General Science and Philosophy

1301 Submissions

[10] viXra:1301.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-28 10:26:05

The Definition of Time

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustration

A definition for time is given.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9] viXra:1301.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-22 21:20:57

Commentary on Questioning the Possibiltiy of Asteroid Hit

Authors: Andrew Nassif, Talal Khalaf
Comments: 2 Pages. This document is a commentary rather then a research report. All of the items in the paper are opinions provided by real scientist.

The relationship between weather forecasters and the age of the Earth based on gravity of the earth now I think that the ground will change speed less spin around itself due to the change in the angle of rotation of the earth on its axis any increase angle and the occurrence of a major disaster in the ground in the coming years, or rather 2013. Had previously occurred disasters in the ground and there is evidence to prove it?
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8] viXra:1301.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-22 10:24:17

Alternatives to Radiation

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

Radiation can often be found in devices we use everyday such as cell phones, wrist watches, laptops, and televisions. My research well include all these plus ways to avoid them. I will also make sure to talk about nuclear power and its harms and benefits as well as designs that can shorten usages and causes of radiation. The largest source of radiation is radioactive material found in soil. The second largest source of radiation is man-made radiation which is emitted in our everyday lives. "It is said that we literally live in a sea of radiation," says Dr.Dade W. Moeller. It is said that the largest sources for man made radiation are the United States, Russia, China, Japan, and the UK. This ranks the United States the highest source of radiation emitters, meaning that we cause much man made radiation in the public alone.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7] viXra:1301.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-20 15:36:59

Failure of the Standard Model of Particle Physics

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 illustrations

It is now common knowledge that the entire standard model of particle physics is wrong. Any Wikipedia page or scientific article that strives to explain anything with particles is probably wrong and can be disregarded as arbitrary.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1301.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-15 13:34:33

Using Hydropower as an Electrical Resource

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 3 Pages.

Renewable energy comes from natural resources such as sunlight, water, or geothermic heat. One of the most common uses for renewable energy is hydroelectricity. Hydroelectricity can be used for power plants such as the hoover dam power plant which supplies this country with 1/3 of its electricity, making it the biggest power plant in the country. The three largest power plants in the world are: the Three Gorges Dam, the Itaipu Dam, and the Guri Dam. Hydropower does
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:1301.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-13 13:57:22

The Decline of Global Per Capita Renewable Internal Freshwater Resources

Authors: Sierra Rayne, Kaya Forest
Comments: 8 Pages.

Supplies of per capita renewable internal freshwater resources are declining at alarming rates around the globe, necessitating efforts to better manage population growth and the use and distribution of freshwater. All major geographic regions saw substantial reductions in per capita renewable internal freshwater supplies between 1962 and 2011. Over this period, the global per capita freshwater stock declined by 54%, with decreases of 75% in Sub-Saharan Africa, 71% in the Middle East and North Africa, 64% in South Asia, 61% in Latin America and the Caribbean, 52% in East Asia and the Pacific, and 41% in North America. At current rates of depletion, global per capita renewable internal freshwater resources are projected to decline by 65% compared to 1962 values before stabilizing, having regional variation ranging from 60% in East Asia and the Pacific to 86% of the Middle East and North Africa. Sub-Saharan Africa is predicted to reach a negative per capita renewable internal freshwater balance by the year 2120. Per capita renewable internal freshwater resources are declining more rapidly in low income countries than their middle and high income counterparts. All countries except Hungary and Bulgaria experienced declines in their per capita renewable internal freshwater supply between 1962 and 2011. Most countries (55%) experienced a decline of between 60% to 80% in per capita renewable internal freshwater resources over this period. The majority of nations are projected to maintain positive per capita renewable internal freshwater balances under steady-state conditions, although overall declines of between 80% to almost 100% from 1962 levels are dominant (~52% of all countries). A group of 28 nations is projected to reach zero per capita internal freshwater resources within the near future. African countries dominate the list of nations projected to reach zero per capita internal freshwater resources, comprising 16 of the 28 countries - of which six are landlocked. A further group of 25 nations have data records that are too short, and recent population dynamics that are generally too complex, for reliable trend extrapolation. Close attention will need to be paid to the per capita renewable internal freshwater resource trends for these countries over the coming decades in order to obtain a better understanding of their resource depletion rates.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1301.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-11 10:49:37

Presentation of Hydrostatic Equilibriums

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 6 pages not including title and sources

Hydrostatic Equilibrium is a condition in which volume of the fluids are staying at rest or reaching a constant velocity. This term is very important in Physics, especially in fluid mechanics. This presentation will basically guide you easily to research in the field.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1301.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-09 17:14:20

Fundamentals of Stoichiometry & Dimensional Analysis

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 2 Pages.

Stoichiometry is one of the most major branches in chemistry that deals with the relative qualities and quantities of reactants and products in chemical reactions. Stoichiometry is based on the "Law of Conservation of Mass". Stoichiometry is broke into the subjects of: Reaction Stoichiometry and Composition Stoichiometry. Reaction Stoichiometry describe relationships of substances during a chemical reaction. Composition Stoichiometry describes the quantitative mass among elements and its relationship with compounds. Next their is Gas Stoichiometry which is part of Reaction Stoichiometry. Gas Stoichiometry involves chemicals and compounds in its relationship that involves gases, such as steam or burning magnesium. The term Stoichiometry itself derives from the greek word, "stoicheion metron", which means element measure or measurement of an element. Stoichiometry relies on scientific laws in chemistry to understand things better. The main use of Stoichiometry is to balance equations in chemical reactants.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1301.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-05 06:56:34

Chrono Logic

Authors: Giorgio Fabretti
Comments: 11 Pages. "Chrono Logic" is a conceptual link of General Science and Philosophy, that some scholars required and would appreciate - in English - to "The Time and The All", printed, in Italian, on General Physics, on Vixra as well.

