Thermodynamics and Energy

1809 Submissions

[9] viXra:1809.0597 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-30 12:06:07

Proposed Thermodynamic Fifth Law on Living System Negative Entropy

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Carnot cycle, instrumental in the second law, is modified for living system yielding higher efficiency. Thus, the Second Law has shortcomings when trying to determine the thermodynamic state of a living system and a Fifth Law of Thermodynamics is needed to explain the effect of spontaneous repair and growth.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[8] viXra:1809.0548 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-17 09:33:32

On the Arrow of Spacetime

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 20 Pages.

Consistent with special relativity and statistical physics, here we construct a partition function of space-time events. The union of these two theories resolves longstanding problems in regards to time. It augments the standard description of time given by the (non-relativistic) arrow of time to one able to show the emergence of three macroscopic regimes of time: the past, the present, and the future, represented by space-like entropy, light-like entropy, and time-like entropy, respectively, and in a manner consistent with our experience of said regimes. First, using Fermi-Dirac statistics, we find that the system essentially describes a "waterfall" of space-time events. This "waterfall" recedes in space-time at the speed of light towards the direction of the future as it "floods" local space with events. Furthermore, an observer O will perceive two horizons that can be interpreted as hiding events behind it. The first is an event horizon, and its entropy hides events in the regions that O cannot see. The second is a time horizon, and its entropy "shields" events from O's causal influence. As only past events are "shielded", and not future events, an asymmetry in time is thus created.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[7] viXra:1809.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-19 06:47:41

Flaw in Crooks Fluctuation Theorem

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 14 Pages.

The existence of Crooks fluctuation theorem (even at microscopic level, in a very short time- period) is a direct threat to the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we will underline the flaw that exists in Crooks fluctuation theorem assumptions, and thus, we will confirm the validity of the second law of thermodynamics at any temperature, pressure, and at any scale (time, and length-scale) in nature. We will validate the Loschmidt’s paradox, and will show that no physical directional-process can be perfectly-reversible at any non-zero, finite temperature (T > 0K) and pressure (P > 0) in nature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[6] viXra:1809.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 07:52:20

Magnetic Cooling Cycle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

As a result of climate change, population growth, and rising expectations regarding quality of life, energy requirements for cooling processes are growing much faster worldwide than for heating. [22] Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered how to control heat with a magnetic field. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[5] viXra:1809.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 13:15:52

On the Kinetic Formulation of Gases

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 4 Pages.

The extensive studies on thermal properties of matter especially in gases, shows the new possible direction and therefore to initiate the new stream in theoretical physics. The subject discussed in this context is somehow important in this field; the paper shows an equation of gases which is enclosed in a metallic container under suitable conditions. The equation which will be described here is valid for the rigorous choice that we have considered to derive it.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[4] viXra:1809.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 15:51:09

Entropy in Physics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 4 Pages.

Following worries that the entropy functions of classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics were not equivalent, attention is drawn here to work by Lazar Mayants indicating that this is not the case and the two are, in fact, equivalent.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3] viXra:1809.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 00:35:18

Power of Tiny Vibrations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Ultra-fast vibrations can be used to heat tiny amounts of liquid, experts have found, in a discovery that could have a range of engineering applications. [17] A system made of just a handful of particles acts just like larger systems, allowing scientists to study quantum behaviour more easily. [16] Scientists have developed a photoelectrode that can harvest 85 percent of visible light in a 30 nanometers-thin semiconductor layer between gold layers, converting light energy 11 times more efficiently than previous methods. [15] The tool allows engineers to design new classes of radio frequency-based components that are able to transport large amounts of data more rapidly, and with less noise interference. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[2] viXra:1809.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 23:31:13

Flaw in Maxwell's Demon Paradox

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 6 Pages.

The existence of a Maxwell’s-demons is a direct threat to the second law of thermodynamics. In this paper, we will underline the flaw that exists in Maxwell’s-demons paradox, and thus, we confirm the validity of the second law of thermodynamics in nature.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] viXra:1809.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 09:43:56

Energy from Low-Frequency Vibrations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A wearable energy-harvesting device could generate energy from the swing of an arm while walking or jogging, according to a team of researchers from Penn State's Materials Research Institute and the University of Utah. [23] How do the bees use this system of vibro-acoustical signals? Understanding now, how marker and communicational vibro-acoustic signals are arranged, and what, in principle, they serve, let's consider their application in the daily life of beehives. [22] Histones are proteins that regulate the unwinding of DNA in the cell nucleus and the expression of genes based on chemical modifications or "marks" that are placed on their tails. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy