Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 pages, 4 Figures
Over the last decade, the bond lengths in many molecules including hydrogen bonds and bond angles in small molecules like water and oxides of nitrogen, sulphur and carbon, were interpreted quantitatively in terms of the appropriate atomic and or the Golden ratio based ionic radii. Recently, the structure and formation of stratospheric ozone were explained using the atomic and ionic radii of oxygen. Presented here is a new, precise and simple explanation of the bond lengths and angles of the oxides of chlorine which cause depletion of stratospheric ozone. This work brings the simplest interpretation compared with existing complicated theories.
Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 5 Pages. Denim Jeans, Ecofriendly Finishing, Laser, Ozone, Water Jet
Denim Jeans finishing is an important operation for value addition of the final products in the apparel business. There are numerous operations exist for fulfilling of this treatment. This paper deals with the recent developments of the sustainable, environment friendly and emerging industrial approaches (Laser, Ozone and Water Jet) for the finishing treatments of the denim jeans. It is observed that finishing with laser and ozone is a reduced water treatment while water jet fading system though consumes water but assembling of water recycling system makes it ecological and economic. The adoption of these finishing technologies has brought about a radical transformation in the garment finishing industry, which is changing from an artisanal, labor intensive industry towards an industry based on knowledge and technology that feels more responsible for the environment and for workers.
Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 48 Pages.
The objective of our project was to compare among different dyeing methods of polyester
fabric with disperse dyes. At first the polyester fabrics (knit and woven) were dyed with
disperse dyes. Three methods have been used for dyeing polyester fabrics (knit & woven):
1. Aqueous dyeing with a carrier (90°- 100°C) (batch dyeing)
2. High-temperature (120°- 140°C) aqueous dyeing (batch dyeing)
3. "Thermosol" dyeing (180°- 220°C) (continuous dyeing)
After dyeing the dyed sample were subjected to several tests-
1. Color fastness to perspiration.
2. Color fastness to rubbing.
3. Color fastness to washing
4. Process effectiveness
5. Cost analysis
6. Tensile Stregnth test
7. Pilling Test
Finally from the overall comparison for different processes , we found that High
Temperature & High Pressure method is the most suitable dyeing method used in