General Science and Philosophy

1510 Submissions

[6] viXra:1510.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-30 14:32:31

Falsification or Confirmation: From Logic to Psychology

Authors: Roman Lukyanenko
Comments: 7 Pages.

Corroboration or confirmation is a prominent philosophical debate of the 20th century. Many philosophers have been involved in this debate most notably the proponents of confirmation led by Hempel and its most powerful criticism by the falsificationists led by Popper. In both cases however the debates were primarily based on the arguments from logic. In this paper we review these debates and suggest that a different perspective on falsification versus confirmation can be taken by grounding arguments in cognitive psychology
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:1510.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-23 18:21:20

About to Refute Second Law of Thermodynamic

Authors: Santoszambrano Agudo
Comments: 1 Page. dictado a texto en español, sera mejorado y en ingles a la mayor brevedad posible

HOW REFUTE 2º LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1510.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-23 11:55:54

Application of High-Frequency Gravitational Waves to the Cataclysmic Event of Our First Encounter with Intelligent Extraterrestrial Beings

Authors: Robert M L Baker Jr, Bonnie Sue Baker
Comments: 41 Pages.

Three advances are proposed as a pathway to the cataclysmic event of our first encounter with intelligent extraterrestrial Beings. First, discovery of very large numbers of extraterrestrial planets, “Exoplanets” (approximately 1023 in our Universe); second, introduction of electronic components into the human body evolving into a cybernetic and biological “cyborg,” a model for an extraterrestrial Being. Cyborgs might allow advanced civilizations to endure hundreds of thousands of years and third, the recent development of high-frequency gravitational wave (HFGW) detectors; the communication means of choice for an advanced, cyborg civilization since they are not easily absorbed like electromagnetic radiation. Six HFGW detectors are presented for application to our first encounter with intelligent extraterrestrial Beings. Numerical estimates are made for the failure of extraterrestrial civilizations such that no two exist at the same time (Fermi’s Paradox). It is concluded that there might remain at least ≈ 1.48x10^8 Worlds intercommunicating with HFGWs at any one time in any one region of our Universe. We predict the form of such Beings by an imaginary projection of the evolution of “Earthling” homo sapiens to become “cyborgs.” We propose that such cyborg forms of intelligent Beings would be encountered by us. The first cataclysmic encounter with them is expected to be interception of their interstellar communications. The predicted frequency of intercepted messages under one set of assumptions is at least 1,500 per day. After decoding the intercepted messages, keys may be found to improve vastly the present and future quality of life for us earthlings. Advanced Beings might utilize direct brain-to-brain communication and it is concluded that research into brain-to-brain communication and HFGW detection be encouraged.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1510.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-14 02:58:55

Symbolic Neutrosophic Theory

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 194 Pages.

Symbolic (or Literal) Neutrosophic Theory is referring to the use of abstract symbols (i.e. the letters T, I, F, or their refined indexed letters Tj, Ik, Fl) in neutrosophics. In the first chapter we extend the dialectical triad thesis-antithesis-synthesis (dynamics of and , to get a synthesis) to the neutrosophic tetrad thesis-antithesis-neutrothesis-neutrosynthesis (dynamics of , , and , in order to get a neutrosynthesis). In the second chapter we introduce the neutrosophic system and neutrosophic dynamic system. A neutrosophic system is a quasi- or (t,i,f)–classical system, in the sense that the neutrosophic system deals with quasi-terms/concepts/attributes, etc. [or (t,i,f)-terms/concepts/attributes], which are approximations of the classical terms/concepts/attributes, i.e. they are partially true/membership/probable (t%), partially indeterminate (i%), and partially false/nonmembership/improbable (f%), where t,i,f are subsets of the unitary interval [0,1]. In the third chapter we introduce for the first time the notions of Neutrosophic Axiom, Neutrosophic Deducibility, Neutrosophic Axiomatic System, Degree of Contradiction (Dissimilarity) of Two Neutrosophic Axioms, etc. The fourth chapter we introduced for the first time a new type of structures, called (t, i, f)-Neutrosophic Structures, presented from a neutrosophic logic perspective, and we showed particular cases of such structures in geometry and in algebra. In any field of knowledge, each structure is composed from two parts: a space, and a set of axioms (or laws) acting (governing) on it. If the space, or at least one of its axioms (laws), has some indeterminacy of the form (t, i, f) ≠ (1, 0, 0), that structure is a (t, i, f)-Neutrosophic Structure. In the fifth chapter we make a short history of: the neutrosophic set, neutrosophic numerical components and neutrosophic literal components, neutrosophic numbers, etc. The aim of this chapter is to construct examples of splitting the literal indeterminacy (I) into literal sub-indeterminacies (I1,I2,…,Ir), and to define a multiplication law of these literal sub-indeterminacies in order to be able to build refined I-neutrosophic algebraic structures. In the sixth chapter we define for the first time three neutrosophic actions and their properties. We then introduce the prevalence order on {T,I,F} with respect to a given neutrosophic operator “o”, which may be subjective - as defined by the neutrosophic experts. And the refinement of neutrosophic entities , , and . Then we extend the classical logical operators to neutrosophic literal (symbolic) logical operators and to refined literal (symbolic) logical operators, and we define the refinement neutrosophic literal (symbolic) space. In the seventh chapter we introduce for the first time the neutrosophic quadruple numbers (of the form a+bT+cI+dF) and the refined neutrosophic quadruple numbers. Then we define an absorbance law, based on a prevalence order, both of them in order to multiply the neutrosophic components T,I,F or their sub-components T_j,I_k,F_l and thus to construct the multiplication of neutrosophic quadruple numbers.
Category:
General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1510.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-14 13:02:10

Gravity of Subjectivity

Authors: evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 7 Pages.

This work is based on quantum modification of the general relativity, which includes effects of production /absorption of gravitons by the vacuum. It turns out, that gravitons created and continued to influence the universe, including people. The theory (without fitting parameters) is in good quantitative agreement with cosmological observations. In this theory we got an interface between gravitons and ordinary matter, which very likely exist not only in cosmos, but everywhere, including our body and, especially, our brain. Subjective experiences are considered as a manifestation of that interface. This opens a possibility of a "communication" with gravitons. Probable applications of these ideas include health (brain stimulation), communication, computational capabilities and energy resources. Social consequences of these ideas can be comparable with the effects of invention and application of electricity.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1510.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-05 06:09:38

Ghosts in the Attic.

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 82 Pages.

In one of the best-known stories of Arthurian Legend, Lancelot falls in love with Queen Guinevere, King Arthur's wife. For a long time, Guinevere kept Lancelot away from her; however, the passion overpowered and the pair became lovers. One night, a band of knights forced the doors to Guinevere's chamber where they burst in upon the lovers. Lancelot manage to escape, but Guinevere is seized and condemned to burn to death for her adultery. Of course, Lancelot returned to rescue his beloved Guinevere from the fire.
Category: General Science and Philosophy