Astrophysics

1609 Submissions

[34] viXra:1609.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-30 07:45:49

Laws of Orbital Semimajor Axes and Periods, and Their Application in 5-Planet Systems

Authors: G. P. Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Analyze the data of orbital semimajor axes and periods of planets in 5-planet systems, and prove the laws of orbital semimajor axes and periods of exoplanets. Link the laws with the orbital semimajor axis and the period of the pseudo-planet orbiting a star at its surface with Keplerian velocity. Apply the laws to predict the position of unknown exoplanets and to calculate the unknown orbital semimajor axes of known exoplanets, such as those of Kepler-20, Kepler-102, Kepler-122, Kepler-154, Kepler-238, Kepler-55, Kepler-84, and HIP 41378’s known planets. Propose that the original reason of the laws is that planets were born from periodic bursts of stars in their youth. Point out the possible mistakes in papers about Kepler-186.
Category: Astrophysics

[33] viXra:1609.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-30 03:32:35

Dark Energy: a Partial, Preponderant or Complete Illusion Evidenced by the Redshift Anomaly Which Occurs Due to Non Doppler Redshifts Caused by Strengthening Gravitational Wells

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal
Comments: Pages. Correction: when I refer to "doppler affect", I am also referring to the cosmological redshift

The redshift anomaly is key to understanding dark energy. Unfortunately anomalous redshifts have largely been ignored and require further study. "If we find in observation that the Hubble redshift relationship is subject to notable exceptions, which certainly appears to be the case, it is to be hoped that they would attract careful scrutiny. Just one such exception, reasonably verified, would suffice to cast doubt upon the reliability of redshift/distance theory, with far reaching consequences for astrophysics" (Ratcliffe H., 2010, Journal of Cosmology). This paper will explain the cause of the redshift anomaly and then apply the newfound knowledge to the galaxies in the observable universe. NGC 7603 is one example of a redshift anomaly with a discordant redshift system. The objects in the system that have high-z values are in the process of gaining/accreting mass at a high rate relative to their companions at time of observation which causes the anomaly. Applying this knowledge to galactic objects, as matter condenses, the gravity well will "deepen" or strengthen which has the effect of red shifting photons in accordance with the gravity well's rate of strengthening. Thus the observed redshift of any galaxy isn't solely based on the Doppler effect but also the rate of change of the galaxy's gravitational well. The further the look back time, the younger the galaxy is, the faster its mass is increasing, the faster its gravity well is strengthening, the higher the z-value observed will be. The implications of this interpretation is dark energy is either non existent or is overestimated when the proposed phenomenon isn't taken into account when measuring z-values. It is also plausible the universe is static or contracting while still retaining higher redshifts the further we look due to the nature of the look back time. Conversely, when an object is in the process of losing mass, its gravity well shallows which blue shifts photons. Numerous observations that support the hypothesis are provided in the paper. Several tests to prove the hypothesis are described also.
Category: Astrophysics

[32] viXra:1609.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 12:05:28

Stellar Evolution and Planet Formation are Mass Loss Phenomenon

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A logical proof is provided to prove that planet formation is a mass loss phenomenon.
Category: Astrophysics

[31] viXra:1609.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 18:58:44

Laws of Orbital Semimajor Axes and Periods of Exoplanets, and Their Application

Authors: G.P. Zhang
Comments: 3 Pages.

Analyze the data of orbital semimajor axes and periods of planets in extrasolar multi-planets systems, and discover the laws of orbital semimajor axes and periods of exoplanets. Link the laws with the orbital semimajor axis and the period of the pseudo-planet orbiting a star at its surface with Keplerian velocity. Apply the laws to predict the position of unknown exoplanets and to calculate the unknown orbital semimajor axes of known exoplanets, such as those of Kepler-20 and Kepler-102’s known planets. Propose that the original reason of the laws is that planets were born from periodic bursts of stars in their youth. The strong stellar wind near the stars pushed them away to their present orbits.
Category: Astrophysics

[30] viXra:1609.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 13:33:58

Killer Electrons in Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

New findings by a UCLA-led international team of researchers answer a fundamental question about our space environment and will help scientists develop methods to protect valuable telecommunication and navigation satellites. [12] A small team of researchers with Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München and the Max-Planck-Institute of Quantum Optics, both in Germany has successfully demonstrated a means for shaping electron beams in time through interactions with terahertz electromagnetic fields. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[29] viXra:1609.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 08:41:24

New Physics Elements in the Quantum Function Follows Form Model.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 18 Pages. 18

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. In Quantum Function Follows FormModel, the Higgs is interpreted as a massless transformer particle able to create the universe by transforming its shape after real mechanical collision and merge with other shaped particles into complex and compound knots. What are the main differences with the standard model? 1, A Fermion repelling- and producing electric dark matter black hole. 2, An electric dark matter black hole splitting Big Bang with a 12x distant symmetric instant entangled raspberry multiverse result, each with copy Lyman Alpha forests. 3, Fermions are real propeller shaped rigid convertible strings with dual spin and also instant multiverse entanglement ( Charge Parity symmetric) . 4, The vacuum is a dense tetrahedral shaped lattice with dual oscillating massless Higgs particles ( dark energy). 5, All particles have consciousness by their instant entanglement relation between 12 copy universes, however, humans have about 500 m.sec retardation to veto an act. ( Benjamin Libet)
Category: Astrophysics

[28] viXra:1609.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 20:12:14

Why Young Stars are So Big and a Hypothesis for CMEs

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that since stars are not hot enough to engage fusion reactions, it is reasoned that electrostatic pressure from extremely ionized stars makes them really large.
Category: Astrophysics

[27] viXra:1609.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 01:59:35

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Reason of the Polarity Reversal of Magnetic Field of the Earth the Hypothesis of the Reason of a Polarity Reversal of Magnetic Field of Earth as Result of the Relative Movement of a Cloak and Bark is Made

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The hypothesis of the reason of a polarity reversal of magnetic field of Earth as result of the relative movement of a cloak and bark is made
Category: Astrophysics

[26] viXra:1609.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 08:34:28

Universe Has no Direction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1609.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 21:14:36

Lithium Abundance to Determine Future Size of Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A new idea is presented to try and predict the future size of stars as they cool and solidify into solid worlds many billions of years into their metamorphosis, by utilizing the abundances of lithium.
Category: Astrophysics

[24] viXra:1609.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 06:34:03

Космологическое красное смещение.The Cosmological Red Shift.

Authors: Akovantsev Petr Ivanovich
Comments: 6 Pages.

Аннотация: В статье изложен другой взгляд на наличие фраунгоферовых линий в спектрах, что в корне меняет представление о межгалактическом космологическом красном смещении. Ключевые слова: спектр, излучение, галактики, красное Abstract: the article outlines a different view of the existence of Fraunhofer's lines in the spectra that radically changes the picture of the intergalactic cosmological redshift. Key words: spectrum, radiation, galaxy, red
Category: Astrophysics

[23] viXra:1609.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-18 22:01:54

The Observer Effect

Authors: Robert T. Longo
Comments: 26 Pages.

This paper discusses how an observer, when properly defined, can lead to a different interpretation of the universe by providing a way to connect General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. First, this was used to investigate the mass of the Milky Way Galaxy, and the result suggests that dark matter does not exist. Then, Hubble's Law was examined, and we were led to the same conclusion, i.e., dark energy does not exist. Finally, the linkage of quantum mechanics and relativity provides another explanation of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and casts doubt on the Big Bang theory. All of these observations and conclusions were made possible by examining the philosophical foundation provided by a better understanding of how intelligent life forms make sense of the physical world. First, we discuss the intelligent life forms that are responsible for all observations and theories related to the universe. With this new understanding of ourselves, from a physics perspective, a philosophy emerges that alters our understanding of space and time. A theory is developed on this philosophical foundation that provides a way to connect the background dependence of quantum mechanics and the background independence of general relativity.
Category: Astrophysics

[22] viXra:1609.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 19:10:20

Supernovae Are Young Stars that Have Popped

Authors: Baz J. Taylor
Comments: 1 Page. Images taken from http://chandra.harvard.edu/photo/2016/g11/

This paper proposes that Supernovae are the remnants of young stars that have expanded and ‘popped’.
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1609.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 04:59:00

Redshift Anomalies Are Key to Understanding Dark Energy, Dark Matter, Black Holes and the Unobservable Universe.

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal
Comments: Pages.

A galaxy's redshift is not related to the Hubble velocity alone. Numerous redshift anomalies have been detected which suggest this. This papers goal is to explain the nature of these redshifts. Redshift anomalies in Quasars with a high-z, binary galaxies with a mass gaining companion with a discordant high-z, and the furthest galaxies with high-z values all have a similar trait, their mass is increasing at a high rate at time of observation. This paper proposes that when an objects gravity well is in the process of strengthening (by gaining mass), the light observed during its gravity well strengthening phase is redshifted accordingly. I provide numerous observations of objects that are closer than their high z values places them under current interpretation that support the hypothesis. The greater the look back time, the younger the galaxy, the younger the galaxy when observed, the faster its gravity well is strengthening. The faster a gravity well is figuratively deepening, the further photons will be stretched that traverse and depart the morphing gravity well. The implications of this phenomenon have one of three outcomes for the nature of the observable universe. A. the universe is not expanding as fast as estimated. B. the universe is static (redshifts will still appear higher the farther we look). C. the universe is contracting (the redshifts still appear higher the farther we look). The redshift anomaly can help us understand dark matter also. Z total = the affects of (change in GW well of the observable universe) + (change in GW of Milky Way) + (change in GW of observed galaxy) + (Velocity of observed galaxy). The paper contains numerous tests that may prove the hypothesis presented. To not even glance at these redshift anomalies because they don't agree with today's model of measuring expansion is just preventing advancement in the field, halting future discoveries. Correction: (Obs. 2) Here, object 2 (z=0.243) and Object 3 (z=0.391) is gaining mass from their surroundings. Object 3 (z=0.391) has a higher z than object 2 (z=0.243) because object 3 (z=0.391) is gaining a higher rate of mass relative to its own size than object 2 (still both are gaining mass from the bridge). Object 1 (z=0.057) has a higher z value than NGC 7603 (z=0.029), which may mean object 1 (z=0.057) is gaining mass from NGC 7603 (z=0.029) through the arm connecting them.
Category: Astrophysics

[20] viXra:1609.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 07:42:26

Determining the Ages of Stars Mathematically Using Luminosity

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stars exhibit exponential decay. A simple mathematical relationship based off luminosity as compared to the Sun is given so that stars can have their ages determined. This paper is up for continued revision, as it only serves as a starting point to develop stellar metamorphosis in a mathematical sense.
Category: Astrophysics

[19] viXra:1609.0233 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-17 17:23:45

Dark Matter as Power of Gravitational Field for MW VS M31. Two Similar Laws.

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 27 Pages. V2-Two new chapters with DM density formulas through dimensionless variables power.

The main target this paper is to check a theory about non baryonic dark matter nature, which was published by the author in [1] Abarca,M.2014. [3] Abarca,M.2015. [8] Abarca,M.2016. [ 11] Abarca,M.2016 and others papers. It was postulated that non baryonic dark matter density depend on E, gravitational field, through a power of E as a Universal law. In order to check this theory in this paper will be studied DM density in halo region of MW and M31. Throughout the paper, DM refers to Non Baryonic DM. Briefly will be described paper procedure. In third chapter are introduced rotation curves of MW, [5] Huang,Y.2016, and M31, [13] Sofue, Y.2015. It is fitted a power regression for velocity depending on radius in halo of both galaxies. Formula is v = a• R^b. In fourth chapter it is deduced mathematically a DM density profile for MW & M31 in halo region. This new profile is called Direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression velocity depending on radius. In fifth chapter is found a new DM density as power of E, which is mathematically equivalent to Direct DM density. Its formula is DM density = A• E^B. Where A & B are coefficients which depend on a & b, coefficients of velocity power regression in rotation curve. Also are calculated A&B for MW and M31. Finally it is explained that hypothesis of DM depending on gravitational field as Universal law allows enlarge dominion DM as power E for radius inside disc and radius bigger than dominion measures. In sixth chapter, according theory of DM generated by gravitational field, is defined galactic halo as region where own gravitational field dominates over neighbour gravitational field. Through this criterion is found halo MW = 310 kpc and halo M31 = 460 kpc. The seventh is a crucial chapter, because it is successfully compared DM as power E in MW & M31. Both formulas are compared and relative differences throughout dominion of E are below 14 %. Agreement of both functions is the main evidence about DM power E as Universal law. In eighth chapter is compared DM density as power E with NFW profile given by author of rotation curve in his paper. [5] Huang,Y.2016. NFW density is bigger than DM power E throughout all dominion, and relative differences oscillate between 34% and 13%. Such remarkable differences will be properly justified. In ninth chapter is calculated total mass through NFW profile and dynamical method. Mass through NFW profile is bigger than through dynamical method. Difference might be explained by the same reason given in previous chapter. In tenth chapter is calculated Local DM density through DM power E profile, which gives 0,16 GeV/cm^3 and is compared with same magnitude given by [5] Huang,Y.2016, which is 0,32 GeV/cm^3. It is defended that there is not contradiction between both data because the first profile gives Non Baryonic DM only, whereas experimental data measure Baryonic and non Baryonic DM. In eleventh chapter is developed a mathematical procedure to change physics magnitudes as power into dimensionless power variables. This change has been possible thanks a new parameter Rs called scale radius. So it is defined x = radius/ Rs being x dimensionless. This way velocity v = c• x^d. As a consequence Direct DM is changed into a new dimensionless power and similarly happen to DM as power of E, where E is changed by a new dimensionless variable. In twelfth chapter is made use of new formulas to Milky Way data. New results have being checked and it has been shown that they are identical to got in previous chapters. It is concluded three main ideas which will be properly justified in following pages. The first one is that there are strong evidences about that fraction of Baryonic DM vs Non Baryonic DM inside bulge and galactic disc is bigger than the same fraction inside halo. The second one is DM generated by gravitational field theory leads rightly a new definition for halo radius. According this theory are calculated halo radius MW equal to 310 kpc and halo radius M31 equal to 460 kpc. The third one is that there are strong evidences that non baryonic DM density is generated by gravitational field as a Universal law. Main reason to support this hypothesis is got in chapter seventh.
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1609.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-14 13:47:05

Dark Matter with Supermaterials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Superconducting aluminum or superfluid helium could be used to detect superlight dark matter particles. [14] Technological advances are ushering in a new era of understanding in the search for fundamental physical particles-including dark matter-scientists will tell a public event. [13] The Large Underground Xenon (LUX) dark matter experiment, which operates nearly a mile underground at the Sanford Underground Research Facility (SURF) in the Black Hills of South Dakota, has already proven itself to be the most sensitive detector in the hunt for dark matter, the unseen stuff believed to account for most of the matter in the universe. Now, a new set of calibration techniques employed by LUX scientists has again dramatically improved the detector's sensitivity. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[17] viXra:1609.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-12 16:48:59

Some of the Consequences of the Entropic Relativistic Dark Matter

Authors: Nicolas Poupart
Comments: 6 Pages.

The objective of this article is to draw some important consequences of the theory of the entropic relativistic dark matter (GEST) which the weak fields approximation (SWFA) is a model. There will be shown the derivation of the baryonic Tully-Fisher relationship, the derivation of a new form of frequency shift, the intrinsic shift, and the distribution curve of the dark mass (matter). These theoretical extensions may help to understand the inexplicable experimental errors in the calculation of the Hubble constant and the problem of the creation and the stabilization of galactic disks. Moreover, since the exposed dark matter field is probably the BEHHGK field, the implications of the calculation of the distribution curve goes far beyond the field of astrophysics.
Category: Astrophysics

[16] viXra:1609.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-12 22:13:24

7 Evidences of Periodic Bursts of Stars and Planets in Their Youth

Authors: Guiping Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Based on the idea of Fred Hoyle that matter burst from the Sun formed planets, raise the theory of periodic bursts of stars and planets in their youth and provide a simple self-consistent model to explain many facts of the solar system and other planetary systems. Prove the theory with 7 evidences. First, the recently confirmed hot Jupiter V 830 Tau b orbiting a 2-Myr-old solar-mass T Tauri star was born from the burst of the star. Second, the similarity and differences of the architectures of the planetary system of Kepler-90 and the solar system was explained systematically. Third, the composition and low mean densities of the jovian planets which are similar to that of the Sun mean that they were once parts of the Sun. Fourth, parent bodies of meteorites from asteroids cooled down and solidified without or with differentiation from the temperature of the photosphere of the Sun. Fifth, widespread liquid water and valley networks on Mars about 3.7 Ga ago mean Mars was at the present orbit of the Earth or closer to the Sun at that time. Sixth, ancient rocks of the Earth and the Moon recorded solar wind 10 million times stronger than it is now. Seventh, regular satellites were products of bursts of planets in their youth.
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1609.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-11 20:55:54

Dynamic Universe Model: Sita Software Simplified

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 220 Pages. Book3 of Dynamic Universe Model... ISBN 978-3-639-36469-9

With this Book, we have provided a CD or downloadable software in the e-book which has the simplified version of SITA software. Otherwise anyone can contact the author at snp.gupta@gmail.com Anyone with very limited knowledge in Physics and Microsoft Excel can try hands on with this software. This SITA software is developed for the singularity free solution to N-body problem – Dynamic Universe Model; which is, inter body collision free and dynamically stable. Basically this is a “how to go about” for using the SITA software. SITA solution can be used in many places like presently unsolved applications like Pioneer anomaly at the Solar system level, Missing mass due to Star circular velocities and Galaxy disk formation at Galaxy level etc. This is the third book, after the earlier books, 1) “Dynamic Universe Model- a singularity free N-body problem solution” (ISBN 978-3-639-29436-1), and 2) Dynamic Universe Model- SITA singularity free software (978-3-639-33501-9) Here in this book a subset of SITA (Simulation of Inter-intra-Galaxy Tautness and Attraction forces) computer implementation Excel program software about 3000 equations are explained with usage out of all the 21000 equations used in the second book. Provision for a lot of modifications exists in the SITA program to tune to individual needs. This book is prepared in such a way it can be read independently of the first two books.
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1609.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-11 15:56:10

Dynamic Universe Model :sita Singularity Free Software

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 268 Pages. This is Book2 is published in Germany ISBN 978-3-639-33501-9

In this monograph,all the equations of SITA software are explained for the singularity free solution to N-body problem – Dynamic Universe Model; which is, inter body collision free and dynamically stable are presented. SITA solution can be used in many places like presently unsolved applications like Pioneer anomaly at the Solar system level, Missing mass due to Star circular velocities and Galaxy disk formation at Galaxy level etc. This is the second book, after the earlier book, “Dynamic Universe Model- a singularity free N-body problem solution” (ISBN 978-3-639-29436-1). Here SITA (Simulation of Inter-intra-Galaxy Tautness and Attraction forces) computer implementation Excel program software and its methodology and all the 21000 equations used there are explained in detail. One COPY OF SITA COPYRIGHTED SOFTWARE WILL SENT FREE OF COST BY CONTACTING THE AUTHOR AT ‘snp.gupta@gmail.com’ Provision for a lot of modifications exists in the program to tune to individual needs. This book is prepared in such a way it can be read independently of the first book
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1609.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 19:13:01

Dynamic Universe Model: a Singularity Free N-Body Problem Solution

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 120 Pages. This Book was published in Germany ISBN 978-3-639-29436-1

The failure to arrive at a singularity free solution for a general N-body problem for nearly 300 years has led people to treat this case of N-body simulations as being very turbulent. But I would like to reiterate and say that there is no reason for chaos here in Dynamic Universe Model. I am able to say this confidently after having worked on this Model for the last 18 years and creating 100,000 simulations using this SITA algorithm. The trick here is to follow the law of Newtonian Gravitation fully without any deviation to calculate the Universal Gravitational force (UGF) on each mass. Other N-body simulations either deviated from this law or did not calculate UGF. Apprehensions abound in any new field. As pointed earlier, my work in the last 18 years has given me enough confidence and I can say that the solution proposed hereunder will work almost in any physical situation and explain all the anomalies which arose due to the earlier theories. I can prove the working of the algorithm to any technical team. Many people asked me the reason for selecting 133 masses. There are many reasons for this ‘why133 masses?’ question. It was in the beginning of the 1990’s that the Dynamic Universal Model project began. The common man had minimal access to computers during this period in India. Processor 8088 prevailed. PC with two floppy drives was becoming redundant and was being slowly replaced by the hard drive. This resulted in limitations to data handling capacity. Computers used to take a few hours to calculate something like 50 iterations. Today, these iterations can be done in 8 to 10 minutes with a five – year old laptop. The Milkyway, our Galaxy has 1011 Stars approximately with number of planets being an additional 10 times. Estimated number of dwarf planets would be 1000 times the number of planets, say about to 1015. Chunks of planets and asteroids may be a million times the number of planets, say about 1018. All these figures are on the lower side. Hence, about 1019 masses and their positional data is required to simulate a Galaxy. The total number of masses required to simulate would be about 1025 to 1028. Is there any Super computer on Earth, which can handle such huge amount of data, today? Do we have all such data to feed the computer? May be 133 masses are too less a number to begin a simulation. However, even 3 body problem is not simple to solve directly with the usual differential equations method. Even if we create a simulation with a million or 10 million masses, it will approximately be 1020 less than what is required for simulating the universe. My resources being limited and having no access to higher computers, the best I can do is testing this SITA algorithm of Dynamic Universe model for the various situations within the available resources and time. I have carried out this work out of my own interest and have not sought any Government or University funding for the same. I came up with the Dynamic Universe Model after 18 years after much effort and hard work. The Model uses Newtonian Gravitation for calculating the resultant Universal Gravitational force on every mass. No special assumptions have been made for arriving at the Model. In those days I did not think of lower side at all like N=2,3 4..etc. What I was aiming is to accommodate as many numbers of masses as possible. I did not take it in the way of mathematical induction process, i.e., if it is true for n=2, and n=3, then test for n and n+1. I have no way of testing that approach. People asked me why I worked with only 133 masses. The SITA simulations can be done with higher number of masses on any Supercomputer provided funds and resources are available. I have successfully tested the SITA solution for 2, 3, 4, 133, 25000 point masses. I am sure we can arrive at the same results when tried with higher masses also. Now I can say, this Dynamic Universe model is no more a fantasy, but it is reality …………..
Category: Astrophysics

[12] viXra:1609.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 14:07:25

The Electrodynamic Algorithms of Core of Stars and Black Holes

Authors: Alexandris G Nikos
Comments: 7 Pages.

The prediction of the magnetic field of Sgr A* by the algorithm of a star's core rotation is presented in my book “Modified Hawking field” 2010 .In the present article we can see the way .We can calculate the electrodynamic parameters of the nucleus of stars and black holes like Sgr A*
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1609.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 12:45:24

Blue and Red Shifted Galaxies Are Resulted Due to Frequency Shifting in Electromagnetic Radiation Near Gravitating Masses in Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 11 Pages.

According to General theory of relativity the frequency shift in electro-magnetic (EM) radiation close to a gravitating mass happens in one direction only, but in accordance with Dynamic Universe Model this frequency shift happens on both the sides of spectrum. Here we will derive the results using general Physics and Mathematics that changes the frequency of electromagnetic radiation passing near a moving gravitating mass. The frequency of the radiation will increase (Red shifted) when the relative movement of the gravitating body is in opposite direction to EM radiation and the frequency will reduce when in same direction (Blue shifted).
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1609.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 07:59:30

On Existence of Gravitational Repulsion Forces

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 10 Pages.

The article substantiates a new standpoint on origin and nature of the forces causing an accelerated expansion of the Universe. According to this standpoint the Newton’s gravitational theory describing only pairwise interactions and recognizing only attraction forces needs a generalization. Such a generalization made in the article on the basis of energodynamics as a unified theory of transport and the transformation processes of all forms of energy. Herein the existence of gravitational repulsion forces in the non-baryonic matter of the Universe is substantiated, which makes superfluous introducing the dark energy as a hypothetical medium under negative pressure. At the same time the generalized theory of gravitation predicts existence of strong and weak gravitation, zones of stable and unstable gravitational equilibrium, standing and running gravitational waves, as well as huge stores of free gravitational energy available and ready to be used. The latest results of astronomical observations are also presented as verifying the concept proposed.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1609.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 08:31:43

Great Age Cosmology #3

Authors: Allen Graycek
Comments: 3 Pages.

Extending from galaxies are huge halos of gas and dust, much larger than previously thought. Mass estimates of these halos indicate a mass about equal to the galaxy’s stars. Material type verifies these halos to be the exudate of the galaxy’s supernovae (SNs). It is known stars that explode give considerable force and speed to the gas and dust they blow off. The rate of SNs when searched for was found to be very low. Simple calculations using this data results in a very great age for a Milky Way size galaxy and provides answers to current research on mysteries such as dark matter. It is known it takes trillions of years for stars to cool down, and once cool they would emit millions of times less heat, and no light. They might be IR detectable within a few light years from us.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1609.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 10:12:32

Dwarf Galaxies with Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

One of the biggest mysteries of dwarf galaxies has to do with dark matter, which is why scientists are so fascinated by them. [17] Using the world's most powerful telescopes, an international team of astronomers has found a massive galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter. [16] Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1609.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 03:46:54

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. How the Mother Earth "BECAME POPULATED" "Settling" of Earth Began with Poles. the General Cold Snap is Inevitable.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

"Settling" of Earth began with poles. The general cold snap is inevitable.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1609.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 03:42:13

Two New Dark Matter Density Profiles for Milky Way Halo Got from Rotation Curve

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of Milky Way, MW hereafter, and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. The first is called direct DM density because it is got directly from velocity as power regression of radius in halo rotation curve. In other words velocity of rotation curve depend on radius as a power function. In fact this function got by power regression has a correlation coefficient of 0,85. The second one, DM density as power of E, E is gravitational field, has been introduced by author in previous papers, [8] Abarca,M.2016, where it has been used to study DM in several galaxies. It is called as power of E because DM density depend on E as a power function. Hypothesis which is the basis of theory is that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data points inside MW halo. These data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. In addition it is got a power regression for rotation curve points in halo region whose function is v = a•r^b getting a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,85. In fourth chapter it is developed a mathematical method to get a new DM density depending on radius called direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression function got in chapter three. In fifth chapter it has been demonstrated that a power regression function for rotation curve is mathematically equivalent that DM density depend on gravitational field, as a power function i.e. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are cleared up depending on a & b (parameters of power regression of rotation curve). In sixth chapter it has been got that for radius bigger than 44 kpc ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 2% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic density in order to develop theory introduced in this work. The seventh is a short chapter where is compared direct DM density got with NFW density profile fitted by Sofue in his paper. [5] Sofue, Y.2015. Relative differences between both density profiles are under 25% inside main part of halo dominion. In addition it is explained why NFW profile is bigger than direct DM throughout dominion. Eighth chapter, called Masses in Milky Way, is dedicated to calculate masses through dynamical method and NFW profile. In addition both methods are compared at different radius. Results show that relative differences of masses are under 20% inside main part of radius dominion. In ninth chapter is compared DM density as power E in MW with DM density as power E in M31, which was published in [ 11] Abarca,M.2016. Results show that at a specific E, both DM densities are very similar. Relative differences are under 15 % inside main part of dominion. This fact support strongly author hypothesis about DM as power of E as Universal law. In tenth chapter, it is introduced a new definition for halo radius. According theory DM generated by gravitational field, it is right to definite halo as region where gravitational field dominate over gravitational field of galactic neighbour. So it is calculated that halo radius for MW is 292 kpc and halo radius for M31 is 478 kpc. Also are calculated total masses which belong these new radius and it is calculated new ratio baryonic mass vs total mass. Such ratio is 18% for MW and 8 % for M31.
Category: Astrophysics

[5] viXra:1609.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-05 20:51:13

The Radiometric Dating Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis, stellar evolution is planet formation, a star is a young planet and a planet is an ancient star, they are the same objects. Therefore a complete reinterpretation of isotopic abundances of radioactive elements needs to be done. A simple principle is presented to guide future physicists away from the false nebular hypothesis and all of its modern variants, and towards a new theory of stellar evolution/planet formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1609.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 19:18:52

The Cementation Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustration

In stellar metamorphosis the majority of the cementation of rocks and minerals in the newly forming crust occurs during the transition of early stage ocean worlds and worlds with exposed rocky surfaces similar to the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[3] viXra:1609.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-04 01:49:32

Does Dark Matter Replaces Ether?

Authors: Etkin V.A.
Comments: 8 Pages.

Substantiates the concept, according to which all forms of matter in the universe formed from a single "protomatter", which was previously called ether, and now - dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2] viXra:1609.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 09:36:01

Two New Dark Matter Density Profiles for M31 Halo Got from Rotation Curve

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 20 Pages. Direct DM density profile has been calculated directly from rotation curve of M31

In this work has been calculated two new DM density profiles inside halo region of M31 galaxy and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. The first is called direct DM density because it is got directly from velocity as power regression of radius in rotation curve. In other words velocity of rotation curve depend on radius as a power function. In fact galactic rotation curve inside M31 halo has a power regression of velocity depending on radius with a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,95 inside halo region. The second one, called Bernoulli profile has been introduced by author in previous papers, [8] Abarca,M.2016, and others papers quoted in bibliography, where it has been used to study DM in several galaxies. It is called Bernoulli because it is got from a Bernoulli differential equation. Hypothesis which is the basis to get Bernoulli profile stated that DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. In addition A& B are similar for different galaxies on condition that galaxies are similar and giants, not dwarfs. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data points inside M31 halo. These data come from [5] Sofue,Y.2015. In addition it is got a power regression for rotation curve points in halo region whose function is v = a•r^b getting a correlation coefficient bigger than 0,95. In fourth chapter it is developed a mathematical method to get a new DM density depending on radius called direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression function got in chapter three. In fifth chapter it has been demonstrated that a power regression function for rotation curve is mathematically equivalent that DM density depend on gravitational field, as a power function i.e. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are cleared up depending on a & b (parameters of power regression of rotation curve). In sixth chapter it has been got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc then ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 1% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic density in order to develop theory introduced in this work. The seventh is a short chapter where is compared direct DM density got with NFW density profile fitted by Sofue in his paper. [5] Sofue, Y.2015. Relative differences between both density profiles are under 25% inside main part of halo dominion. In addition it is shown that NFW profile is bigger than direct DM through all dominion. In eighth chapter is got a Bernoulli differential equation for gravitational field. Hypothesis to state this equation is that DM density is a power function of gravitational field i.e. DM density = A• E^B. Solution for E allows to get Bernoulli density profile. In ninth chapter is demonstrated that Bernoulli profile is mathematically equivalent to direct DM profile. In tenth chapter has been got masses for M31 by direct DM and NFW profiles at different radius. Through whole dominion masses got by NFW are bigger than direct DM profile although relative difference between both profiles are under 25 %. In conclusion chapter will be pointed reason, which in author opinion, explain that NFW profile gives bigger values than direct DM profile.
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1609.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-02 08:21:52

X-ray Signal not from Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A mysterious X-ray signal from clusters of galaxies recently caused some excitement among astronomers: Does it perhaps originate from dark matter, which makes up around 80 percent of the matter in the universe, but which scientists have not yet been able to detect? In order to help answering this question, physicists at the Max Planck Institute for Nuclear Physics in Heidelberg checked an alternative explanation. [15] For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics