties, with proofs and examples.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[799] viXra:1612.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:29:50

Role of Neutrosophic Logic in Data Mining

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents a data mining process of single valued neutrosophic information. This approach gives a presentation of data analysis common to all applications. Data mining depends on two main elements, namely the concept of similarity and the machine learning framework. It describes a lot of real world applications for the domains namely mathematical, medical, educational, chemical, multimedia etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[798] viXra:1612.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:30:49

Selection of Automated Guided Vehicle using Single Valued Neutrosophic Entropy Based Novel Multi Attribute Decision Making Technique

Authors: Nital P. Nirmal, Mangal G. Bhatt
Comments: 10 Pages.

Selection of material handling equipment for typical conditions and handling environment is one of the multi attribute decision making problem. The objective of the research paper is to implement and validate multi attribute selection of automated guided vehicle for material handling purpose. The present paper proposes a single valued neutrosophic set with entropy weight based multi attribute decision making technique. A proposed technique also works with more uncertainty, imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent information. The proposed methodology follows with the example for selection and ranking of automated guided vehicle and in validation and sensitivity analysis of the novel multi attribute decision making technique carried out. The result of the study builds assurance in suitability of single valued neutrosophic set entropy based novel multi attribute decision making for selection of automated guided vehicle alternatives.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[797] viXra:1612.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:31:57

Several Trigonometric Hamming Similarity Measures of Rough Neutrosophic Sets and their Applications in Decision Making

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

In 2014, Broumi et al. (S. Broumi, F. Smarandache, M. Dhar, Rough neutrosophic sets, Italian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 32 (2014), 493-502.) introduced the notion of rough neutrosophic set by combining neutrosophic sets and rough sets, which has been a mathematical tool to deal with problems involving indeterminacy and incompleteness. The real world is full of indeterminacy. Naturally, real world decision making problem involves indeterminacy. Rough neutrosophic set is capable of describing and handling imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent and incomplete information. This paper is devoted to propose several new similarity measures based on trigonometric hamming similarity operators of rough neutrosophic sets and their applications in decision making. We prove the required properties of the proposed similarity measures. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed similarity measures in decision making, an illustrative problem is solved.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[796] viXra:1612.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:33:45

Smooth Neutrosophic Preuniform Spaces

Authors: M. K. El Gayyar
Comments: 13 Pages.

As a new branch of philosophy, the neutrosophy was presented by Smarandache in 1998. It was presented as the study of origin, nature, and scope of neutralities; as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of smooth neutrosophic preuniform space, smooth neutrosophic preuniform subspace, and smooth neutrosophic preuniform mappings. Furthermore, some properties of these concepts will be investigated.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[795] viXra:1612.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:34:46

Some Distance Measures of Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Sets and Their Applications to Multiple Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 8 Pages.

Single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set is a merged form of single-valued neutrosophic sets and hesitant fuzzy sets. This set is a useful tool to handle imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent information existing in multi-attribute decision making problems. In multi-attribute decision making, distance measures play an important role to take a decision regarding alternatives. In this paper we propose a variety of distance measures for single valued neutrosophic sets. Furthermore, we apply these measures to multi-attribute decision making problem with singlevalued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set environment to find out the best alternative. We provide an illustrative example to validate and to show fruitfulness of the proposed approach. Finally, we compare the proposed approach with other existing methods for solving multi-attribute decision making problems
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[794] viXra:1612.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:38:11

The Alexandrov-Urysohn Compactness On Single Valued Neutrosophic S∗Centered Systems

Authors: Saeid Jafari, I. Arockiarani, J. Martina Jency
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper we present the notion of the single valued neutrosophic S∗ maximal compact extension in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered system. Moreover, the concept of single valued neutrosophic S∗ absolute is applied to establish the Alexandrov -Urysohn compactness criterion. Some of the basic properties are characterized.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[793] viXra:1612.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:39:19

