Thermodynamics and Energy

1905 Submissions

[13] viXra:1905.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 14:34:51

1/f Phase Noise in Oscillators Modeled with Q and Its Entropy Significance Version 2

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 4 Pages.

Noise in operating systems has been strongly linked to degradation. One such type of noise of interest in this paper is phase noise, which we model and describe its significance in thermodynamic degradation science . Phase noise of an oscillator is perhaps one of the most important oscillator parameters and the source of the noise is not well understood. Phase noise is important as it degrades the purity of the carrier frequency when used in transmission which is only one of the many applications in oscillator usage. It is known that the unloaded Q in phase noise goes as the inverse of Q to the forth power observed in the low frequency area (i.e. near the carrier frequency) as noted in oscillator power noise spectral density. In this paper we provide a model that leads to this observed unloaded Q dependence noted in the power spectral density. We will then provide specific comparison to an LRC oscillator circuit to establish a parametric useful analogy. A second model links Q to entropy which we show produces this type of noise. Although this noise’s origin, is not well understood in terms of reliability, we have previously found that noise is typically attributed to entropy (disorder). This is because temporal coherence of a signal from an operating device can be correlated to disorder in the spatial coherence in the device. Once understood, the phase noise has an entropy explanation that yields the inverse frequency dependence observed. Therefore, this type of noise measurement is of importance in thermodynamic degradation process as it has applications to understanding noise in other areas besides oscillators. Results show consistency with damage entropy principles in terms of purity of materials and measurement methods observed in the literature. Because entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, we anticipate that such results can be applied in assessing stability issues in many fabricated electronic devices.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[12] viXra:1905.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 10:26:40

1/f Phase Noise in Oscillators Modeled with Q and Its Entropy Significance

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 4 Pages.

Noise in operating systems has been strongly linked to degradation. One such type of noise of interest in this paper is phase noise, which we model and describe its significance in thermodynamic degradation science. Phase noise of an oscillator is perhaps one of the most important oscillator parameters and the source of the noise is not well understood. Phase noise is important as it degrades the purity of the carrier frequency when used in transmission which is only one of the many applications in oscillator usage. It is known that the unloaded Q in phase noise goes as the inverse of Q to the forth power observed in the low frequency area (i.e. near the carrier frequency) as noted in oscillator power noise spectral density. In this paper we provide a model that leads to this observed unloaded Q dependence noted in the power spectral density. We will then provide specific comparison to an LRC oscillator circuit to establish a parametric useful analogy. A second model links Q to entropy which we show produces this type of noise. Although this noise’s origin, is not well understood in terms of reliability, we have previously found that noise is typically attributed to entropy (disorder). This is because temporal coherence of a signal from an operating device can be correlated to disorder in the spatial coherence in the device. Once understood, the phase noise has an entropy explanation that yields the inverse frequency dependence observed. Therefore, this type of noise measurement is of importance in thermodynamic degradation process as it has applications to understanding noise in other areas besides oscillators. Results show consistency with damage entropy principles in terms of purity of materials and measurement methods observed in the literature. Because entropy is an expression of the disorder, or randomness of a system, we anticipate that such results can be applied in assessing stability issues in many fabricated electronic devices.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[11] viXra:1905.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 07:27:30

Design and Calculation of 25MW Steam Turbine Course

Authors: UnChol Ri, GumChol Ri, YongSong Kim, WonZhu Kim
Comments: 13 Pages.

今天,随着科学技术的迅速发展,人类对能源的需求也越来越增加。 在火力电站的发电当中汽轮机是不可或缺的特别重要的发电设备。 在小论文中,计算了对目前在我们国家现在运行的25MW蒸汽轮机的更精确的热计算
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[10] viXra:1905.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-17 08:50:29

On the Nature of Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

electromagnetic waves are masses that oscillate both ways(up and down and to the sides at the same time perpendicular to its direction of motion
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[9] viXra:1905.0225 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-18 12:48:22

On the Origin of 1/f Noise due to Generated Entropy - Version 4

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 6 Pages.

Noise measurements analysis has been associated with degradation. In particular one such type is called 1/f noise and is the most likely measure of subtle degradation occurring in materials. This measurement is done using random vibration methods. It is important to determine if this is the likely region of the spectrum related to degradation occurring in materials to aid in noise type of reliability tests. The literature on 1/f noise appears to have a broad commonality in explanations that can be associated with entropy in materials. It is reasonable in this regard to look at 1/f noise aspects in terms of disorder and the associated spectral content. This lends itself to a thermodynamic entropy frame work for analysis. We review some of the key aspects of 1/f noise in the literature and discuss how observations relate to entropy. Once describe, we suggest two thermodynamics models that might be used to model 1/f noise. Results help to provide a broader understanding of 1/f noise, help to identify the region of the spectrum related to degradation, and use it to do prognostics. Such interpretation suggests that 1/f noise is a good tool for measuring certain aspects of disorder in materials. Experiments are suggested to demonstrate the importance of 1/f noise as a prognostic tool for reliability testing to identify and predict degradation in materials over time.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[8] viXra:1905.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 20:56:58

On the Origin of 1/f Noise due to Generated Entropy - Version 2

Authors: Alec Feinberg
Comments: 8 Pages.

Noise measurements analysis has been associated with degradation. In particular one such noise type called 1/f noise is likely the leading indicator. It is important to identify the noise frequency region of the spectrum associated with degradation occurring in materials to aid in noise type of reliability tests. The literature on 1/f noise appears to have a broad commonality in explanations and models related to degradation between materials and the measurement environment. It is reasonable in this regard to look at 1/f noise aspects in a broad sense in terms of disorder and the associated spectral content. This lends itself to a thermodynamic entropy framework for analysis. We review some of the key aspects of 1/f noise in the literature and discuss how observations relate to entropy. Once describe, we then suggest two thermodynamics models that one might use to model 1/f noise. Results help to provide a broader understanding of 1/f noise by using a different framework in terms of thermodynamic degradation processes. Such interpretation suggests that 1/f noise is a good tool for measuring certain aspects of disorder in materials and likely the associated spectral signatures. Experiments are suggested to demonstrate the importance of 1/f noise as a prognostic tool for 1/f noise reliability testing to identify and predict degradation in materials over time. We also suggest using standardized spectral identification methods.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[7] viXra:1905.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 15:08:18

Heat Unified Field Theory

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

is absorbing heat produce magnetism and producing heat producing gravitation?
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[6] viXra:1905.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 15:37:29

Heat Unified Field Theory0

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

heat is the production of gravity and magnetism together termed as electromagnetic radiation if you shoot electromagnetic radiation at the electrons they absorb it vibrating and produce magentism if an electron emits an electromagnetic wave they produce gravity what if you just make heat pumped out of any hot object absorbed by any other object and sustain the heat?
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[5] viXra:1905.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-06 16:04:20

Energy Carriers

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

you could get a mass and heat it and do pressure on it and then when it cools down heat it up with the heat produced at the beggining carreied by water in a thermo thats a way to keep those atoms carrying energy through midstate vibration of atoms
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[4] viXra:1905.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 12:13:08

Possible Origin of Magnetism

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

magnetism occurs when you achieve high vibration altitudes of masses
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[3] viXra:1905.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 15:19:28

Masses vs Waves

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

waves can contain energy in any volume of space while masses contain the smallest volume possible
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[2] viXra:1905.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 15:45:24

Compton Aand Photoelectric Effect in Atomic Ticles

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you increase the energy of a mass it would take more volume in space and then when it ejects the energy it ends up having more volume inside of it if the rate by which the ejection takes place is faster than the rate of the particle returning to its original form due to other electromagnetic waves pushing onto the particle
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[1] viXra:1905.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 20:20:09

Igin of Electromagnetic Waves

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

electromagnetic waves are waves that are produced after sound waves are inside a mass they are produced as an effect of producing sound waves then negating them with other sound waves
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy