General Science and Philosophy

1612 Submissions

[26] viXra:1612.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 16:18:02

Use of Bayesian Belief Networks in Predicting Contamination of Drinking Water with e. Coli in Rural Vietnam.

Authors: David C. Hall, Quynh Ba Le
Comments: 11 Pages.

A Bayesian Belief Network (BBN) was designed to describe association between various deterministic and probabilistic variables gathered from 600 small scale integrated (SSI) farmers in Vietnam. The variables relate to E. coli content of their drinking water, sourced on-farm from wells and rain water. Sensitivity analysis of the model revealed that choice variables were particularly likely to influence endpoint values, reflecting the highly variable and impactful nature of preferences, attitudes, and beliefs relating to mitigation strategies. This BBN model of SSI farming in Vietnam is helpful to understanding the complexity of small scale agriculture as well as for identifying and estimating impact of policy options, particularly where combined with other analytical and policy tools. With appropriate knowledge translation, the model results will be particularly useful for helping SSI farmers understand their options for engaging in water public health mitigation strategies that do not disrupt their chosen livelihoods.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[25] viXra:1612.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-31 16:39:19

Mitigation of Water Related Zoonotic Diseases on Small-Scale Integrated Farms in Vietnam.

Authors: Quynh Ba Le, David C. Hall
Comments: 23 Pages.

The goals of this study were to 1) assess basic microbial and other quality indicators of drinking and domestic water and 2) identify factors associated with E. coli contamination of drinking and domestic water on 600 small-scale integrated (SSI) farms in the provinces of Thai Binh and An Giang in Vietnam. The cross-sectional study relied on questionnaires and on-farm water samples analyzed using standard methods from the Vietnam national protocol for water quality testing. Our results showed that SSI farmers frequently used water of poor quality contaminated with E. coli for domestic purposes. In Thai Binh for example, well water had a mean E. coli count of 356.5 cfu/100 mls. There were significant differences in the frequencies of use and the levels of E. coli contamination regarding water for domestic purposes between the two provinces. Analysis of associated factors revealed that socioeconomic status of farmers and their perceptions of risk factors for water related zoonotic disease (WRZD) transmission were significantly associated with E. coli contamination of domestic water. These findings would be informative in the course of formulation of water related interventions and policies, particularly for improving farmer awareness of risk factors for WRZD transmission and improvement of SSI farm water quality in general. Further research should explore farmers’ strategies to mitigate WRZD transmission and factors that may influence those strategies.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[24] viXra:1612.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 23:35:30

Why is there Something Rather Than Nothing?

Authors: Roger Granet
Comments: 13 Pages.

A solution to the question "Why is there something rather than nothing?" is proposed that also entails a proposed solution to the question "Why do things exist?". In brief, I propose that a thing exists if it is a grouping or relationship defining what is contained within. This grouping/relationship is equivalent to a surface, edge or boundary defining what is contained within and giving "substance" and existence to the thing. This thinking is used to resolve several mereological (study of parts and wholes) issues . Next, in regard to the question "Why is there something rather than nothing?", when we get rid of all existent entities including matter, energy, space/volume, time, abstract concepts, laws or constructs of physics and math as well as minds to consider this supposed lack of all, we think what is left is the lack of all existent entities, or "absolute nothing". But, try to visualize this situation. This "absolute lack-of-all", would be it; it would be the everything. It would be the entirety, or whole amount, of all that is present. That's it; that's everything. Is there anything else besides that "absolute nothing"? No. It's "nothing", and it is the all. An entirety, whole amount or "the all" is a grouping defining what is contained within and is therefore an enclosing surface and an existent entity. In other words, the supposed "absolute lack of all" defines all that is present and is, therefore, an existent entity. It defines itself and is the beginning point in the chain of being able to define existent entities in terms of other existent entities. The grouping/ edge of the absolute lack-of-all is not some separate thing; it is just the "entirety", or "the all" relationship, inherent in this absolute lack-of-all, that defines what is contained within. Finally, I use this conclusion to build a primitive model of the universe, which is made of existent entities, via what I refer to as a metaphysics-to-physics approach or philosophical engineering. It is argued that this type of thinking will allow faster progress towards a deeper understanding of the universe than the more top-down approach that physicists currently use.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[23] viXra:1612.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 10:42:16

HEIDEGGER’S Being and Quantum Vacuum

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 5 Pages.

A dialogue between Martin Heidegger and a theoretical physician, namely Richie, unveils the striking relationships between the philosophical concept of Being and the experimentally detectable quantum vacuum. We provide an account of long-standing theoretical issues, such Being, Entity, Existence and the unique role of the human Thoughts in the world, and expound their possible physical counterparts.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[22] viXra:1612.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-11 09:39:13

Lavelle's Dilemma: a Purposeful Life

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 15 Pages.

ABSTRACT: Science enriches us steadily with more and more knowledge about the workings of the universe, and it accomplishes this without invoking hypothetical gods as explanations. Still, it is a common assumption that the gods define what constitutes a purposeful life. Many followers of the gods are convinced that a purposeful life cannot exist without the gods to guarantee it; hence, denying the gods’ importance is equivalent to acknowledging that life is unpurposeful, an assumption that is here designated the Lavelle Consensus. Lavelle’s dilemma examines this consensus through the application of what is known as Euthyphro’s dilemma. The supporters of the Lavelle Consensus face a powerful dilemma: either a purposeful life rests on the gods’ arbitrary decisions, or the gods are not the originators of a purposeful life and life is therefore subject to an independent reality. Both horns of the dilemma compromise the need for the gods’ existence or reduce them to dictators without any right to command. Lavelle’s dilemma thus concerns itself with human beings’ freedom and purpose in life. If powerful beings command human beings, then they are not free; if powerful beings dictate purpose in life, then it is ipso facto not human beings’ purpose but their purpose. Thus, either an objective purposeful life exists, leaving science and philosophy to explain the content of this purpose, or a purposeful life is something all human beings are free to create themselves, which happens to be one of the purposes of philosophy.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[21] viXra:1612.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:28:49

Operations on Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: S. Broumi, F. Smarandache, M. Talea, A. Bakali
Comments: 24 Pages.

Combining the single valued neutrosophic set with graph theory, a new graph model emerges, called single valued neutrosophic graph. This model allows attaching the truth-membership (t), indeterminacy–membership (i) and falsity- membership degrees (f) both to vertices and edges. Combining the interval valued neutrosophic set with graph theory, a new graph model emerges, called interval valued neutrosophic graph. This model generalizes the fuzzy graph, intuitionistic fuzzy graph and single valued neutrosophic graph. In this paper, the authors define operations of Cartesian product, composition, union and join on interval valued neutrosophic graphs, and investigate some of their properties, with proofs and examples.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[20] viXra:1612.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:29:50

Role of Neutrosophic Logic in Data Mining

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper presents a data mining process of single valued neutrosophic information. This approach gives a presentation of data analysis common to all applications. Data mining depends on two main elements, namely the concept of similarity and the machine learning framework. It describes a lot of real world applications for the domains namely mathematical, medical, educational, chemical, multimedia etc.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[19] viXra:1612.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:30:49

Selection of Automated Guided Vehicle using Single Valued Neutrosophic Entropy Based Novel Multi Attribute Decision Making Technique

Authors: Nital P. Nirmal, Mangal G. Bhatt
Comments: 10 Pages.

Selection of material handling equipment for typical conditions and handling environment is one of the multi attribute decision making problem. The objective of the research paper is to implement and validate multi attribute selection of automated guided vehicle for material handling purpose. The present paper proposes a single valued neutrosophic set with entropy weight based multi attribute decision making technique. A proposed technique also works with more uncertainty, imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent information. The proposed methodology follows with the example for selection and ranking of automated guided vehicle and in validation and sensitivity analysis of the novel multi attribute decision making technique carried out. The result of the study builds assurance in suitability of single valued neutrosophic set entropy based novel multi attribute decision making for selection of automated guided vehicle alternatives.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[18] viXra:1612.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:31:57

Several Trigonometric Hamming Similarity Measures of Rough Neutrosophic Sets and their Applications in Decision Making

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

In 2014, Broumi et al. (S. Broumi, F. Smarandache, M. Dhar, Rough neutrosophic sets, Italian Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics, 32 (2014), 493-502.) introduced the notion of rough neutrosophic set by combining neutrosophic sets and rough sets, which has been a mathematical tool to deal with problems involving indeterminacy and incompleteness. The real world is full of indeterminacy. Naturally, real world decision making problem involves indeterminacy. Rough neutrosophic set is capable of describing and handling imprecise, indeterminate and inconsistent and incomplete information. This paper is devoted to propose several new similarity measures based on trigonometric hamming similarity operators of rough neutrosophic sets and their applications in decision making. We prove the required properties of the proposed similarity measures. To illustrate the applicability of the proposed similarity measures in decision making, an illustrative problem is solved.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[17] viXra:1612.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:33:45

Smooth Neutrosophic Preuniform Spaces

Authors: M. K. El Gayyar
Comments: 13 Pages.

As a new branch of philosophy, the neutrosophy was presented by Smarandache in 1998. It was presented as the study of origin, nature, and scope of neutralities; as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra. The aim of this paper is to introduce the concepts of smooth neutrosophic preuniform space, smooth neutrosophic preuniform subspace, and smooth neutrosophic preuniform mappings. Furthermore, some properties of these concepts will be investigated.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16] viXra:1612.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:34:46

Some Distance Measures of Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Sets and Their Applications to Multiple Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 8 Pages.

Single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set is a merged form of single-valued neutrosophic sets and hesitant fuzzy sets. This set is a useful tool to handle imprecise, incomplete and inconsistent information existing in multi-attribute decision making problems. In multi-attribute decision making, distance measures play an important role to take a decision regarding alternatives. In this paper we propose a variety of distance measures for single valued neutrosophic sets. Furthermore, we apply these measures to multi-attribute decision making problem with singlevalued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set environment to find out the best alternative. We provide an illustrative example to validate and to show fruitfulness of the proposed approach. Finally, we compare the proposed approach with other existing methods for solving multi-attribute decision making problems
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[15] viXra:1612.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:38:11

The Alexandrov-Urysohn Compactness On Single Valued Neutrosophic S∗Centered Systems

Authors: Saeid Jafari, I. Arockiarani, J. Martina Jency
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper we present the notion of the single valued neutrosophic S∗ maximal compact extension in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered system. Moreover, the concept of single valued neutrosophic S∗ absolute is applied to establish the Alexandrov -Urysohn compactness criterion. Some of the basic properties are characterized.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[14] viXra:1612.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:39:19

TOPSIS Approach for Multi Attribute Group Decision Making in Refined Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Durga Banerjee, B. C. Giri
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper presents TOPSIS approach for multi attribute decision making in refined neutrosophic environment. The weights of each decision makers are considered as a single valued neutrosophic numbers. The attribute weights for every decision maker are also considered as a neutrosophic numbers. Aggregation operator is used to combine all decision makers’ opinion into a single opinion for rating between attributes and alternatives. Euclidean distances from positive ideal solution and negative ideal solution are calculated to construct relative closeness coefficients. Lastly, an illustrative example of tablet selection is provided to show the applicability of the proposed TOPSIS approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[13] viXra:1612.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:40:29

TOPSIS for Solving Multi-Attribute Decision Making Problems under Bi-Polar Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 13 Pages.

The paper investigates a technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) method to solve multi-attribute decision making problems with bipolar neutrosophic information. We define Hamming distance function and Euclidean distance function to determine the distance between bipolar neutrosophic numbers. In the decision making situation, the rating of performance values of the alternatives with respect to the attributes are provided by the decision maker in terms of bipolar neutrosophic numbers. The weights of the attributes are determined using maximizing deviation method. We define bipolar neutrosophic relative positive ideal solution (BNRPIS) and bipolar neutrosophic relative negative ideal solution (BNRNIS). Then, the ranking order of the alternatives is obtained by TOPSIS method and most desirable alternative is selected. Finally, a numerical example for car selection is solved to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed approach and comparison with other existing method is also provided.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[12] viXra:1612.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:09:57

A New Order Relation on the Set of Neutrosophic Truth Values

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Huda E. Khalid, Ahmed K. Essa
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article, we discuss all possible cases to construct an atom of matter, antimatter, or unmatter, and also the cases of contradiction (i.e. impossible case).
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[11] viXra:1612.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:11:06

Applications of Neutrosophic Sets in Medical Image Denoising and Segmentation

Authors: Deepika Koundal, Savita Gupta, Sukhwinder Singh
Comments: 19 Pages.

In medical science, diagnosis and prognosis is one of the most difficult and challenging task because of restricted subjectivity of the experts and presence of fuzziness in medical images. In observing the severity of several diseases, different professional experts may result in wrong diagnosis. In order to perform diagnosis intuitively in the medical images, different image processing methods have been explored in terms of neutrosophic theory to interpret the inherent uncertainty, ambiguity and vagueness. This paper demonstrates the use of neutrosophic theory in medical image denoising and segmentation where the performance is observed to be much better.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[10] viXra:1612.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:12:17

Distance and Similarity Measures for Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Information

Authors: Ridvan Şahin, Peide Liu
Comments: 20 Pages.

With respect to a combination of hesitant sets, and single-valued neutrosophic sets which are a special case of neutrosophic sets, the single valued neutrosophic hesitant sets (SVNHFS) have been proposed as a new theory set that allows the truth-membership degree, indeterminacy membership degree and falsity-membership degree including a collection of crisp values between zero and one, respectively. There is no consensus on the best way to determine the order of a sequence of singlevalued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy elements. In this paper, we first develop an axiomatic system of distance and similarity measures between single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy sets and also propose a class of distance and similarity measures based on three basic forms such that the geometric distance model, the set-theoretic approach, and the matching functions. Then we utilize the distance measure between each alternative and ideal alternative to establish a multiple attribute decision making method under single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy environment. Finally, a numerical example of investment alternatives is provided to show the effectiveness and usefulness of the proposed approach. The advantages of the proposed distance measure over existing measures have been discussed.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[9] viXra:1612.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:15:01

Extended Projection Based Models for Solving Multiple Attribute Decision Making Problems with Interval Valued Neutrosophic Information

Authors: Partha Pratim Dey, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 14 Pages.

The paper develops two new methods for solving multiple attribute decision making problems with interval – valued neutrosophic assessments. In the decision making situation, the rating of alternatives with respect to the predefined attributes is described by linguistic variables, which can be represented by interval - valued neutrosophic sets. We assume that the weight of the attributes are not equal in the decision making process and they are obtained by using maximizing deviation method. We define weighted projection measure and propose a method to rank the alternatives. Furthermore, we also develop an alternative method to solve multiple attribute decision making problems based on the combination of angle cosine and projection method. Finally, an illustrative numerical example in Khadi institution is solved to verify the effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[8] viXra:1612.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:17:03

From Linked Data Fuzzy to Neutrosophic Data Set Decision Making in Games vs. Real Life

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Mirela Teodorescu
Comments: 11 Pages.

In our lives, reality becomes a game, and in the same way, the game becomes reality, the game is an exercise, simulation of real life on a smaller scale, then it extends itself into reality. This article aims to make a connection between decision making in game which comprises all the issues that intervene in the process and further making a connection with real life. The method for identification involved, detected or induced uncertainties is a jointing process from linked data fuzzy to neutrosophic data set on a case study, EVE Online game. This analysis is useful for psychologists, sociologists, economic analysis, process management, business area, also for researchers of games domain.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[7] viXra:1612.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:18:08

GRA Method of Multiple Attribute Decision Making with Single Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Set Information

Authors: Pranab Biswas, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri
Comments: 9 Pages.

Single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set has three independent parts, namely the truth membership hesitancy function, indeterminacy membership hesitancy function, and falsity membership hesitancy function, which are in the form of sets that assume values in the unit interval [0, 1]. Single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set is considered as a powerful tool to express uncertain, incomplete, indeterminate and inconsistent information in the process of multi attribute decision making problems. In this paper we study multi attribute decision making problems in which the rating values are expressed with single valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set information.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[6] viXra:1612.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:19:00

Hausdorff Extensions in Single Valued Neutrosophic S∗ Centered Systems

Authors: J. Martina Jency, I. Arockiarani
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper explores the concept of single valued neutrosophic S∗ open sets in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered system. Also the characterization of Hausdorff extensions of spaces in single valued neutrosophic S∗ centered systems are established.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[5] viXra:1612.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:20:11

Logistics Center Location Selection Approach Based on Neutrosophic Multi-Criteria Decision Making

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Shyamal Dalapati, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 14 Pages.

As an important and interesting topic in supply chain management, the concept of fuzzy set theory has been widely used in logistics center location in order to improve the reliability and suitability of the logistics center location with respect to the impacts of both qualitative and quantitative factor. However fuzzy set cannot deal with the indeterminacy involving with the problem. So the concept of single – valued neutrosophic set due to Wang et al. (2010) is very helpful to deal with the problem. A neutrosophic approach is a more general and suitable approach in order to deal with neutrosophic information than fuzzy set. Logistics center location selection is a multi-criteria decision making process involving subjectivity, impresion and fuzziness that can be easily represented by single-valued neutrosophic sets. In this paper, we use the score and accuracy function and hybrid score accuracy function of single- valued neutrosophic number and ranking method for single- valued neutrosophic numbers to model logistics center location problem. Finally, a numerical example has been presented to illustrate the proposed approach.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[4] viXra:1612.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:21:05

Multi Criteria Decision Making Method in Neutrosophic Environment Using a New Aggregation Operator, Score and Certainty Function

Authors: Kanika Mandal, Kajla Basu
Comments: 20 Pages.

Neutrosophic sets, being generalization of classic sets, fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets, can simultaneously represent uncertain, imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information existing in the real world. Neutrosophic theory has been developed in twenty first century and not much of arithmetic has been developed for this set. To solve any problem using neutrosophic data, it is desirable to have suitable operators, score function etc. Some operators like single valued neutrosophic weighted averaging (SVNWA) operator, single valued neutrosophic weighted geometric (SVNWG) operator are already defined in neutrosophic set (NS). In this paper an improved weighted average geometric (IWAG) operator which produces more meaningful results has been introduced to aggregate some real numbers and the same has been extended in neutrosophic environment. We further generalize this to include a wide range of aggregation operators for both real numbers and neutrosophic numbers. A new score function and certainty function have been defined which have some benefit compared to the existing ones. Further comparative study highlighting the benefit of this new approach of ranking in neutrosophic set has been presented. A multiple-attribute decision-making method is established on the basis of the proposed operator and newly defined score function.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[3] viXra:1612.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:21:59

Neutrosophic Applications in E-learning: Outcomes, Challenges and Trends

Authors: Nouran M. Radwan
Comments: 8 Pages.

There has been a sudden increase in the usage of elearning to support learner's learning process in higher education. Educational institutions are working in an increasingly competitive environment as many studies in elearning are implemented under complete information, while in the real world many uncertainty aspects do exist. This has resulted in emerging various approaches to handle uncertainty. Neutrosophic logic has been used to overcome the uncertainty of concepts that are associated with human expert judgments. This paper presents current trends to enhance elearning process by using neutrosophic to extract useful knowledge for selecting, evaluating, personalizing, and adapting elearning process.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[2] viXra:1612.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:25:24

On a Model of Love Dynamics: a Neutrosophic Analysis

Authors: Santanu Ku. Patro
Comments: 9 Pages.

This study is an application of neutrosophy to the dynamics of love, the most interesting social phenomena. The love dynamics were studied earlier by Strogatz (Strogatz, 1994), Radzicki (Radzicki, 1993), Rapport (Rapport, 1960), etc. Although Strogatz’s model (Strogatz, 1994) was originally intended only to motivate students, it makes several interesting and plausible predictions, and suggests extensions that produce even wider range of behavior. This paper has been written in the Strogatz’s spirit, and it has extended Romeo & Juliet model (Sprott, 2004) to the neutrosophic domain. A love impact factor (LIF) has been proposed, and analyzed using neutrosophic logic.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[1] viXra:1612.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:27:25

On Neutrosophic Sets and Topology

Authors: Francisco Gallego LupiaÑez
Comments: 9 Pages.

Recently, F.Smarandache generalized the Atanassov's intuitionistic fuzzy sets and other kinds of sets to neutrosophic sets. Also, this author defined the notion of neutrosophic topology on the non-standard interval. One can expect some relation between the intuitionistic fuzzy topology on an IFS and the neutrosophic topology. We show in this work that this is false.
Category: General Science and Philosophy