TOPSIS Approach for Multi Attribute Group Decision Making in Refined Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Durga Banerjee, B. C. Giri
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper presents TOPSIS approach for multi attribute decision making in refined neutrosophic environment. The weights of each decision makers are considered as a single valued neutrosophic numbers. The attribute weights for every decision maker are also considered as a neutrosophic numbers. Aggregation operator is used to combine all decision makers’ opinion into a single opinion for rating between attributes and alternatives. Euclidean distances from positive ideal solution and negative ideal solution are calculated to construct relative closeness coefficients. Lastly, an illustrative example of tablet selection is provided to show the applicability of the proposed TOPSIS approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[792] viXra:1612.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:40:29

TOPSIS for Solving Multi-Attribute Decision Making Problems under Bi-Polar Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 13 Pages.

The paper investigates a technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method to solve multi-attribute decision making problems with bipolar neutrosophic information. We define Hamming distance function and Euclidean distance function to determine the distance between bipolar neutrosophic numbers. In the decision making situation, the rating of performance values of the alternatives with respect to the attributes are provided by the decision maker in terms of bipolar neutrosophic numbers. The weights of the attributes are determined using maximizing deviation method. We define bipolar neutrosophic relative positive ideal solution (BNRPIS) and bipolar neutrosophic relative negative ideal solution (BNRNIS). Then, the ranking order of the alternatives is obtained by TOPSIS method and most desirable alternative is selected. Finally, a numerical example for car selection is solved to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach and comparison with other existing method is also provided.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[791] viXra:1612.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:09:57

A New Order Relation on the Set of Neutrosophic Truth Values

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Huda E. Khalid, Ahmed K. Essa
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we discuss all possible cases to construct an atom of matter, antimatter, or unmatter, and also the cases of contradiction (i.e. impossible case).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[790] viXra:1612.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:11:06

Applications of Neutrosophic Sets in Medical Image Denoising and Segmentation

Authors: Deepika Koundal, Savita Gupta, Sukhwinder Singh
Comments: 19 Pages.

In medical science, diagnosis and prognosis is one of the most difficult and challenging task because of restricted subjectivity of the experts and presence of fuzziness in medical images. In observing the severity of several diseases, different professional experts may result in wrong diagnosis. In order to perform diagnosis intuitively in the medical images, different image processing methods have been explored in terms of neutrosophic theory to interpret the inherent uncertainty, ambiguity and vagueness. This paper demonstrates the use of neutrosophic theory in medical image denoising and segmentation where the performance is observed to be much better.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[789] viXra:1612.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:12:17

Distance and Similarity Measures for Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Information

Authors: Ridvan Şahin, Peide Liu
Comments: 20 Pages.

With respect to a combination of hesitant sets, and single-valued neutrosophic sets which are a special case of neutrosophic sets, the single valued neutrosophic hesitant sets (SVNHFS) have been proposed as a new theory set that allows the truth-membership degree, indeterminacy membership degree and falsity-membership degree including a collection of crisp values between zero and one, respectively. There is no consensus on the best way to determine the order of a sequence of singlevalued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy elements. In this paper, we first develop an axiomatic system of distance and similarity measures between single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy sets and also propose a class of distance and similarity measures based on three basic forms such that the geometric distance model, the set-theoretic approach, and the matching functions. Then we utilize the distance measure between each alternative and ideal alternative to establish a multiple attribute decision making method under single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy environment. Finally, a numerical example of investment alternatives is provided to show the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed approach. The advantages of the proposed distance measure over existing measures have been discussed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[788] viXra:1612.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:15:01

Extended Projection Based Models for Solving Multiple Attribute Decision Making Problems with Interval Valued Neutrosophic Information

Authors: Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 14 Pages.

The paper develops two new methods for solving multiple attribute decision making problems with interval – valued neutrosophic assessments. In the decision making situation, the rating of alternatives with respect to the predefined attributes is described by linguistic variables, which can be represented by interval - valued neutrosophic sets. We assume that the weight of the attributes are not equal in the decision making process and they are obtained by using maximizing deviation method. We define weighted projection measure and propose a method to rank the alternatives. Furthermore, we also develop an alternative method to solve multiple attribute decision making problems based on the combination of angle cosine and projection method. Finally, an illustrative numerical example in Khadi institution is solved to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[787] viXra:1612.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:17:03

From Linked Data Fuzzy to Neutrosophic Data Set Decision Making in Games vs. Real Life

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 11 Pages.