The Chrono Logic is the operational 'gravitational' abstract logic force that shapes the time conceived as an oriented dimensional field. To help imagine such a concept, let us imagine a non-paved country muddy street, lined with the footprints of animals, people and charts that have stepped into the muddy clay in different times. We can read in the dried materialized footprints the rhythmic cycles of walking people or wheeling charts. Investigative Police could even find relevant evidence for a Court, in analyzing the dried footprints, just like technological videocamera record the robbers of the night before at the nearby Seven Eleven market shop. A visionary philosopher of science, Giorgio Fabretti, even conceived the whole material universe as an immense footprint left by Logic in the Memory of Time, that is in the moldable clay of Time, whose Memory consists in its capacity of drying up and keeping witness of what happened. But why Time would need to materialize in dried footprints? The answer is "Logic". In fact, Logic is a "Concept that wants to become Reality". It is a biblical meaning, much more ancient than Greek classical philosophy. Having the creational definition of implementing a design, Logic tends at least to confirm itself by becoming dynamic, and so generating its time dimension. In the Greek Pagan Olimpus, leading gods had Chronos as a specialized god to serve and implement their divine designs on a mundane scale. The most advanced experimental physicists, who invented the atomic bomb and the computerized network to defend themselves from its destruction, have not developed a conception of the universe radically different from Biblical or from Greek ancestors. In contemporary natural sciences, the material reality is still a footprint of Logos on the Memory of Time. Now that you have heard this concept, it might seem as obvious as the password of your Credit Card. But, ask a thief to guess your password! How long would him take to guess? You might be waiting as long as your dog needs to typewrite by chance the Divine Comedy on your computer. It maybe took centuries before a philosopher and a scientist, Giorgio Fabretti, could climb on the shoulder of many scientists and discoveries, and see the 'ethical theory' of Synchronic Materialism (including Chrono Logic), theoretically leading to such a password definition of Logic and Time: where Time (Operational Chrono) serves the material purposes (Memory) of an excited logical field (Logic) oriented (Ethics) toward (Dynamic Time) a pristine equilibrium (Design. It is an elaborated cognitive historical anthropological equivalent, of the 'restored symmetry in the Big Bang vision', in theoretical physics. At the same time it is an elaboration of a computational vision of the material universe, as a 'classroom board', working as a flash memory for the teacher, to develop algebraic equations for his students till the final result. After the lesson ends, we would have had the creative mind of the teacher marking with chalk the blackboard and leaving a material storyboard of the cognitive stages of the equation - a sort of logic world map - that, through intrinsic logic energy, would lead to the final result: whose design finally implements the pristine creative idea of the teacher, who feels then calm, quiet, having been his duty accomplished. These are very simple visionary metaphors of how 'Reality's Clockwork' can be represented in the 3rd millennium. At the same time those metaphors help a wide non-specialized audience to understand the Chrono Logic' concepts. As Kuhn explained "it is a revolutionary cognitive jump', useful to stimulate new ways in the empirical researches. The major achievement is 'the link between Logic and Time', before physical concepts like Energy, Matter, Mass, Space are involved. Such a 'privileged position' of Logic and Time, has been consolidated after the limits of the theoretical physics occurred in the 20th century. As an instance: Einstein 'spacetime' theory ended on a dead alley, and could not realistically explain the dimensions and the timing of the universe, letting the door open to all kind of literary physics, even by well seasoned academics like Stephen Hawking. If a Sistine Chapel portrait of the universe has no better technique than painting, than it is better to call a complex artist like Michelangelo, while humankind waits for a Galileo Galilei to give a more coherent portrait. If a new Copernican world map was not yet ready, a Christopher Columbus was welcome to tell the 'tale of the western way to the Indies', as long as he could get financed by the Spanish Queen the 'discovery' of the Americas. History has not changed much since 1500. It is just a past time of 500 years, in a world where many people - like Prof. Fabretti - have been living in an eight hundred years old intact apartment in Viterbo, or wakes up in Rome facing a two thousand years old stadium called Colosseum. The nickname 'Coliseum' was first attributed to the Flavian Amphitheater by an erudite English monk of the 8th century, called 'Venerable Bede', who also stated that "world will last until Coliseum will stand". Indeed he had to come to Rome to get a 'worldvision', because Rome was, and still is, a place "where Time happens", and Colosseum still symbolizes today, to millions of tourists, 'The Temple of All Times'. Not by chance Prof. Fabretti - who used, when he was a child, to play 'hide-and-seek' and football inside the Colosseum - wrote an essay entitled "The Chronosseum", to add his 'chronologic' nickname to that of the English monk Bede in the 8th century. "Time is where space happens. And it is time to shape space, in the history of the universe, whose movie in the 'present' is just a still frame": it is how Fabretti puts it in his 'Chrono Logic vision'.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1301.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-04 19:34:14

How Et, or an Intelligent Robot from the Future, Might Interpret Science and Maths

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 6 Pages.

This suggests Lavoisier was correct to include heat and light in his list of the known elements. They aren't matter but they contribute to the formation of matter, according to quantum mechanics and the rewriting of Einstein's famous equation as m=E/c^2 (with our understanding of space-time being increasingly dominated by the Theory of Everything, it's important not to limit investigations to the material world but to consider matter's relation to energy ... and to the 4 fundamental forces). As we'll see, this more integrated way of viewing the universe leaves no room for the Standard Model's version of the Higgs field and boson. As well, it requires us to take another look at cosmology's Steady State theory and to reconsider 1) electroweak unification, and 2) quarks (Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow wrote on p.49 of their book "The Grand Design", "It is certainly possible that some alien beings ... would make the same experimental observations that we do, but describe them without quarks." So I’ll try to become a Little Green Man and describe quarks, and everything from quantum physics to the origin of life to cosmology, in a way that agrees with science’s observations but is also “alien”.) The words “Supplementary Material” in the text refer to material which is in no way essential to this article but merely additional, non-required, reading. It’s my earlier viXra submission “How the Pioneer anomaly refines Einstein's gravitation / space-time; and how equations he developed in 1919 show that the space warping in General Relativity extends to subatomic particles …”
Category: General Science and Philosophy