General Science and Philosophy

1608 Submissions

[43] viXra:1608.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 03:49:12

The Scientific Age: Protocol

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

Category: General Science and Philosophy

[42] viXra:1608.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:50:00

Analysis of DSm Belief Conditioning Rules and Extension of Their Applicability

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 22 Pages.

Analysis of belief conditioning rules (BCRs) is presented in this chapter. Some simplifications of formulas for BCRs are suggested. A comparison of BCRs with classic rules of conditioning is performed. Finally, definition domains and applicability of BCRs are extended. Full formal definition of the extended version of BCR12 is presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[41] viXra:1608.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:51:33

Attribute Information Evaluation in C&C Systems

Authors: Ksawery Krenc, Adam Kawalec
Comments: 25 Pages.

This chapter describes what particular pieces of information about a source should be taken into account in order to get a reasonable assessment of an attribute information retrieved based on the sensor data or human originated information. It has been proven that actual sensor weights and hypotheses masses do not change randomly, but they vary in time according to tracked target motion, however not directly to the target position. It is postulated that the knowledge about target position only is insufficient and at least two dynamical coordinates target state vectors are required to reflect the target orientation, which has an influence on actual hypotheses assessment formed, on the basis of the sensor data or visual sightings.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[40] viXra:1608.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:52:34

Automatic Goal Allocation for a Planetary Rover with DSmT

Authors: Massimiliano Vasile, Matteo Ceriotti
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose an approach for assigning an interest level to the goals of a planetary rover. Assigning an interest level to goals, allows the rover to autonomously transform and reallocate the goals. The interest level is defined by data-fusing payload and navigation information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[39] viXra:1608.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:53:24

Definition of Evidence Fusion Rules Based on Referee Functions

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 32 Pages.

This chapter defines a new concept and framework for constructing fusion rules for evidences. This framework is based on a referee function, which does a decisional arbitrament conditionally to basic decisions provided by the several sources of information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[38] viXra:1608.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:55:18

Fusion of Esm Allegiance Reports Using DSmT

Authors: Pascal Djiknavorian, Pierre Valin, Dominic Grenier
Comments: 17 Pages.

Electronic Support Measures consist of passive receivers which can identify emitters coming from a small bearing angle, which, in turn, can be related to platforms that belong to 3 classes: either Friend, Neutral, or Hostile.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[37] viXra:1608.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:56:33

Implementing General Belief Function Framework with a Practical Codification for Low Complexity

Authors: Arnaud Martin
Comments: 58 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose a new practical codification of the elements of the Venn diagram in order to easily manipulate the focal elements. In order to reduce the complexity, the eventual constraints must be integrated in the codification at the beginning.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[36] viXra:1608.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:57:25

Improvement of Multiple Ground Targets Tracking with Fusion of Identification Attributes

Authors: Benjamin Pannetier, Jean Dezert
Comments: 31 Pages.

Multiple ground targets (MGT) tracking is a challenging problem in real environment. Advanced algorithms include exogeneous information like road network and terrain topography.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[35] viXra:1608.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 05:58:42

Information Fusion for Natural Hazards in Mountains

Authors: Jean-Marc Tacnet, Mireille Batton-Hubert, Jean Dezert
Comments: 96 Pages.

From a real case application based on snow-avalanche risk management, an integrated framework mixing evidential reasoning and multi-criteria decision analysis (ER-MCDA) is proposed. This methodology considers a simplified decision sorting problem based on qualitative and quantitative criteria on which more or less reliable sources provide uncertain and imprecise evaluations.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[34] viXra:1608.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:00:15

Map Regenerating Forest Stands Based on DST and DSmT Combination Rules

Authors: Brice Mora, Richard A. Fournier, Samuel Foucher
Comments: 20 Pages.

Our results demonstrated the ability of the Free Dezert-Smarandache (DSm) model to improve thematic classification of forest regeneration overthe use of Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) and a classical Maximum Likelihood Algorithm (MLA).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[33] viXra:1608.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:01:45

Multimodal Information Retrieval Based on DSmT. Application to Computeraided Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Gwenole Quellec, Mathieu Lamard, Guy Cazuguel, Beatrice Cochener, Christian Roux
Comments: 33 Pages.

We propose in this chapter a content-based information retrieval framework to select documents in a database, consisting of several images with semantic information. Information in these documents is not only heterogeneous, but also often incomplete.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[32] viXra:1608.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:02:46

Multiple Cameras Fusion Based on DSmT for Tracking Objects on Ground Plane

Authors: Esteban Garcia, Leopoldo Altamirano
Comments: 15 Pages.

This chapter presents comparative results of a model for multiple cameras fusion, which is based on Dezert-Smarandache theory of evidence. Our architecture works at the decision level to track objects on a ground plane using predefined zones, producing useful information for surveillance tasks such as behavior recognition.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[31] viXra:1608.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:03:42

Non-Numeric Labels and Constrained Focal Elements

Authors: Christophe Osswald, Arnaud Martin
Comments: 24 Pages.

The theory of belief functions allows to build a large family of combination operators, based mostly on intersections and unions between the focal elements expressed by the experts, and multiplications and additions on the masses affected to these focal elements.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[30] viXra:1608.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:04:41

Performance Evaluation of a Tracking Algorithm Including Attribute Data

Authors: Jean Dezert, Albena Tchamova, Ludmil Bojilov, Pavlina Konstantinova
Comments: 14 Pages.

The main objective of this work is to investigate the impact of the quality of attribute data source on the performance of a target tracking algorithm.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[29] viXra:1608.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:05:48

Satellite Image Fusion Using Dezert-Smarandache Theory

Authors: Abdenour Bouakache, Aichouche Belhadj-Aissa, Gregoire Mercier
Comments: 17 Pages.

Free and hybrid models of multisource satellite images fusion are developed using the plausible and paradoxical reasoning theory of Dezert-Smarandache. The aim of this work is to show the contribution of these fusion models for improving the thematic classification and the quantification of change.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[28] viXra:1608.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 06:06:53

Utilizing Classifier Conflict for Sensor Management and User Interaction

Authors: Willem L. van Norden, Catholijn M. Jonker
Comments: 17 Pages.

This chapter describes how the conflict encountered by the PCR6 rule can be utilized in sensor management. We therefore discuss the classification model that is used in the fusion problem and two different types of conflict. To enable operators to exert constraints on singletons we propose a (slightly) altered PCR6 rule, dubbed PCR6a. We show how the algorithm works and we illustrate how the amount of conflict can be used for sensor management and/or for operator feedback by using an example.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[27] viXra:1608.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:15:19

A Class of Fusion Rules Based on the Belief Redistribution to Subsets or Complements

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Arnaud Martin, Jean Dezert
Comments: 24 Pages.

In this chapter we present a class of fusion rules based on the redistribution of the conflicting or even non-conflicting masses to the subsets or to the complements of the elements involved in the conflict proportionally with respect to their masses or/and cardinals. At the end, these rules are presented in a more general theoretical way including explicitly the reliability of each source of evidence. Some examples are also provided.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[26] viXra:1608.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:16:34

An Introduction to DSmT

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 72 Pages.

The management and combination of uncertain, imprecise, fuzzy and even paradoxical or highly conflicting sources of information has always been, and still remains today, of primal importance for the development of reliable modern information systems involving artificial reasoning. In this introduction, we present a survey of our recent theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning, known as Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT), developed for dealing with imprecise, uncertain and conflicting sources of information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[25] viXra:1608.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:19:03

Fusion of Qualitative Information Using Imprecise 2 Tuple Labels

Authors: Xinde Li, Xinhan Huang, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Li Duan
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this chapter, Herrera-Mart´ınez’ 2-tuple linguistic representation model is extended for combining imprecise qualitative information using fusion rules drawn from Dezert-Smarandache Theory (DSmT) or from Dempster-Shafer Theory (DST) frameworks.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[24] viXra:1608.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:20:08

New Fusion Rules for Solving Blackman’s Association Problem

Authors: Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages.

This chapter presents a new approach for solving the paradoxical Blackman’s association problem. It utilizes a new class of fusion rules based on fuzzy T-conorm/T-norm operators together with Dezert-Smarandache theory and the relative variations of generalized pignistic probabilities measure of correct associations defined from a partial ordering function of hyper-power set.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[23] viXra:1608.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:21:22

Object Identification Using T-Conorm/norm Fusion Rule

Authors: Albena Tchamova, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages.

This small chapter presents an approach providing fast reduction of total ignorance in the process of target identification. It utilizes the recently defined fusion rule based on fuzzy T-conorm/Tnorm operators, as well as all the available information from the adjoint sensor and additional information obtained from the a priori defined objective and subjective considerations, concerning relationships between the attribute components at different levels of abstraction. The approach performance is estimated on the base of the pignistic probabilities according to the nature of the objects considered here.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[22] viXra:1608.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:22:28

Probabilistic PCR6 Fusion Rule

Authors: Frederic Dambreville, Francis Celeste, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 25 Pages.

This chapter defines and implements a non-Bayesian fusion rule for combining densities of probabilities, derived from imprecise knowledge.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21] viXra:1608.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:23:17

Target Type Tracking with DSmP

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Albena Tchamova, Pavlina Konstantinova
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this chapter we analyze the performances of a new probabilistic belief transformation, denoted DSmP, for the sequential estimation of target ID from classifier outputs in the Target Type Tracking problem (TTT).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[20] viXra:1608.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 06:27:29

Transformations of Belief Masses Into Subjective Probabilities

Authors: Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 53 Pages.

In this chapter, we propose in the DSmT framework, a new probabilistic transformation, called DSmP, in order to build a subjective probability measure from any basic belief assignment defined on any model of the frame of discernment.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19] viXra:1608.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:00:20

Comparison Between DSm and Minc Combination Rules

Authors: Milan Daniel
Comments: 20 Pages.

Both DSm and minC rules of combination endeavor to process conflicts among combined beliefs better. The nature of conflicts as well as their processing during the belief combination is sketched. An presentation of the minC combination,an alternative to Dempster’s rule of combination, follows. Working domains, structures and mechanisms of the DSm and minC combination rules are compared in the body of this chapter. Finally, some comparative examples are presented.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18] viXra:1608.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:01:33

Conflict Free Rule for Combining Evidences

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 29 Pages.

Recent works have investigated the problem of the conflict redistribution in the fusion rules of evidence theories. As a consequence of these works, many new rules have been proposed. Now, there is not a clear theoretical criterion for a choice of a rule instead another. The present chapter proposes a new theoretically grounded rule, based on a new concept of sensor independence. This new rule avoids the conflict redistribution, by an adaptive combination of the beliefs. Both the logical grounds and the algorithmic implementation are considered.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[17] viXra:1608.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:04:50

Florentin Smarandache: Mă Consider om de știință, Dar în Aceeași Măsură și om de Cultură

Authors: Ion Paraianu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Să vorbești despre Florentin Smarandache, trebuie să ai curajul unui luptător,care, când intră în ring, să fie sigur de victorie, ceea ce, în cazul de față, nu se poate. Florentin Smarandache nu poate fi învins !
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16] viXra:1608.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:08:08

Generalized Data Association for Multitarget Tracking in Clutter

Authors: A. Tchamova, T. Semerdjiev, P. Konstantinova, Jean Dezert
Comments: 23 Pages.

The objective of this chapter is to present an approach for target tracking in cluttered environment, which incorporates the advanced concept of generalized data (kinematics and attribute) association (GDA) to improve track maintenance performance in complicated situations (closely spaced and/or crossing targets), when kinematics data are insufficient for correct decision making. It uses Global Nearest Neighbour-like approach and Munkres algorithm to resolve the generalized association matrix.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15] viXra:1608.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:09:26

Generalized Proportional Conflict Redistribution Rule Applied to Sonar Imagery and Radar Targets Classification

Authors: Arnaud Martin, Christophe Osswald
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this chapter, we present two applications in information fusion in order to evaluate the generalized proportional conflict redistribution rule presented in chapter [7]. Most of the time the combination rules are evaluated only on simple examples. We study here different combination rules and compare them in terms of decision on real data. Indeed, in real applications, we need a reliable decision and it is the final results that matter. Two applications are presented here: a fusion of human experts opinions on the kind of underwater sediments depicted on a sonar image and a classifier fusion for radar targets recognition.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14] viXra:1608.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:11:56

Neutrosophic Frameworks for Situation Analysis

Authors: Anne-Laure Jousselme, Patrick Maupin
Comments: 34 Pages.

In situation analysis, an agent observing a scene receives information from heterogeneous sources of information including for example remote sensing devices,human reports and databases.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[13] viXra:1608.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:13:14

On Conjunctive and Disjunctive Combination Rules of Evidence

Authors: Hongyan Sun, Mohamad Farooq
Comments: 31 Pages.

In this chapter, the Dempster-Shafer (DS) combination rule is examined based on the multi-valued mapping (MVM) and the product combination rule of multiple independent sources of information. The shortcomings in DS rule are correctly interpreted via the product combination rule of MVM. Based on these results, a new justification of the disjunctive rule is proposed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[12] viXra:1608.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:15:25

Power and Resource Aware Distributed Smart Fusion

Authors: Shubha Kadambe
Comments: 28 Pages.

Large distributed sensor networks (DSN) with disparate sensors, processors and wireless communication capabilities are being developed for a variety of commercial and military applications.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[11] viXra:1608.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:16:28

Pre-Boolean Algebra, Ordered DSmT and DSm Continuous Models

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 24 Pages.

When implementing the DSmT, a difficulty may arise from the possible huge dimension of hyper-power sets, which are indeed free structures. However, it is possible to reduce the dimension of these structures by involving logical constraints. In this chapter, the logical constraints will be related to a predefined order over the logical propositions.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10] viXra:1608.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:17:22

Probabilized Logics Related to DSmT and Bayes Inference

Authors: Frederic Dambreville
Comments: 28 Pages.

This work proposes a logical interpretation of the non hybrid Dezert Smarandache Theory (DSmT). As probability is deeply related to a classical semantic, it appears that DSmT relies on an alternative semantic of decision.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9] viXra:1608.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:18:31

Reducing DSmT Hybrid Rule Complexity Through Optimization of the Calculation Algorithm

Authors: Pascal Djiknavorian, Dominic Grenier
Comments: 67 Pages.

The work covered here had for objective to write a MatlabTM program able to execute efficiently the DSmT hybrid rule of combination. As we know the DSmT hybrid rule of combination is highly complex to execute and requires high amounts of resources. We have introduced a novel way of understanding and treating the rule of combination and thus were able to develop a MatlabTM program that would avoid the high level of complexity and resources needs.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8] viXra:1608.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:20:33

Scientia Magna

Authors: A. A. K. Majumdar
Comments: 59 Pages.

Scientia Magna is a peer-reviewed, open access journal that publishes original research articles in all areas of mathematics and mathematical sciences. However, papers related to Smarandache’s problems will be highly preferred.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7] viXra:1608.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 02:21:52

Scientia Magna, International Book Series (Vol. 11, No. 1)

Authors: Huaning Liu
Comments: 60 Pages.

Scientia Magna international book series publish original research articles in all areas of mathematics and mathematical sciences. However, papers related to Smarandache’s problems will be highly preferred.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1608.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:09:46

Quantization of Photonic Energy and Photonic Wave Length

Authors: Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Eran Sinbar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Assuming that space is quantized by Planck-length, we show that Mass and Velocity of elementary particles as well as photonic energy must be also quantized. Furthermore, since the photonic energy is quantized it is a type of discrete function and might be measured from observations of energetic cosmological photonic radiations or even with the Large Hadron Collider in CERN (LHC). Such successful measurements can prove that space is quantized. Once assuming that space-time is quantized it obviously raises the question what is there between the Planck-length quanta pieces of space. We suggest a new theory claiming that between the quantum cells there are extra non local grid like dimensions that divide space and connect all the pieces together. These non-local new dimensions might explain today's Quantum Theory's non-local phenomena’s like Schrodinger’s probability wave instant collapse all over space, entanglement, etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:1608.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-14 18:16:50


Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

An attempt of a general definition of beauty
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1608.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-11 19:49:53

The Mobility, Volume and Gravity Principles of Life Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Three Principles of life formation are presented according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1608.0099 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-06 08:46:55

The Logical Structure of Philosophy Psychology, Mind and Language in Wittgenstein and Searle

Authors: Michael Starks
Comments: 81 Pages. newest version 11/6/16

I provide a critical survey of some of the major findings of Wittgenstein and Searle on the logical structure of intentionality (mind, language, behavior), taking as my starting point Wittgenstein’s fundamental discovery –that all truly ‘philosophical’ problems are the same—confusions about how to use language in a particular context, and so all solutions are the same—looking at how language can be used in the context at issue so that its truth conditions (Conditions of Satisfaction or COS) are clear. The basic problem is that one can say anything but one cannot mean (state clear COS for) any arbitrary utterance and meaning is only possible in a very specific context. I begin with ‘On Certainty’ and continue the analysis of recent writings by and about them from the perspective of the two systems of thought, employing a new table of intentionality and new dual systems nomenclature.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1608.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-06 05:30:59

The Phenomenon of a Transfer of the Consciousness Structure by View and the Concept of Alive Matter

Authors: Yu. N. Bratkov
Comments: 8 pages, Russian. Consciousness and physical reality, 2004, v. 9, N 4, p. 51-56.

The event of a transference of the consciousness structure from one person to another using the sight is described. A detected side result is discussed: by some people matter is perceived as alive.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1608.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 05:56:56

Computing Machinery, Intelligence and Undecidability

Authors: P. Castro
Comments: 6 Pages.

In 1950 Alan Turing proposed a decision criteria for intelligence validation in a computer. Most simply if a human judge was incapable of deciding from two witnesses which was the computer and which was the human, the machine would have acquired artificial intelligence. In this paper I will argue that the Turing test has a fundamental problem, making it impossible to provide human intelligence validation. Furthermore I will reason that all empirical tests destined to identify intelligence behavior cannot provide an answer and that consequently artificial intelligence identification is an undecidable problem. Since this must mean that there is no algorithmic procedure tolist humanely intelligent systems, it must also mean that human intelligence is not computable and therefore that there is no pragmatic theory one can write to build an humanely intelligent robot.
Category: General Science and Philosophy