In our lives, reality becomes a game, and in the same way, the game becomes reality, the game is an exercise, simulation of real life on a smaller scale, then it extends itself into reality. This article aims to make a connection between decision making in game which comprises all the issues that intervene in the process and further making a connection with real life. The method for identification involved, detected or induced uncertainties is a jointing process from linked data fuzzy to neutrosophic data set on a case study, EVE Online game. This analysis is useful for psychologists, sociologists, economic analysis, process management, business area, also for researchers of games domain.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[786] viXra:1612.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:18:08

GRA Method of Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Set Information

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 9 Pages.

Single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set has three independent parts, namely the truth membership hesitancy function, indeterminacy membership hesitancy function, and falsity membership hesitancy function, which are in the form of sets that assume values in the unit interval [0, 1]. Single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set is considered as a powerful tool to express uncertain, incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information in the process of multi attribute decision making problems. In this paper we study multi attribute decision making problems in which the rating values are expressed with single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[785] viXra:1612.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:19:00

Hausdorff Extensions in Single Valued Neutrosophic S∗ Centered Systems

Authors: J. Martina Jency, I. Arockiarani
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper explores the concept of single valued neutrosophic S∗ open sets in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered system. Also the characterization of Hausdorff extensions of spaces in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered systems are established.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[784] viXra:1612.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:20:11

Logistics Center Location Selection Approach Based on Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Decision Making

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Shyamal Dalapati, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 14 Pages.

As an important and interesting topic in supply chain management, the concept of fuzzy set theory has been widely used in logistics center location in order to improve the reliability and suitability of the logistics center location with respect to the impacts of both qualitative and quantitative factor. However fuzzy set cannot deal with the indeterminacy involving with the problem. So the concept of single – valued neutrosophic set due to Wang et al. (2010) is very helpful to deal with the problem. A neutrosophic approach is a more general and suitable approach in order to deal with neutrosophic information than fuzzy set. Logistics center location selection is a multi-criteria decision making process involving subjectivity, impresion and fuzziness that can be easily represented by single-valued neutrosophic sets. In this paper, we use the score and accuracy function and hybrid score accuracy function of single- valued neutrosophic number and ranking method for single- valued neutrosophic numbers to model logistics center location problem. Finally, a numerical example has been presented to illustrate the proposed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[783] viXra:1612.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:21:05

Multi Criteria Decision Making Method in Neutrosophic Environment Using a New Aggregation Operator, Score and Certainty Function

Authors: Kanika Mandal, Kajla Basu
Comments: 20 Pages.

Neutrosophic sets, being generalization of classic sets, fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, can simultaneously represent uncertain, imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information existing in the real world. Neutrosophic theory has been developed in twenty first century and not much of arithmetic has been developed for this set. To solve any problem using neutrosophic data, it is desirable to have suitable operators, score function etc. Some operators like single valued neutrosophic weighted averaging (SVNWA) operator, single valued neutrosophic weighted geometric (SVNWG) operator are already defined in neutrosophic set (NS). In this paper an improved weighted average geometric (IWAG) operator which produces more meaningful results has been introduced to aggregate some real numbers and the same has been extended in neutrosophic environment. We further generalize this to include a wide range of aggregation operators for both real numbers and neutrosophic numbers. A new score function and certainty function have been defined which have some benefit compared to the existing ones. Further comparative study highlighting the benefit of this new approach of ranking in neutrosophic set has been presented. A multiple-attribute decision-making method is established on the basis of the proposed operator and newly defined score function.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[782] viXra:1612.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:21:59

Neutrosophic Applications in E-learning: Outcomes, Challenges and Trends

Authors: Nouran M. Radwan
Comments: 8 Pages.

There has been a sudden increase in the usage of elearning to support learner's learning process in higher education. Educational institutions are working in an increasingly competitive environment as many studies in elearning are implemented under complete information, while in the real world many uncertainty aspects do exist. This has resulted in emerging various approaches to handle uncertainty. Neutrosophic logic has been used to overcome the uncertainty of concepts that are associated with human expert judgments. This paper presents current trends to enhance elearning process by using neutrosophic to extract useful knowledge for selecting, evaluating, personalizing, and adapting elearning process.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[781] viXra:1612.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:25:24

On a Model of Love Dynamics: a Neutrosophic Analysis

Authors: Santanu Ku. Patro
Comments: 9 Pages.

This study is an application of neutrosophy to the dynamics of love, the most interesting social phenomena. The love dynamics were studied earlier by Strogatz (Strogatz, 1994), Radzicki (Radzicki, 1993), Rapport (Rapport, 1960), etc. Although Strogatz’s model (Strogatz, 1994) was originally intended only to motivate students, it makes several interesting and plausible predictions, and suggests extensions that produce even wider range of behavior. This paper has been written in the Strogatz’s spirit, and it has extended Romeo & Juliet model (Sprott, 2004) to the neutrosophic domain. A love impact factor (LIF) has been proposed, and analyzed using neutrosophic logic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[780] viXra:1612.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:27:25

On Neutrosophic Sets and Topology

Authors: Francisco Gallego LupiaÑez
Comments: 9 Pages.

Recently, F.Smarandache generalized the Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets and other kinds of sets to neutrosophic sets. Also, this author defined the notion of neutrosophic topology on the non-standard interval. One can expect some relation between the intuitionistic fuzzy topology on an IFS and the neutrosophic topology. We show in this work that this is false.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[779] viXra:1611.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 20:49:24

Establishing The Second Task of PHPR

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 10 Pages.

Problems, objectives, and resolution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[778] viXra:1611.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 15:18:26

Abc of the Meaning of Life. Scale Andreus.

Authors: Andreus A.I.
Comments: 18 Pages. In English by Google

Life. ABC of the meaning of life, the meaning of life - life - the meaning of life. Will be discontinued the notion of the meaning of life, the life eternal, infinite, isotropic, but the local, rather than homogeneous properties. The person needs to learn how to consist of regular isotopes and live with the correct isotopes, including eliminating radioactive isotopes, and of his environment to care, and use it all of his life.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[777] viXra:1611.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 08:49:32

Cosmology and Cancer in the Post-Star-Trek Centuries

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 24 Pages.

This is definitely not a work of science fiction. It's a serious 9,000 words detailing what today's philosophy and science (in areas like physics, computer science, cosmology, biology and mathematics) are likely to evolve into. I've always been totally fascinated by the future – the more distant, the better! So the adventures of the Star Trek movies and TV shows, based in the 23rd and 24th centuries, are a good starting point. They're not documentaries by any stretch but are a tremendous boost to the sense of wonder about the universe. Superman and Doctor Who are also great at making a person wonder about new possibilities in other centuries and other parts of the cosmos. Putting together the marvels of science fiction and the marvels of science results in the following picture of what lies in store for humanity and the cosmos. In the end, this new science and philosophy is my opinion and only time can determine its accuracy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[776] viXra:1611.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 07:08:26

U.s. Voted for Change in Approach to Politics – I Vote for Change in Approach to Science

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 13 Pages.

What kind of President will Donald Trump be? I don't know. It's possible that in the 22nd century, virtually nobody will remember his name. It's also possible that he'll be called a great man who gave America and the world exactly the kind of change the world of this time required. In an article for the 1967 World Book Encyclopedia ("How to Prepare for the Presidency"), President John F. Kennedy said, "… greatness depends on the times as well as the man." By the way - I once saw a photo of Bill Clinton, the former President and husband of the losing candidate Hillary Rodham Clinton, shaking hands with President Kennedy in the early 1960's. In his article, John has this advice for Hillary: "… if some chance keeps you from the presidency, you will still know that you are prepared to serve well your nation as a citizen." The President-elect has no previous experience in politics. Neither does he feel obligated to conform to political traditions. Little me has no formal qualifications in science – while I recognize the necessity of using the various branches of science and mathematics as an indispensable guide, there is no feeling that scientific tradition must be followed because the centuries show that today's science is often tomorrow's obsoleteness. I'm in the mood to stop taking baby steps, and to try and explain much of the universe in one message. I know it isn't considered scientific to try and explain so much in one sitting. But I'm not a professional scientist, so me and my intuition are free to explore all the outrageous ideas I feel like – they satisfy my curiosity and imagination and are interesting, if nothing else.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[775] viXra:1611.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 18:25:17

Andreus A.I.

Authors: ABC of the meaning of life. Scale Andreus.
Comments: 19 Pages. In Russian

Life. ABC of the meaning of life, the meaning of life - life - the meaning of life. Will be discontinued the notion of the meaning of life, the life eternal, infinite, isotropic, but the local, rather than homogeneous properties. The person needs to learn how to consist of regular isotopes and live with the correct isotopes, including eliminating radioactive isotopes, and of his environment to care, and use it all of his life. Жизнь. Азбука смысла жизни, смысл жизни - в жизни - смысл жизни. Будет снято понятие смысл жизни, жизнь вечная, бесконечная, изотропная, но локальная, вместо свойства однородная. Человеку нужно учиться, как состоять из правильных изотопов, и жить с правильными изотопами, в том числе, исключая радиоактивные изотопы, и об окружающей его среде заботиться, и применить всё это в своей жизни.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[774] viXra:1611.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 01:53:14

L'inéluctable Effondrement D'une Science Officielle Sans éthique

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 1 Page. in French

Dramatic violations of basic ethics result in the crash of the Modern Scientific System through elementary scientific refutations of the Big Bang model, directly checkable, even by the layman.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[773] viXra:1610.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 08:35:48

Damnation Risk: Possibility of Eternal Torment

Authors: Anti Procreation
Comments: 5 Pages.

Roko’s Basilisk is an idea that was suggested by Roko in LessWrong.com in 2010, that an AI would be motivated to eternally torture people who have not helped to bring it into existence. The more likely possibility of eternal torment is, I think, a sadistic AI. A Reddit user TheFaggetman suggested the possibility of a sadistic AI in 2015, Brian Tomasik suggested a possibility of sadists take control of an AI. Although the major focus on AI research is an existential risk, I think human extinction only bad as much as an annihilation of the people thereby annihilated is bad. Although there's no knock-down argument to prove eternal torment is worse than annihilation, as we can see on 'Better red than dead' v. 'Better dead than red' debate, if we at least think that whereas eternal torment may be infinite times worse than annihilation, annihilation may be only finite times (e.g. 10 times) worse than eternal torment, perhaps moral priority shall be given to prevention of eternal torment caused by AI-molecular-assembler than annihilation caused by AI. (This Paper was originally published as a part of a book called 'Procreation Is a Murder: Why Procreation Is the Root of All Evils)
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[772] viXra:1610.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 01:11:51

The Formal Systems

Authors: Max Null, Sergey Belov
Comments: 3 Pages.

A Formal System is something created that allow you to answer some questions or to solve some problems. A Classic Formal System (Strongly Deterministic Formal Systems) is a system in which the answer to any ques- tion we can get a finite number of steps. In the article we consider some properties of the Formal Systems.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[771] viXra:1610.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 14:05:21

The Ordinalcy & Residuality Foundations: And Now for Greater Simplicity

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 6 Pages. new foundations

The proposed distinct yet intertwined notions or programmed of Orduality and Residuality embark on how completeness begets asymmetry, duality, and simplicity while extending beyond the previous conjugation of Azimuthality and Gradiency. Higher-order relationships are deemed capable of revisiting functionality.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[770] viXra:1610.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 17:26:52

Gradiency: A Two-Tier Introduction

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 5 Pages.

The present paper sketches a dichotomy of Gradiency versus Azimuthality referring to how the positivist tradeoffs can be mitigated or revisited
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[769] viXra:1610.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 07:35:10

The Dark Side of the EM Drive

Authors: Michael Harney
Comments: 4 Pages.

The EM Drive, if validated, offers the possibility of interstellar travel by obtaining higher speeds in much shorter times than current propulsion techniques. The same energy acquired by an EM Drive can also be a significant concern at a global level.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[768] viXra:1610.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 17:24:52

Estimating Remaining Lifetime of Humanity

Authors: Yigal Gurevich
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we estimate the remaining time for human existence, applying the Doomsday argument and the Strong Self-Sampling Assumption to the reference class consisting of all members of the Homo sapiens, formulating calculations in traditional demographic terms of population and time, using the theory of parameter estimation and available paleodemographic data. The remaining lifetime estimate is found to be 170 years, and the probability of extinction in the coming year is estimated as 0.43%.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[767] viXra:1610.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 18:36:54

Wolpert, Chaitin and Wittgenstein on Impossibility, Incompleteness, the Limits of Computation, Theism and the Universe as Computer-the Ultimate Turing Theorem

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 5 Pages.

I have read many recent discussions of the limits of computation and the universe as computer, hoping to find some comments on the amazing work of polymath physicist and decision theorist David Wolpert but have not found a single citation and so I present this very brief summary. Wolpert proved some stunning impossibility or incompleteness theorems (1992 to 2008-see arxiv.org) on the limits to inference (computation) that are so general they are independent of the device doing the computation, and even independent of the laws of physics, so they apply across computers, physics, and human behavior. They make use of Cantor's diagonalization, the liar paradox and worldlines to provide what may be the ultimate theorem in Turing Machine Theory, and seemingly provide insights into impossibility, incompleteness, the limits of computation,and the universe as computer, in all possible universes and all beings or mechanisms, generating, among other things,a non- quantum mechanical uncertainty principle and a proof of monotheism. There are obvious connections to the classic work of Chaitin, Solomonoff, Komolgarov and Wittgenstein and to the notion that no program (and thus no device) can generate a sequence (or device) with greater complexity than it possesses. One might say this body of work implies atheism since there cannot be any entity more complex than the physical universe and from the Wittgensteinian viewpoint, ‘more complex’ is meaningless (has no conditions of satisfaction, i.e., truth-maker or test). Even a ‘God’ (i.e., a ‘device’ with limitless time/space and energy) cannot determine whether a given ‘number’ is ‘random’ nor can find a certain way to show that a given ‘formula’, ‘theorem’ or ‘sentence’ or ‘device’ (all these being complex language games) is part of a particular ‘system’.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[766] viXra:1610.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 03:40:21

Special Relativity: Scientific or Philosophical Theory?

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this article, we argue that the theory of special relativity, as formulated by Einstein, is a philosophical rather than a scientific theory. What is scientific and experimentally supported is the formalism of the relativistic mechanics embedded in the Lorentz transformations and their direct mathematical, experimental and observational consequences. This is in parallel with the quantum mechanics where the scientific content and experimental support of this branch of physics is embedded in the formalism of quantum mechanics and not in its philosophical interpretations such as the Copenhagen school or the parallel worlds explanations. Einstein theory of special relativity gets unduly credit from the success of the relativistic mechanics of Lorentz transformations. Hence, all the postulates and consequences of Einstein interpretation which have no direct experimental or observational support should be reexamined and the relativistic mechanics of Lorentz transformations should be treated in education, academia and research in a similar fashion to that of quantum mechanics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[765] viXra:1610.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 20:17:39

The Harmonic Principle

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 2 Pages. in French

The Harmonic Principle explains the Universe existence by making concrete mathematical beauty. This means Art and Science strong interconnections, in particular a steady-state Cosmology (no Big Bang), implying matter to be a 10^104 Hz matter-antimatter oscillation leading to an interpretation of Black Matter,and visible Universe to be only a tiny fraction (10^-120) of an underlying tachyonic world. This favors an egyptian origin for Science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

Replacements of recent Submissions

[180] viXra:1705.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-26 20:13:50

Fine Soccer

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 61 Pages.

We modify the present rule of soccer in order to be able to get points of plural kinds referring to the point system of rugby.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[179] viXra:1705.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-16 20:50:53

Fine Soccer

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 60 Pages.

We modify the present rule of soccer in order to be able to get points of plural kinds referring to the point system of rugby.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[178] viXra:1705.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-08 19:58:54

Fine Soccer

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 60 Pages.

We modify the present rule of soccer in order to be able to get points of plural kinds referring to the point system of rugby.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[177] viXra:1704.0278 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-22 20:06:18

A 100 Year Task That Involve Seven Impossible Task

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 7 Pages.

The First Task.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[176] viXra:1704.0188 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-16 05:52:07

The Omega-Kardeschev Scale

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

An interplay.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[175] viXra:1704.0043 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-08 05:19:22

“The Information as Absolute” Conception: a Couple of Applications in Philosophy

Authors: Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky
Comments: The text contains two versions: English, pages 1-16; and Russian, pages 17-35

Abstract. In this paper a more detailed consideration in framework of the “The Information as Absolute” conception of two philosophical problems “QM and the observer”, and “Has human evolution purpose?” is presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[174] viXra:1703.0144 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-22 09:29:50

Diamond: from Wedding Ring to Eye Retina

Authors: Sunil Karna
Comments: 2 Pages. leaflet

310 College st Box# 897
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[173] viXra:1702.0139 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-14 21:55:37

A Training System with a Machine for a Ball Game

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 15 Pages.

This is a system which simulates a ball game and a machine is substituted for one player in it.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[172] viXra:1612.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-11 09:39:13

Lavelle's Dilemma: a Purposeful Life

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 15 Pages.

ABSTRACT: Science enriches us steadily with more and more knowledge about the workings of the universe, and it accomplishes this without invoking hypothetical gods as explanations. Still, it is a common assumption that the gods define what constitutes a purposeful life. Many followers of the gods are convinced that a purposeful life cannot exist without the gods to guarantee it; hence, denying the gods’ importance is equivalent to acknowledging that life is unpurposeful, an assumption that is here designated the Lavelle Consensus. Lavelle’s dilemma examines this consensus through the application of what is known as Euthyphro’s dilemma. The supporters of the Lavelle Consensus face a powerful dilemma: either a purposeful life rests on the gods’ arbitrary decisions, or the gods are not the originators of a purposeful life and life is therefore subject to an independent reality. Both horns of the dilemma compromise the need for the gods’ existence or reduce them to dictators without any right to command. Lavelle’s dilemma thus concerns itself with human beings’ freedom and purpose in life. If powerful beings command human beings, then they are not free; if powerful beings dictate purpose in life, then it is ipso facto not human beings’ purpose but their purpose. Thus, either an objective purposeful life exists, leaving science and philosophy to explain the content of this purpose, or a purposeful life is something all human beings are free to create themselves, which happens to be one of the purposes of philosophy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[171] viXra:1611.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-20 09:19:46

Азбука смысла жизни. Шкала Андреуса. Abc of the Meaning of Life. Scale Andreus.

Authors: Andreus A.I. Andreus A.I.
Comments: 19 Pages. In Russian

Life. ABC of the meaning of life, the meaning of life - life - the meaning of life. Will be discontinued the notion of the meaning of life, the life eternal, infinite, isotropic, but the local, rather than homogeneous properties. The person needs to learn how to consist of regular isotopes and live with the correct isotopes, including eliminating radioactive isotopes, and of his environment to care, and use it all of his life. Жизнь. Азбука смысла жизни, смысл жизни - в жизни - смысл жизни. Будет снято понятие смысл жизни, жизнь вечная, бесконечная, изотропная, но локальная, вместо свойства однородная. Человеку нужно учиться, как состоять из правильных изотопов, и жить с правильными изотопами, в том числе, исключая радиоактивные изотопы, и об окружающей его среде заботиться, и применить всё это в своей жизни.
Category: General Science and Philosophy