Thermodynamics and Energy

1602 Submissions

[5] viXra:1602.0374 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-09 01:06:01

Planck’s Theory of Heat Radiation Criticized

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 17 Pages.

Robitaille and Crothers wrote an article [1] with the same purpose: to present the mistakes in Planck’s Theory of Heat Radiation and in Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission. In this article an alternative approach is taken, leading to a support of the conclusion of Robitaille and Crothers. In my own words: Planck, indeed, made a scientific mess of it! Not only Planck's theory makes no sense, the current presentation of this theory turns out to be of this low level too.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[4] viXra:1602.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-15 10:56:08

Heat Transport by Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3] viXra:1602.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-12 12:36:14

Photonic Maxwell's Demon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[2] viXra:1602.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-01 08:30:24

Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation III: Gedanken Experiments, Irreversibility, and Kirchhoff's Law

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 4 pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2016, v. 12, no. 1, 85-88.

Recently, gedanken experiments have been proposed in order to examine the validity of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission (P.-M. Robitaille, Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation: A Thought Experiment Refuting Kirchhoff’s Law, Prog. Phys., 2014, v. 10, no. 1, 38–40; P.-M. Robitaille, Further Insight Relative to Cavity Radiation II: Gedanken Experiments and Kirchhoff’s Law, Prog. Phys., 2014, v. 10, no. 2, 116–120). In the second of these works, real materials (i.e. graphite a nd silver) were utilized in order to construct two separate cavities at the same temperature which are then placed in thermal contact with one another. It was hypothesized that the graphite cavity initially contained blackbody radiation and that the silver cavity was devoid of radiation. In the case of the silver cavity, all of the energy of the system was assigned to the phonons in its walls. When the cavities were brought together and a small hole introduced between the cavities, it was hypothesized that thermal contact between the cavity walls would enable the transformation of phonon energy into photon energy, eventually resulting in filling the silver cavity with black radiation. Energy contained within the wall of the silver cavity was believed to be reversibly trapped. However, in allowing energy to flow reversibly out of the walls of the silver cavity in this context, it has been assumed that the silver conduction bands could be neglected and that only phonon energy need be considered. However, the reflectivity attributed to the silver cavity should be considered uniquely as a result of energy associated with the formation of its conduction bands. Such formation must be considered irreversible. It will be demonstrated that under these conditions Kirchhoff’s law, once again, does not hold. The lack of thermal radiation within the silver cavity does not lead to a violation of the second law of thermodynamics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] viXra:1602.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-01 08:44:56

A Re-examination of Kirchhoff's Law of Thermal Radiation in Relation to Recent Criticisms: Reply

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 20 pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2016, v. 12, no. 3, 184-203.

Recently, Robert J. Johnson submitted an analysis of my work, relative to Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission (R.J. Johnson, A Re-examination of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Radiation in Relation to Recent Criticisms. Prog. Phys., 2016, v. 12, no. 3,175–183) in which he reached the conclusion that “Robitaille’s claims are not sustainable and that Kirchhoff’s Law and Planck’s proof remain valid in the situations for which they were intended to apply, including in cavities with walls of any arbitrary materials in thermal equilibrium”. However, even a cursory review of Johnson’s letter reveals that his conclusions are unjustified. No section constitutes a proper challenge to my writings. Nonetheless, his letter is important, as it serves to underscore the impossibility of defending Kirchhoff’s work. At the onset, Kirchhoff formulated his law, based solely on thought experiments and, without any experimental evidence (G. Kirchhoff, Uber das Verhaltnis zwischen dem Emissionsvermogen und dem Absorptionsvermogen der Korper fur Warme und Licht. Pogg. Ann. Phys. Chem., 1860,v. 109, 275–301). Thought experiments, not laboratory confirmation, remain the basis on which Kirchhoff’s law is defended, despite the passage of 150 years. For his part, Max Planck tried to derive Kirchhoff’s Law by redefining the nature of a blackbody and relying on the use of polarized radiation, even though he realized that heat radiation is never polarized (Planck M. The Theory of Heat radiation. P. Blakiston’s Son & Co., Philadelphia, PA, 1914). In advancing his proof of Kirchhoff’s Law, Max Planck concluded that the reflectivities of any two arbitrary materials must be equal, though he argued otherwise (see P.-M. Robitaille and S.J. Crothers, “The Theory of Heat Radiation” Revisited: A Commentary on the Validity of Kirchhoff’s Law of Thermal Emission and Max Planck’s Claim of Universality. Prog. Phys., 2015, v. 11, no. 2, 120–132). Planck’s Eq. 40 (ρ=ρ’), as presented in his textbook, constituted a violation of known optics. Planck reached this conclusion, because he did not properly treat absorption and invoked polarized light in his derivation. Planck also made use of a carbon particle, which he characterized as a simple catalyst. This conjecture can be shown to result in a violation of the First Law of thermodynamics, if indeed, all cavities must contain black radiation. In the end, while Johnson attempts to defend Planck’s proof, his arguments fall short. Though the author has argued that Kirchhoff’s law lacks both proper theoretical and experimental proof, Johnson avoids advancing any experimental evidence from the literature for his position. It remains the case that experimental data does not support Kirchhoff’s claims and no valid theoretical proof exists.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy