Thermodynamics and Energy

1610 Submissions

[10] viXra:1610.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 10:24:00

Quantum Second Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[9] viXra:1610.0268 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 08:53:10

The Physical Nature of Linear Momentum

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 8 Pages.

The principles of the conservation of 'linear momentum' and the conservation of 'energy' are the corner stones of the present theory of physics. The true nature of these concepts and the underlying physical mechanisms of their conservation have, however, never been properly cleared out. Even the great European physicists, Descartes, Leibniz and D'Alembert had lengthy discussions on whether 'kinetic energy' or 'linear momentum' were the true property considered by the conservation laws. In the present physics the linear momentum of a body is mathematically defined as the product of its mass and its velocity and its conservation is explained as a consequence of Newton’s first law of motion. In this paper the author reveals the physical nature of the linear momentum of a moving particle system and the physical reason for its conservation in the absence of external interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[8] viXra:1610.0267 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 08:56:34

The Physical Nature of Force

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 11 Pages.

The concept of 'force', which finds its origin in Newton's laws of motion, is one of the fundamental concepts of classical physics, as it is the basis of the fundamental notions of 'work' and 'energy'. The problem is that the present concept of 'force', as the momentum transfer per unit time, covers a wide variety of phenomena, which blurs the disclosure of its true nature. On the basis of the conclusion of my paper part 1, in which I have demonstrated that the 'linear momentum' of a mass particle system is a mathematical expression of its physical amount of congruent translational motion, I will in this paper reveal the physical meaning of the 'force' exerted between colliding bodies.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[7] viXra:1610.0266 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 08:59:25

The Physical Nature of Work and Kinetic Energy

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 11 Pages.

The principle of conservation of 'energy' is the ultimate building stone of physics. The problem is that we don’t have a tight description of what 'energy' really is and how and where it is physically stored. On the basis of the conclusion of my paper Part 2: 'The true physical nature of force' in which I have demonstrated that 'force' is a mathematical expression of the rate at which congruent translational motion is transferred, I will in this paper give a real physical definition of the true nature of 'work', which is in the present textbooks mathematically defined as the product of a force and its displacement and of the true physical nature of 'kinetic energy' of a moving body, which is in the present textbooks mathematically defined as the product of its mass times half the square of its velocity. My clarification of the physical nature of kinetic energy will thereby allow me to unveil the true physical nature of Planck’s constant and of the energy of photons.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[6] viXra:1610.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 12:47:59

Quantum Maxwell's Demon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[5] viXra:1610.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 06:56:46

Spin Singlet Exciton

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

In a new study, researchers measure the spin properties of electronic states produced in singlet fission – a process which could have a central role in the future development of solar cells. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[4] viXra:1610.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 03:47:33

Further Thoughts on Thermodynamics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 8 Pages.

Recently, attention has been drawn to a number of pieces written concerning classical thermodynamics in a biological setting. Several ideas have been put forward which are unusual for orthodox classical thermodynamics but, as they are supported by experiment, seem to offer suggestions for expanding the scope of that subject and even possibly helping make some aspects more amenable to students. The idea of introducing time into considerations is one such major notion which appears to lead to a new meaning of 'slow' processes in a classical thermodynamic setting and should be examined further because of the possible ramifications for the subject as a whole.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3] viXra:1610.0122 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-12 16:24:34

Discovery of an Unintended Mathematical Error in Equation (7a) on Page 81 in “ Investigations on the Theory of the Brownian MOVEMENT” by Albert Einstein in 1926 Perhaps After 88 Years

Authors: Khoshnevisan, M
Comments: 2 Pages. Please contact Associate Professor Khoshnevisan,M at mkhoshnevisan@mailaps.org if further elucidation is warranted.

Professor Albert Einstein in 1926 published his book entitled “INVESTIGATIONS ON THE THEORY OF THE BROWNIAN MOVEMENT”, during the time that he was teaching at the University of Berlin. This book was edited by Professor Reinhold Heinrich (Henry) Furth in 1926.He was co-author with Professor Albert Einstein of the Theory of Brownian Movement. Acknowledgements: I would like to thank Professor. Dr. Simon Lilly, Head of Department of Physics at ETH- Swiss Federal Institute of Technology for responding to my e-mail and phone call on September 19 2016 and putting me in contact with Professor Norbert Straumann. I further would like to express my appreciation to Professor Straumann for reviewing and confirming my findings on September 19 2016 via e-mail in relation to the unintended mathematical error in equation (7a) on page 81 in this book.I shall note that Professor Straumann is a retired Professor of Physics from the University of Zurich, and former student of Professor Wolfgang Pauli at ETH, the Austrian-American Physics Nobel Prize Winner in 1945 and one of the pioneers of Quantum Physics. He has also served on the advisory board of the Albert Einstein Institute of the Max Planck Society.It appears that this book has been cited more than 3800 times over the years and I hope equation (7a) will be corrected in the new edition of this book.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[2] viXra:1610.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-28 04:22:02

Heat Engines of Extraordinary Efficiency and the General Principle of Their Operation

Authors: Remi Cornwall
Comments: 20 Pages. Provisional form to MDPI Entropy. Improvements in wording and presentation. Power calculation included instead of referenced. Appendix expanded.

The intention of this paper is to elucidate new types of heat engines with extraordinary efficiency, more specifically to eventually focus on the author’s research into a temporary magnetic remanence device. First we extend the definition of heat engines through a diagrammatic classification scheme and note a paradoxical non-coincidence between the Carnot, Kelvin-Planck and other forms of the 2nd Law, between sectors of the diagram. It is then seen, between the diagram sectors, how super-efficient heat engines are able to reduce the degrees of freedom resulting from change in chemical potential, over mere generation of heat; until in the right sector of the diagram, the conventional wisdom for the need of two reservoirs is refuted. A brief survey of the Maxwell Demon problem finds no problem with information theoretic constructs. Our ongoing experimental enquiry into a temporary magnetic remanence cycle using standard kinetic theory, thermodynamics and electrodynamics is presented – yet a contradiction results with the 2nd law placing it in the right sector of the classification diagram.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] viXra:1610.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 04:27:17

Entropy, or Entropies, in Physics?

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 13 Pages.

Entropy and its physical meaning have been a problem in physics almost since the concept was introduced. The problem is exacerbated by its use in both statistical thermodynamics and information theory. Here its place in classical thermodynamics, where it was introduced originally, and in these other two areas will be examined and hopefully some light will be cast on the present position.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy