General Science and Philosophy

1401 Submissions

[9] viXra:1401.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-28 11:43:21

Approach to solve P vs PSPACE with Collapse of Logarithmic and Polynomial Space

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article describes about that P is not PSPACE. If P is PSPACE, we can derive P is L from relation of logarithm and polynomial reduction. But this result contracit Space Hierarchy Theorem. Therefore P is not PSPACE.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8] viXra:1401.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-27 14:36:58

Philosophy of Time

Authors: Zan kaon
Comments: 1 Page.

A new Nature of Time model
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7] viXra:1401.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-26 09:01:02

Symmetry as Turing Machine - Approach to solve P vs NP

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 3 Pages.

This article describes about that P is not NP by using difference of symmetry. Turing Machine (TM) change configuration by using transition functions. This changing keep halting configuration. That is, TM classify these configuration into equivalence class. The view of equivalence class, there are different between P and coNP. Some coNP problem have over polynomial size totally order inputs. These problem cannot reduce P because these totally order must keep. Therefore we cannot reduce some coNP problem to P problem. This means P is not NP.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1401.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-23 09:11:42

Restructuring for a Biennial FIFA World Cup

Authors: Thomas Alexander Meyer
Comments: 8 Pages.

The FIFA World Cup is a quadrennial tournament staged every four years with a three year qualification/draw process. I propose here a biennial format of the FIFA World Cup that has a six month qualification process and no draws. Pure genius!
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:1401.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-08 05:41:51

On the Ethical Dimensions of Artificial Moral Agents Following the Principles of Jus In Bello (Justice in War)

Authors: Emmanuel A. Gonzalez
Comments: 17 Pages.

In the past decade, research on the philosophy and the development of artificial moral agents (AMAs) have increased in order to seek for the implementation of moral decision-making faculties basically in machines—computers, robots, etc. Because of this, ethical reasoning becomes one of the primary challenges computer scientists, engineers, and philosophers are trying to solve—by developing an ethical dimension that can be incorporated in a machine so that it can make decisions on its own subjected to ethical and morality issues. However, when this ethical dimension is implemented in autonomous weapon systems (AWSs) such as cruise missiles, torpedoes, uninhabited/unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and uninhabited/unmanned combat aerial vehicles (UCAVs), difficulty and confusion arise due to the question of who should hold responsible when the AWS itself is involved in an atrocity that would normally be described as a war crime under the principle of jus in bello—rules concerning acceptable practices while engaged in war. Thus, this paper presents a solution to the problem which is by incorporating artificial morality into the AWSs making them AMAs. Literatures supporting the possibility of incorporating an ethical dimension that is able to consider moral principles to be applied in AWSs are also presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1401.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-07 23:38:52

How Paul Mccartney Wrote the Song Yesterday

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 2 Pages.

In 1964, Paul McCartney wrote “Yesterday”, which has been called the best song of the 20th century and the No. 1 pop song of all time. The song was originally recorded by the Beatles for their 1965 album “Help!” Paul has said that, after he wrote it, he felt as though the song already existed. This is perhaps the most famous example in modern times of the “déjà vu” we’ve all experienced at some time. No doubt, it’s also closely related to the dreams and inexplicable inspirations that have aided the work of musicians, scientists and inventors throughout the centuries (and continues in the present). Did Albert Einstein explain this phenomenon when he told us that space-time is warped?
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1401.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-07 13:54:19

The 5th Dimension Conceptual Model, Unabridged

Authors: Luis Sancho
Comments: 582 Pages.

Reality has a 5th dimension of spatial size or 'energy' and speed of temporal clocks that carry the information of the Universe in its frequency and form. Both parameters are inverted: when systems grow in size the speed of its clocks, its ‘time cycles’, diminish proportionally, both in biological and physical systems. And vice versa. Smaller clocks tick faster and information processing carried by the frequency of those cycles accelerates, as it happens in chips, particles or life metabolism. Yet the product of the speed of time of Nature's clocks that process information (Ti) and its spatial-energetic size, Se remains the same across those scales: This fact defines the metrics of the 5th dimension: Se x Ti=K. This paper-book summons up 20 years of research in the formalism and conceptual meaning of the 5th dimension: In the first part, we introduce the Fractal Universe, structured across the 5th dimension and the life-death cycle of all its entities, which exist traveling through 3 scales of the 5th dimension (so for example, we human beings live through 3 scales, the cellular, seminal scale, the organic scale and the social scale, before we return back to the cellular level in the process of death.) In the second part we introduce both, its mathematical formalism, which redefines the 5 postulates of non-euclidean geometry and its logic formalism, which defines 5 arrows of time, one for each Dimension, creating a ternary logic of multiple causality and complex symmetries. Then we use this upgraded mathematical and logic formalism to define the co-invariant laws of motion and form that all systems of the Universe follow, as they exist through those scales. We show this to be the case for the main species of reality, from strings to the Universe as a whole; from the simplest molecule to the more complex society. Finally in the III and IV part we study physical and biological systems under those invariant laws, resolving most of the questions unanswered by previous, simpler 4D formalisms. In other papers, available at viXra we apply those laws also to the study of social and historic cycles, as humans also obey the same co-invariances of all Complementary systems of energy and information, made to the image and likeness of the whole.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1401.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-05 06:49:12

The Logic of Creation: Non-AE Fractal Universes

Authors: luis Sancho
Comments: 142 Pages.

We are all systems of spatial energy and temporal information that combine to create the infinite actions and systems of the Universe. In the jargon of physics we talk of clocks of cyclical time that carry in their frequency the information of the Universe – charges and masses – moved by fields of energy that occupy a certain vacuum space. In biology we talk of heads, brains and cellular nuclei that process information, moved by bodies and cytoplasm. Each system will display a certain type of ‘spatial energy’ or ‘vital space’ and process information with a different network of logic paths, though particles, genes, chips or brains, but all those systems will obey to certain laws natural to the 2 formal motions that ultimate explain the game of ‘creation and extinction’ of systems of energy and information, which is the dynamic universe. Physical systems are always made with a field of energy and a particle of information and one cannot exist without the other (complementary principle of quantum physics). Biological beings are also made with a head of information and a body that processes energy and moves it – or in cellular organisms, with a nucleus of DNA-information and a cytoplasmic body that moves it. Sociological systems are divided into networks of upper class cells/citizens who control the languages of information of society and its working, body class that reproduces the products the body needs to survive. All those systems and many more systems studied by all type of sciences, arts and religions can now be understood with self-similar laws derived of the General Laws of all Universal, Complementary systems of energy and information, E<=>I And General Systems Sciences, also called Complexity is the XXI century discipline that researches those laws. In this paper we explain the structure of the Universe made of similar networks of energy and information, which are the 2 components of all its complementary beings of space-time that ’exi=st’, as parts of more complex systemic networks, which become units of bigger wholes, building the scales of the fractal Universe, from the simplest particles that become parts of atoms that become parts of molecules, parts of cells, planets and stars parts of galaxies, parts of Universes.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1401.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-04 19:21:40

Frate cu Meridianele si Paralele, Vol. Vii

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 109 Pages.

Volumul cuprinde călătoriile autorului în perioada 2011-2013 la Bucureşti pentru a primi Premiul „Traian Vuia” al Academiei Române, apoi la o conferinţă în Columbus (Ohio), mini-excursii în deşertul din Arizona şi New Mexico, relatarea teribilului său accident de maşină pe autostradă în care putea să-şi piardă viaţa, apoi în România cu o delegaţie de profesori chinezi, şi la conferinţele internaţionale din Istanbul şi Beijing. Addenda fotografică dă culoare acestei carţi memorialistice.
Category: General Science and Philosophy